Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 388

Search results for: aerospace missions

388 Simulation and Design of an Aerospace Mission Powered by “Candy” Type Fuel Engines

Authors: N. Hernández Huertas, F. Rojas Mora


Sounding rockets are aerospace vehicles that were developed in the mid-20th century, and since then numerous investigations have been executed with the aim of innovate in this type of technology. However, the costs associated to the production of this type of technology are usually quite high, and therefore the challenge that exists today is to be able to reduce them. In this way, the main objective of this document is to present the design process of a Colombian aerospace mission capable to reach the thermosphere using low-cost “Candy” type solid fuel engines. This mission is the latest development of the Uniandes Aerospace Project (PUA for its Spanish acronym), which is an undergraduate and postgraduate research group at Universidad de los Andes (Bogotá, Colombia), dedicated to incurring in this type of technology. In this way, the investigations that have been carried out on Candy-type solid fuel, which is a compound of potassium nitrate and sorbitol, have allowed the production of engines powerful enough to reach space, and which represents a unique technological advance in Latin America and an important development in experimental rocketry. In this way, following the engineering iterative design methodology was possible to design a 2-stage sounding rocket with 1 solid fuel engine in each one, which was then simulated in RockSim V9.0 software and reached an apogee of approximately 150 km above sea level. Similarly, a speed equal to 5 Mach was obtained, which after performing a finite element analysis, it was shown that the rocket is strong enough to be able to withstand such speeds. Under these premises, it was demonstrated that it is possible to build a high-power aerospace mission at low cost, using Candy-type solid fuel engines. For this reason, the feasibility of carrying out similar missions clearly depends on the ability to replicate the engines in the best way, since as mentioned above, the design of the rocket is adequate to reach supersonic speeds and reach space. Consequently, with a team of at least 3 members, the mission can be obtained in less than 3 months. Therefore, when publishing this project, it is intended to be a reference for future research in this field and benefit the industry.

Keywords: aerospace missions, Candy type solid propellant engines, design of solid rockets, experimental rocketry, low costs missions

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387 One or More Building Information Modeling Managers in France: The Confusion of the Kind

Authors: S. Blanchard, D. Beladjine, K. Beddiar


Since 2015, the arrival of BIM in the building sector in France has turned the corporation world upside down. Not only constructive practices have been impacted, but also the uses and the men who have undergone important changes. Thus, the new collaborative mode generated by the BIM and the digital model has challenged the supremacy of some construction actors because the process involves working together taking into account the needs of other contributors. New BIM tools have emerged and actors in the act of building must take ownership of them. It is in this context that under the impetus of a European directive and the French government's encouragement of new missions and job profiles have. Moreover, concurrent engineering requires that each actor can advance at the same time as the others, at the whim of the information that reaches him, and the information he has to transmit. However, in the French legal system around public procurement, things are not planned in this direction. Also, a consequent evolution must take place to adapt to the methodology. The new missions generated by the BIM in France require a good mastery of the tools and the process. Also, to meet the objectives of the BIM approach, it is possible to define a typical job profile around the BIM, adapted to the various sectors concerned. The multitude of job offers using the same terms with very different objectives and the complexity of the proposed missions motivated by our approach. In order to reinforce exchanges with professionals or specialists, we carried out a statistical study to answer this problem. Five topics are discussed around the business area: the BIM in the company, the function (business), software used and BIM missions practiced (39 items). About 1400 professionals were interviewed. These people work in companies (micro businesses, SMEs, and Groups) of construction, engineering offices or, architectural agencies. 77% of respondents have the status of employees. All participants are graduated in their trade, the majority having level 1. Most people have less than a year of experience in BIM, but some have 10 years. The results of our survey help to understand why it is not possible to define a single type of BIM Manager. Indeed, the specificities of the companies are so numerous and complex and the missions so varied, that there is not a single model for a function. On the other hand, it was possible to define 3 main professions around the BIM (Manager, Coordinator and Modeler) and 3 main missions for the BIM Manager (deployment of the method, assistance to project management and management of a project).

Keywords: BIM manager, BIM modeler, BIM coordinator, project management

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386 Human Factors Considerations in New Generation Fighter Planes to Enhance Combat Effectiveness

Authors: Chitra Rajagopal, Indra Deo Kumar, Ruchi Joshi, Binoy Bhargavan


Role of fighter planes in modern network centric military warfare scenarios has changed significantly in the recent past. New generation fighter planes have multirole capability of engaging both air and ground targets with high precision. Multirole aircraft undertakes missions such as Air to Air combat, Air defense, Air to Surface role (including Air interdiction, Close air support, Maritime attack, Suppression and Destruction of enemy air defense), Reconnaissance, Electronic warfare missions, etc. Designers have primarily focused on development of technologies to enhance the combat performance of the fighter planes and very little attention is given to human factor aspects of technologies. Unique physical and psychological challenges are imposed on the pilots to meet operational requirements during these missions. Newly evolved technologies have enhanced aircraft performance in terms of its speed, firepower, stealth, electronic warfare, situational awareness, and vulnerability reduction capabilities. This paper highlights the impact of emerging technologies on human factors for various military operations and missions. Technologies such as ‘cooperative knowledge-based systems’ to aid pilot’s decision making in military conflict scenarios as well as simulation technologies to enhance human performance is also studied as a part of research work. Current and emerging pilot protection technologies and systems which form part of the integrated life support systems in new generation fighter planes is discussed. System safety analysis application to quantify the human reliability in military operations is also studied.

Keywords: combat effectiveness, emerging technologies, human factors, systems safety analysis

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385 Sustainability in Space: Material Efficiency in Space Missions

Authors: Hamda M. Al-Ali


From addressing fundamental questions about the history of the solar system to exploring other planets for any signs of life have always been the core of human space exploration. This triggered humans to explore whether other planets such as Mars could support human life on them. Therefore, many planned space missions to other planets have been designed and conducted to examine the feasibility of human survival on them. However, space missions are expensive and consume a large number of various resources to be successful. To overcome these problems, material efficiency shall be maximized through the use of reusable launch vehicles (RLV) rather than disposable and expendable ones. Material efficiency is defined as a way to achieve service requirements using fewer materials to reduce CO2 emissions from industrial processes. Materials such as aluminum-lithium alloys, steel, Kevlar, and reinforced carbon-carbon composites used in the manufacturing of spacecrafts could be reused in closed-loop cycles directly or by adding a protective coat. Material efficiency is a fundamental principle of a circular economy. The circular economy aims to cutback waste and reduce pollution through maximizing material efficiency so that businesses can succeed and endure. Five strategies have been proposed to improve material efficiency in the space industry, which includes waste minimization, introduce Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) to measure material efficiency, and introduce policies and legislations to improve material efficiency in the space sector. Another strategy to boost material efficiency is through maximizing resource and energy efficiency through material reusability. Furthermore, the environmental effects associated with the rapid growth in the number of space missions include black carbon emissions that lead to climate change. The levels of emissions must be tracked and tackled to ensure the safe utilization of space in the future. The aim of this research paper is to examine and suggest effective methods used to improve material efficiency in space missions so that space and Earth become more environmentally and economically sustainable. The objectives used to fulfill this aim are to identify the materials used in space missions that are suitable to be reused in closed-loop cycles considering material efficiency indicators and circular economy concepts. An explanation of how spacecraft materials could be re-used as well as propose strategies to maximize material efficiency in order to make RLVs possible so that access to space becomes affordable and reliable is provided. Also, the economic viability of the RLVs is examined to show the extent to which the use of RLVs has on the reduction of space mission costs. The environmental and economic implications of the increase in the number of space missions as a result of the use of RLVs are also discussed. These research questions are studied through detailed critical analysis of the literature, such as published reports, books, scientific articles, and journals. A combination of keywords such as material efficiency, circular economy, RLVs, and spacecraft materials were used to search for appropriate literature.

Keywords: access to space, circular economy, material efficiency, reusable launch vehicles, spacecraft materials

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384 Contributions of Search and Rescue to the World Peace

Authors: Dursun Kalebaşi


When we examine the history of mankind (from the past up to the present), we see that millions of people died because of the wars. Especially, since the beginning of 19th century, the increase of the human death rate is caused mostly by the regional conflicts and natural disasters rather than the wars. From that point of view, the biggest threat humanity face today is temperature increase and climate change that started to emerge in recent years. When we take into account the natural disasters on one hand and refuges that flee from regional conflicts on the other, it stands out as a dramatic situation because of the huge human losses. In this context, most of the countries started to give more importance to Search and Rescue (SAR) operations to stop the loss of lives or decrease the death rate. This article will tell about the SAR activities in Turkey since 2000 and discuss the Turkey’s contributions to Rescue Missions after the natural disasters in different parts of the world. Moreover, there will be some new highlights to a more habitable and more peaceful world through the SAR missions.

Keywords: search and rescue, natural disasters, migration and world peace, Turkish army forces

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383 Inferential Reasoning for Heterogeneous Multi-Agent Mission

Authors: Sagir M. Yusuf, Chris Baber


We describe issues bedeviling the coordination of heterogeneous (different sensors carrying agents) multi-agent missions such as belief conflict, situation reasoning, etc. We applied Bayesian and agents' presumptions inferential reasoning to solve the outlined issues with the heterogeneous multi-agent belief variation and situational-base reasoning. Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) was used in modeling the agents' belief conflict due to sensor variations. Simulation experiments were designed, and cases from agents’ missions were used in training the BBN using gradient descent and expectation-maximization algorithms. The output network is a well-trained BBN for making inferences for both agents and human experts. We claim that the Bayesian learning algorithm prediction capacity improves by the number of training data and argue that it enhances multi-agents robustness and solve agents’ sensor conflicts.

Keywords: distributed constraint optimization problem, multi-agent system, multi-robot coordination, autonomous system, swarm intelligence

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382 Controlling Drone Flight Missions through Natural Language Processors Using Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Sylvester Akpah, Selasi Vondee


Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) as they are also known, drones have attracted increasing attention in recent years due to their ubiquitous nature and boundless applications in the areas of communication, surveying, aerial photography, weather forecasting, medical delivery, surveillance amongst others. Operated remotely in real-time or pre-programmed, drones can fly autonomously or on pre-defined routes. The application of these aerial vehicles has successfully penetrated the world due to technological evolution, thus a lot more businesses are utilizing their capabilities. Unfortunately, while drones are replete with the benefits stated supra, they are riddled with some problems, mainly attributed to the complexities in learning how to master drone flights, collision avoidance and enterprise security. Additional challenges, such as the analysis of flight data recorded by sensors attached to the drone may take time and require expert help to analyse and understand. This paper presents an autonomous drone control system using a chatbot. The system allows for easy control of drones using conversations with the aid of Natural Language Processing, thus to reduce the workload needed to set up, deploy, control, and monitor drone flight missions. The results obtained at the end of the study revealed that the drone connected to the chatbot was able to initiate flight missions with just text and voice commands, enable conversation and give real-time feedback from data and requests made to the chatbot. The results further revealed that the system was able to process natural language and produced human-like conversational abilities using Artificial Intelligence (Natural Language Understanding). It is recommended that radio signal adapters be used instead of wireless connections thus to increase the range of communication with the aerial vehicle.

Keywords: artificial ntelligence, chatbot, natural language processing, unmanned aerial vehicle

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381 Regulatory Guidelines to Support the Design of Nanosatellite Projects in Mexican Academic Contexts

Authors: Alvaro Armenta-Ramade, Arturo Serrano-Santoyo, Veronica Rojas-Mendizabal, Roberto Conte-Galvan


The availability and affordability of commercial off-the-shell products have brought a major impetus in the development of university projects related to the design, construction and launching of small satellites on a global scale. Universities in emerging economies as well as in least developed countries have been able to develop prototypes of small satellites (cubesats and cansats) with limited budgets. The experience gained in the development of small satellites gives rise to capacity building for designing more complex aerospace systems. This trend has significantly increased the pace and number of aerospace university projects around the world. In the case of Mexico, projects funded by different agencies have been very effective in accelerating the capacity building and technology transfer initiatives in the aerospace ecosystem. However, many of this initiatives have centered their efforts in technology development matters with minimum or no considerations of key regulatory issues related to frequency assignment, management and licensing, as well as launching requirements and measures of mitigation of space debris. These regulatory concerns are fundamental to accomplish successful missions that take into account the complete value chain of an aerospace project. The purpose of this paper is to develop a regulatory framework to support the efforts of educational institutions working on the development of small satellites in Mexico. We base our framework on recommendations from the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) and other major actors of the Mexican regulatory ecosystem. In order to develop an integrated and cohesive framework, we draw on complexity science to identify the agents, their role and interactions. Our goal is to create a guiding instrument available both in print and online that can also be used in other regions of the world

Keywords: capacity building, complexity science, cubesats, space regulations, small satellites

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380 Sizing and Thermal Analysis of Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loop Thermal Control Technique for Small Satellite Scientific Applications

Authors: Shanmugasundaram Selvadurai, Amal Chandran


Small satellites have become an alternative low-cost solution for several missions to accomplish specific missions such as Earth imaging, Technology demonstration, Education, and other commercial purposes. Small satellite missions focusing on Infrared imaging applications require lower temperature for scientific instruments and such low temperature can be achieved only using external cryocoolers but the disadvantage is that they generate a large amount of waste heat. Existing passive thermal control techniques are not capable to handle such large thermal loads and hence one of the traditional active Thermal Control System (TCS) is studied for a small satellite configuration. This work aims to downscale the existing Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loop (MPFL) TCS to a 27U CubeSat platform for an imaginary scientific instrument. The temperature-sensitive detector in the instrument considered to be maintained between 130K and 150K to reduce dark current noise and increase the data quality. A Single-Phase fluid based MPFL is chosen for this system-level study and this TCS consists of a microfluid pump, a micro-cryocooler, a fluid accumulator, external heaters, flow regulators, and sensors. This work also explains the thermal control system architecture with a conceptual design, arrangement of all the components, and thermal analysis for different low orbit conditions. Sizing and extensive trade studies for the components are conducted and the results have shown that the Single-phase MPFL system is able to handle the given thermal loads and maintain the satellite’s interface temperature within the desired limit.

Keywords: active thermal control system, satellite thermal, mechanically pumped fluid loop system, cryogenics, cryocooler

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379 Analysis of Six Sigma in the Aerospace Industry

Authors: Masimuddin Mohd Khaled


This paper subsidizes to the discussion of Six Sigma in the Aerospace Industry. The main aim of this report is to study the literature review of Six Sigma emphasizing on the aerospace industry. The implementation of Six Sigma stages are studied and how the improvement cycle ‘Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control cycle’ (DMAIC) and the design process is ‘Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, and Verify Cycle’ (DMADV) is used. The focus is also done by studying how the implementation of Six Sigma on an aerospace company has brought a positive effect to the company.

Keywords: six sigma, DMAIC, DMADV, aerospace

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378 The UN Mediation in the Armed Conflict of Nepal and El Salvador: A Cross-Regional Comparative Perspective Study

Authors: Anu S. Krishna


The paper tries to analyse the UN involvement/intervention in the case of intra-state armed conflict of El Salvador and Nepal comparatively. The peace mission in El Salvador is considered to be the most successful missions of UN ever since it started involving in the peace-building activities. Meanwhile, in the armed conflict of South Asian country, Nepal, the result seemed to be disappointing in comparison with its counterpart. The study on this paper takes three variables as the success or failure of international mediation, i.e., a) signing of the peace agreement, b) disarmament/demobilization and c) constitutional mechanism. A significant amount of scholarship looks at the case of ONUSAL (United Nations Mission in El Salvador). Meanwhile, the armed conflict of Nepal and the role of UNMIN (United Nations Mediation in Nepal) are under researched so far. The paper thus tries to throw light on these cross-regional contexts that share certain similarities and dissimilarities in the nature of conflict. In addition, the international third-party involvement and their way of approaching both the cases differ, which again affected the mediation outcome. The paper tries to argue that, since the approach of the UN led international mediation in theses peace missions were contextual and varied from case to case, thus, finally affected the mediation outcome too.

Keywords: Nepal, UNMIN, El Salvador, ONUSAL, international mediation, armed conflict

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377 Electrostatic Cleaning System Integrated with Thunderon Brush for Lunar Dust Mitigation

Authors: Voss Harrigan, Korey Carter, Mohammad Reza Shaeri


Detrimental effects of lunar dust on space hardware, spacesuits, and astronauts’ health have been already identified during Apollo missions. Developing effective dust mitigation technologies is critically important for successful space exploration and related missions in NASA applications. In this study, an electrostatic cleaning system (ECS) integrated with a negatively ionized Thunderon brush was developed to mitigate small-sized lunar dust particles with diameters ranging from 0.04 µm to 35 µm, and the mean and median size of 7 µm and 5 µm, respectively. It was found that the frequency pulses of the negative ion generator caused particles to stick to the Thunderon bristles and repel between the pulses. The brush was used manually to ensure that particles were removed from areas where the ECS failed to mitigate the lunar simulant. The acquired data demonstrated that the developed system removed over 91-96% of the lunar dust particles. The present study was performed as a proof-of-concept to enhance the cleaning performance of ECSs by integrating a brushing process. Suggestions were made to further improve the performance of the developed technology through future research.

Keywords: lunar dust mitigation, electrostatic cleaning system, Brushing, Thunderon brush, cleaning rate

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376 Calculation of Orbital Elements for Sending Interplanetary Probes

Authors: Jorge Lus Nisperuza Toledo, Juan Pablo Rubio Ospina, Daniel Santiago Umana, Hector Alejandro Alvarez


This work develops and implements computational codes to calculate the optimal launch trajectories for sending a probe from the earth to different planets of the Solar system, making use of trajectories of the Hohmann and No-Hohmann type and gravitational assistance in intermediate steps. Specifically, the orbital elements, the graphs and the dynamic simulations of the trajectories for sending a probe from the Earth towards the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn are obtained. A detailed study was made of the state vectors of the position and orbital velocity of the considered planets in order to determine the optimal trajectories of the probe. For this purpose, computer codes were developed and implemented to obtain the orbital elements of the Mariner 10 (Mercury), Magellan (Venus), Mars Global Surveyor (Mars) and Voyager 1 (Jupiter and Saturn) missions, as an exercise in corroborating the algorithms. This exercise gives validity to computational codes, allowing to find the orbital elements and the simulations of trajectories of three future interplanetary missions with specific launch windows.

Keywords: gravitational assistance, Hohmann’s trajectories, interplanetary mission, orbital elements

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375 Aviation versus Aerospace: A Differential Analysis of Workforce Jobs via Text Mining

Authors: Sarah Werner, Michael J. Pritchard


From pilots to engineers, the skills development within the aerospace industry is exceptionally broad. Employers often struggle with finding the right mixture of qualified skills to fill their organizational demands. This effort to find qualified talent is further complicated by the industrial delineation between two key areas: aviation and aerospace. In a broad sense, the aerospace industry overlaps with the aviation industry. In turn, the aviation industry is a smaller sector segment within the context of the broader definition of the aerospace industry. Furthermore, it could be conceptually argued that -in practice- there is little distinction between these two sectors (i.e., aviation and aerospace). However, through our unstructured text analysis of over 6,000 job listings captured, our team found a clear delineation between aviation-related jobs and aerospace-related jobs. Using techniques in natural language processing, our research identifies an integrated workforce skill pattern that clearly breaks between these two sectors. While the aviation sector has largely maintained its need for pilots, mechanics, and associated support personnel, the staffing needs of the aerospace industry are being progressively driven by integrative engineering needs. Increasingly, this is leading many aerospace-based organizations towards the acquisition of 'system level' staffing requirements. This research helps to better align higher educational institutions with the current industrial staffing complexities within the broader aerospace sector.

Keywords: aerospace industry, job demand, text mining, workforce development

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374 Design of a Telemetry, Tracking, and Command Radio-Frequency Receiver for Small Satellites Based on Commercial Off-The-Shelf Components

Authors: A. Lovascio, A. D’Orazio, V. Centonze


From several years till now the aerospace industry is developing more and more small satellites for Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) missions. Such satellites have a low cost of making and launching since they have a size and weight smaller than other types of satellites. However, because of size limitations, small satellites need integrated electronic equipment based on digital logic. Moreover, the LEOs require telecommunication modules with high throughput to transmit to earth a big amount of data in a short time. In order to meet such requirements, in this paper we propose a Telemetry, Tracking & Command module optimized through the use of the Commercial Off-The-Shelf components. The proposed approach exploits the major flexibility offered by these components in reducing costs and optimizing the performance. The method has been applied in detail for the design of the front-end receiver, which has a low noise figure (1.5 dB) and DC power consumption (smaller than 2 W). Such a performance is particularly attractive since it allows fulfilling the energy budget stringent constraints that are typical for LEO small platforms.

Keywords: COTS, LEO, small-satellite, TT&C

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373 Software Obsolescence Drivers in Aerospace: An Industry Analysis

Authors: Raúl González Muñoz, Essam Shehab, Martin Weinitzke, Chris Fowler, Paul Baguley


Software applications have become crucial for the aerospace industry, providing a wide range of functionalities and capabilities. However, due to the considerable time difference between aircraft and software life cycles, obsolescence has turned into a major challenge for industry in last decades. This paper aims to provide a view on the different causes of software obsolescence within aerospace industry, as well as a perception on the importance of each of them. The key research question addressed is what drives software obsolescence in the aerospace industry, managing large software application portfolios. This question has been addressed by conducting firstly an in depth review of current literature and secondly by arranging an industry workshop with professionals from aerospace and consulting companies. The result is a set of drivers of software obsolescence, distributed among three different environments and several domains. By incorporating monitoring methodologies to assess those software obsolescence drivers, benefits in maintenance efforts and operations disruption avoidance are expected.

Keywords: aerospace industry, obsolescence drivers, software lifecycle, software obsolescence

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372 A Review on the Future Canadian RADARSAT Constellation Mission and Its Capabilities

Authors: Mohammed Dabboor


Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems are active remote sensing systems independent of weather and sun illumination, two factors which usually inhibit the use of optical satellite imagery. A SAR system could acquire single, dual, compact or fully polarized SAR imagery. Each SAR imagery type has its advantages and disadvantages. The sensitivity of SAR images is a function of the: 1) band, polarization, and incidence angle of the transmitted electromagnetic signal, and 2) geometric and dielectric properties of the radar target. The RADARSAT-1 (launched on November 4, 1995), RADARSAT-2 ((launched on December 14, 2007) and RADARSAT Constellation Mission (to be launched in July 2018) are three past, current, and future Canadian SAR space missions. Canada is developing the RADARSAT Constellation Mission (RCM) using small satellites to further maximize the capability to carry out round-the-clock surveillance from space. The Canadian Space Agency, in collaboration with other government-of-Canada departments, is leading the design, development and operation of the RADARSAT Constellation Mission to help addressing key priorities. The purpose of our presentation is to give an overview of the future Canadian RCM SAR mission with its satellites. Also, the RCM SAR imaging modes along with the expected SAR products will be described. An emphasis will be given to the mission unique capabilities and characteristics, such as the new compact polarimetry SAR configuration. In this presentation, we will summarize the RCM advancement from previous RADARSAT satellite missions. Furthermore, the potential of the RCM mission for different Earth observation applications will be outlined.

Keywords: compact polarimetry, RADARSAT, SAR mission, SAR applications

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371 Dynamic Stall Characterization of Low Reynolds Airfoil in Mars and Titan’s Atmosphere

Authors: Vatasta Koul, Vaibhav Sharma, Ayush Gupta, Rajesh Yadav


Exploratory missions to Mars and Titan have increased recently with various endeavors to find an alternate home to humankind. The use of surface rovers has its limitations due to rugged and uneven surfaces of these planetary bodies. The use of aerial robots requires the complete aerodynamic characterization of these vehicles in the atmospheric conditions of these planetary bodies. The dynamic stall phenomenon is extremely important for rotary wings performance under low Reynolds number that can be encountered in Martian and Titan’s atmosphere. The current research focuses on the aerodynamic characterization and exploration of the dynamic stall phenomenon of two different airfoils viz. E387 and Selig-Donovan7003 in Martian and Titan’s atmosphere at low Reynolds numbers of 10000 and 50000. The two-dimensional numerical simulations are conducted using commercially available finite volume solver with multi-species non-reacting mixture of gases as the working fluid. The k-epsilon (k-ε) turbulence model is used to capture the unsteady flow separation and the effect of turbulence. The dynamic characteristics are studied at a fixed different constant rotational extreme of angles of attack. This study of airfoils at different low Reynolds number and atmospheric conditions on Mars and Titan will be resulting in defining the aerodynamic characteristics of these airfoils for unmanned aerial missions for outer space exploration.

Keywords: aerodynamics, dynamic stall, E387, SD7003

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370 An Autonomous Space Debris-Removal System for Effective Space Missions

Authors: Shriya Chawla, Vinayak Malhotra


Space exploration has noted an exponential rise in the past two decades. The world has started probing the alternatives for efficient and resourceful sustenance along with utilization of advanced technology viz., satellites on earth. Space propulsion forms the core of space exploration. Of all the issues encountered, space debris has increasingly threatened the space exploration and propulsion. The efforts have resulted in the presence of disastrous space debris fragments orbiting the earth at speeds up to several kilometres per hour. Debris are well known as a potential damage to the future missions with immense loss of resources, mankind, and huge amount of money is invested in active research on them. Appreciable work had been done in the past relating to active space debris-removal technologies such as harpoon, net, drag sail. The primary emphasis is laid on confined removal. In recently, remove debris spacecraft was used for servicing and capturing cargo ships. Airbus designed and planned the debris-catching net experiment, aboard the spacecraft. The spacecraft represents largest payload deployed from the space station. However, the magnitude of the issue suggests that active space debris-removal technologies, such as harpoons and nets, still would not be enough. Thus, necessitating the need for better and operative space debris removal system. Techniques based on diverting the path of debris or the spacecraft to avert damage have turned out minimal usage owing to limited predictions. Present work focuses on an active hybrid space debris removal system. The work is motivated by the need to have safer and efficient space missions. The specific objectives of the work are 1) to thoroughly analyse the existing and conventional debris removal techniques, their working, effectiveness and limitations under varying conditions, 2) to understand the role of key controlling parameters in coupled operation of debris capturing and removal. The system represents the utilization of the latest autonomous technology available with an adaptable structural design for operations under varying conditions. The design covers advantages of most of the existing technologies while removing the disadvantages. The system is likely to enhance the probability of effective space debris removal. At present, systematic theoretical study is being carried out to thoroughly observe the effects of pseudo-random debris occurrences and to originate an optimal design with much better features and control.

Keywords: space exploration, debris removal, space crafts, space accidents

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369 Trajectory Optimization for Autonomous Deep Space Missions

Authors: Anne Schattel, Mitja Echim, Christof Büskens


Trajectory planning for deep space missions has become a recent topic of great interest. Flying to space objects like asteroids provides two main challenges. One is to find rare earth elements, the other to gain scientific knowledge of the origin of the world. Due to the enormous spatial distances such explorer missions have to be performed unmanned and autonomously. The mathematical field of optimization and optimal control can be used to realize autonomous missions while protecting recourses and making them safer. The resulting algorithms may be applied to other, earth-bound applications like e.g. deep sea navigation and autonomous driving as well. The project KaNaRiA ('Kognitionsbasierte, autonome Navigation am Beispiel des Ressourcenabbaus im All') investigates the possibilities of cognitive autonomous navigation on the example of an asteroid mining mission, including the cruise phase and approach as well as the asteroid rendezvous, landing and surface exploration. To verify and test all methods an interactive, real-time capable simulation using virtual reality is developed under KaNaRiA. This paper focuses on the specific challenge of the guidance during the cruise phase of the spacecraft, i.e. trajectory optimization and optimal control, including first solutions and results. In principle there exist two ways to solve optimal control problems (OCPs), the so called indirect and direct methods. The indirect methods are being studied since several decades and their usage needs advanced skills regarding optimal control theory. The main idea of direct approaches, also known as transcription techniques, is to transform the infinite-dimensional OCP into a finite-dimensional non-linear optimization problem (NLP) via discretization of states and controls. These direct methods are applied in this paper. The resulting high dimensional NLP with constraints can be solved efficiently by special NLP methods, e.g. sequential quadratic programming (SQP) or interior point methods (IP). The movement of the spacecraft due to gravitational influences of the sun and other planets, as well as the thrust commands, is described through ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The competitive mission aims like short flight times and low energy consumption are considered by using a multi-criteria objective function. The resulting non-linear high-dimensional optimization problems are solved by using the software package WORHP ('We Optimize Really Huge Problems'), a software routine combining SQP at an outer level and IP to solve underlying quadratic subproblems. An application-adapted model of impulsive thrusting, as well as a model of an electrically powered spacecraft propulsion system, is introduced. Different priorities and possibilities of a space mission regarding energy cost and flight time duration are investigated by choosing different weighting factors for the multi-criteria objective function. Varying mission trajectories are analyzed and compared, both aiming at different destination asteroids and using different propulsion systems. For the transcription, the robust method of full discretization is used. The results strengthen the need for trajectory optimization as a foundation for autonomous decision making during deep space missions. Simultaneously they show the enormous increase in possibilities for flight maneuvers by being able to consider different and opposite mission objectives.

Keywords: deep space navigation, guidance, multi-objective, non-linear optimization, optimal control, trajectory planning.

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368 Sustainability in Space: Implementation of Circular Economy and Material Efficiency Strategies in Space Missions

Authors: Hamda M. Al-Ali


The ultimate aim of space exploration has been centralized around the possibility of life on other planets in the solar system. This aim is driven by the detrimental effects that climate change could potentially have on human survival on Earth in the future. This drives humans to search for feasible solutions to increase environmental and economical sustainability on Earth and to evaluate and explore the ability of human survival on other planets such as Mars. To do that, frequent space missions are required to meet the ambitious human goals. This means that reliable and affordable access to space is required, which could be largely achieved through the use of reusable spacecrafts. Therefore, materials and resources must be used wisely to meet the increasing demand. Space missions are currently extremely expensive to operate. However, reusing materials hence spacecrafts, can potentially reduce overall mission costs as well as the negative impact on both space and Earth environments. This is because reusing materials leads to less waste generated per mission, and therefore fewer landfill sites are required. Reusing materials reduces resource consumption, material production, and the need for processing new and replacement spacecraft and launch vehicle parts. Consequently, this will ease and facilitate human access to outer space as it will reduce the demand for scarce resources, which will boost material efficiency in the space industry. Material efficiency expresses the extent to which resources are consumed in the production cycle and how the waste produced by the industrial process is minimized. The strategies proposed in this paper to boost material efficiency in the space sector are the introduction of key performance indicators that are able to measure material efficiency as well as the introduction of clearly defined policies and legislation that can be easily implemented within the general practices in the space industry. Another strategy to improve material efficiency is by amplifying energy and resource efficiency through reusing materials. The circularity of various spacecraft materials such as Kevlar, steel, and aluminum alloys could be maximized through reusing them directly or after galvanizing them with another layer of material to act as a protective coat. This research paper has an aim to investigate and discuss how to improve material efficiency in space missions considering circular economy concepts so that space and Earth become more economically and environmentally sustainable. The circular economy is a transition from a make-use-waste linear model to a closed-loop socio-economic model, which is regenerative and restorative in nature. The implementation of a circular economy will reduce waste and pollution through maximizing material efficiency, ensuring that businesses can thrive and sustain. Further research into the extent to which reusable launch vehicles reduce space mission costs have been discussed, along with the environmental and economic implications it could have on the space sector and the environment. This has been examined through research and in-depth literature review of published reports, books, scientific articles, and journals. Keywords such as material efficiency, circular economy, reusable launch vehicles and spacecraft materials were used to search for relevant literature.

Keywords: circular economy, key performance indicator, material efficiency, reusable launch vehicles, spacecraft materials

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367 An Experimental Study on the Coupled Heat Source and Heat Sink Effects on Solid Rockets

Authors: Vinayak Malhotra, Samanyu Raina, Ajinkya Vajurkar


Enhancing the rocket efficiency by controlling the external factors in solid rockets motors has been an active area of research for most of the terrestrial and extra-terrestrial system operations. Appreciable work has been done, but the complexity of the problem has prevented thorough understanding due to heterogenous heat and mass transfer. On record, severe issues have surfaced amounting to irreplaceable loss of mankind, instruments, facilities, and huge amount of money being invested every year. The coupled effect of an external heat source and external heat sink is an aspect yet to be articulated in combustion. Better understanding of this coupled phenomenon will induce higher safety standards, efficient missions, reduced hazard risks, with better designing, validation, and testing. The experiment will help in understanding the coupled effect of an external heat sink and heat source on the burning process, contributing in better combustion and fire safety, which are very important for efficient and safer rocket flights and space missions. Safety is the most prevalent issue in rockets, which assisted by poor combustion efficiency, emphasizes research efforts to evolve superior rockets. This signifies real, engineering, scientific, practical, systems and applications. One potential application is Solid Rocket Motors (S.R.M). The study may help in: (i) Understanding the effect on efficiency of core engines due to the primary boosters if considered as source, (ii) Choosing suitable heat sink materials for space missions so as to vary the efficiency of the solid rocket depending on the mission, (iii) Giving an idea about how the preheating of the successive stage due to previous stage acting as a source may affect the mission. The present work governs the temperature (resultant) and thus the heat transfer which is expected to be non-linear because of heterogeneous heat and mass transfer. The study will deepen the understanding of controlled inter-energy conversions and the coupled effect of external source/sink(s) surrounding the burning fuel eventually leading to better combustion thus, better propulsion. The work is motivated by the need to have enhanced fire safety and better rocket efficiency. The specific objective of the work is to understand the coupled effect of external heat source and sink on propellant burning and to investigate the role of key controlling parameters. Results as of now indicate that there exists a singularity in the coupled effect. The dominance of the external heat sink and heat source decides the relative rocket flight in Solid Rocket Motors (S.R.M).

Keywords: coupled effect, heat transfer, sink, solid rocket motors, source

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366 Operational Software Maturity: An Aerospace Industry Analysis

Authors: Raúl González Muñoz, Essam Shehab, Martin Weinitzke, Chris Fowler, Paul Baguley


Software applications have become crucial to the aerospace industry, providing a wide range of functionalities and capabilities used during the design, manufacturing and support of aircraft. However, as this criticality increases, so too does the risk for business operations when facing a software failure. Hence, there is a need for new methodologies to be developed to support aerospace companies in effectively managing their software portfolios, avoiding the hazards of business disruption and additional costs. This paper aims to provide a definition of operational software maturity, and how this can be used to assess software operational behaviour, as well as a view on the different aspects that drive software maturity within the aerospace industry. The key research question addressed is, how can operational software maturity monitoring assist the aerospace industry in effectively managing large software portfolios? This question has been addressed by conducting an in depth review of current literature, by working closely with aerospace professionals and by running an industry case study within a major aircraft manufacturer. The results are a software maturity model composed of a set of drivers and a prototype tool used for the testing and validation of the research findings. By utilising these methodologies to assess the operational maturity of software applications in aerospace, benefits in maintenance activities and operations disruption avoidance have been observed, supporting business cases for system improvement.

Keywords: aerospace, software lifecycle, software maintenance, software maturity

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365 Hardware-In-The-Loop Relative Motion Control: Theory, Simulation and Experimentation

Authors: O. B. Iskender, K. V. Ling, V. Dubanchet, L. Simonini


This paper presents a Guidance and Control (G&C) strategy to address spacecraft maneuvering problem for future Rendezvous and Docking (RVD) missions. The proposed strategy allows safe and propellant efficient trajectories for space servicing missions including tasks such as approaching, inspecting and capturing. This work provides the validation test results of the G&C laws using a Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) setup with two robotic mockups representing the chaser and the target spacecraft. Through this paper, the challenges of the relative motion control in space are first summarized, and in particular, the constraints imposed by the mission, spacecraft and, onboard processing capabilities. Second, the proposed algorithm is introduced by presenting the formulation of constrained Model Predictive Control (MPC) to optimize the fuel consumption and explicitly handle the physical and geometric constraints in the system, e.g. thruster or Line-Of-Sight (LOS) constraints. Additionally, the coupling between translational motion and rotational motion is addressed via dual quaternion based kinematic description and accordingly explained. The resulting convex optimization problem allows real-time implementation capability based on a detailed discussion on the computational time requirements and the obtained results with respect to the onboard computer and future trends of space processors capabilities. Finally, the performance of the algorithm is presented in the scope of a potential future mission and of the available equipment. The results also cover a comparison between the proposed algorithms with Linear–quadratic regulator (LQR) based control law to highlight the clear advantages of the MPC formulation.

Keywords: autonomous vehicles, embedded optimization, real-time experiment, rendezvous and docking, space robotics

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364 Solar Electric Propulsion: The Future of Deep Space Exploration

Authors: Abhishek Sharma, Arnab Banerjee


The research is intended to study the solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology for planetary missions. The main benefits of using solar electric propulsion for such missions are shorter flight times, more frequent target accessibility and the use of a smaller launch vehicle than that required by a comparable chemical propulsion mission. Energized by electric power from on-board solar arrays, the electrically propelled system uses 10 times less propellant than conventional chemical propulsion system, yet the reduced fuel mass can provide vigorous power which is capable of propelling robotic and crewed missions beyond the Lower Earth Orbit (LEO). The various thrusters used in the SEP are gridded ion thrusters and the Hall Effect thrusters. The research is solely aimed to study the ion thrusters and investigate the complications related to it and what can be done to overcome the glitches. The ion thrusters are used because they are found to have a total lower propellant requirement and have substantially longer time. In the ion thrusters, the anode pushes or directs the incoming electrons from the cathode. But the anode is not maintained at a very high potential which leads to divergence. Divergence leads to the charges interacting against the surface of the thruster. Just as the charges ionize the xenon gases, they are capable of ionizing the surfaces and over time destroy the surface and hence contaminate it. Hence the lifetime of thruster gets limited. So a solution to this problem is using substances which are not easy to ionize as the surface material. Another approach can be to increase the potential of anode so that the electrons don’t deviate much or reduce the length of thruster such that the positive anode is more effective. The aim is to work on these aspects as to how constriction of the deviation of charges can be done by keeping the input power constant and hence increase the lifetime of the thruster. Predominantly ring cusp magnets are used in the ion thrusters. However, the study is also intended to observe the effect of using solenoid for producing micro-solenoidal magnetic field apart from using the ring cusp magnetic field which are used in the discharge chamber for prevention of interaction of electrons with the ionization walls. Another foremost area of interest is what are the ways by which power can be provided to the Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicle for lowering and boosting the orbit of the spacecraft and also provide substantial amount of power to the solenoid for producing stronger magnetic fields. This can be successfully achieved by using the concept of Electro-dynamic tether which will serve as a power source for powering both the vehicle and the solenoids in the ion thruster and hence eliminating the need for carrying extra propellant on the spacecraft which will reduce the weight and hence reduce the cost of space propulsion.

Keywords: electro-dynamic tether, ion thruster, lifetime of thruster, solar electric propulsion vehicle

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363 Studies on Space-Based Laser Targeting System for the Removal of Orbital Space Debris

Authors: Krima M. Rohela, Raja Sabarinath Sundaralingam


Humans have been launching rockets since the beginning of the space age in the late 1950s. We have come a long way since then, and the success rate for the launch of rockets has increased considerably. With every successful launch, there is a large amount of junk or debris which is released into the upper layers of the atmosphere. Space debris has been a huge concern for a very long time now. This includes the rocket shells released from the launch and the parts of defunct satellites. Some of this junk will come to fall towards the Earth and burn in the atmosphere. But most of the junk goes into orbit around the Earth, and they remain in orbits for at least 100 years. This can cause a lot of problems to other functioning satellites and may affect the future manned missions to space. The main concern of the space-debris is the increase in space activities, which leads to risks of collisions if not taken care of soon. These collisions may result in what is known as Kessler Syndrome. This debris can be removed by a space-based laser targeting system. Hence, the matter is investigated and discussed. The first step in this involves launching a satellite with a high-power laser device into space, above the debris belt. Then the target material is ablated with a focussed laser beam. This step of the process is highly dependent on the attitude and orientation of the debris with respect to the Earth and the device. The laser beam will cause a jet of vapour and plasma to be expelled from the material. Hence, the force is applied in the opposite direction, and in accordance with Newton’s third law of motion, this will cause the material to move towards the Earth and get pulled down due to gravity, where it will get disintegrated in the upper layers of the atmosphere. The larger pieces of the debris can be directed towards the oceans. This method of removal of the orbital debris will enable safer passage for future human-crewed missions into space.

Keywords: altitude, Kessler syndrome, laser ablation, Newton’s third law of motion, satellites, Space debris

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362 Analysis of Total Quality Management (TQM) and Six Sigma in the Aerospace Industry

Authors: Masimuddin Mohd Khaled


From the past couple of years, focus has been done on the quality management theories and has been pertained to various firms. The core quality management theories are Total Quality Management (TQM) and Six Sigma where a number of documents have already been presented regarding these theories. The purpose of this paper is to study in detail about these theories and how the theories are applied in the aerospace industry. A methodical literature review, comparison of TQM and Six Sigma as well as a case study of each has been carried out in this paper thus providing a clear understanding of the theories.

Keywords: total quality management, six sigma, aerospace, research, innovation

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361 The Presidential Mediator: Different Terminologies Same Missions

Authors: Khodr Fakih


The Ombudsman is a procedural mechanism that provides a different approach of dispute resolution. The ombudsman primarily deals with specific grievances from the public against governmental injustice and misconduct. The ombudsman theory is considered an important instrument to any democratic government. This is true since it improves the transparency of the governmental activities in a world in which executive power are rising. Many countries have adopted the concept of Ombudsman but under different terminologies. This paper will provide the different types of Ombudsman and the common activities/processes of fulfilling their mandates.

Keywords: administration, citizens, government, mediator, ombudsman, presidential mediator

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360 Big Data’s Mechanistic View of Human Behavior May Displace Traditional Library Missions That Empower Users

Authors: Gabriel Gomez


The very concept of information seeking behavior, and the means by which librarians teach users to gain information, that is information literacy, are at the heart of how libraries deliver information, but big data will forever change human interaction with information and the way such behavior is both studied and taught. Just as importantly, big data will orient the study of behavior towards commercial ends because of a tendency towards instrumentalist views of human behavior, something one might also call a trend towards behaviorism. This oral presentation seeks to explore how the impact of big data on understandings of human behavior might impact a library information science (LIS) view of human behavior and information literacy, and what this might mean for social justice aims and concomitant community action normally at the center of librarianship. The methodology employed here is a non-empirical examination of current understandings of LIS in regards to social justice alongside an examination of the benefits and dangers foreseen with the growth of big data analysis. The rise of big data within the ever-changing information environment encapsulates a shift to a more mechanistic view of human behavior, one that can easily encompass information seeking behavior and information use. As commercial aims displace the important political and ethical aims that are often central to the missions espoused by libraries and the social sciences, the very altruism and power relations found in LIS are at risk. In this oral presentation, an examination of the social justice impulses of librarians regarding power and information demonstrates how such impulses can be challenged by big data, particularly as librarians understand user behavior and promote information literacy. The creeping behaviorist impulse inherent in the emphasis big data places on specific solutions, that is answers to question that ask how, as opposed to larger questions that hint at an understanding of why people learn or use information threaten library information science ideals. Together with the commercial nature of most big data, this existential threat can harm the social justice nature of librarianship.

Keywords: big data, library information science, behaviorism, librarianship

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359 AI/ML Atmospheric Parameters Retrieval Using the “Atmospheric Retrievals conditional Generative Adversarial Network (ARcGAN)”

Authors: Thomas Monahan, Nicolas Gorius, Thanh Nguyen


Exoplanet atmospheric parameters retrieval is a complex, computationally intensive, inverse modeling problem in which an exoplanet’s atmospheric composition is extracted from an observed spectrum. Traditional Bayesian sampling methods require extensive time and computation, involving algorithms that compare large numbers of known atmospheric models to the input spectral data. Runtimes are directly proportional to the number of parameters under consideration. These increased power and runtime requirements are difficult to accommodate in space missions where model size, speed, and power consumption are of particular importance. The use of traditional Bayesian sampling methods, therefore, compromise model complexity or sampling accuracy. The Atmospheric Retrievals conditional Generative Adversarial Network (ARcGAN) is a deep convolutional generative adversarial network that improves on the previous model’s speed and accuracy. We demonstrate the efficacy of artificial intelligence to quickly and reliably predict atmospheric parameters and present it as a viable alternative to slow and computationally heavy Bayesian methods. In addition to its broad applicability across instruments and planetary types, ARcGAN has been designed to function on low power application-specific integrated circuits. The application of edge computing to atmospheric retrievals allows for real or near-real-time quantification of atmospheric constituents at the instrument level. Additionally, edge computing provides both high-performance and power-efficient computing for AI applications, both of which are critical for space missions. With the edge computing chip implementation, ArcGAN serves as a strong basis for the development of a similar machine-learning algorithm to reduce the downlinked data volume from the Compact Ultraviolet to Visible Imaging Spectrometer (CUVIS) onboard the DAVINCI mission to Venus.

Keywords: deep learning, generative adversarial network, edge computing, atmospheric parameters retrieval

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