Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 228

Search results for: agribusiness in Georgia

228 Problems Faced by the Agricultural Sector and Agribusiness Development Strategy in Georgia

Authors: E. Kharaishvili, G. Erkomaishvili, M. Chavleishvili


The importance of agribusiness development is proved in accordance with the trends in the agricultural sector of Georgia. Agribusiness environment and the consequences of the agricultural reforms are evaluated. The factors hindering the development of agribusiness are revealed and the ways for overcoming these problems are suggested. SWOT analysis is done in order to identify the needs of agribusiness. The needs of agribusiness development in Georgia are evaluated by priorities: prevention of diseases and reduction of the harm caused by these diseases, accessibility of long-term agricultural loans with low interest rates, improving qualification of farmers, the level of education and usage of modern technologies, changes in legislation, accessibility to high quality agricultural machinery, and the development of infrastructure. Based on the outcomes of the research, agribusiness development strategies in Georgia are suggested and appropriate priorities of economic policy are determined. Conclusions are made and based on these conclusions, some recommendations are suggested.

Keywords: agribusiness development, agribusiness strategy, agribusiness in Georgia

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227 Science Communication: A Possible Dialogue between Researchers and Agribusiness Farmers

Authors: Cristiane Hengler Corrêa Bernardo


The communication is an essential part of the process that characterizes scientific research. It should be present in every stage of research in a systemic way. However, this process is not always efficient and effective. Reports of researchers focused on agribusiness point to difficulties in communicating with farmers that negatively impact on research results and may cause distortions and even quite significant inconsistencies. This research aims at identifying the main noise and barriers in communication between agribusiness researchers and farmers. It discusses the possibility of creating a specific strategy to correct or minimize such failures. The main research question: what features of the communication process will be decisive for the communication between agribusiness researcher and farmer occur with greater efficiency? It is expected that the research will result in processes that may correct or minimize such problems, promoting dialogues more efficient knowledge. The research will adopt a qualitative approach, using action research as a form of investigative action for social and educational nature, aiming at promoting understanding and interaction between researchers and members of the investigated situations. To collect and analyze data to document analysis will be used; questionnaires and interviews and content analysis.

Keywords: agribusiness farmers, researchers, science communication, analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
226 Metrics and Methods for Improving Resilience in Agribusiness Supply Chains

Authors: Golnar Behzadi, Michael O'Sullivan, Tava Olsen, Abraham Zhang


By definition, increasing supply chain resilience improves the supply chain’s ability to return to normal, or to an even more desirable situation, quickly and efficiently after being hit by a disruption. This is especially critical in agribusiness supply chains where the products are perishable and have a short life-cycle. In this paper, we propose a resilience metric to capture and improve the recovery process in terms of both performance and time, of an agribusiness supply chain following either supply or demand-side disruption. We build a model that determines optimal supply chain recovery planning decisions and selects the best resilient strategies that minimize the loss of profit during the recovery time window. The model is formulated as a two-stage stochastic mixed-integer linear programming problem and solved with a branch-and-cut algorithm. The results show that the optimal recovery schedule is highly dependent on the duration of the time-window allowed for recovery. In addition, the profit loss during recovery is reduced by utilizing the proposed resilient actions.

Keywords: agribusiness supply chain, recovery, resilience metric, risk management

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
225 International Tourism Development in Georgia: Problems and Challenges

Authors: Merabi Khokhobaia


The aim of the investigation is definition of economic importance of tourism, evaluation of tourism’s influence on the economy of Georgia. Tourism in the world, as well, as in Georgia became one of the most significant activities. The outlook for the international arrivals in Georgia is highly optimistic. Increase of international travelers is an additional opportunity for Georgia in case of creating more jobs and generate incomes. The country has unique cultural heritage and traditions, there are many cultural monuments in Georgia which are significant precondition for the development of tourism. Despite the factors mentioned above, there are challenges and problems, development of infrastructure, quality of services, development of tourist products and etc. In the work has been used induction, deduction, analysis, synthesis, quantitative-based research technique.

Keywords: culture, development, economy, industry, tourism

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
224 Economic Policy of Tourism and the Development Tendencies of Medical Wellness Resorts in Georgia

Authors: G. Erkomaishvili, E. Kharaishvili, M. Chavleishvili, N. Sagareishvili


This paper discusses the current condition of tourism and its economic policy in Georgia. It analyzes and studies wellness tourism, as one of the directions of tourism; the newest niche in the wellness industry – triggering wellness resorts with medical ideology. The paper discusses the development tendencies of medical wellness resorts in Georgia and its main economic preferences. The main finding of the research is that Georgia is a unique place in the world according to the variety of medical recourses. This makes the opportunity to create and successfully operate medical wellness resorts, as well as develop it as a brand for Georgia in the world. The research represents the development strategies of tourism and its medical wellness resorts in Georgia, and offers recommendations based on the relevant conclusions.

Keywords: tourism, economic policy of tourism, wellness industry, medical wellness resorts

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223 Applying GIS Geographic Weighted Regression Analysis to Assess Local Factors Impeding Smallholder Farmers from Participating in Agribusiness Markets: A Case Study of Vihiga County, Western Kenya

Authors: Mwehe Mathenge, Ben G. J. S. Sonneveld, Jacqueline E. W. Broerse


Smallholder farmers are important drivers of agriculture productivity, food security, and poverty reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, they are faced with myriad challenges in their efforts at participating in agribusiness markets. How the geographic explicit factors existing at the local level interact to impede smallholder farmers' decision to participates (or not) in agribusiness markets is not well understood. Deconstructing the spatial complexity of the local environment could provide a deeper insight into how geographically explicit determinants promote or impede resource-poor smallholder farmers from participating in agribusiness. This paper’s objective was to identify, map, and analyze local spatial autocorrelation in factors that impede poor smallholders from participating in agribusiness markets. Data were collected using geocoded researcher-administered survey questionnaires from 392 households in Western Kenya. Three spatial statistics methods in geographic information system (GIS) were used to analyze data -Global Moran’s I, Cluster and Outliers Analysis (Anselin Local Moran’s I), and geographically weighted regression. The results of Global Moran’s I reveal the presence of spatial patterns in the dataset that was not caused by spatial randomness of data. Subsequently, Anselin Local Moran’s I result identified spatially and statistically significant local spatial clustering (hot spots and cold spots) in factors hindering smallholder participation. Finally, the geographically weighted regression results unearthed those specific geographic explicit factors impeding market participation in the study area. The results confirm that geographically explicit factors are indispensable in influencing the smallholder farming decisions, and policymakers should take cognizance of them. Additionally, this research demonstrated how geospatial explicit analysis conducted at the local level, using geographically disaggregated data, could help in identifying households and localities where the most impoverished and resource-poor smallholder households reside. In designing spatially targeted interventions, policymakers could benefit from geospatial analysis methods in understanding complex geographic factors and processes that interact to influence smallholder farmers' decision-making processes and choices.

Keywords: agribusiness markets, GIS, smallholder farmers, spatial statistics, disaggregated spatial data

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222 Policy of Tourism and Opportunities of Development of Wellness Industry in Georgia

Authors: G. Erkomaishvili, R. Gvelesiani, E. Kharaishvili, M. Chavleishvili


The topic reviews the situation existing currently in Georgia in the field of tourism in conditions of globalization: Touristic resources, the paces of development of the tourism infrastructure, tourism policy, possibilities of development of the Wellness industry in Georgia that is the newest direction of the medical tourism. The factors impeding the development of the industry of tourism, namely-existence of the conflict zones, high rates of the bank credits, deficiencies associated with the tax laws, a level of infrastructural development, quality of services, deficit in the competitive staff, increase of prices in the peak seasons, insufficient promotion of the touristic opportunities of Georgia on the international markets are studied and analyzed. Besides, the levels of development of tourism in Georgia according to the World Economic Forum, aspects of cooperation with the European Union etc. are reviewed. As a result of these studies, a strategy of development of tourism and one of its directions-Wellness industries in Georgia is introduced with the relevant conclusions, on which basis the recommendations are provided.

Keywords: about tourism, tourism policy, wellness industry, business, innovation, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
221 Commodity Factory or Food Farms an Irrational Dilemma: Reflections on the Brazilian Scenario

Authors: Monica Dantas


At what socio-economic costs can the food industry offer products at low prices? This research seeks to understand and to explore how we attribute competence and meaning, what enables the outcomes of agriculture and what institutions provides validation regarding food production. This study objective is to explain and interpret conditions of the present state of agriculture in Brazil centring on two distinct segments, agribusiness and family farming, as the Brazilian, rapidly changing political environment unfolds. The approach is grounded in multidisciplinary literature drawing from the politics of development, the sociology of food, the sustainability framework and the conceptual differences between agribusiness and family farming regarding the innate purpose of the two segments. In addition, a quantitative portion of the research includes secondary data analysis from statistical measurements, economic indicators, federal budget information, and census data to compare the two segments, conveying a general snapshot of the conditions investigated. The results raised questions about the perceived image of the success of agribusiness, against some contradicting economic checks and balances. Analyzing how public funds are invested in agriculture shed light on what can enable or undermine the development of food systems in Brazil. It also revealed how politics, ideology, and corporations might influence the Brazilian Federal. In the 2000-2018 observed timeline of annual federal spending on agriculture in Brazil, there is variation in the amount invested in family farming that seems to 'coincide' with the ideological direction of the federal government in power. It was also observed that significant changes in the institutional framework and financial support either promoted or purposely undermined family farming importance using public institutions to validate support for agribusiness.

Keywords: food politics, sustainability, family farming, food system, public budget

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220 The Methodology of Out-Migration in Georgia

Authors: Shorena Tsiklauri


Out-migration is an important issue for Georgia as well as since independence has loosed due to emigration one fifth of its population. During Soviet time out-migration from USSR was almost impossible and one of the most important instruments in regulating population movement within the Soviet Union was the system of compulsory residential registrations, so-called “propiska”. Since independent here was not any regulation for migration from Georgia. The majorities of Georgian migrants go abroad by tourist visa and then overstay, becoming the irregular labor migrants. The official statistics on migration published for this period was based on the administrative system of population registration, were insignificant in terms of numbers and did not represent the real scope of these migration movements. This paper discusses the data quality and methodology of migration statistics in Georgia and we are going to answer the questions: what is the real reason of increasing immigration flows according to the official numbers since 2000s?

Keywords: data quality, Georgia, methodology, migration

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219 Imperial/Royal Renewal in Byzantium and Medieval Georgia: Case of Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118) and Davit IV the Builder (r. 1089–1125)

Authors: Sandro Nikolaishvili


The end of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth century was a transitional period for the Byzantine empire as well as for the Caucasus. The empire was struggling for its survival under Alexios I Komnenos while Medieval Georgia was emerging as a dominant player in the Caucasus under Davit IV the Builder. The reigns of these two rulers were periods of renewal and transformation. I aim to compare the imperial image of Alexios I Komnenos with the renewed kingship ideology under Davit IV. I will hypothesize about the possible translation of the Byzantine political culture into the Medieval Georgia.

Keywords: Byzantium, Georgia, imperial, image

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218 An Overview of Georgia’s Economic Growth Since 2012: Current Status, Challenges, and Opportunities for Future Development

Authors: V. Benidze


After the Rose Revolution of 2003, Georgia has achieved an unparalleled socioeconomic success. However, economic growth since 2012 has been sluggish and certainly not enough to rapidly improve the county’s standard of living that still remains substantially low compared to that in developed nations. Recent poor economic performance has shown that some key challenges need to be addressed if Georgia is to achieve high future economic growth that will decrease the poverty rate and create a middle class in the country. This paper offers in detail analysis of the economic performance of Georgia since 2012 and identifies key challenges facing the country’s economy. The main challenge going forward will be transforming Georgia from a consumption-driven to a production-oriented economy. It is identified that mobilizing domestic investment through savings, attracting foreign investment in tradable sectors and expanding the country’s export base will be crucial in the facilitation of the above-mentioned structural transformation. As the outcome of the research, the paper suggests a strategy for accelerating Georgia’ future economic growth and offers recommendations based on the relevant conclusions.

Keywords: challenges, development, economic growth, economic policy, Georgia

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
217 Nexus Between Agricultural Insurance Scheme and Performance of Agribusiness in Nigeria

Authors: Festus Epetimehin


Agriculture remains the dominant sector in the rural areas where over 70% of Nigerian reside and it’s still the backbone of our economy. The observed poor performance of farmers in agricultural productivity is due to the nature of risks and uncertainties in agriculture.Agricultural insurance is one of the mechanisms by which farmers can stabilize farm income and investment. The study examined the relationship between agricultural insurance scheme (AIS) and performance of agribusiness in Nigeria. The study adopted exploratory research design which is an ex-ante research approach. One hundred copies of structured questionnaire were administered for the purpose of the study. Correlation analysis and regression analysis were employed for the study. The correlation analysis of the finding revealed that the independent variable; agricultural insurance scheme (AIS) is positively and significantly correlated with the set of dependent variables; where turnover (ABT)=0.582**, profitability (ABP)=0.321**, solvency (ABS)=0.418**and cost of production (ABC)=0.23** respectively. The regression analysis result also revealed the degree of relationship between the independent variable (AIS) and set of dependent variables where one(1%) percent increase in independent variable will lead to 33.9% (ABT), 9.7% (ABP), 17.5%(ABS) and 1.5%(ABC).The study recommended that the Federal Government in collaboration with the participating Agricultural insurers embark on awareness campaign through to the length and breadth of Nigeria on government support and insurance scheme for farmers. Government should also ensure that the loan and insurance scheme should extend beyond the mechanized farmers and include the intensive subsistence farmers in view of the fact that they are the dominants in most of the farm produce markets.

Keywords: agribusiness, agricultural insurance, performance, turnover, solvency, agricultural risks

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216 Higher Education Quality Culture: Case Study: Georgia

Authors: Pikria Vardosanidze


This presentation entitled ”Higher Education Quality Culture – Case Study: Georgia”is concerned with an urgent and crucial issue. Located at the crossroads of Europe and Asia, Georgia is a transnational, post-soviet country. And it is conditioned the peculiarity of our education system. Higher education in Georgia has an extensive history and a challenging period of development consisting of several phases, especially noteworthy of which are 1918 and 1991, marking there storation of Georgia’s independence. Georgia joined the Bologna Process in 2005. Given its geopolitical location, Georgian culture has developed, and still pursues the path of development against the background of the Western and Eastern cultures. Furthermore, socio-politically and culturally, it represents part of Europe. It is of particular interest how post-Soviet states develop in terms of education. What is the path to the European integration for Georgia as a post-Soviet country? How developed is the higher education quality culture in Georgia? And, what should be done in the future? It is important to answer these questions. The research carried out in the field of education is characterized by a certain specificity as does the post-colonial research. The field of education contributes to the development of democratic society as well as to the European integration, the Eastern Partnership and so on. What is crucial for the educational system, apart from transparency and democratization, is the improvement of the quality of education which is one of the most powerful tools dictating the need for a doctoral research as such. As for the research method, the comparative method of research, and the qualitative research are applied.

Keywords: internationalization, higher education, policies, Georgia

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215 Urban and Rural Population Pyramids in Georgia Since 1950’s

Authors: Shorena Tsiklauri, Avtandil Sulaberidze, Nino Gomelauri


In the years followed independence, an economic crisis and some conflicts led to the displacement of many people inside Georgia. The growing poverty, unemployment, low income and its unequal distribution limited access to basic social service have had a clear direct impact on Georgian population dynamics and its age-sex structure. Factors influencing the changing population age structure and urbanization include mortality, fertility, migration and expansion of urban. In this paper presents the main factors of changing the distribution by urban and rural areas. How different are the urban and rural age and sex structures? Does Georgia have the same age-sex structure among their urban and rural populations since 1950s?

Keywords: age and sex structure of population, georgia, migration, urban-rural population

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
214 Trade and Economic Relations between Georgia and Germany – the Impediments Caused by the Pandemic and Future Prospects

Authors: Tamar Lazariashvili


There are a number of factors that determine the growth and development of the country's economy; however, trade and economic relations with other countries are the most important of all these factors. The paper analyzes the trade and economic relations between Georgia and Germany, identifies the impediments caused by the Covid pandemic, and substantiates the need for further economic cooperation between the countries. Research objectives. The objective of the research is to develop recommendations and reveal the prospects of further cooperation between Georgia and Germany based on identifying the problems in the field of trade and economy in the post-crisis situation. The research object is Georgian German economic relations. Germany is Georgia's largest trading partner in the European Union. Georgia and Germany actively cooperate within the framework of international organizations as well. The paper analyzes the multilateral and intensive economic relations between Germany and Georgia; evaluates the investments of German companies in Georgia and the activities of Georgian companies in Germany. Research methods. The paper uses general and specific research methods; in particular, analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, comparison, statistical (selection, grouping, observation, trend), and other research methods.SWOT analysis is used to determine development opportunities between countries. As a result of the research economic ranking of Georgia and Germany are determined according to the above criteria, the causes of the impediments due to the pandemic are studied; the main problems in the field of trade and economy are identified. The paper provides conclusions on the problems in the trade relations between Georgia and Germany and suggests recommendations regarding the prospects for improving these relations.

Keywords: georgia-germany, trade and economic relations, economic ranking, perspective directions

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213 The Cartometric-Geographical Analysis of Ivane Javakhishvili 1922: The Map of the Republic of Georgia

Authors: Manana Kvetenadze, Dali Nikolaishvili


The study revealed the territorial changes of Georgia before the Soviet and Post-Soviet periods. This includes the estimation of the country's borders, its administrative-territorial arrangement change as well as the establishment of territorial losses. Georgia’s old and new borders marked on the map are of great interest. The new boundary shows the condition of 1922 year, following the Soviet period. Neither on this map nor in other works Ivane Javakhishvili talks about what he implies in the old borders, though it is evident that this is the Pre-Soviet boundary until 1921 – i.e., before the period when historical Tao, Zaqatala, Lore, Karaia represented the parts of Georgia. According to cartometric-geographical terms, the work presents detailed analysis of Georgia’s borders, along with this the comparison of research results has been carried out: 1) At the boundary line on Soviet topographic maps, the maps of 100,000; 50,000 and 25,000 scales are used; 2) According to Ivane Javakhishvili’s work ('The borders of Georgia in terms of historical and contemporary issues'). During that research, we used multi-disciplined methodology and software. We used Arc GIS for Georeferencing maps, and after that, we compare all post-Soviet Union maps, in order to determine how the borders have changed. During this work, we also use many historical data. The features of the spatial distribution of the territorial administrative units of Georgia, as well as the distribution of administrative-territorial units of the objects depicted on the map, have been established. The results obtained are presented in the forms of thematic maps and diagrams.

Keywords: border, GIS, georgia, historical cartography, old maps

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212 Supply Chain Management Practices in Thailand Palm Oil Industry

Authors: Athirat Intajorn


According to the ASEAN free trade areas (AFTA), Thailand has applied the AFTA agreement for reducing tariffs and reflecting changes in business processes. The reflection of changes in agribusiness processes, in particular, has accumulated as production costs for producers. Palm Oil industry has become an important industry to Thailand economic. Thailand currently ranks the 3rd in the world for Crude Palm Oil CPO. Therefore, the scope of this paper presents a research framework to investigate the supply chain management practices in Thailand palm oil industry. This research is limit to literature review. And the proposed framework identifies the criteria of supply chain management for Thailand palm oil industry in order for linkage among entities within logistics management involving plantation, mill, collection port, refinery and cookie from the data utilization. The Supply Chain Management Practices in Thailand Palm Oil Industry framework has a somewhat different view due to the high complexity of agribusiness logistics management.

Keywords: supply chain management, practice, palm oil industry, Thailand palm oil industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
211 Assessment of Water Resources and Inculcation of Controlled Water Consumption System

Authors: Vakhtang Geladze, Nana Bolashvili, Tamazi Karalashvili, Nino Machavariani, Vajha Neidze, Nana Kvirkvelia, Tamar Chichinadze


Deficiency of fresh water is a vital global problem today. It must be taken into consideration that in the nearest future fresh water crisis will become even more acute owing to the global climate warming and fast desertification processes in the world. Georgia has signed the association agreement with Euro Union last year where the priority spheres of cooperation are the management of water resources, development of trans-boundary approach to the problem and active participation in the “Euro Union water initiative” component of “the East Europe, Caucasus and the Central Asia”. Fresh water resources are the main natural wealth of Georgia. According to the average water layer height, Georgia is behind such European countries only as Norway, Switzerland and Austria. The annual average water provision of Georgia is 4-8 times higher than in its neighbor countries Armenia and Azerbaijan. Despite abundant water resources in Georgia, there is considerable discrepancy between their volume and use in some regions because of the uneven territorial distribution. In the East Georgia, water supply of the territory and population is four times less than in the West Georgia.

Keywords: GIS, water consumption, water management, water resources

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210 Retrospective Analysis of the Damage of Agricultural Crops from Hail in Eastern Georgia

Authors: Valerian Omsarashvili, Nino Jamrishvili


Georgia is one of the hail-dangerous countries of world. The work on action on hail processes in Georgia was conducted in 1960-1989 (East Georgia) over the total area of approximately 1.2 million hectares with average positive economic effect near 75 %. In 2015 in East Georgia, the anti-hail service was restored. Therefore, for the estimation of the effectiveness of action on the hail processes at present, arose the need for the detailed analysis of damage from the hail in the past. The work presents the analysis of the data about the number of days with the hail, the areas of damage of agricultural crops (general and to 100 %), and also the economic damage from the hail, of the caused loss to agricultural crops on the territories land of 123 separate populated areas of into 1982 and 1984-1989. In particular, on the average to one populated area, the total area of agricultural crops damaged from the hail was approximately 140 hectares, to 100% damage - 60 hectares, economic damage - 120 thousand US dollars. The corresponding maps of the distribution of the damaged areas on the investigated territory with the use of GIS-technologies are obtained.

Keywords: damage to agricultural crops, hail, Georgia, economic damage

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209 Potential of Comparative Management and Aspects of Its Application in Georgia

Authors: Evgeni Baratashvili, Nino Pailodze, Ana Bolkvadze, Giorgi Sulashvili


At the present stage in our country intensifies cooperation with different business cultures, actively developing the process of implementation of Georgia in the global business system that requires us to develop a specific concept, including in the field of management. With the entry of Georgia into the international community, exchange of experience will only intensify. It is clear that the achievement of goals such as the doubling of the National Product increase the competitiveness of Georgian enterprises can’t be recorded without foreign management experience. On the other hand, knowledge of the areas of comparative management can be used in the process of choosing the path of socio-economic development of Georgia.

Keywords: business cultures, comparative management, corporate culture, Georgian business, Anglo-Saxon model, Georgian civilization, anti-capitalist mentality, culture management

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208 Knowledge of Artificial Insemination and Agribusiness Management for Social Innovation in Rural Populations

Authors: Yasser Y. Lenis, Daniela Garcia Gonzalez, Cristian Solarte Bacca, Diego F. Carrillo González, Amy Jo Montgomery, Dursun Barrios


Introduction: Artificial insemination in bovines helps to promote genetic improvement and can positively impact the rural economy. The Colombian armed conflict has forced a large portion of the rural population to abandon their territory, affecting their education, family integration, and economics. Justification: The achievement of education in rural populations was one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) made by the United Nations. During the last World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), it was concluded that most of the world’s poor, illiterate and undernourished population lives in rural areas; therefore, access to education is considered one of the most significant challenges for governments in countries with developing economies. Objectives: To study the effects of training in artificial insemination and rural management on the perception of knowledge and the level of knowledge in rural residents affected by the armed conflict in Nariño, Colombia. Methods: The perception of knowledge and the theoretical-practical knowledge of 63 rural residents were evaluated on the topics of bovine agribusiness management, artificial insemination, and genetic improvement through the application of three surveys. 1) evaluated the perceived level of knowledge each rural resident had about each topic using the Likert scale, 2) evaluated the theoretical knowledge before training, and 3) evaluated the theoretical knowledge upon completion of training. Results/discussion: Of the surveyed rural residents, 54% stated that they knew how business management improved the performance of their bovine agribusiness, 54% answered the pre-training knowledge test correctly, while 83% correctly answered the post-training knowledge test. Only 6% of surveyed residents perceived that they had prior knowledge of artificial insemination and reproductive anatomy topics. Before training, 35% of surveyed residents answered correctly on these topics, while upon completion of training, 65% answered correctly. Regarding genetic improvement, 11% of participating rural residents stated that they knew this subject. The correct answers on this topic went from 57% to 89% before and post-training. Conclusion: Rural extension programs contribute to closing knowledge gaps in relation to the use of reproductive biotechnologies and bovine management in rural areas affected by armed conflict.

Keywords: agribusiness, insemination, knowledge, reproduction

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207 The Potential Fresh Water Resources of Georgia and Sustainable Water Management

Authors: Nana Bolashvili, Vakhtang Geladze, Tamazi Karalashvili, Nino Machavariani, George Geladze, Davit Kartvelishvili, Ana Karalashvili


Fresh water is the major natural resource of Georgia. The average perennial sum of the rivers' runoff in Georgia is 52,77 km³, out of which 9,30 km³ inflows from abroad. The major volume of transit river runoff is ascribed to the Chorokhi river. Average perennial runoff in Western Georgia is 41,52 km³, in Eastern Georgia 11,25 km³. The indices of Eastern and Western Georgia were calculated with 50% and 90% river runoff respectively, while the same index calculation for other countries is based on a 50% river runoff. Out of total volume of resources, 133,2 m³/sec (4,21 km³) has been geologically prospected by the State Commission on Reserves and Acknowledged as reserves available for exploitation, 48% (2,02 km³) of which is in Western Georgia and 2,19 km³ in Eastern Georgia. Considering acknowledged water reserves of all categories per capita water resources accounts to 2,2 m³/day, whereas high industrial category -0. 88 m³ /day fresh drinking water. According to accepted norms, the possibility of using underground water reserves is 2,5 times higher than the long-term requirements of the country. The volume of abundant fresh-water reserves in Georgia is about 150 m³/sec (4,74 km³). Water in Georgia is consumed mostly in agriculture for irrigation purposes. It makes 66,4% around Georgia, in Eastern Georgia 72,4% and 38% in Western Georgia. According to the long-term forecast provision of population and the territory with water resources in Eastern Georgia will be quite normal. A bit different is the situation in the lower reaches of the Khrami and Iori rivers which could be easily overcome by corresponding financing. The present day irrigation system in Georgia does not meet the modern technical requirements. The overall efficiency of their majority varies between 0,4-0,6. Similar is the situation in the fresh water and public service water consumption. Organization of the mentioned systems, installation of water meters, introduction of new methods of irrigation without water loss will substantially increase efficiency of water use. Besides new irrigation norms developed from agro-climatic, geographical and hydrological angle will significantly reduce water waste. Taking all this into account we assume that for irrigation agricultural lands in Georgia is necessary 6,0 km³ water, 5,5 km³ of which goes to Eastern Georgia on irrigation arable areas. To increase water supply in Eastern Georgian territory and its population is possible by means of new water reservoirs as the runoff of every river considerably exceeds the consumption volume. In conclusion, we should say that fresh water resources by which Georgia is that rich could be significant source for barter exchange and investment attraction. Certain volume of fresh water can be exported from Western Georgia quite trouble free, without bringing any damage to population and hydroecosystems. The precise volume of exported water per region/time and method/place of water consumption should be defined after the estimation of different hydroecosystems and detailed analyses of water balance of the corresponding territories.

Keywords: GIS, management, rivers, water resources

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206 Consumer Market of Agricultural Products and Agricultural Policy in Georgia

Authors: G. Erkomaishvili, M. Kobalava, T. Lazariashvili, M. Saghareishvili


The article discusses the consumer market of agricultural products and agricultural policy in Georgia. It is noted that development of the strategic areas of the agricultural sector needs a special support. These strategic areas should create the country's major export potential. It is important to develop strategies to access to the international markets, form extensive marketing network etc., which will become the basis for the promotion and revenue growth of the country. The Georgian agricultural sector, with the right state policy and support, can achieve success and gain access to the world market with competitive agricultural products. The paper discusses the current condition of agriculture, export and import of agricultural products and agricultural policy in Georgia. The conducted research concludes the information that there is an increasing demand on the green goods in the world market. Natural and climatic conditions of Georgia give a serious possibility of implementing it. The research presents an agricultural development strategy in Georgia and the findings and based on them recommendations are proposed.

Keywords: agriculture, export-import of agricultural products, agricultural cooperative society, agricultural policy, agricultural insurance

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205 Investment Development Path and Motivations for Foreign Direct Investment in Georgia

Authors: Vakhtang Charaia, Mariam Lashkhi


Foreign direct investment (FDI) plays a vital role in global business. It provides firms with new markets and advertising channels, cheaper production facilities, admission to new technology, products, skills and financing. FDI can provide a recipient country/company with a source of new technologies, capital, practice, products, management skills, and as such can be a powerful drive for economic development. It is one of the key elements of stable economic development in many countries, especially in developing ones. Therefore the size of FDI inflow is one of the most crustal factors for economic perfection in small economy countries (like, Georgia), while most of developed ones are net exporters of FDI. Since, FDI provides firms with new markets; admission to new technologies, products and management skills; marketing channels; cheaper production facilities, and financing opportunities. It plays a significant role in Georgian economic development. Increasing FDI inflows from all over the world to Georgia in last decade was achieved with the outstanding reforms managed by the Georgian government. However, such important phenomenon as world financial crisis and Georgian-Russian war put its consequence on the over amount of FDI inflow in Georgia in the last years. It is important to mention that the biggest investor region for Georgia is EU, which is interested in Georgia not only from the economic points of view but from political. The case studies from main EU investor countries show that Georgia has a big potential of investment in different areas, such as; financial sector, energy, construction, tourism industry, transport and communications. Moreover, signing of Association Agreement between Georgia and EU will further boost all the fields of economy in Georgia in both short and long terms. It will attract more investments from different countries and especially from EU. The last, but not least important issue is the calculation of annual FDI inflow to Georgia, which it is calculated differently by different organizations, based on different methodologies, but what is more important is that all of them show significant increase of FDI in last decade, which gives a positive signal to investors and underlines necessity of further improvement of investment climate in the same direction.

Keywords: foreign direct investment (FDI), Georgia, investment development path, investment climate

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204 The Strategy for Increasing the Competitiveness of Georgia

Authors: G. Erkomaishvili


The paper discusses economic policy of Georgia aiming to increase national competitiveness as well as the tools and means which will help to improve the competitiveness of the country. The sectors of the economy, in which the country can achieve the competitive advantage, are studied. It is noted that the country’s economic policy plays an important role in obtaining and maintaining the competitive advantage - authority should take measures to ensure high level of education; scientific and research activities should be funded by the state; foreign direct investments should be attracted mainly in science-intensive industries; adaptation with the latest scientific achievements of the modern world and deepening of scientific and technical cooperation. Stable business environment and export oriented strategy is the basis for the country’s economic growth. As the outcome of the research, the paper suggests the strategy for improving competitiveness in Georgia; recommendations are provided based on relevant conclusions.

Keywords: competitive advantage, competitiveness, competitiveness improvement strategy, competitiveness of Georgia

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203 What Defines Acceptable European Values for Georgia

Authors: Maia Kipiani, Tamari Beridze, Natalia Tchanturia, Bella Goderdzishvili, Sophio Beridze, Natia Kuparadze


Europe has concrete examples how small nations can survive and maintain their identity in its area. Values are eternal guides of our life and source of its perfection. European values are universal and relevant for every epoch, society or state. Values, such as personal freedom, human dignity, sovereignty of law, national or cultural identity are universal and eternal. Even superficial review of history of Georgian culture clearly shows that western values, including fundamental human rights. This paper discusses the approach and findings of choice of values in Georgia. Georgia is still quite far away from perfectly established values. Georgia has walked the hardest road till XXI century. Country survived miraculously many times. The study shows that the only way to survive is to strengthen national, traditional values and should not forget global factors. It is clear that for achievement of goals is important European education, legislative and economic reforms, peacefully and democratically develop Georgia.

Keywords: democracy, economical reforms, European values, human dignity, science, society, sovereignty of law, well-being

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202 Modern Trends in Foreign Direct Investments in Georgia

Authors: Rusudan Kinkladze, Guguli Kurashvili, Ketevan Chitaladze


Foreign direct investment is a driving force in the development of the interdependent national economies, and the study and analysis of investments is an urgent problem. It is particularly important for transitional economies, such as Georgia, and the study and analysis of investments is an urgent problem. Consequently, the goal of the research is the study and analysis of direct foreign investments in Georgia, and identification and forecasting of modern trends, and covers the period of 2006-2015. The study uses the methods of statistical observation, grouping and analysis, the methods of analytical indicators of time series, trend identification and the predicted values are calculated, as well as various literary and Internet sources relevant to the research. The findings showed that modern investment policy In Georgia is favorable for domestic as well as foreign investors. Georgia is still a net importer of investments. In 2015, the top 10 investing countries was led by Azerbaijan, United Kingdom and Netherlands, and the largest share of FDIs were allocated in the transport and communication sector; the financial sector was the second, followed by the health and social work sector, and the same trend will continue in the future. 

Keywords: foreign direct investments, methods, statistics, analysis

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201 Small Farm Diversification Opportunities in Viticulture-Winemaking Sector of Georgia

Authors: E. Kharaishvili


The paper analyses the role of small farms in socio-economic development of agriculture in Georgia and evaluates modern concepts regarding the development of the farms of this size. The scale of farms in Georgia is studied and the major problems are revealed. Opportunities and directions of diversification are discussed from the point of increasing the share of Georgian grapes and wine both on domestic and international markets. It’s shown that the size of vineyard areas is directly reflected on the grape and wine production potential. Accordingly, vineyard area and grape production dynamics is discussed. Comparative analysis of small farms in Georgia and Italy is made and the major differences are identified. Diversification is evaluated based on cost-benefit analysis on the one hand and on the other hand, from the point of promoting economic activities, protecting nature and rural area development. The paper provides proofs for the outcomes of diversification. The key hindering factors for the development of small farms are identified and corresponding conclusions are made, based on which recommendations for diversification of the farms of this size are developed.

Keywords: small farms, scale of farms, diversification, Georgia

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200 Assessment of Investment Programs in Agriculture in Georgia

Authors: M. Chavleishvili


The paper presents the analysis of the current situation of agricultural development in Georgia. The investment environment that supports development of the agricultural sector is evaluated and the key priorities are identified. The analysis of the projects already implemented with state and EU support, as well as those that are being currently implemented is presented. The policy and the programs supporting development of agricultural sector are analyzed. Based on an analysis of the evaluations of experts and the primary accounting documents, the outcomes of investment programs, their advantages and disadvantages, are studied. Through identifying investment programs in the agricultural sector of Georgia, corresponding conclusions are made, based on which some recommendations are developed.

Keywords: agriculture, investments, investment programs, projects

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199 Institutional Determinants of Economic Growth in Georgia and in Other Post-Communist Economies

Authors: Nazira Kakulia, Tsotne Zhghenti


The institutional development is one of the actual topics in economics science. New trends and directions of institutional development mostly depend on its structure and framework. Transformation of institutions is an important problem for every economy, especially for developing countries. The first research goal is to determine the importance and interactions between different institutions in Georgia. Using World Governance Indicators and Economic Freedom indexes it can be calculated the size for each institutional group. The second aim of this research is to evaluate Georgian institutional backwardness in comparison to other post-communist economies. We use statistical and econometric methods to evaluate the difference between the levels of institutional development in Georgia and in leading post-communist economies. Within the scope of this research, major findings are coefficients which are an assessment of their deviation (i.e. lag) of institutional indicators between Georgia and leading post-communist country which should be compared. The last part of the article includes analysis around the selected coefficients.

Keywords: post-communist transition, institutions, economic growth, institutional development

Procedia PDF Downloads 98