Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 402

Search results for: alcohol

372 A Discrete Logit Survival Model with a Smooth Baseline Hazard for Age at First Alcohol Intake among Students at Tertiary Institutions in Thohoyandou, South Africa

Authors: A. Bere, H. G. Sithuba, K. Kyei, C. Sigauke


We employ a discrete logit survival model to investigate the risk factors for early alcohol intake among students at two tertiary institutions in Thohoyandou, South Africa. Data were collected from a sample of 744 students using a self-administered questionnaire. Significant covariates were arrived at through a regularization algorithm implemented using the glmmLasso package. The tuning parameter was determined using a five-fold cross-validation algorithm. The baseline hazard was modelled as a smooth function of time through the use of spline functions. The results show that the hazard of initial alcohol intake peaks at the age of about 16 years and that at any given time, being of a male gender, prior use of other drugs, having drinking peers, having experienced negative life events and physical abuse are associated with a higher risk of alcohol intake debut.

Keywords: cross-validation, LASSO, discrete hazard model, smooth baseline hazard

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371 Stabilizing Effects of Deep Eutectic Solvents on Alcohol Dehydrogenase Mediated Systems

Authors: Fatima Zohra Ibn Majdoub Hassani, Ivan Lavandera, Joseph Kreit


This study explored the effects of different organic solvents, temperature, and the amount of glycerol on the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-catalysed stereoselective reduction of different ketones. These conversions were then analyzed by gas chromatography. It was found that when the amount of deep eutectic solvents (DES) increases, it can improve the stereoselectivity of the enzyme although reducing its ability to convert the substrate into the corresponding alcohol. Moreover, glycerol was found to have a strong stabilizing effect on the ADH from Ralstonia sp. (E. coli/ RasADH). In the case of organic solvents, it was observed that the best conversions into the alcohols were achieved with DMSO and hexane. It was also observed that temperature decreased the ability of the enzyme to convert the substrates into the products and also affected the selectivity. In addition to that, the recycling of DES up to three times gave good conversions and enantiomeric excess results and glycerol showed a positive effect in the stability of various ADHs. Using RasADH, a good conversion and enantiomeric excess into the S-alcohol were obtained. It was found that an enhancement of the temperature disabled the stabilizing effect of glycerol and decreased the stereoselectivity of the enzyme. However, for other ADHs a temperature increase had an opposite positive effect, especially with ADH-T from Thermoanaerobium sp. One of the objectives of this study was to see the effect of cofactors such as NAD(P) on the biocatlysis activities of ADHs.

Keywords: Gas Chromatography, DES, alcohol dehydrogenases, RasADH

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370 Developmental Relationships between Alcohol Problems and Internalising Symptoms in a Longitudinal Sample of College Students

Authors: Lina E. Homman, Alexis C. Edwards, Seung Bin Cho, Danielle M. Dick, Kenneth S. Kendler


Research supports an association between alcohol problems and internalising symptoms, but the understanding of how the two phenotypes relate to each other is poor. It has been hypothesized that the relationship between the phenotypes is causal; however investigations in regards to direction are inconsistent. Clarity of the relationship between the two phenotypes may be provided by investigating the phenotypes developmental inter-relationships longitudinally. The objective of the study was to investigate a) changes in alcohol problems and internalising symptoms in college students across time and b) the direction of effect of growth between alcohol problems and internalising symptoms from late adolescent to emerging adulthood c) possible gender differences. The present study adds to the knowledge of comorbidity of alcohol problems and internalising symptoms by examining a longitudinal sample of college students and by examining the simultaneous development of the symptoms. A sample of college students is of particular interest as symptoms of both phenotypes often have their onset around this age. A longitudinal sample of college students from a large, urban, public university in the United States was used. Data was collected over a time period of 2 years at 3 time points. Latent growth models were applied to examine growth trajectories. Parallel process growth models were used to assess whether initial level and rate of change of one symptom affected the initial level and rate of change of the second symptom. Possible effects of gender and ethnicity were investigated. Alcohol problems significantly increased over time, whereas internalizing symptoms remained relatively stable. The two phenotypes were significantly correlated in each wave, correlations were stronger among males. Initial level of alcohol problems was significantly positively correlated with initial level of internalising symptoms. Rate of change of alcohol problems positively predicted rate of change of internalising symptoms for females but not for males. Rate of change of internalising symptoms did not predict rate of change of alcohol problems for either gender. Participants of Black and Asian ethnicities indicated significantly lower levels of alcohol problems and a lower increase of internalising symptoms across time, compared to White participants. Participants of Black ethnicity also reported significantly lower levels of internalising symptoms compared to White participants. The present findings provide additional support for a positive relationship between alcohol problems and internalising symptoms in youth. Our findings indicated that both internalising symptoms and alcohol problems increased throughout the sample and that the phenotypes were correlated. The findings mainly implied a bi-directional relationship between the phenotypes in terms of significant associations between initial levels as well as rate of change. No direction of causality was indicated in males but significant results were found in females where alcohol problems acted as the main driver for the comorbidity of alcohol problems and internalising symptoms; alcohol may have more detrimental effects in females than in males. Importantly, our study examined a population-based longitudinal sample of college students, revealing that the observed relationships are not limited to individuals with clinically diagnosed mental health or substance use problems.

Keywords: Alcohol, Comorbidity, internalising symptoms, longitudinal modelling

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369 By-Product Alcohol: Fusel Oil as an Alternative Fuel in Spark Ignition Engine

Authors: M. M. Noor, Omar Awad, R. Mamat, F. Yusop, I. M. Yusri


Fusel oil is a by-product obtained through the fermentation of some agricultural products. The fusel oil properties are closer to other alternative combustible types and the limited number of studies on the use of fusel oil as an alcohol derivative in SI engines constitutes to the base of this study. This paper experimentally examined the impacts of a by-product of alcohol, which is fusel oil by blending it with gasoline, on engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions in a 4-cylinder SI engine. The test was achieved at different engine speeds and a 60 % throttle valve (load). As results, brake power, BTE, and BSFC of F10 are higher at all engine speeds. Maximum engine BTE was 33.9%, at the lowest BSFC with F10. Moreover, it is worth seeing that the F10 under rich air-fuel ratio has less variation of COVIMEP compared to the F20 and gasoline. F10 represents shorter combustion duration, thereby, the engine power increased. NOx emission for F10 at 4500 rpm was lower than gasoline. The highest value of HC emission is obtained with F10 compared to gasoline and F20 with an average increase of 11% over the engine speed range. CO and CO2 emissions increased when using fusel oil blends.

Keywords: combustion characteristics, alternative fuel, fusel oil, spark ignition engine, by-product alcohol, engine emissions

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368 Modelling the Effect of Alcohol Consumption on the Accelerating and Braking Behaviour of Drivers

Authors: Ankit Kumar Yadav, Nagendra R. Velaga


Driving under the influence of alcohol impairs the driving performance and increases the crash risks worldwide. The present study investigated the effect of different Blood Alcohol Concentrations (BAC) on the accelerating and braking behaviour of drivers with the help of driving simulator experiments. Eighty-two licensed Indian drivers drove on the rural road environment designed in the driving simulator at BAC levels of 0.00%, 0.03%, 0.05%, and 0.08% respectively. Driving performance was analysed with the help of vehicle control performance indicators such as mean acceleration and mean brake pedal force of the participants. Preliminary analysis reported an increase in mean acceleration and mean brake pedal force with increasing BAC levels. Generalized linear mixed models were developed to quantify the effect of different alcohol levels and explanatory variables such as driver’s age, gender and other driver characteristic variables on the driving performance indicators. Alcohol use was reported as a significant factor affecting the accelerating and braking performance of the drivers. The acceleration model results indicated that mean acceleration of the drivers increased by 0.013 m/s², 0.026 m/s² and 0.027 m/s² for the BAC levels of 0.03%, 0.05% and 0.08% respectively. Results of the brake pedal force model reported that mean brake pedal force of the drivers increased by 1.09 N, 1.32 N and 1.44 N for the BAC levels of 0.03%, 0.05% and 0.08% respectively. Age was a significant factor in both the models where one year increase in drivers’ age resulted in 0.2% reduction in mean acceleration and 19% reduction in mean brake pedal force of the drivers. It shows that driving experience could compensate for the negative effects of alcohol to some extent while driving. Female drivers were found to accelerate slower and brake harder as compared to the male drivers which confirmed that female drivers are more conscious about their safety while driving. It was observed that drivers who were regular exercisers had better control on their accelerator pedal as compared to the non-regular exercisers during drunken driving. The findings of the present study revealed that drivers tend to be more aggressive and impulsive under the influence of alcohol which deteriorates their driving performance. Drunk driving state can be differentiated from sober driving state by observing the accelerating and braking behaviour of the drivers. The conclusions may provide reference in making countermeasures against drinking and driving and contribute to traffic safety.

Keywords: Alcohol, acceleration, driving simulator, braking behaviour

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367 Oil Extraction from Sunflower Seed Using Green Solvent 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran and Isoamyl Alcohol

Authors: Sérgio S. de Jesus, Aline Santana, Rubens Maciel Filho


The objective of this study was to choose and determine a green solvent system with similar extraction efficiencies as the traditional Bligh and Dyer method. Sunflower seed oil was extracted using Bligh and Dyer method with 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and isoamyl using alcohol ratios of 1:1; 2:1; 3:1; 1:2; 3:1. At the same time comparative experiments was performed with chloroform and methanol ratios of 1:1; 2:1; 3:1; 1:2; 3:1. Comparison study was done using 5 replicates (n=5). Statistical analysis was performed using Microsoft Office Excel (Microsoft, USA) to determine means and Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference test for comparison between treatments (α = 0.05). The results showed that using classic method with methanol and chloroform presented the extraction oil yield with the values of 31-44% (w/w) and values of 36-45% (w/w) using green solvents for extractions. Among the two extraction methods, 2 methyltetrahydrofuran and isoamyl alcohol ratio 2:1 provided the best results (45% w/w), while the classic method using chloroform and methanol with ratio of 3:1 presented a extraction oil yield of 44% (w/w). It was concluded that the proposed extraction method using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and isoamyl alcohol in this work allowed the same efficiency level as chloroform and methanol.

Keywords: Lipids, Extraction, sugarcane, green solvent

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366 Biogas Separation, Alcohol Amine Solutions

Authors: Jingxiao Liang, David Rooneyman


Biogas, which is a valuable renewable energy source, can be produced by anaerobic fermentation of agricultural waste, manure, municipal waste, plant material, sewage, green waste, or food waste. It is composed of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) but also contains significant quantities of undesirable compounds such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and siloxanes. Since typical raw biogas contains 25–45% CO2, The requirements for biogas quality depend on its further application. Before biogas is being used more efficiently, CO2 should be removed. One of the existing options for biogas separation technologies is based on chemical absorbents, in particular, mono-, di- and tri-alcohol amine solutions. Such amine solutions have been applied as highly efficient CO2 capturing agents. The benchmark in this experiment is N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) with piperazine (PZ) as an activator, from CO2 absorption Isotherm curve, optimization conditions are collected, such as activator percentage, temperature etc. This experiment makes new alcohol amines, which could have the same CO2 absorbing ability as activated MDEA, using glycidol as one of reactant, the result is quite satisfying.

Keywords: separation, Biogas, CO2, MDEA

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365 Liquid Phase Catalytic Dehydrogenation of Secondary Alcohols to Ketone

Authors: Anıl Dinçer, Dilek Duranoğlu


Ketones, which are widely used as solvent and chemical intermediates in chemical process industry, are commercially produced by using catalytic dehydrogenation of secondary alcohols at higher temperature (300-500ºC), and pressure (1-5 bar). Although it is possible to obtain high conversion values (60-87%) via gas phase catalytic dehydrogenation, working high temperature and pressure can result in side reactions and shorten the catalyst life. In order to overcome these challenges, catalytic dehydrogenation in the presence of an appropriate liquid solvent has been started to use. Hence, secondary alcohols can be converted to respective ketones at relatively low temperature (150-200ºC) under atmospheric pressure. In this study, methyl ethyl ketone and acetone was produced via catalytic dehydrogenation of appropriate secondary alcohols (isopropyl alcohol and sec-butyl alcohol) in the presence of liquid solvent at 160-190ºC. Obtained methyl ethyl ketone and acetone were analyzed by using FTIR and GC spectrometer. Effects of temperature, amount of catalyst and solvent on conversion and reaction rate were investigated. Optimum process conditions, which gave high conversion and reaction rate, were determined. According to GC results, 70% of secondary butyl alcohol and 42% of isopropyl alcohol was converted to related ketone (methyl ethyl ketone and acetone, respectively) at optimum process conditions. After distillation, 99.13% methyl ethyl ketone and 99.20% acetone was obtained. Consequently, liquid phase dehydrogenation process, which can compete with commercial gas phase process, was developed.

Keywords: dehydrogenation, methyl ethyl ketone, liquid phase, secondary alcohol

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364 Parental Drinking and Risky Alcohol Related Behaviors: Predicting Binge Drinking Trajectories and Their Influence on Impaired Driving among College Students

Authors: Shiran Bord, Assaf Oshri, Matthew W. Carlson, Sihong Liu


Background: Alcohol-impaired driving (AID) and binge drinking are major health concerns among college students. Although the link between binge drinking and AID is well established, knowledge regarding binge drinking patterns, the factors influencing binge drinking, and the associations between consumption patterns and alcohol-related risk behaviors is lacking. Aims: To examine heterogeneous trajectories of binge drinking during college and tests factors that might predict class membership as well as class membership outcomes. Methods: Data were obtained from a sample of 1,265 college students (Mage = 18.5, SD = .66) as part of the Longitudinal Study of Violence Against Women (N = 1,265; 59.3% female; 69.2% white). Analyses were completed in three stages. First, a growth curve analysis was conducted to identify trajectories of binge drinking over time. Second, growth curve mixture modeling analyses were pursued to assess unobserved growth trajectories of binge drinking without predictors. Lastly, parental drinking variables were added to the model as predictors of class membership, and AID and being a passenger of a drunk driver were added to the model as outcomes. Results: Three binge drinking trajectories were identified: high-convex, medium concave and low-increasing. Parental drinking was associated with being in high-convex and medium-concave classes. Compared to the low-increasing class, the high convex and medium concave classes reported more AID and being a passenger of a drunk driver more frequently. Conclusions: Parental drinking may affect children’s later engagement in AID. Efforts should focus on parents' education regarding the consequences of parental modeling of alcohol consumption.

Keywords: college students, alcohol consumption, alcohol impaired driving, binge drinking, parental modeling

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363 [Keynote Talk]: The Intoxicated Eyewitness: Effect of Alcohol Consumption on Identification Accuracy in Lineup

Authors: Vikas S. Minchekar


The eyewitness is a crucial source of evidence in the criminal judicial system. However, rely on the reminiscence of an eyewitness especially intoxicated eyewitness is not always judicious. It might lead to some serious consequences. Day by day, alcohol-related crimes or the criminal incidences in bars, nightclubs, and restaurants are increasing rapidly. Tackling such cases is very complicated to any investigation officers. The people in that incidents are violated due to the alcohol consumption hence, their ability to identify the suspects or recall these phenomena is affected. The studies on the effects of alcohol consumption on motor activities such as driving and surgeries have received much attention. However, the effect of alcohol intoxication on memory has received little attention from the psychology, law, forensic and criminology scholars across the world. In the Indian context, the published articles on this issue are equal to none up to present day. This field experiment investigation aimed at to finding out the effect of alcohol consumption on identification accuracy in lineups. Forty adult, social drinkers, and twenty sober adults were randomly recruited for the study. The sober adults were assigned into 'placebo' beverage group while social drinkers were divided into two group e. g. 'low dose' of alcohol (0.2 g/kg) and 'high dose' of alcohol (0.8 g/kg). The social drinkers were divided in such a way that their level of blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) will become different. After administering the beverages for the placebo group and liquor to the social drinkers for 40 to 50 minutes of the period, the five-minute video clip of mock crime is shown to all in a group of four to five members. After the exposure of video, clip subjects were given 10 portraits and asked them to recognize whether they are involved in mock crime or not. Moreover, they were also asked to describe the incident. The subjects were given two opportunities to recognize the portraits and to describe the events; the first opportunity is given immediately after the video clip and the second was 24 hours later. The obtained data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Scheffe’s posthoc multiple comparison tests. The results indicated that the 'high dose' group is remarkably different from the 'placebo' and 'low dose' groups. But, the 'placebo' and 'low dose' groups are equally performed. The subjects in a 'high dose' group recognized only 20% faces correctly while the subjects in a 'placebo' and 'low dose' groups are recognized 90 %. This study implied that the intoxicated witnesses are less accurate to recognize the suspects and also less capable of describing the incidents where crime has taken place. Moreover, this study does not assert that intoxicated eyewitness is generally less trustworthy than their sober counterparts.

Keywords: Memory, intoxicated eyewitness, social drinkers, lineups

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362 Descriptive Analysis of Alcohol Abuse and Sexual Behaviour of Adolescent Males in Eastern Cape

Authors: Jabulani Gilford Kheswa, Sinovuyo Takatshana


Literature documented that the combination of permissive attitudes, sexual experimentation and lack of accurate information from parents to educate male adolescents, poses a threat to the sexual health of adolescent males and exposes them to risky sexual behaviours. Grounded in problem behaviour theory as a theoretical framework for this study in understanding health-related behaviours of adolescent males, the weaker one’s perceived self-efficacy, the more social and affective factors increase the likelihood of risky sexual behaviour, such as alcohol abuse and intimate partner violence. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between alcohol use and sexual behaviour among 176 purposively selected Xhosa- speaking adolescent males, from one school in the Nkonkobe Municipality, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. These learners were in grade ten, eleven and twelve with an age range from a low of 14 to a high of 25 years. The mean age was 18.06 years while the standard deviation was .144. To be ethically bound, the researchers sought permission from the school principal to distribute self-administered questionnaires and assured the participants of confidentiality and anonymity. A survey was conducted by means of self-administered questionnaires. A cross-sectional study was carried out within the quantitative paradigm using the SPSS version 18 and the Chronbach’s alpha of 0.79 were found for alcohol and sexual behaviour of adolescent males. Findings showed that 59.6% (N=105) of the learners indicated that their caregivers talk about safe sex practice as compared to only 40.4% (N=71) who indicated that their caregivers do not talk to them about safe sex practice. A statistically significant association between alcohol and negotiation of safe sex at p-value of 0.05 (chi-square of 34.529, degree of freedom of 16) was reported. In conclusion, as young people in South Africa become sexually active at an early age, schools should initiate psycho-educational programmes to equip adolescents against risk- behaviours (such as HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, crime).

Keywords: Sex, Alcohol, Parents, adolescent males

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361 Biomechanical Analysis on Skin and Jejunum of Chemically Prepared Cat Cadavers Used in Surgery Training

Authors: Raphael C. Zero, Thiago A. S. S. Rocha, Marita V. Cardozo, Caio C. C. Santos, Alisson D. S. Fechis, Antonio C. Shimano, FabríCio S. Oliveira


Biomechanical analysis is an important factor in tissue studies. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of a new anatomical technique and quantify the changes in skin and the jejunum resistance of cats’ corpses throughout the process. Eight adult cat cadavers were used. For every kilogram of weight, 120ml of fixative solution (95% 96GL ethyl alcohol and 5% pure glycerin) was applied via the external common carotid artery. Next, the carcasses were placed in a container with 96 GL ethyl alcohol for 60 days. After fixing, all carcasses were preserved in a 30% sodium chloride solution for 60 days. Before fixation, control samples were collected from fresh cadavers and after fixation, three skin and jejunum fragments from each cadaver were tested monthly for strength and displacement until complete rupture in a universal testing machine. All results were analyzed by F-test (P <0.05). In the jejunum, the force required to rupture the fresh samples and the samples fixed in alcohol for 60 days was 31.27±19.14N and 29.25±11.69N, respectively. For the samples preserved in the sodium chloride solution for 30 and 60 days, the strength was 26.17±16.18N and 30.57±13.77N, respectively. In relation to the displacement required for the rupture of the samples, the values of fresh specimens and those fixed in alcohol for 60 days was 2.79±0.73mm and 2.80±1.13mm, respectively. For the samples preserved for 30 and 60 days with sodium chloride solution, the displacement was 2.53±1.03mm and 2.83±1.27mm, respectively. There was no statistical difference between the samples (P=0.68 with respect to strength, and P=0.75 with respect to displacement). In the skin, the force needed to rupture the fresh samples and the samples fixed for 60 days in alcohol was 223.86±131.5N and 211.86±137.53N respectively. For the samples preserved in sodium chloride solution for 30 and 60 days, the force was 227.73±129.06 and 224.78±143.83N, respectively. In relation to the displacement required for the rupture of the samples, the values of fresh specimens and those fixed in alcohol for 60 days were 3.67±1.03mm and 4.11±0.87mm, respectively. For the samples preserved for 30 and 60 days with sodium chloride solution, the displacement was 4.21±0.93mm and 3.93±0.71mm, respectively. There was no statistical difference between the samples (P=0.65 with respect to strength, and P=0.98 with respect to displacement). The resistance of the skin and intestines of the cat carcasses suffered little change when subjected to alcohol fixation and preservation in sodium chloride solution, each for 60 days, which is promising for use in surgery training. All experimental procedures were approved by the Municipal Legal Department (protocol 02.2014.000027-1). The project was funded by FAPESP (protocol 2015-08259-9).

Keywords: Anatomy, Conservation, Small Animal, Fixation

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360 An Experimental Comparative Study of SI Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics Fuelled with Various Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

Authors: M. Mourad, K. Abdelgawwad


This experimental investigation aimed to determine the influence of using different types of alcohol and gasoline blends such as ethanol - butanol - propanol on the performance of spark ignition engine. The experimental work studied the effect of various fuel blends such as ethanol – butanol/gasoline and propanol/gasoline with two rates of 15% and 20%, at different operating conditions (engine speed and loads), on engine performance emission characteristics. Laboratory experiments are carried out on a four-cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine. In this practical study, all considerations and precautions are taken into account to ensure the quality and accuracy of practical experiments and different measurements. The results show that the performance of the engine improved significantly in the case of ethanol/butanol-gasoline blends. The results also indicated that the engine emitted pollutants such as CO, hydrocarbon (HC) for alcohol fuel blends compared to base gasoline NOx emission increased for different fuel blends either ethanol/butanol-gasoline or propanol-gasoline fuel blend.

Keywords: Performance, Emission, fuel blends, gasoline engine

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359 Application of Refractometric Methodology for Simultaneous Determination of Alcohol and Residual Sugar Concentrations during Alcoholic Fermentation Bioprocess of Date Juice

Authors: Boukhiar Aissa, Halladj Fatima, Iguergaziz Nadia, Lamrani yasmina, Benamara Salem


Determining the alcohol content in alcoholic fermentation bioprocess is of great importance. In fact, it is a key indicator for monitoring this bioprocess. Several methodologies (chemical, spectrophotometric, chromatographic) are used to the determination of this parameter. However, these techniques are very long and they require: rigorous preparations, sometimes dangerous chemical reagents and/or expensive equipment. In the present study, the date juice is used as the substrate of alcoholic fermentation. The extracted juice undergoes an alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The study of the possible use of refractometry as a sole means for the in situ control of alcoholic fermentation revealed a good correlation (R2=0.98) between initial and final °Brix: °Brixf=0.377×°Brixi. In addition, the relationship between Δ°Brix and alcoholic content of the final product (A,%) has been determined: Δ°Brix/A=1.1. The obtained results allowed us to establish iso-responses abacus, which can be used for the determination of alcohol and residual sugar content, with a mean relative error (MRE) of 5.35%.

Keywords: Alcoholic Fermentation, date juice, refractometry, residual sugar

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358 Ultrasound-Mediated Separation of Ethanol, Methanol, and Butanol from Their Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Ozan Kahraman, Hao Feng


Ultrasonic atomization (UA) is a useful technique for producing a liquid spray for various processes, such as spray drying. Ultrasound generates small droplets (a few microns in diameter) by disintegration of the liquid via cavitation and/or capillary waves, with low range velocity and narrow droplet size distribution. In recent years, UA has been investigated as an alternative for enabling or enhancing ultrasound-mediated unit operations, such as evaporation, separation, and purification. The previous studies on the UA separation of a solvent from a bulk solution were limited to ethanol-water systems. More investigations into ultrasound-mediated separation for other liquid systems are needed to elucidate the separation mechanism. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the operational parameters on the ultrasound-mediated separation of three miscible liquid pairs: ethanol-, methanol-, and butanol-water. A 2.4 MHz ultrasonic mister with a diameter of 18 mm and rating power of 24 W was installed on the bottom of a custom-designed cylindrical separation unit. Air was supplied to the unit (3 to 4 L/min.) as a carrier gas to collect the mist. The effects of the initial alcohol concentration, viscosity, and temperature (10, 30 and 50°C) on the atomization rates were evaluated. The alcohol concentration in the collected mist was measured with high performance liquid chromatography and a refractometer. The viscosity of the solutions was determined using a Brookfield digital viscometer. The alcohol concentration of the atomized mist was dependent on the feed concentration, feed rate, viscosity, and temperature. Increasing the temperature of the alcohol-water mixtures from 10 to 50°C increased the vapor pressure of both the alcohols and water, resulting in an increase in the atomization rates but a decrease in the separation efficiency. The alcohol concentration in the mist was higher than that of the alcohol-water equilibrium at all three temperatures. More importantly, for ethanol, the ethanol concentration in the mist went beyond the azeotropic point, which cannot be achieved by conventional distillation. Ultrasound-mediated separation is a promising non-equilibrium method for separating and purifying alcohols, which may result in significant energy reductions and process intensification.

Keywords: Distillation, Purification, evaporation, azeotropic mixtures, seperation, ultrasonic atomization

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357 Polyvinyl Alcohol Processed Templated Polyaniline Films: Preparation, Characterization and Assessment of Tensile Strength

Authors: J. Subbalakshmi, G. Dhruvasamhith, S. M. Hussain


Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the most extensively studied material among the conducting polymers due to its simple synthesis by chemical and electrochemical routes. PANIs have advantages of chemical stability and high conductivity making their commercial applications quite attractive. However, to our knowledge, very little work has been reported on the tensile strength properties of templated PANIs processed with polyvinyl alcohol and also, detailed study has not been carried out. We have investigated the effect of small molecule and polymers as templates on PANI. Stable aqueous colloidal suspensions of trisodium citrate (TSC), poly(ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT-PSS), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) templated PANIs were prepared through chemical synthesis, processed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and were fabricated into films by solution casting. Absorption and infra-red spectra were studied to gain insight into the possible molecular interactions. Surface morphology was studied through scanning electron microscope and optical microscope. Interestingly, tensile testing studies revealed least strain for pure PVA when compared to the blends of templated PANI. Furthermore, among the blends, TSC templated PANI possessed maximum elasticity. The ultimate tensile strength for PVA processed, PEG-templated PANI was found to be five times more than other blends considered in this study. We establish structure–property correlation with morphology, spectral characterization and tensile testing studies.

Keywords: Tensile Testing, Surface Morphology, polyvinyl alcohol, processed films, templated polyanilines

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356 Mechanisms Underlying the Effects of School-Based Internet Intervention for Alcohol Drinking Behaviours among Chinese Adolescent

Authors: Rosa S. Wong, Frederick K. Ho, Patrick Ip, Keith T. S. Tung, Camilla K. M. Lo, Wilfred H. S. Wong, C. B. Chow


Objectives: Underage drinking is an important public health problem both locally and globally. Conventional prevention/intervention relies on unidirectional knowledge transfer such as mail leaflets or health talks which showed mixed results in changing the target behaviour. Previously, we conducted a school internet-based intervention which was found to be effective in reducing alcohol use among adolescents, yet the underlying mechanisms have not been properly investigated. This study, therefore, examined the mechanisms that explain how the intervention produced a change in alcohol drinking behaviours among Chinese adolescent as observed in our previous clustered randomised controlled trial (RCT) study. Methods: This is a cluster randomised controlled trial with parallel group design. Participating schools were randomised to the Internet intervention or the conventional health education group (control) with a 1:1 allocation ratio. Secondary 1–3 students of the participating schools were enrolled in this study. The Internet intervention was a web-based quiz game competition, in which participating students would answer 1,000 alcohol-related multiple-choice quiz questions. Conventional health education group received a promotional package on equivalent alcohol-related knowledge. The participants’ alcohol-related attitude, knowledge, and perceived behavioural control were self-reported before the intervention (baseline) and one month and three months after the intervention. Results: Our RCT results showed that participants in the Internet group were less likely to drink (risk ratio [RR] 0.79, p < 0.01) as well as in lesser amount (β -0.06, p < 0.05) compared to those in the control group at both post-intervention follow-ups. Within the intervention group, regression analyses showed that high quiz scorer had greater improvement in alcohol-related knowledge (β 0.28, p < 0.01) and attitude (β -0.26, p < 0.01) at 1 month after intervention, which in turn increased their perceived behavioural control against alcohol use (β 0.10 and -0.26, both p < 0.01). Attitude, compared to knowledge, was found to be a stronger contributor to the intervention effect on perceived behavioural control. Conclusions: Our internet-based intervention has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing the risk of underage drinking when compared with conventional health education. Our study results further showed an attitude to be a more important factor than knowledge in changing health-related behaviour. This has an important implication for future prevention/intervention on an underage drinking problem.

Keywords: Adolescents, randomized controlled trial, internet-based intervention, underage drinking

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355 Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of Hydrogels Based on Chitosan Derivatives

Authors: Riham R. Mohamed, Magdy W. Sabaa, Mahmoud H. Abu Elella


Firstly, synthesis of N-Quaternized Chitosan (NQC), then it was proven by FTIR and 1H-NMR analysis. The degree of quaternization(DQ 35% ) was determined by equation. Secondly, synthesis of cross-linked hydrogels composed of NQC and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in different weight ratios in presence of glutaraldehyde (GA) as cross-linking agent. Characterization of the prepared hydrogels was done using FTIR, SEM, XRD,and TGA. Swellability in simulated body fluid (SBF) solutions applied on NQC / PVA hydrogels and swelling rate(Wt%) and metal ions uptake was done on it.

Keywords: Hydrogel, metal ions uptake, N-quaternized chitosan, poly (vinyl alcohol), swellability

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354 In vitro Control of Mycosphaerella arachidis Deighton the Early Leaf Spot Disease Pathogen of Groundnut by the Extracts from Six Medicinal Plants

Authors: Matthew Omoniyi Adebola, Jude E Amadi


Ground nut (Arachis hypogaea) is one of the most popular commercial crops in Nigeria. Its suc-cessful production has been drastically affected by early leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphae-rella arachidis Deighton. In vitro control of the pathogen by six medicinal plants (Entada afri-cana, Vitex doniana, Lawsonia inermis, Azadirachta indica, Acalypha hispida and Nuaclea lati-folia) was assessed in this study. The extracts of the plants were prepared using cold and hot wa-ter and alcohol. The pathogen was isolated from ground nut infected with early leaf spot disease. The results revealed a great significant difference (P<0.05) in yield of extracts between cold water, hot water, and alcohol extracts. A significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in percentage concentrations of the various phytochemical constituents present in the extracts. Flavonoids per-centage concentration was the highest (0.68 - 1.95%) followed by saponnin(0.09-1.53%) in N. latifolia extracts. Steroiods had the least percentage concentrations (0.00- 0.09%)followed by terpenoids(0.02–0.71%) and proanthocyannin (0.05 – 0.86%). N. latifolia extracts produced the highest percentage concentrations (0.07–1.95%) of all the phytochemicals followed by A. indi-ca(0.05–1.64%)and least concentrations were obtained in A. hispidia(0.09 – 0.87%)and V. do-niana (0.00–0.88%). The extracts inhibited spore germination and growth of M. arachidis. The inhibition by alcohol extracts was high and significantly different (P>0.05) from cold and hot water extracts. Alcohol extract of L. inermis gave 100% spore germination inhibition followed by N. latifolia and A.indica with 97.75% and 85.60% inhibition respectively. Therefore, field trials of these six medicinal plants on the control of early leaf spot disease of ground nut are rec-ommended.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Phytochemicals, inhibition, extracts, groundnut

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353 Knowledge and Eating Behavior of Teenage Pregnancy

Authors: Udomporn Yingpaisuk, Premwadee Karuhadej


The purposed of this research was to study the eating habit of teenage pregnancy and its relationship to the knowledge of nutrition during pregnancy. The 100 samples were derived from simple random sampling technique of the teenage pregnancy in Bangkae District. The questionnaire was used to collect data with the reliability of 0.8. The data were analyzed by SPSS for Windows with multiple regression technique. Percentage, mean and the relationship of knowledge of eating and eating behavior were obtained. The research results revealed that their knowledge in nutrition was at the average of 4.07 and their eating habit that they mentioned most was to refrain from alcohol and caffeine at 82% and the knowledge in nutrition influenced their eating habits at 54% with the statistically significant level of 0.001.

Keywords: Alcohol, Teenage Pregnancy, Caffeine, Eating Behavior, knowledge of eating

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352 Development of Natural Zeolites Adsorbent: Preliminary Study on Water-Isopropyl Alcohol Adsorption in a Close-Loop Continuous Adsorber

Authors: Sang Kompiang Wirawan, Pandu Prabowo Jati, I Wayan Warmada


Klaten Indonesian natural zeolite can be used as powder or pellet adsorbent. Pellet adsorbent has been made from activated natural zeolite powder by a conventional pressing method. Starch and formaldehyde were added as binder to strengthen the construction of zeolite pellet. To increase the absorptivity and its capacity, natural zeolite was activated first chemically and thermally. This research examined adsorption process of water from Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA)-water system using zeolite adsorbent pellet from natural zeolite powder which has been activated with H2SO4 0.1 M and 0.3 M. Adsorbent was pelleted by pressing apparatus at certain pressure to make specification in 1.96 cm diameter, 0.68 cm thickness which the natural zeolite powder (-80 mesh). The system of isopropyl-alcohol water contained 80% isopropyl-alcohol. Adsorption process was held in close-loop continuous apparatus which the zeolite pellet was put inside a column and the solution of IPA-water was circulated at certain flow. Concentration changing was examined thoroughly at a certain time. This adsorption process included mass transfer from bulk liquid into film layer and from film layer into the solid particle. Analysis of rate constant was using first order isotherm model that simulated with MATLAB. Besides using first order isotherm, intra-particle diffusion model was proposed by using pore diffusion model. The study shows that adsorbent activated by H2SO4 0.1 M has good absorptivity with mass transfer constant at 0.1286 min-1.

Keywords: Zeolite, intra-particle diffusion, fractional attainment, first order isotherm

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351 Profile of the Elderly Users of Alcohol and Other Drugs Attended at the Psychosocial Care Centers in the Federal District

Authors: J. S. P. Barbosa, L. C. Pereira, K. R. Garcia, P. C. P. Bouchardet, S. C. T. Vieira, A. O. Gomes, S. S. Funghetto, M. G. O. Kanikowski


For this population, height seems to be a good predictor of strength and body composition. This increase in life expectancy of the Brazilian's population is associated with sociodemographic variables, but also to more access to health services in the prevention and better living conditions. With the growth of elderly population, a problem that has been a concern to health's professionals and public health at all is the use of psychoactive substances. The purpose of this study was to identify the sociodemographic profile of the elderly people who was attended at the Center of Psychosocial Care of alcohol and other drugs in the Federal District of Brazil. 408 medical records of people aged 60 years or over were evaluated, and it is possible to know that most of them were males (85.3%), with a mean age of 64 years (DP ± 4.16), 60 and 84 years and a mean age of 64 years (DP ± 4.42); 88.2% have some family ties, are married and have children, with relatives living in masonry housing. The educational level of drug users was considered low with more emphasis on those who had elementary education being the majority retired or unemployed. Regarding the street situation, there was no significance (p = 0.084), and the women (OR = 2.98) had few chances of street situations compared to men (OR = 0.89). As for substance consumption, the highest quantity of drug consumption bids in relation to the number of illicit. It did not present significant statistical value, and there is a greater probability of consumption/abuse of legal and/or illicit drugs for both sexes (OR = 0.96) for men and (OR = 1.32) for women. In relation to the use of multiple drugs, there was no significant difference between the sexes, (OR = 1.1) male sex and (OR = 0.74) female sex. Based on the results found in the present study, it was concluded that alcohol consumption is the main agent that causes vulnerability in the elderly and predisposes the latter to the consumption of other associated drugs.

Keywords: Elderly, centers of attention psychosocial alcohol and drugs, mental disorder due to drug use, street situations

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350 Comparative Toxicity of Garlic Juice and Dicofol to Population of Citrus Mites

Authors: T. Slimani, Y. Atibi, A. Boutaleb Joutei


Insecticidal properties of Alliaceae are widely known, they are plant with varied biological properties. Garlic and onion are known for their positive effect on health, including the prevention of cardiovascular disease and some digestive cancers. These health benefits molecules are also responsible for pest potential control of Alliaceae. With these properties, we can consider using Alliaceae as acaricides. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of chemical and biopesticides on citrus mites, especially Tetranychus urticae, Panonychus citri and Eutetranychus orientalis. Chemical treatment (Dicofol) and biopesticides (Garlic juice + Alcohol) applied on this study to control the various stages of mites, have reduced the proliferation of mobile forms and reducing the number of eggs to acceptable levels. Garlic juice + alcohol revealed efficiency from 50 to 57.69 % against the mobile forms of T. urticae, however, it was effective against the mobile forms of P. citri and E. orientalis with an efficiency of 85.71 % and 100 % respectively, its action has also reduced the number of eggs of T. urticae and E. orientalis at low levels. Therefore, this biopesticide is conceivable viewpoint technical and economic as the infestation by mite is low.

Keywords: Alcohol, garlic juice, biopesticide, acaricide, mites, Tetranychus urticae, Panonychus citri, Eutetranychus orientalis

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349 Ignition Interlock Device for Motorcycles

Authors: Luisito L. Lacatan, Zacha Valerie G. Ancheta, Michelangelo A. Dorado, Lester Joseph M. Ochoa, Anthony Mark G. Tayabas


Ignition Interlock Device or IID is a mechanism installed inside a vehicle which requires the driver to breathe into the device before starting the vehicle. If the IID detects that the alcohol level or blood alcohol content (BAC) is higher than the accepted value, the engine will not start. If the driver is not able to provide a clean breath sample, the IID will log the event, warn the driver, and then start up an alarm. The purpose of the IID is to prevent accidents due to driving under the influence (DUI). With the rise of the two-wheeled vehicle in the Philippines due to its mobility and purchasing power, IIDs are still mainly installed on four-wheeled vehicles. Even though riding the motorcycle when drunk is more dangerous, there are only a small number of installed devices on motorcycles and scooters. The general objective of this study was to develop a system with hardware and software components that would implement IID on motorcycles. The study employed a descriptive method of research. The study also concluded the following: the infrared must have a point-to-point communication, the breathalyzer on the helmet should react to ethanol, the microcontroller on the motorcycle should accept all IR signals from the helmet and interpret it and the GPS shield should have an unobstructed line-of-sight communication with the GPS satellites.

Keywords: Global Positioning System, global system for mobile communication, blood alcohol content, breathalyser, driving under the influence

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348 Preparation and Characterisation of Electrospun Extracted β-Chitosan/Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Blend Nanofibers for Tissue Engineering

Authors: E. Roshan Ara Begum, K. Bhavani, K. Subachitra, C. Kirthika, R. Shenbagarathai


In recent years, there has been a growing concern for the production of chitosan blend nanofibrous scaffold for its favorable physicochemical properties which mimic the native extracellular matrix (ECM) both morphologically and chemically. Therefore, this study focused on production of β-chitosan(β-Cts) and Poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA) blend nanofibrous scaffold by electrospinning. β-Cts was extracted from the squid pen waste of locally available squid variety Loligo duvauceli (Indian Squid). To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports on nanofibers preparation from the extracted β-Cts. Both the β-Cts and PVA polymers were mixed in two different proportions (30:70 and 40:60 respectively. The electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized by SEM, swelling property, in vitro enzymatic degradation, and hemo, biocompatibility properties. β-Cts/PVA nanofibers scaffolds had an average fiber diameter of 120 to 550nm.Among the two different β-Cts/PVA blends nanofibers the β-Cts/PVA (40:60) blend fibers demonstrated favourable tissue engineering properties. The β-Cts/PVA (40:60) blend nanofibers exhibited a swelling ratio of 36 ± 2.5% with mass loss percentage of 20 ± 2.71% after 4 weeks of degradation. It has exhibited good hemocompatible properties. HEK-293(Human Embryonic Kidney) cells lines were able to adhere and proliferate well in the β-Cts/PVA blends nanofibers. All these results indicated that electrospun β-Cts/PVA blends nanofibers are a suitable scaffold to be used for tissue engineering purposes.

Keywords: Electrospinning, Nanofibers, β-chitosan, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)

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347 Cucurbita pepo L. Attenuates Diabetic Neuropathy by Targeting Oxidative Stress in STZ-Nicotinamide Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Navpreet Kaur, Randhir Singh


Diabetic neuropathy is one of the most common microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus which affects more than 50% of diabetic patients. The present study targeted oxidative stress mediated nerve damage in diabetic rats using a hydro-alcohol extract of Cucurbita pepo L. (Family: Cucurbitaceae) and its potential in treatment of diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes neuropathy was induced in Wistar rats by injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, i.p.) 15 min after Nicotinamide (230 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. Hydro-alcohol extract of C. pepo seeds was assessed by oral administration at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg in STZ-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Thermal hyperalgesia (Eddy's hot plate and tail immersion), mechanical hyperalgesia (Randall-Selitto) and tactile allodynia (Von Frey hair tests) were evaluated in all groups of streptozotocin diabetic rats to assess the extent of neuropathy. Tissue (sciatic nerve) antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSH and LPO) levels were measured along with the formation of AGEs in serum to assess the effect of hydro-alcohol extract of C. pepo in ameliorating oxidative stress. Diabetic rats exhibited significantly decreased tail-flick latency in the tail-immersion test and decreased paw withdrawal threshold in both Randall-Selitto and von-Frey hair test. A decrease in the nociceptive threshold was accompanied by significantly increased oxidative stress in sciatic nerve of diabetic rats. Treatment with the C. pepo hydro-alcohol extract significantly attenuated all the behavioral and biochemical alterations in a dose-dependent manner. C. pepo attenuated the diabetic condition and also reversed neuropathic pain through modulation of oxidative stress and thus it may find application as a possible therapeutic agent against diabetic neuropathy.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, hyperglycemia, cucurbita pepo, advanced glycation end products

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346 Methane Plasma Modified Polyvinyl Alcohol Scaffolds for Melanocytes Cultivation

Authors: B. Kodedova, E. Filova, M. Kralovic, E. Amler


Vitiligo is the most common depigmentation disorder of the skin characterized by loss of melanocyte in the epidermis that leads to white lesions. One of the possible treatments is autologous transplantation of melanocytes. Biodegradable electrospun polymeric nanofibers provide good mechanical properties and could serve as suitable scaffold for epithelial cells cultivation and follow up transplantation. Moreover the microarchitecture of nanofibers mimics the structure of extracellular matrix and its porosity allows nutrients and waste exchange. The aim of this work was to develop biocompatible and biodegradable polymeric scaffolds suitable for autologous melanocytes transplantation. Electrospun polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers were modified by cold methane plasma to lower their hydrofility and to achieve better adhesion, proliferation and viability of the murine melanocyte (Melan-a). Cells were seeded on the modified scaffolds and their adhesion, metabolic activity, proliferation and melanin synthesis was evaluated and compared to non-modified scaffolds. Results clearly indicate that cold methane plasma modified PVA nanofibers are suitable for melanocyte cultivation and may be future candidate for vitiligo treatment. Furthermore, the nanofibers can be functionalized with various bioactive substances, for enhancement of the melanocyte proliferation, melanogenesis or healing and regenerative processes. The project was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports NPU I: LO1309 and by Grant Agency of Charles University (grant No. 1228214).

Keywords: Nanofibers, polyvinyl alcohol, melanocyte, plasma modification

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345 Release of PVA from PVA/PA Compounds into Water Solutions

Authors: J. Klofac, P. Bazant, I. Kuritka


This work is focused on the preparation of polymeric blend composed of polyamide (PA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with the intention to explore its basic characteristics important for potential use in medicine, especially for drug delivery systems. PA brings brilliant mechanical properties to the blend while PVA is inevitable due to its water solubility. Blend with different PA/PVA ratios were prepared and the release study of PVA into the water was carried out in a time interval 0-48 hours via the gravimetric method. The weight decrease is caused by the leaching of PVA domains what can be also followed by the optical and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the thermal properties and the miscibility of blend components were evaluated by the differential scanning calorimeter. On the bases of performed experiments, it was found that the kinetics, continuity development and micro structure features of PA/PVA blends is strongly dependent on the blend composition and miscibility of its components.

Keywords: releas study, polyvinyl alcohol, polyamide morphology, polymeric blend

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344 Prevalence and Effect of Substance Use and Psychological Co-Morbidities in Medical and Dental Students of a Medical University of Nepal

Authors: Nidesh Sapkota, Garima Pudasaini, Dikshya Agrawal, Binav Baral, Umesh Bhagat, Dharanidhar Baral


Background: Medical and Dental students are vulnerable to higher levels of Psychological distress than other age matched peers. Many studies reveals that there is high prevalence of psychoactive substance use and Psychiatric co-morbidities among them. Objectives: -To study the prevalence of substance use among medical and dental students of a Medical University. -To study the prevalence of depression and anxiety in medical and dental students of a Medical University. Materials and Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study in which simple random sampling was done. Semi-structured questionnaire, AUDIT for alcohol use, Fagerstrom test for Nicotine dependence, Cannabis screening test (CAST), Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck’s Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were used for the assessment. Results: Total sample size was 588 in which the mean age of participants was 22±2years. Among them the prevalence of alcohol users was 47.75%(281) in which 32%(90) were harmful users. Among 19.55%(115) nicotine users 56.5%(65), 37.4%(43), 6.1%(7) had low, low to moderate and moderate dependence respectively. The prevalence of cannabis users was 9%(53) with 45.3%(24), 18.9%(10) having low and high addiction respectively. Depressive symptoms were recorded in 25.3%(149) out of which 12.6%(74), 6.5%(38), 5.3%(31), 0.5%(3), 0.5%(3) had mild, borderline, moderate, severe and extreme depressive symptoms respectively. Similarly anxiety was recorded among 7.8%(46) students with 42 having moderate and 4 having severe anxiety symptoms. Among them 6.3%(37) had suicidal thoughts and 4(0.7%) of them had suicide attempt in last one year. Statistically significant association was noted with harmful alcohol users, Depression and suicidal attempts. Similar association was noted between Depression and suicide with moderate use of nicotine. Conclusion: There is high prevalence of Psychoactive substance use and psychiatric co-morbidities noted in the studies sample. Statistically significant association was noted with Psychiatric co-morbidities and substance use.

Keywords: Depression, Alcohol, Cannabis, medical students, dependence

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343 Study of Some Aromatic Thiourea Derivatives as Lube Oil Antioxidant

Authors: Rasha S. Kamal, Nehal S. Ahmed, Amal M. Nassar, Nour E. A. Abd El-Sattar


In the present work, some lube oil antioxidants based on ester of some aromatic thiourea derivative were prepared by two steps: the first step is the reaction of succinyl chloride with ammonium thiocyanate in addition to anthranilic acid as three component system to prepare thiourea derivative (A); the second step is esterification of compound (A) by different alcohol (decyl C₁₀, tetradecyl C₁₄, and octadecyl C₁₈) alcohol. The structures of the prepared compounds were confirmed by infra-red spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, elemental analysis and determination of the molecular weights. All the prepared compounds were soluble in lube oil. The efficiency of the prepared compounds as antioxidants lube oil additives was investigated and it was found that these prepared compounds give good result as lube oil antioxidant.

Keywords: esterification, antioxidant lube oil, three component system, aromatic thiourea derivatives

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