Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1715

Search results for: aggressors' profile

1715 The Differences in Normative Beliefs among Schoolchildren with Reactive, Proactive, Reactive-Proactive Aggression, and without Aggression

Authors: Annis Lai Chu Fung


This study is to fill up a research gap on examining the differences in normative beliefs (namely acceptance of weaknesses, acceptance of provoked aggression, and acceptance of unprovoked aggression) among different subtypes of aggressors and non-aggressors (reactive aggressors, proactive aggressors, reactive-proactive aggressors, and non-aggressors,). 2,236 students (1,372 males and 864 females), aged from 11 to 18, completed a self-reported questionnaire. Results revealed that (a) schoolchildren with reactive-proactive aggression have the highest acceptance of provoked aggression, the highest acceptance of unprovoked aggression, and the lowest acceptance of weakness; (b) schoolchildren with proactive aggression have higher acceptance of unprovoked aggression and lower acceptance of weakness than reactive aggressors; and (c) schoolchildren without aggression have the lowest acceptance of provoked aggression, the lowest acceptance of unprovoked aggression, and the highest acceptance of weakness.

Keywords: normative belief, schoolchildren, reactive, proactive, aggression

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1714 Violence against Women: A Study on the Aggressors' Profile

Authors: Giovana Privatte Maciera, Jair Izaías Kappann


Introduction: The violence against woman is a complex phenomenon that accompanies the woman throughout her life and is a result of a social, cultural, political and religious construction, based on the differences among the genders. Those differences are felt, mainly, because of the patriarchal system that is still present which just naturalize and legitimate the asymmetry of power. As consequence of the women’s lasting historical and collective effort for a legislation against the impunity of violence against women in the national scenery, it was ordained, in 2006, a law known as Maria da Penha. The law was created as a protective measure for women that were victims of violence and consequently for the punishment of the aggressor. Methodology: Analysis of police inquiries is established by the Police Station of Defense of the Woman of Assis city, by formal authorization of the justice, in the period of 2013 to 2015. For the evaluating of the results will be used the content analysis and the theoretical referential of Psychoanalysis. Results and Discussion: The final analysis of the inquiries demonstrated that the violence against women is reproduced by the society and the aggressor, in most cases it is a member of their own family, mainly the current or former-spouse. The most common kinds of aggression were: the threat bodily harm, and the physical violence, that normally happens accompanied by psychological violence, being the most painful for the victims. The biggest part of the aggressors was white, older than the victim, worker and had primary school. But, unlike the expected, the minority of the aggressors were users of alcohol and/or drugs and possessed children in common with the victim. There is a contrast among the number of victims who already admitted have suffered some type of violence earlier by the same aggressor and the number of victims who has registered the occurrence before. The aggressors often use the discourse of denial in their testimony or try to justify their act like the blame was of the victim. It is believed in the interaction of several factors that can influence the aggressor to commit the abuse, including psychological, personal and sociocultural factors. One hypothesis is that the aggressor has a violence history in the family origin. After the aggressor being judged, condemned or not, usually there is no rehabilitation plan or supervision that enable his change. Conclusions: It has noticed the importance of studying the aggressor’s characteristics and the reasons that took him to commit such violence, making possible the implementation of an appropriate treatment to prevent and reduce the aggressions, as well the creation of programs and actions that enable communication and understanding concerning the theme. This is because the recurrence is still high, since the punitive system is not enough and the law is still ineffective and inefficient in certain aspects and in its own functioning. It is perceived a compulsion in repeat so much for the victims as for the aggressors, because they end involving, almost always, in disturbed and violent relationships, with the relation of subordination-dominance as characteristic.

Keywords: aggressors' profile, gender equality, Maria da Penha law, violence against women

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1713 Study on the Characteristics of Victims and Victimizers of Intimate Partner Violence in Spain and Its Impact on Criminal Intervention

Authors: María José Benitez Jimenez


This research is based on the hypothesis that, despite being found that the problem of violence against the female partner occurs in all social classes, the criminal intervention falls, above all, on victims and aggressors with sociodemographic characteristics of the most excluded social groups. The methodology used in this study has been a collection of information through Spanish official statistics from 2004 to 2016: population, police, judicial and penitentiary data from Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Justice and statistics National Institute. The data provided show that women victims and aggressors who come into contact with criminal intervention bodies for filing a complaint or having been reported, respectively, show a very high percentage, usually well above 50%, only primary studies or even that. Their employment situation is also precarious, in a percentage that could also be around 70%. The percentage distribution of these two variables is clearly above that which occurs in the whole of the Spanish population, in a particularly marked way as regards the employment situation. Immigrants triple, as victims or as aggressors of gender violence, the percentages of the Spanish population in terms of their contact with the organs of criminal intervention. Also the rate of foreign inmates in prisons for violence against the female couple doubles that of Spanish inmates.

Keywords: inmigrants, intimate partner violence, Spain, sociodemographic characteristics

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1712 Modeling of the Cavitation by Bubble around a NACA0009 Profile

Authors: L. Hammadi, D. Boukhaloua


In this study, a numerical model was developed to predict cavitation phenomena around a NACA0009 profile. The equations of the Rayleigh-Plesset and modified Rayleigh-Plesset are used to modeling the cavitation by bubble around a NACA0009 profile. The study shows that the distributions of pressures around extrados and intrados of profile for angle of incidence equal zero are the same. The study also shows that the increase in the angle of incidence makes it possible to differentiate the pressures on the intrados and the extrados.

Keywords: cavitation, NACA0009 profile, flow, pressure coefficient

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1711 Design of Open Framework Based Smart ESS Profile for PV-ESS and UPS-ESS

Authors: Young-Su Ryu, Won-Gi Jeon, Byoung-Chul Song, Jae-Hong Park, Ki-Won Kwon


In this paper, an open framework based smart energy storage system (ESS) profile for photovoltaic (PV)-ESS and uninterruptible power supply (UPS)-ESS is proposed and designed. An open framework based smart ESS is designed and developed for unifying the different interfaces among manufacturers. The smart ESS operates under the profile which provides the specifications of peripheral devices such as different interfaces and to the open framework. The profile requires well systemicity and expandability for addible peripheral devices. Especially, the smart ESS should provide the expansion with existing systems such as UPS and the linkage with new renewable energy technology such as PV. This paper proposes and designs an open framework based smart ESS profile for PV-ESS and UPS-ESS. The designed profile provides the existing smart ESS and also the expandability of additional peripheral devices on smart ESS such as PV and UPS.

Keywords: energy storage system (ESS), open framework, profile, photovoltaic (PV), uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

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1710 Static Simulation of Pressure and Velocity Behaviour for NACA 0006 Blade Profile of Well’s Turbine

Authors: Chetan Apurav


In this journal the behavioural analysis of pressure and velocity has been done over the blade profile of Well’s turbine. The blade profile that has been taken into consideration is NACA 0006. The analysis has been done in Ansys Workbench under CFX module. The CAD model of the blade profile with certain dimensions has been made in CREO, and then is imported to Ansys for further analysis. The turbine model has been enclosed under a cylindrical body and has been analysed under a constant velocity of air at 5 m/s and zero relative pressure in static condition of the turbine. Further the results are represented in tabular as well as graphical form. It has been observed that the relative pressure of the blade profile has been stable throughout the radial length and hence will be suitable for practical usage.

Keywords: Well's turbine, oscillating water column, ocean engineering, wave energy, NACA 0006

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1709 Enhancement of Indexing Model for Heterogeneous Multimedia Documents: User Profile Based Approach

Authors: Aicha Aggoune, Abdelkrim Bouramoul, Mohamed Khiereddine Kholladi


Recent research shows that user profile as important element can improve heterogeneous information retrieval with its content. In this context, we present our indexing model for heterogeneous multimedia documents. This model is based on the combination of user profile to the indexing process. The general idea of our proposal is to operate the common concepts between the representation of a document and the definition of a user through his profile. These two elements will be added as additional indexing entities to enrich the heterogeneous corpus documents indexes. We have developed IRONTO domain ontology allowing annotation of documents. We will present also the developed tool validating the proposed model.

Keywords: indexing model, user profile, multimedia document, heterogeneous of sources, ontology

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1708 Phase II Monitoring of First-Order Autocorrelated General Linear Profiles

Authors: Yihua Wang, Yunru Lai


Statistical process control has been successfully applied in a variety of industries. In some applications, the quality of a process or product is better characterized and summarized by a functional relationship between a response variable and one or more explanatory variables. A collection of this type of data is called a profile. Profile monitoring is used to understand and check the stability of this relationship or curve over time. The independent assumption for the error term is commonly used in the existing profile monitoring studies. However, in many applications, the profile data show correlations over time. Therefore, we focus on a general linear regression model with a first-order autocorrelation between profiles in this study. We propose an exponentially weighted moving average charting scheme to monitor this type of profile. The simulation study shows that our proposed methods outperform the existing schemes based on the average run length criterion.

Keywords: autocorrelation, EWMA control chart, general linear regression model, profile monitoring

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1707 The Influence of Fiber Volume Fraction on Thermal Conductivity of Pultruded Profile

Authors: V. Lukášová, P. Peukert, V. Votrubec


Thermal conductivity in the x, y and z-directions was measured on a pultruded profile that was manufactured by the technology of pulling from glass fibers and a polyester matrix. The results of measurements of thermal conductivity showed considerable variability in different directions. The caused variability in thermal conductivity was expected due fraction variations. The cross-section of the pultruded profile was scanned. An image analysis illustrated an uneven distribution of the fibers and the matrix in the cross-section. The distribution of these inequalities was processed into a Voronoi diagram in the observed area of the pultruded profile cross-section. In order to verify whether the variation of the fiber volume fraction in the pultruded profile can affect its thermal conductivity, the numerical simulations in the ANSYS Fluent were performed. The simulation was based on the geometry reconstructed from image analysis. The aim is to quantify thermal conductivity numerically. Above all, images with different volume fractions were chosen. The results of the measured thermal conductivity were compared with the calculated thermal conductivity. The evaluated data proved a strong correlation between volume fraction and thermal conductivity of the pultruded profile. Based on presented results, a modification of production technology may be proposed.

Keywords: pultrusion profile, volume fraction, thermal conductivity, numerical simulation

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1706 Alternative Computational Arrangements on g-Group (g > 2) Profile Analysis

Authors: Emmanuel U. Ohaegbulem, Felix N. Nwobi


Alternative and simple computational arrangements in carrying out multivariate profile analysis when more than two groups (populations) are involved are presented. These arrangements have been demonstrated to not only yield equivalent results for the test statistics (the Wilks lambdas), but they have less computational efforts relative to other arrangements so far presented in the literature; in addition to being quite simple and easy to apply.

Keywords: coincident profiles, g-group profile analysis, level profiles, parallel profiles, repeated measures MANOVA

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1705 Laser Welding of Titanium Alloy Ti64 to Polyamide 6.6: Effects of Welding Parameters on Temperature Profile Evolution

Authors: A. Al-Sayyad, P. Lama, J. Bardon, P. Hirchenhahn, L. Houssiau, P. Plapper


Composite metal–polymer materials, in particular titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) to polyamide (PA6.6), fabricated by laser joining, have gained cogent interest among industries and researchers concerned with aerospace and biomedical applications. This work adopts infrared (IR) thermography technique to investigate effects of laser parameters used in the welding process on the three-dimensional temperature profile at the rear-side of titanium, at the region to be welded with polyamide. Cross sectional analysis of welded joints showed correlations between the morphology of titanium and polyamide at the weld zone with the corresponding temperature profile. In particular, spatial temperature profile was found to be correlated with the laser beam energy density, titanium molten pool width and depth, and polyamide heat affected zone depth.

Keywords: laser welding, metals to polymers joining, process monitoring, temperature profile, thermography

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1704 Difficulties in the Emotional Processing of Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators

Authors: Javier Comes Fayos, Isabel RodríGuez Moreno, Sara Bressanutti, Marisol Lila, Angel Romero MartíNez, Luis Moya Albiol


Given the great impact produced by gender-based violence, its comprehensive approach seems essential. Consequently, research has focused on risk factors for violent behaviour, linking various psychosocial variables, as well as cognitive and neuropsychological deficits with the aggressors. However, studies on affective processing are scarce, so the present study investigates possible emotional alterations in men convicted of gender violence. The participants were 51 aggressors, who attended the CONTEXTO program with sentences of less than two years, and 47 men with no history of violence. The sample did not differ in age, socioeconomic level, education, or alcohol and other substances consumption. Anger, alexithymia and facial recognition of other people´s emotions were assessed through the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI-2), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Reading the mind in the eyes (REM), respectively. Men convicted of gender-based violence showed higher scores on the anger trait and temperament dimensions, as well as on the anger expression index. They also scored higher on alexithymia and in the identification and emotional expression subscales. In addition, they showed greater difficulties in the facial recognition of emotions by having a lower score in the REM. These results seem to show difficulties in different affective areas in men condemned for gender violence. The deficits are reflected in greater difficulty in identifying and expressing emotions, in processing anger and in recognizing the emotions of others. All these difficulties have been related to the use of violent behavior. Consequently, it is essential and necessary to include emotional regulation in intervention programs for men who have been convicted of gender-based violence.

Keywords: alexithymia, anger, emotional processing, emotional recognition, empathy, intimate partner violence

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1703 Profile Analysis and Experiences on the Tourism of Jalapao State Park, Tocantins, Brazil

Authors: Veruska C. Dutra, Mary L. G. S. Senna, Felipe S. Spindler


The State Park Jalapao - PEJ proved to be one of the protected areas that has attracted tourists from all over the world with its unique scenic landscapes. Although the region already has a considerable tourist flow, to our knowledge there is a lack of continuity of studies in the region capable of drawing a plan of activities, such as the profile of the tourist and analysis of their experiences in the region, carried out from 2006-2007. Therefore, this study was proposed to know the profile and experiences of tourists visiting the park today, making a connection with the earlier study, in order to generate subsidies to trace improvement actions. We conducted interviews with tourists in the main tourism season 2015. The results show that after eight years of carrying out the first study, there were no changes, highlighting the lack of a tourism plan for the park.

Keywords: Jalapao, profile tourist, level, satisfaction

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1702 Automatic Registration of Rail Profile Based Local Maximum Curvature Entropy

Authors: Hao Wang, Shengchun Wang, Weidong Wang


On the influence of train vibration and environmental noise on the measurement of track wear, we proposed a method for automatic extraction of circular arc on the inner or outer side of the rail waist and achieved the high-precision registration of rail profile. Firstly, a polynomial fitting method based on truncated residual histogram was proposed to find the optimal fitting curve of the profile and reduce the influence of noise on profile curve fitting. Then, based on the curvature distribution characteristics of the fitting curve, the interval search algorithm based on dynamic window’s maximum curvature entropy was proposed to realize the automatic segmentation of small circular arc. At last, we fit two circle centers as matching reference points based on small circular arcs on both sides and realized the alignment from the measured profile to the standard designed profile. The static experimental results show that the mean and standard deviation of the method are controlled within 0.01mm with small measurement errors and high repeatability. The dynamic test also verified the repeatability of the method in the train-running environment, and the dynamic measurement deviation of rail wear is within 0.2mm with high repeatability.

Keywords: curvature entropy, profile registration, rail wear, structured light, train-running

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1701 Effect of Punch and Die Profile Radii on the Maximum Drawing Force and the Total Consumed Work in Deep Drawing of a Flat Ended Cylindrical Brass

Authors: A. I. O. Zaid


Deep drawing is considered to be the most widely used sheet metal forming processes among the particularly in automobile and aircraft industries. It is widely used for manufacturing a large number of the body and spare parts. In its simplest form it may be defined as a secondary forming process by which a sheet metal is formed into a cylinder or alike by subjecting the sheet to compressive force through a punch with a flat end of the same geometry as the required shape of the cylinder end while it is held by a blank holder which hinders its movement but does not stop it. The punch and die profile radii play In this paper, the effects of punch and die profile radii on the autographic record, the minimum thickness strain location where the cracks normally start and cause the fracture, the maximum deep drawing force and the total consumed work in the drawing flat ended cylindrical brass cups are investigated. Five punches and five dies each having different profile radii were manufactured for this investigation. Furthermore, their effect on the quality of the drawn cups is also presented and discussed. It was found that the die profile radius has more effect on the maximum drawing force and the total consumed work than the punch profile radius.

Keywords: punch and die profile radii, deep drawing process, maximum drawing force, total consumed work, quality of produced parts, flat ended cylindrical brass cups

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1700 Protein Remote Homology Detection by Using Profile-Based Matrix Transformation Approaches

Authors: Bin Liu


As one of the most important tasks in protein sequence analysis, protein remote homology detection has been studied for decades. Currently, the profile-based methods show state-of-the-art performance. Position-Specific Frequency Matrix (PSFM) is widely used profile. However, there exists noise information in the profiles introduced by the amino acids with low frequencies. In this study, we propose a method to remove the noise information in the PSFM by removing the amino acids with low frequencies called Top frequency profile (TFP). Three new matrix transformation methods, including Autocross covariance (ACC) transformation, Tri-gram, and K-separated bigram (KSB), are performed on these profiles to convert them into fixed length feature vectors. Combined with Support Vector Machines (SVMs), the predictors are constructed. Evaluated on two benchmark datasets, and experimental results show that these proposed methods outperform other state-of-the-art predictors.

Keywords: protein remote homology detection, protein fold recognition, top frequency profile, support vector machines

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1699 Efficient Estimation for the Cox Proportional Hazards Cure Model

Authors: Khandoker Akib Mohammad


While analyzing time-to-event data, it is possible that a certain fraction of subjects will never experience the event of interest, and they are said to be cured. When this feature of survival models is taken into account, the models are commonly referred to as cure models. In the presence of covariates, the conditional survival function of the population can be modelled by using the cure model, which depends on the probability of being uncured (incidence) and the conditional survival function of the uncured subjects (latency), and a combination of logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards (PH) regression is used to model the incidence and latency respectively. In this paper, we have shown the asymptotic normality of the profile likelihood estimator via asymptotic expansion of the profile likelihood and obtain the explicit form of the variance estimator with an implicit function in the profile likelihood. We have also shown the efficient score function based on projection theory and the profile likelihood score function are equal. Our contribution in this paper is that we have expressed the efficient information matrix as the variance of the profile likelihood score function. A simulation study suggests that the estimated standard errors from bootstrap samples (SMCURE package) and the profile likelihood score function (our approach) are providing similar and comparable results. The numerical result of our proposed method is also shown by using the melanoma data from SMCURE R-package, and we compare the results with the output obtained from the SMCURE package.

Keywords: Cox PH model, cure model, efficient score function, EM algorithm, implicit function, profile likelihood

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1698 Thrust Enhancement on a Two Dimensional Elliptic Airfoil in a Forward Flight

Authors: S. M. Dash, K. B. Lua, T. T. Lim


This paper presents results of numerical and experimental studies on a two-dimensional (2D) flapping elliptic airfoil in a forward flight condition at Reynolds number of 5000. The study is motivated from an earlier investigation which shows that the deterioration in thrust performance of a sinusoidal heaving and pitching 2D (NACA0012) airfoil at high flapping frequency can be recovered by changing the effective angle of attack profile to square wave, sawtooth, or cosine wave shape. To better understand why such modifications lead to superior thrust performance, we take a closer look at the transient aerodynamic force behavior of an airfoil when the effective angle of attack profile changes gradually from a generic smooth trapezoidal profile to a sinusoid shape by modifying the base length of the trapezoid. The choice of using a smooth trapezoidal profile is to avoid the infinite acceleration condition encountered in the square wave profile. Our results show that the enhancement in the time-averaged thrust performance at high flapping frequency can be attributed to the delay and reduction in the drag producing valley region in the transient thrust force coefficient when the effective angle of attack profile changes from sinusoidal to trapezoidal.

Keywords: two-dimensional flapping airfoil, thrust performance, effective angle of attack, CFD, experiments

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1697 Effects of Resistance Exercise Training on Blood Profile and CRP in Men with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Mohsen Salesi, Seyyed Zoheir Rabei


Exercise has been considered a cornerstone of diabetes prevention and treatment for decades, but the benefits of resistance training are less clear. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of resistance training on blood profile and inflammatory marker (CRP) of type 2 diabetes mellitus people. Thirty diabetic male were recruited (age: 50.34±10.28 years) and randomly assigned to 8 weeks resistance exercise training (n=15) and control groups (n=15). Before and after training blood pressure, weight, lipid profile (TC, TG, LDL-c, and HDL-c) and hs-CRP were measured. The resistance exercise training group took part in supervised 50–80 minutes resistance training sessions, three days a week on non-consecutive days for 8 weeks. Each exercise session included approximately 10 min of warm-up and cool-down periods. Results showed that TG significantly decreased (pre 210.19±9.31 vs. 101.12±7.25, p=0.03) and HDL-c significantly increased (pre 42.37±3.15 vs. 47.50±2.19, p=0.01) after exercise training. However, there was no difference between groups in TC, LDL-c, BMI and weight. In addition, a decrease in fasting blood glucose levels showed significant difference between groups (pre 144.65±5.73 vs. 124.21±6.48 p=0.04). Regular resistance exercise training can improve the lipid profile and reducing the cardiovascular risk factors in T2DM patients.

Keywords: lipid profile, resistance exercise, type 2 diabetes mellitus, men

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1696 Captives on the Frontier: An Exploration of National Identity in Argentine Literature and Art

Authors: Carlos Riobo


This paper analyzes literature and art in Argentina from the nineteenth to the twenty-first centuries as these media used the figure of the white female captive to define a developing national identity. This identity excluded the Indians whose lands the whites were taking and who appeared as the aggressors and captors in writing and paintings. The paper identifies the complicit relationship between art and history in crafting national memory. It also identifies a movement toward purity (as defined by separation of entities) and away from mestizaje (racial and cultural mixtures).

Keywords: Argentina, borders, captives, literature, painting

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1695 Aerodynamics and Aeroelastics Studies of Hanger Bridge with H-Beam Profile Using Wind Tunnel

Authors: Matza Gusto Andika, Malinda Sabrina, Syarie Fatunnisa


Aerodynamic and aeroelastics studies on the hanger bridge profile are important to analyze the aerodynamic phenomenon and Aeroelastics stability of hanger. Wind tunnel tests were conducted on a model of H-beam profile from hanger bridge. The purpose of this study is to investigate steady aerodynamic characteristics such as lift coefficient (Cl), drag coefficient (Cd), and moment coefficient (Cm) under the different angle of attack for preliminary prediction of aeroelastics stability problems. After investigation the steady aerodynamics characteristics from the model, dynamic testing is also conducted in wind tunnel to know the aeroelastics phenomenon which occurs at the H-beam hanger bridge profile. The studies show that the torsional vortex induced vibration occur when the wind speed is 7.32 m/s until 9.19 m/s with maximum amplitude occur when the wind speed is 8.41 m/s. The result of wind tunnel testing is matching to hanger vibration where occur in the field, so wind tunnel studies has successful to model the problem. In order that the H-beam profile is not good enough for the hanger bridge and need to be modified to minimize the Aeroelastics problem. The modification can be done with structure dynamics modification or aerodynamics modification.

Keywords: aerodynamics, aeroelastic, hanger bridge, h-beam profile, vortex induced vibration, wind tunnel

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1694 Lobbyists’ Competencies as a Basis for Shaping the Positive Image of Modern Lobbying

Authors: Joanna Dzieńdziora


Lobbying is an instrument of influence in various decision-making processes. It is also the underestimated issue as a research problem. The lack of research on the modern lobbyist competencies is the most crucial element. The paper presents attempts of finding answers to the following questions: Who should run the lobbying activity? What competencies should a lobbyist possess in order to implement lobbying activities effectively? Searching for answers for the mentioned above questions requires positioning the opportunity to change the image of lobbying in the area of competencies of entities that provide lobbying activities. The aim of the paper is presenting the lobbyist competencies profile in the framework of his professional role. The essence of lobbying activity and its significance in the modern economy as well as areas, the scope of lobbying activities, diagnosis of a modern lobbyist’s competences, lobbyist’s competencies profile that is focused on the professionalization of the lobbying activity, will have been presented in this paper. Indicated research tasks let emerge lobbyist’s competencies in the way that allows identifying and elaborating the lobbyist competencies profile. The profile lets improve lobbying activities. Its elaboration is based on the author’s research results analysis. Taking into consideration the shortages within the theory and research on the lobbying activity, the implementation of this research enables to fill the cognitive gap existing in the theory of management sciences.

Keywords: competencies, competencies profile, lobbying, lobbyist

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1693 Rheological and Computational Analysis of Crude Oil Transportation

Authors: Praveen Kumar, Satish Kumar, Jashanpreet Singh


Transportation of unrefined crude oil from the production unit to a refinery or large storage area by a pipeline is difficult due to the different properties of crude in various areas. Thus, the design of a crude oil pipeline is a very complex and time consuming process, when considering all the various parameters. There were three very important parameters that play a significant role in the transportation and processing pipeline design; these are: viscosity profile, temperature profile and the velocity profile of waxy crude oil through the crude oil pipeline. Knowledge of the Rheological computational technique is required for better understanding the flow behavior and predicting the flow profile in a crude oil pipeline. From these profile parameters, the material and the emulsion that is best suited for crude oil transportation can be predicted. Rheological computational fluid dynamic technique is a fast method used for designing flow profile in a crude oil pipeline with the help of computational fluid dynamics and rheological modeling. With this technique, the effect of fluid properties including shear rate range with temperature variation, degree of viscosity, elastic modulus and viscous modulus was evaluated under different conditions in a transport pipeline. In this paper, two crude oil samples was used, as well as a prepared emulsion with natural and synthetic additives, at different concentrations ranging from 1,000 ppm to 3,000 ppm. The rheological properties was then evaluated at a temperature range of 25 to 60 °C and which additive was best suited for transportation of crude oil is determined. Commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to generate the flow, velocity and viscosity profile of the emulsions for flow behavior analysis in crude oil transportation pipeline. This rheological CFD design can be further applied in developing designs of pipeline in the future.

Keywords: surfactant, natural, crude oil, rheology, CFD, viscosity

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1692 Pressure Angle and Profile Shift Factor Effects on the Natural Frequency of Spur Tooth Design

Authors: Ali Raad Hassan


In this paper, an (irregular) case relating to base circle, root circle, and pressure angle has been discussed and a computer programme has been developed to simulate and plot spur gear tooth profile, including involute and trochoid curves based on the formulation of rack cutter using different values of pressure angle and profile shift factor and it gave the values of all important geometric parameters. The results showed the flexibility of this approach and versatility of the programme to draw many different cases of spur gear teeth of any module, pressure angle, profile shift factor, number of teeth and rack cutter tip radius. The procedure developed can be extended to produce finite element models of heretofore intractable geometrical forms, to exploring fabrication of nonstandard tooth forms also. Finite elements model of these irregular cases have been built using above programme, and modal analysis has been done using ANSYS software, and natural frequencies of these selected cases have been obtained and discussed.

Keywords: involute, trochoid, pressure angle, profile shift factor, natural frequency

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1691 Optimization of Tooth Root Profile and Drive Side Pressure Angle to Minimize Bending Stress at Root of Asymmetric Spur Gear Tooth

Authors: Priyakant Vaghela, Jagdish Prajapati


Bending stress at the root of the gear tooth is the very important criteria in gear design and it should be kept the minimum. Minimization of bending stress at the root of the gear tooth is a recent demand from industry. This paper presents an innovative approach to obtain minimum bending stress at the root of a tooth by optimizing tooth root profile and drive side pressure angle. Circular-filleted at the root of the tooth is widely used in the design. Circular fillet creates discontinuity at the root of the tooth. So, at root stress concentration occurs. In order to minimize stress concentration, an important criterion is a G2 continuity at the blending of the gear tooth. A Bezier curve is used with G2 continuity at the root of asymmetric spur gear tooth. The comparison has been done between normal and modified tooth using ANSYS simulation. Tooth root profile and drive side pressure angle are optimized to minimize bending stress at the root of the tooth of the asymmetric involute spur gear. Von Mises stress of optimized profile is analyzed and compared with normal profile symmetric gear. Von Mises stress is reducing by 31.27% by optimization of drive side pressure angle and root profile. Stress concentration of modified gear was significantly reduced.

Keywords: asymmetric spur gear tooth, G2 continuity, pressure angle, stress concentration at the root of tooth, tooth root stress

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1690 Relation between Copper, Lipid Profile, and Cognition in Elderly Jordanians

Authors: Eman Al-khateeba, Ebaa Al-Zayadneha, Osama Al-Dalahmahb, Zeinab Alawadib, Faisal Khatiba, Randa Naffaa, Yanal Shafagoj


The purpose of the current study was to examine the association of plasma copper and lipid concentrations with changes in cognitive function in elderly Jordanian individuals. The study population consisted of two groups; 52 subjects with dementia, and 50 controls. All individuals were screened with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clock drawing test (CDT).Serum copper and lipid profile were assessed in all subjects, and the results were statistically evaluated at P < 0.05 level of significance. Dementia group had 10.1 % higher copper levels than controls however the difference was not statistically significant. No significant differences could be found between the two groups in lipid profile levels. There was no significant correlation between serum copper, lipid profile and cognitive decline in elderly Jordanians. Demographic variables indicate that educational level less than 12 years and illiterate demonstrated a 3.29 fold (p=0.026) and 6.29 fold (p=0.002) increase in risk of developing dementia, respectively. While coffee intake showed a protective effect against cognitive decline with 6.25 fold lower risk with increased coffee intake.

Keywords: copper, cholesterol, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, lipid profile, coffee

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1689 Investigation of Axisymmetric Bimetallic Tube Extrusion with Conic Die

Authors: A. Eghbali, M. Goodarzi, M. Hagh Panahi


In this article process of direct extrusion of axisymmetric bimetallic tube with conic die profile and constant Mandrel by upper bound method has been analyzed and finite element method is simulated. Deformation area is divided into six smaller deformation areas and are calculated by presenting two generalized velocity field and applicable input and output sections separately (velocity profile with logarithmic curve for input section and spherical velocity profile for materials output ) for each die profile in spherical coordinate system strain rate values in every deformation area. After internal power, shearing power and material friction power is obtained, extrusion force is calculated. The results of upper bound analysis method with given results from other researcher's experiments and simulation by finite parts method (Abaqus software) are compared for conic die.

Keywords: extrusion, upper bound, axisy metric, deformation velocity field

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1688 Tool Damage and Adhesion Effects in Turning and Drilling of Hardened Steels

Authors: Chris M. Taylor, Ian Cook, Raul Alegre, Pedro Arrazola, Phil Spiers


Noteworthy results have been obtained in the turning and drilling of hardened high-strength steels using tungsten carbide based cutting tools. In a finish turning process, it was seen that surface roughness and tool flank wear followed very different trends against cutting time. The suggested explanation for this behaviour is that the profile cut into the workpiece surface is determined by the tool’s cutting edge profile. It is shown that the profile appearing on the cut surface changes rapidly over time, so the profile of the tool cutting edge should also be changing rapidly. Workpiece material adhered onto the cutting tool, which is also known as a built-up edge, is a phenomenon which could explain the observations made. In terms of tool damage modes, workpiece material adhesion is believed to have contributed to tool wear in examples provided from finish turning, thread turning and drilling. Additionally, evidence of tool fracture and tool abrasion were recorded.

Keywords: turning, drilling, adhesion, wear, hard steels

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1687 Defect Profile Simulation of Oxygen Implantation into Si and GaAs

Authors: N. Dahbi, R. B. Taleb


This study concerns the ion implantation of oxygen in two semiconductors Si and GaAs realized by a simulation using the SRIM tool. The goal of this study is to compare the effect of implantation energy on the distribution of implant ions in the two targets and to examine the different processes resulting from the interaction between the ions of oxygen and the target atoms (Si, GaAs). SRIM simulation results indicate that the implanted ions have a profile as a function of Gaussian-type; oxygen produced more vacancies and implanted deeper in Si compared to GaAs. Also, most of the energy loss is due to ionization and phonon production, where vacancy production amounts to few percent of the total energy.

Keywords: defect profile, GaAs, ion implantation, SRIM, phonon production, vacancies

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1686 Magnetic Field Generation in Inhomogeneous Plasma via Ponderomotive Force

Authors: Fatemeh Shahi, Mehdi Sharifian, Laia Shahrassai, Elham Eskandari A.


A new mechanism is reported here for magnetic field generation in laser-plasma interaction by means of nonlinear ponderomotive force. The plasma considered here is unmagnetized inhomogeneous plasma with an exponentially decreasing profile. A damped periodic magnetic field with a relatively lower frequency is obtained using the ponderomotive force exerted on plasma electrons. Finally, with an electric field and by using Faraday’s law, the magnetic field profile in the plasma has been obtained. Because of the negative exponential density profile, the generated magnetic field is relatively slowly oscillating and damped through the plasma.

Keywords: magnetic field generation, laser-plasma interaction, ponderomotive force, inhomogeneous plasma

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