Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7919

Search results for: adverse health outcomes

7919 Patient-Reported Adverse Drug Reactions, Medication Adherence and Clinical Outcomes among major depression disorder Patients in Ethiopia: A Prospective Hospital Based Study.

Authors: Tadesse Melaku Abegaz

Abstract:

Background: there was paucity of data on the self-reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs), level of adherence and clinical outcomes with antidepressants among major depressive disorder (MDD) patients in Ethiopia. Hence, the present study sought to determine the level of adherence for and clinical outcome with antidepressants and the magnitude of ADRs. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was employed on MDD patients from September 2016 to January 2017 at Gondar university hospital psychiatry clinic. All patients who were available during the study period were included under the study population. The Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale was employed to assess the adverse drug reaction. The rate of medication adherence was determined using morisky medication adherence measurement scale eight. Clinical Outcome of patients was measured by using patient health questionnaire. Multivariable logistic carried out to determine factors for adherence and patient outcome. Results: two hundred seventy patients were participated in the study. More than half of the respondents were males 122(56.2%). The mean age of the participants was 30.94 ± 8.853. More than one-half of the subjects had low adherence to their medications 124(57.1%). About 186(85.7%) of patients encountered ADR. The most common ADR was weight gain 29(13.2). Around 198(92.2%) ADRs were probable and 19(8.8%) were possible. Patients with long standing MDD had high risk of non-adherence COR: 2.458[4.413-4.227], AOR: 2.424[1.185-4.961]. More than one-half 125(57.6) of respondents showed improved outcome. Optimal level of medication adherence was found to be associated with reduced risk of progression of the diseases COR: 0.37[0.110-5.379] and AOR: 0.432[0.201-0.909]. Conclusion: Patient reported adverse drug reactions were more prevalent in major depressive disorder patients. Adherence to medications was very poor in the setup. However, the clinical outcome was relatively higher. Long standing depression was associated with non-adherence. In addition, clinical outcome of patients were affected by non-adherence. Therefore, adherence enhancing interventions should be provided to improve medication adherence and patient outcome.

Keywords: adverse drug reactions, clinical outcomes, Ethiopia, prospective study, medication adherence

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7918 The Promise of Social Enterprise to Improve Health Outcomes in Trafficking Survivors: A Quantitative Case Study

Authors: Sean Roy, Mercedes Miller

Abstract:

A study was conducted to assess the positive outcomes related to Filipino human trafficking survivors working at a social enterprise. As most existing research on human survivors pertains to the adverse outcomes of victims, the researchers were seeking to fill the dearth of existing data related to positive outcomes. A quantitative study was conducted using a convenience sample of 41 participants within three staggered cohorts of the social enterprise. A Kruskal-Wallis H test was conducted and indicated that participants in the third cohort (who were employed at the social enterprise the longest) had significantly lower anxiety scores than participants in other cohorts. This study indicates that social enterprises hold the promise of positively impacting anxiety of human trafficking survivors and provides a starting point for researchers looking to assess ways to positively influence the lives of survivors.

Keywords: human trafficking, Philippines, quantitative analysis, self-identity

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7917 Adverse Reactions from Contrast Media in Patients Undergone Computed Tomography at the Department of Radiology, Srinagarind Hospital

Authors: Pranee Suecharoen, Jaturat Kanpittaya

Abstract:

Background: The incidence of adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media has risen. The dearth of reports on reactions to the administration of iso- and low-osmolar contrast media should be addressed. We, therefore, studied the profile of adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media; viz., (a) the body systems affected (b) causality, (c) severity, and (d) preventability. Objective: To study adverse reactions (causes and severity) to iodinated contrast media at Srinagarind Hospital. Method: Between March and July, 2015, 1,101 patients from the Department of Radiology were observed and interviewed for the occurrence of adverse reactions. The patients were classified per Naranjo’s algorithm and through use of an adverse reactions questionnaire. Results: A total of 105 cases (9.5%) reported adverse reactions (57% male; 43% female); among whom 2% were iso-osmolar vs. 98% low-osmolar. Diagnoses included hepatoma and cholangiocarcinoma (24.8%), colorectal cancer (9.5%), breast cancer (5.7%), cervical cancer (3.8%), lung cancer (2.9%), bone cancer (1.9%), and others (51.5%). Underlying diseases included hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2. Mild, moderate, and severe adverse reactions accounted for 92, 5 and 3%, respectively. The respective groups of escalating symptoms included (a) mild urticaria, itching, rash, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and headache; (b) moderate hypertension, hypotension, dyspnea, tachycardia and bronchospasm; and (c) severe laryngeal edema, profound hypotension, and convulsions. All reactions could be anticipated per Naranjo’s algorithm. Conclusion: Mild to moderate adverse reactions to low-osmolar contrast media were most common and these occurred immediately after administration. For patient safety and better outcomes, improving the identification of patients likely to have an adverse reaction is essential.

Keywords: adverse reactions, contrast media, computed tomography, iodinated contrast agents

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7916 A Study on the Relation among Primary Care Professionals Serving Disadvantaged Community, Socioeconomic Status, and Adverse Health Outcome

Authors: Chau-Kuang Chen, Juanita Buford, Colette Davis, Raisha Allen, John Hughes, James Tyus, Dexter Samuels

Abstract:

During the post-Civil War era, the city of Nashville, Tennessee, had the highest mortality rate in the country. The elevated death and disease among ex-slaves were attributable to the unavailability of healthcare. To address the paucity of healthcare services, the College, an institution with the mission of educating minority professionals and serving the under served population, was established in 1876. This study was designed to assess if the College has accomplished its mission of serving under served communities and contributed to the elimination of health disparities in the United States. The study objective was to quantify the impact of socioeconomic status and adverse health outcomes on primary care professionals serving disadvantaged communities, which, in turn, was significantly associated with a health professional shortage score partly designated by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Various statistical methods were used to analyze the alumni data in years 1975 – 2013. K-means cluster analysis was utilized to identify individual medical and dental graduates into the cluster groups of the practice communities (Disadvantaged or Non-disadvantaged Communities). Discriminant analysis was implemented to verify the classification accuracy of cluster analysis. The independent t test was performed to detect the significant mean differences for clustering and criterion variables between Disadvantaged and Non-disadvantaged Communities, which confirms the “content” validity of cluster analysis model. Chi-square test was used to assess if the proportion of cluster groups (Disadvantaged vs Non-disadvantaged Communities) were consistent with that of practicing specialties (primary care vs. non-primary care). Finally, the partial least squares (PLS) path model was constructed to explore the “construct” validity of analytics model by providing the magnitude effects of socioeconomic status and adverse health outcome on primary care professionals serving disadvantaged community. The social ecological theory along with statistical models mentioned was used to establish the relationship between medical and dental graduates (primary care professionals serving disadvantaged communities) and their social environments (socioeconomic status, adverse health outcome, health professional shortage score). Based on social ecological framework, it was hypothesized that the impact of socioeconomic status and adverse health outcomes on primary care professionals serving disadvantaged communities could be quantified. Also, primary care professionals serving disadvantaged communities related to a health professional shortage score can be measured. Adverse health outcome (adult obesity rate, age-adjusted premature mortality rate, and percent of people diagnosed with diabetes) could be affected by the latent variable, namely socioeconomic status (unemployment rate, poverty rate, percent of children who were in free lunch programs, and percent of uninsured adults). The study results indicated that approximately 83% (3,192/3,864) of the College’s medical and dental graduates from 1975 to 2013 were practicing in disadvantaged communities. In addition, the PLS path modeling demonstrated that primary care professionals serving disadvantaged community was significantly associated with socioeconomic status and adverse health outcome (p < .001). In summary, the majority of medical and dental graduates from the College provide primary care services to disadvantaged communities with low socioeconomic status and high adverse health outcomes, which demonstrate that the College has fulfilled its mission.

Keywords: disadvantaged community, K-means cluster analysis, PLS path modeling, primary care

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7915 Comparison of Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes of Obstetric Population Diagnosed with Covid-19 in Reference to Influenza A/H1N1: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Maria Vargas Hernandez, Jose Rojas Suarez, Carmelo Dueñas Castell, Sandra Contreras, Camilo Bello, Diana Borre, Walter Anichiarico, Harold Vasquez, Eduard Perez, Jose Santacruz

Abstract:

In the last two decades, there have been outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, with an impact on both the general population and the obstetric population. These infections, which affect the general population, pose a high risk for adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes, taking into account that physiological and immunological changes that occur during pregnancy can increase their risk or severity. Among these, the pandemics of viral infections, Influenza A/H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19, stand out. In 2009, Influenza A/H1N1 infection (H1N1 2009pdm) affected approximately 3,110 obstetric patients, with data reported from 29 countries, including 1,625 (52.3%) cases that were hospitalized, 378 (23.3%) admissions to ICU and 130 (8%) deaths; and since the end of 2019, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified, causing the COVID-19 pandemic, with global mortality that is around 2-4% for the general population, and higher mortality in patients requiring admission to the intensive care unit. Its impact on the obstetric population is still unknown. Objectives: To evaluate the impact on maternal and perinatal outcomes of COVID-19 infection in reference to influenza A/H1N1 infection in the obstetric population. Methodology: Systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. Results: Mortality from maternal infection with influenza A/H1N1 appears to be higher (8%) than mortality due to maternal infection with COVID-19 (3%). The rates of ICU admission, hospitalization, the requirement for invasive mechanical ventilation, and fetal death also appear to be higher in the maternal population with A/H1N1 infection, in reference to the maternal population with COVID-19 infection. Within perinatal outcomes, the admission to the neonatal ICU appears to be higher in the infants born to mothers with COVID-19 infection (28% vs. 15% for COVID-19 and A/H1N1, respectively). Conclusion: A/H1N1 infection in the obstetric population seems to be associated with a higher proportion of adverse outcomes in relation to COVID-19 infection. The actual impact of maternal influenza A/H1N1 infection on perinatal outcomes is unknown. More COVID-19 studies are needed to understand the impact of maternal infection on perinatal outcomes in this population.

Keywords: A/H1N1, COVID-19, maternal outcomes, perinatal outcomes

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7914 Incidence, Risk Factors and Impact of Major Adverse Events Following Paediatric Cardiac Surgery

Authors: Sandipika Gupta

Abstract:

Objective: Due to admirably low 30-day mortality rates for paediatric cardiac surgery, it is now pertinent to turn towards more intermediate-length outcomes such as morbidities closely associated with these surgeries. One such morbidity, major adverse events (MAE) comprises a group of adverse outcomes associated with paediatric cardiac surgery (e.g. cardiac arrest, major haemorrhage). Methods: This is a retrospective study that analysed the incidence and impact of MAE which was the primary outcome in the UK population. The data was collected in 5 centres between October 2015 and June 2017, amassing 3090 surgical episodes. The incidence and risk factors for MAE, were assessed through descriptive statistical analyses and multivariate logistic regression. The secondary outcomes of life status at 6 months and the length of hospital stay were also evaluated to understand the impact of MAE on patients. Results: Out of 3090 episodes, 134 (4.3%) had a postoperative MAE. The majority of the episodes were in: neonates (47%, P<0.001), high-risk cardiac diagnosis groups (20.1%, P<0.001), episodes with longer 5mes on the bypass (72.4%, P<0.001) and urgent surgeries (57.9%, P<0.001). Episodes reporting MAE also reported longer lengths of stay in hospital (29 days vs 9 days, P<0.001). Furthermore, patients experiencing MAE were at a higher risk of mortality at the 6-month life status check (mortality rates: 29.2% vs 2%, P<0.001).Conclusions: Key risk factors were identified. An important negative impact of MAE was found for patients. The identified risk factors could be used to profile and flag at-risk patients. Monitoring of MAE rates and closer investigation into the care pathway before and after individual MAEs in children’s heart units may lead to a reduction in these terrible events.

Keywords:

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7913 Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes of Single versus Multiple Embryo Transfer in Gestational Surrogacy Arrangements: A Systematic Review

Authors: Jutharat Attawet, Alex Y. Wang, Cindy M. Farquhar, Elizabeth A. Sullivan

Abstract:

Background: Adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes of multiple pregnancies resulting from multiple embryo transfers (ET) has become significant concerns. This is particularly relevant for gestational carriers since they usually do not have infertility issues. Single embryo transfer (SET) therefore has been encouraged to assist reproductive technology (ART) practice in order to reduce multiple pregnancies. Objectives: This systematic review aims to investigate the pregnancy and birth outcomes of SET and multiple ET in surrogacy arrangements. Search methods: This study is a systematic review. Electronic databases were searched from CINAHL, Medline, Embase, Scopus and ProQuest for studies from 1980 to 2017. Cross-references and national ART reports were also manual searchings. Articles without restriction of English language and study types were accessed. Carrier cycles involving in SET and multiple ET were identified in database searching. The main outcome measures including clinical pregnancy, live delivery and multiple deliveries per gestational carrier cycle were compared between SET and multiple ET. Mantel-Haenzel risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), using the numbers of outcome events in SET and multiple ET of each study were calculated suing RevMan5.3. Outcomes: The search returned 97 articles of which 5 met the inclusion criteria. Approximately 50% of carrier cycles were transferred a single embryo and 50% were transferred more than one embryo. The clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) was 39% for SET and 53% for multiple ET, which was not significantly different with RR = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.67-1.03). The live delivery rate was 33% for SET and 57% for multiple ET which was not significantly different with RR = 0.78 (95% CI: 0.61-1.00). The multiple delivery rate per carrier was greater risks in the multiple ET carrier cycles (RR =0.4, 95% CI: 0.01-0.26). There were 104 sets of twins (including one set of twins selectively reduced from triplets to twins) and 1 set of triples in the multiple ET carrier cycle. In the SET carrier cycles, there were 2 sets of twins. Significance of the study: SET should be advocated among surrogate carriers to prevent multiple pregnancies and subsequent adverse outcomes for both carrier and baby. Surrogacy practice should be reviewed and surrogate carriers should be fully informed of the risk of adverse maternal and birth outcome of multiple pregnancies due to multiple embryo transfers.

Keywords: assisted reproduction, birth outcomes, carrier, gestational surrogacy, multiple embryo transfer, multiple pregnancy, pregnancy outcomes, single embryo transfer, surrogate mother, systematic review

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7912 Climate Change Implications on Occupational Health and Productivity in Tropical Countries: Study Results from India

Authors: Vidhya Venugopal, Jeremiah Chinnadurai, Rebekah A. I. Lucas, Tord Kjellstrom, Bruno Lemke

Abstract:

Introduction: The effects of climate change (CC) are largely discussed across the globe in terms of impacts on the environment and the general population, but the impacts on workers remain largely unexplored. The predicted rise in temperatures and heat events in the CC scenario have health implications on millions of workers in physically exerting jobs. The current health and productivity risks associated with heat exposures are characterized, future risk estimates as temperature rises and recommendations towards developing protective and preventive occupational health and safety guidelines for India are discussed. Methodology: Cross-sectional studies were conducted in several occupational sectors with workers engaged in moderate to heavy labor (n=1580). Quantitative data on heat exposures (WBGT°C), physiological heat strain indicators viz., Core temperature (CBT), Urine specific gravity (USG), Sweat rate (SwR) and qualitative data on heat-related health symptoms and productivity losses were collected. Data were analyzed for associations between heat exposures, health and productivity outcomes related to heat stress. Findings: Heat conditions exceeded the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for safe manual work in 66% of the workers across several sectors (Avg.WBGT of 28.7°C±3.1°C). Widespread concerns about heat-related health outcomes (86%) were prevalent among workers exposed to high TLVs, with excessive sweating, fatigue and tiredness being commonly reported by workers. The heat stress indicators, core temperature (14%), Sweat rate (8%) and USG (9%), were above normal levels in the study population. A significant association was found between rise in Core Temperatures and WBGT exposures (p=0.000179) Elevated USG and SwR in the worker population indicate moderate dehydration, with potential risks of developing heat-related illnesses. In a steel industry with high heat exposures, an alarming 9% prevalence of kidney/urogenital anomalies was observed in a young workforce. Heat exposures above TLVs were associated with significantly increased odds of various adverse health outcomes (OR=2.43, 95% CI 1.88 to 3.13, p-value = <0.0001) and productivity losses (OR=1.79, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.4, p-value = 0.0002). Rough estimates for the number of workers who would be subjected to higher than TLV levels in the various RCP scenarios are RCP2.6 =79%, RCP4.5 & RCP6 = 81% and at RCP 8.5 = 85%. Rising temperatures due to CC has the capacity to further reduce already compromised health and productivity by subjecting the workers to increased heat exposures in the RCP scenarios are of concern for the country’s occupational health and economy. Conclusion: The findings of this study clearly identify that health protection from hot weather will become increasingly necessary in the Indian subcontinent and understanding the various adaptation techniques needs urgent attention. Further research with a multi-targeted approach to develop strategies for implementing interventions to protect the millions of workers is imperative. Approaches to include health aspects of climate change within sectoral and climate change specific policies should be encouraged, via a number of mechanisms, such as the “Health in All Policies” approach to avert adverse health and productivity consequences as climate change proceeds.

Keywords: heat stress, occupational health, productivity loss, heat strain, adverse health outcomes

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7911 Patient-Reported Adverse Reactions to Adolescent Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Disclosures and Implications for Clinical Practice

Authors: Renee Fabian, Jordan Davidson

Abstract:

Current research on non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) provides ample insights on best practices for caregivers and clinicians to address and reduce NSSI behavior among adolescents. However, the efficacy of evidenced-based NSSI interventions and their delivery from the perspective of adolescent patients does not receive significant attention, creating a gap between the efficacy of research-based NSSI interventions and adolescent perceptions of NSSI treatment and adolescent willingness to engage in NSSI interventions. To address the gap between practice and patient perspectives and inform more effective treatment outcomes, the current survey aims to identify major patient-reported adverse reactions to NSSI disclosures from caregivers, treating mental health clinicians, and medical professionals using a mixed methods survey of 2,500 people with a history of NSSI completed by editors at a consumer-facing health publication. Based on the analyzed results of the survey, a majority of adolescents with a history of NSSI found parents and caregivers ineffective at empathetically addressing NSSI, and a significant number of participants reported at least one treating mental health professional inadequately responded to NSSI behaviors, in addition to other findings of adverse reactions to NSSI disclosures that serve as a barrier to treatment. NSSI is a significant risk factor for future suicide attempts. Addressing patient-reported adverse reactions to NSSI disclosures in the adolescent population can remove barriers to the effectiveness of caregiver and clinician NSSI interventions and reduce the risk of NSSI-related harm and lower the risk of future suicide attempts or completions.

Keywords: adolescent self-injury, non-suicidal self-injury, patient perspectives, self-harm interventions

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7910 Comparative Outcomes of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Smokers versus Non Nonsmokers Patients: Observational Studies

Authors: Pratima Tatke, Archana Avhad, Bhanu Duggal, Meeta Rajivlochan, Sujata Saunik, Pradip Vyas, Nidhi Pandey, Aditee Dalvi, Jyothi Subramanian

Abstract:

Background: Smoking is well established risk factor for the development and progression of coronary artery disease. It is strongly related to morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular causes. The aim of this study is to observe effect of smoking status on percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) after 1 year. Methods: 2527 patients who underwent PCI at different hospital of Maharashtra(India) from 2012 to 2015 under the health insurance scheme which is launched by Health department, Government of Maharashtra for below poverty line(BPL) families which covers cardiology. Informed consent of patients was taken .They were followed by telephonic survey after 6months to 1year of PCI . Outcomes of interest included myocardial infarction, restenosis, cardiac rehospitalization, death, and a composite of events after PCI. Made group of two non smokers-1861 and smokers (including patients who quit at time of PCI )-659. Results: Statistical Analysis using Pearson’s chi square test revealed that there was trend seen of increasing incidence of death, Myocardial infarction and Restenosis in smokers than non smokers .Smokers had a greater death risk compared to nonsmoker; 5.7% and 5.1% respectively p=0.518. Also Repeat procedures (2.1% vs. 1.5% p=0.222), breathlessness (17.8% vs. 18.20% p=0.1) and Myocardial Infarction (7.3% vs. 10%) high in smoker than non smokers. Conclusion: Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were observed even after successful PCI in smokers. Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention should be encouraged to stop smoking.

Keywords: coronary artery diseases, major adverse cardiovascular events, percutaneous coronary intervention, smoking

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7909 Alteration of Placental Development and Vascular Dysfunction in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Has Impact on Maternal and Infant Health

Authors: Sadia Munir

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate changes in placental development and vascular dysfunction which subsequently affect feto-maternal health in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Fetal and postnatal adverse health outcomes of GDM are shown to be associated with disturbances in placental structure and function. Children of women with GDM are more likely to be obese and diabetic in childhood and adulthood. GDM also increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preeclampsia, birth injuries, macrosomia and neonatal hypoglycemia, respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal cardiac dysfunction and stillbirth. Incidences of type 2 diabetes in the MENA region are growing at an alarming rate which is estimated to become more than double by 2030. Five of the top 10 countries for diabetes prevalence in 2010 were in the Gulf region. GDM also increases the risk of development of type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, more than half of the women with GDM develop diabetes later in their life. The human placenta is a temporary organ located at the interface between mother and fetal blood circulation. Placenta has a central role as both a producer as well as a target of several molecules that are involved in placental development and function. We have investigated performed a Pubmed search with key words placenta, GDM, placental villi, vascularization, cytokines, growth factors, inflammation, hypoxia, oxidative stress and pathophysiology. We have investigated differences in the development and vascularization of placenta, their underlying causes and impact on feto-maternal health through literature review. We have also identified gaps in the literature and research questions that need to be answered to completely understand the central role of placenta in the GDM. This study is important in understanding the pathophysiology of placenta due to changes in the vascularization of villi, surface area and diameter of villous capillaries in pregnancies complicated by GDM. It is necessary to understand these mechanisms in order to develop treatments to reverse their effects on placental malfunctioning, which in turn, will result in improved mother and child health.

Keywords: gestational diabetes mellitus, placenta, vasculature, villi

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7908 Health Outcomes and Economic Growth Nexus: Testing for Long-run Relationships and Causal Links in Nigeria

Authors: Haruna Modibbo Usman, Mustapha Muktar, Nasiru Inuwa

Abstract:

This paper examined the long run relationship between health outcomes and economic growth in Nigeria from 1961 to 2012. Using annual time series data, Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test is conducted to check the stochastic properties of the variables. Also, the long run relationship among the variables is confirmed based on Johansen Multivariate Cointegration approach whereas the long run and short run dynamics are observed using Vector Error Correction Mechanism (VECM). In addition, VEC Granger causality test is employed to examine the direction of causality among the variables. On the whole, the results obtained revealed the existence of a long run relationship between health outcomes and economic growth in Nigeria and that both life expectancy and crude death rate as measures of health are found to have a long run negative and statistically significant impact on the economic growth over the study period. This is further buttressed by the results of Granger causality test which indicated the existence of unidirectional causality running from life expectancy and crude death rate to economic growth. The study therefore, calls for governments at various levels to create preconditions for health improvements in Nigeria in order to boost the level of health outcomes.

Keywords: cointegration, economic growth, Granger causality, health outcomes, VECM

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7907 Clinical Efficacy of Nivolumab and Ipilimumab Combination Therapy for the Treatment of Advanced Melanoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials

Authors: Zhipeng Yan, Janice Wing-Tung Kwong, Ching-Lung Lai

Abstract:

Background: Advanced melanoma accounts for the majority of skin cancer death due to its poor prognosis. Nivolumab and ipilimumab are monoclonal antibodies targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes antigen 4 (CTLA-4). Nivolumab and ipilimumab combination therapy has been proven to be effective for advanced melanoma. This systematic review and meta-analysis are to evaluate its clinical efficacy and adverse events. Method: A systematic search was done on databases (Pubmed, Embase, Medline, Cochrane) on 21 June 2020. Search keywords were nivolumab, ipilimumab, melanoma, and randomised controlled trials. Clinical trials fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected to evaluate the efficacy of combination therapy in terms of prolongation of progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and objective response rate (ORR). The odd ratios and distributions of grade 3 or above adverse events were documented. Subgroup analysis was performed based on PD-L1 expression-status and BRAF-mutation status. Results: Compared with nivolumab monotherapy, the hazard ratios of PFS, OS and odd ratio of ORR in combination therapy were 0.64 (95% CI, 0.48-0.85; p=0.002), 0.84 (95% CI, 0.74-0.95; p=0.007) and 1.76 (95% CI, 1.51-2.06; p < 0.001), respectively. Compared with ipilimumab monotherapy, the hazard ratios of PFS, OS and odd ratio of ORR were 0.46 (95% CI, 0.37-0.57; p < 0.001), 0.54 (95% CI, 0.48-0.61; p < 0.001) and 6.18 (95% CI, 5.19-7.36; p < 0.001), respectively. In combination therapy, the odds ratios of grade 3 or above adverse events were 4.71 (95% CI, 3.57-6.22; p < 0.001) compared with nivolumab monotherapy, and 3.44 (95% CI, 2.49-4.74; p < 0.001) compared with ipilimumab monotherapy, respectively. High PD-L1 expression level and BRAF mutation were associated with better clinical outcomes in patients receiving combination therapy. Conclusion: Combination therapy is effective for the treatment of advanced melanoma. Adverse events were common but manageable. Better clinical outcomes were observed in patients with high PD-L1 expression levels and positive BRAF-mutation.

Keywords: nivolumab, ipilimumab, advanced melanoma, systematic review, meta-analysis

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7906 Efficacy and Safety of Probiotic Treatment in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Samir Malhotra, Rajan K. Khandotra, Rakesh K. Dhiman, Neelam Chadha

Abstract:

There is paucity of data about safety and efficacy of probiotic treatment on patient outcomes in cirrhosis. Specifically, it is important to know whether probiotics can improve mortality, hepatic encephalopathy (HE), number of hospitalizations, ammonia levels, quality of life, and adverse events. Probiotics may improve outcomes in patients with acute or chronic HE. However, it is also important to know whether probiotics can prevent development of HE, even in situations where patients do not have acute HE at the time of administration. It is also important to know if probiotics are useful as primary prophylaxis of HE. We aimed to conduct an updated systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the safety and efficacy of probiotics in patients with cirrhosis. We searched PubMed, Cochrane library, Embase, Scopus, SCI, Google Scholar, conference proceedings, and references of included studies till June 2017 to identify randomised clinical trials comparing probiotics with other treatments in cirrhotics. Data was analyzed using MedCalc. Probiotics had no effect on mortality but significantly reduced HE (14 trials, 1073 patients, OR 0.371; 95% CI 0.282 to 0.489). There was not enough data to conduct a meta-analysis on outcomes like hospitalizations and quality of life. The effect on plasma ammonia levels was not significant (SMD -0.429; 95%CI -1.034 – 0.177). There was no difference in adverse events. To conclude, although the included studies had a high risk of bias, the available evidence does suggest a beneficial effect on HE. Larger studies with longer periods of follow-up are needed to determine if probiotics can reduce all-cause mortality.

Keywords: cirrhosis, hepatic encephalopathy, meta-analysis, probiotic

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7905 The Safety Profile of Vilazodone: A Study on Post-Marketing Surveillance

Authors: Humraaz Kaja, Kofi Mensah, Frasia Oosthuizen

Abstract:

Background and Aim: Vilazodone was approved in 2011 as an antidepressant to treat the major depressive disorder. As a relatively new drug, it is not clear if all adverse effects have been identified. The aim of this study was to review the adverse effects reported to the WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring (PIDM) in order to add to the knowledge about the safety profile and adverse effects caused by vilazodone. Method: Data on adverse effects reported for vilazodone was obtained from the database VigiAccess managed by PIDM. Data was extracted from VigiAccess using Excel® and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The data collected was compared to the patient information leaflet (PIL) of Viibryd® and the FDA documents to determine adverse drug reactions reported post-marketing. Results: A total of 9708 adverse events had been recorded on VigiAccess, of which 6054 were not recorded on the PIL and the FDA approval document. Most of the reports were received from the Americas and were for adult women aged 45-64 years (24%, n=1059). The highest number of adverse events reported were for psychiatric events (19%; n=1889), followed by gastro-intestinal effects (18%; n=1839). Specific psychiatric disorders recorded included anxiety (316), depression (208), hallucination (168) and agitation (142). The systematic review confirmed several psychiatric adverse effects associated with the use of vilazodone. The findings of this study suggested that these common psychiatric adverse effects associated with the use of vilazodone were not known during the time of FDA approval of the drug and is not currently recorded in the patient information leaflet (PIL). Conclusions: In summary, this study found several adverse drug reactions not recorded in documents emanating from clinical trials pre-marketing. This highlights the importance of continued post-marketing surveillance of a drug, as well as the need for further studies on the psychiatric adverse events associated with vilazodone in order to improve the safety profile.

Keywords: adverse drug reactions, pharmacovigilance, post-marketing surveillance, vilazodone

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7904 Study of Reporting System for Adverse Events Related to Common Medical Devices at a Tertiary Care Public Sector Hospital in India

Authors: S. Kurian, S. Satpathy, S. K. Gupta, S. Arya, D. K. Sharma

Abstract:

Advances in the use of health care technology have resulted in increased adverse events (AEs) related to the use of medical devices. The study focused on the existing reporting systems. This study was conducted in a tertiary care public sector hospital. Devices included Syringe infusion pumps, Cardiac monitors, Pulse oximeters, Ventilators and Defibrillators. A total of 211 respondents were recruited. Interviews were held with 30 key informants. Medical records were scrutinized. Relevant statistical tests were used. Resident doctors reported maximum frequency of AEs, followed by nurses; and least by consultants. A significant association was found between the cadre of health care personnel and awareness that the patients and bystanders have a risk of sustaining AE. Awareness regarding reporting of AEs was low, and it was generally done verbally. Other critical findings are discussed in the light of the barriers to reporting, reasons for non-compliance, recording system, and so on.

Keywords: adverse events, health care technology, medical devices, public sector hospital, reporting systems

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7903 Increased Risk of Adverse Birth Outcomes of Newborns in Arsenic Exposed- Women with Gestational Diabetes

Authors: Tania Mannan, Rahelee Zinnat, Fatema Jebunnesa, Israt Ara Hossain

Abstract:

Background: Exposure to arsenic has known toxic effects but the effect on pregnancy outcomes is not as widely documented especially in women with diabetes. Growing evidence has suggested a potential role of arsenic exposure in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association of urinary arsenic (UAs) with birth outcomes in GDM subjects. Methods: Under an observational cross-sectional design a total of 263 GDM subjects (age in years, M±SD, 21±3.7) residing in an arsenic affected area of Bangladesh, were subjected to a 2 sample OGTT at the third trimester of gestation. Among them, 73 GDM and 190 non-GDM subjects enrolled in this study. Clinical and anthropometric measurements were done by standard techniques. Degree of chronic arsenic exposure was assessed by the level of UAs level. According to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, GDM was diagnosed and neonatal outcomes using APGAR (Activity Pulse Grimace Appearance Respirations) Score, birth weight and size were assessed by a specialist obstetrician. Serum glucose was measured by the Glucose Oxidase method and UAs level was determined by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry. Result: Out of the 263 pregnant women, 28% developed GDM. Urinary Arsenic was significantly higher in the GDM as compared to the non-GDM group [UAs, µg/l, M±SD (range), 204.2±67.0 (67.0-377.0) vs 77.3±38.1 (22.0-99.0), p < 0.001]. Activity Pulse Grimace Appearance Respirations Score of the neonates from GDM mothers was significantly lower compared to the neonates from non-GDM mothers [APGAR Score, M±SD, 4.7±0.8 vs. 6.4±0.7, p<0.001]. Pearson’s correlation analysis in GDM subjects revealed that UA levels were found to have a significant positive correlation with both fasting and postprandial serum glucose levels (p < 0.001) and (p < 0.001) respectively. Again, a significant inverse correlation of UAs with birth weight and size was observed (p < 0.001). The APGAR Score of the neonates were found to have a significant negative correlation (p < 0.001) with UAs level. Conclusion: The effect of chronic arsenic exposure is associated with glucose intolerance during pregnancy and it also adversely affects birth outcomes. The study suggests further research on the impact of total arsenic exposure on pregnancy outcomes.

Keywords: APGAR score, arsenic exposure, birth outcome, gestational diabetes mellitus,

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7902 Explaining the Impact of Poverty Risk on Frailty Trajectories in Old Age Using Growth Curve Models

Authors: Erwin Stolz, Hannes Mayerl, Anja Waxenegger, Wolfgang Freidl

Abstract:

Research has often found poverty associated with adverse health outcomes, but it is unclear which (interplay of) mechanisms actually translate low economic resources into poor physical health. The goal of this study was to assess the impact of educational, material, psychosocial and behavioural factors in explaining the poverty-health association in old age. We analysed 28,360 observations from 11,390 community-dwelling respondents (65+) from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, 2004-2013, 10 countries). We used multilevel growth curve models to assess the impact of combined income- and asset poverty risk on old age frailty index levels and trajectories. In total, 61.8% of the variation of poverty risk on frailty levels could be explained by direct and indirect effects, thereby highlighting the role of material and particularly psychosocial factors, such as perceived control and social isolation. We suggest strengthening social policy and public health efforts in order to fight poverty and its deleterious effects from early age on and to broaden the scope of interventions with regard to psychosocial factors.

Keywords: frailty, health inequality, old age, poverty

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
7901 More Precise: Patient-Reported Outcomes after Stroke

Authors: Amber Elyse Corrigan, Alexander Smith, Anna Pennington, Ben Carter, Jonathan Hewitt

Abstract:

Background and Purpose: Morbidity secondary to stroke is highly heterogeneous, but it is important to both patients and clinicians in post-stroke management and adjustment to life after stroke. The consideration of post-stroke morbidity clinically and from the patient perspective has been poorly measured. The patient-reported outcome measures (PROs) in morbidity assessment help improve this knowledge gap. The primary aim of this study was to consider the association between PRO outcomes and stroke predictors. Methods: A multicenter prospective cohort study assessed 549 stroke patients at 19 hospital sites across England and Wales during 2019. Following a stroke event, demographic, clinical, and PRO measures were collected. Prevalence of morbidity within PRO measures was calculated with associated 95% confidence intervals. Predictors of domain outcome were calculated using a multilevel generalized linear model. Associated P -values and 95% confidence intervals are reported. Results: Data were collected from 549 participants, 317 men (57.7%) and 232 women (42.3%) with ages ranging from 25 to 97 (mean 72.7). PRO morbidity was high post-stroke; 93.2% of the cohort report post-stroke PRO morbidity. Previous stroke, diabetes, and gender are associated with worse patient-reported outcomes across both the physical and cognitive domains. Conclusions: This large-scale multicenter cohort study illustrates the high proportion of morbidity in PRO measures. Further, we demonstrate key predictors of adverse outcomes (Diabetes, previous stroke, and gender) congruence with clinical predictors. The PRO has been demonstrated to be an informative and useful stroke when considering patient-reported outcomes and has wider implications for considerations of PROs in clinical management. Future longitudinal follow-up with PROs is needed to consider association of long-term morbidity.

Keywords: morbidity, patient-reported outcome, PRO, stroke

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7900 Time-Interval between Rectal Cancer Surgery and Reintervention for Anastomotic Leakage and the Effects of a Defunctioning Stoma: A Dutch Population-Based Study

Authors: Anne-Loes K. Warps, Rob A. E. M. Tollenaar, Pieter J. Tanis, Jan Willem T. Dekker

Abstract:

Anastomotic leakage after colorectal cancer surgery remains a severe complication. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent further adverse outcomes. In the literature, it has been suggested that earlier reintervention is associated with better survival, but anastomotic leakage can occur with a highly variable time interval to index surgery. This study aims to evaluate the time-interval between rectal cancer resection with primary anastomosis creation and reoperation, in relation to short-term outcomes, stratified for the use of a defunctioning stoma. Methods: Data of all primary rectal cancer patients that underwent elective resection with primary anastomosis during 2013-2019 were extracted from the Dutch ColoRectal Audit. Analyses were stratified for defunctioning stoma. Anastomotic leakage was defined as a defect of the intestinal wall or abscess at the site of the colorectal anastomosis for which a reintervention was required within 30 days. Primary outcomes were new stoma construction, mortality, ICU admission, prolonged hospital stay and readmission. The association between time to reoperation and outcome was evaluated in three ways: Per 2 days, before versus on or after postoperative day 5 and during primary versus readmission. Results: In total 10,772 rectal cancer patients underwent resection with primary anastomosis. A defunctioning stoma was made in 46.6% of patients. These patients had a lower anastomotic leakage rate (8.2% vs. 11.6%, p < 0.001) and less often underwent a reoperation (45.3% vs. 88.7%, p < 0.001). Early reoperations (< 5 days) had the highest complication and mortality rate. Thereafter the distribution of adverse outcomes was more spread over the 30-day postoperative period for patients with a defunctioning stoma. Median time-interval from primary resection to reoperation for defunctioning stoma patients was 7 days (IQR 4-14) versus 5 days (IQR 3-13 days) for no-defunctioning stoma patients. The mortality rate after primary resection and reoperation were comparable (resp. for defunctioning vs. no-defunctioning stoma 1.0% vs. 0.7%, P=0.106 and 5.0% vs. 2.3%, P=0.107). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that early reinterventions after anastomotic leakage are associated with worse outcomes (i.e. mortality). Maybe the combination of a physiological dip in the cellular immune response and release of cytokines following surgery, as well as a release of endotoxins caused by the bacteremia originating from the leakage, leads to a more profound sepsis. Another explanation might be that early leaks are not contained to the pelvis, leading to a more profound sepsis requiring early reoperations. Leakage with or without defunctioning stoma resulted in a different type of reinterventions and time-interval between surgery and reoperation.

Keywords: rectal cancer surgery, defunctioning stoma, anastomotic leakage, time-interval to reoperation

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7899 Maternal Exposure to Bisphenol A and Its Association with Birth Outcomes

Authors: Yi-Ting Chen, Yu-Fang Huang, Pei-Wei Wang, Hai-Wei Liang, Chun-Hao Lai, Mei-Lien Chen

Abstract:

Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly used in consumer products, such as inner coatings of cans and polycarbonated bottles. BPA is considered to be an endocrine disrupting substance (EDs) that affects normal human hormones and may cause adverse effects on human health. Pregnant women and fetuses are susceptible groups of endocrine disrupting substances. Prenatal exposure to BPA has been shown to affect the fetus through the placenta. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the potential health risk of fetal exposure to BPA during pregnancy. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the urinary concentration of BPA in pregnant women, and (2) to investigate the association between BPA exposure during pregnancy and birth outcomes. Methods: This study recruited 117 pregnant women and their fetuses from 2012 to 2014 from the Taiwan Maternal- Infant Cohort Study (TMICS). Maternal urine samples were collected in the third trimester and questionnaires were used to collect socio-demographic characteristics, eating habits and medical conditions of the participants. Information about birth outcomes of the fetus was obtained from medical records. As for chemicals analysis, BPA concentrations in urine were determined by off-line solid-phase extraction-ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a Q-Tof mass spectrometer. The urinary concentrations were adjusted with creatinine. The association between maternal concentrations of BPA and birth outcomes was estimated using the logistic regression model. Results: The detection rate of BPA is 99%; the concentration ranges (μg/g) from 0.16 to 46.90. The mean (SD) BPA levels are 5.37(6.42) μg/g creatinine. The mean ±SD of the body weight, body length, head circumference, chest circumference and gestational age at birth are 3105.18 ± 339.53 g, 49.33 ± 1.90 cm, 34.16 ± 1.06 cm, 32.34 ± 1.37 cm and 38.58 ± 1.37 weeks, respectively. After stratifying the exposure levels into two groups by median, pregnant women in higher exposure group would have an increased risk of lower body weight (OR=0.57, 95%CI=0.271-1.193), smaller chest circumference (OR=0.70, 95%CI=0.335-1.47) and shorter gestational age at birth newborn (OR=0.46, 95%CI=0.191-1.114). However, there are no associations between BPA concentration and birth outcomes reach a significant level (p < 0.05) in statistics. Conclusions: This study presents prenatal BPA profiles and infants in northern Taiwan. Women who have higher BPA concentrations tend to give birth to lower body weight, smaller chest circumference or shorter gestational age at birth newborn. More data will be included to verify the results. This report will also present the predictors of BPA concentrations for pregnant women.

Keywords: bisphenol A, birth outcomes, biomonitoring, prenatal exposure

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
7898 Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Sense of Effectiveness and Coping with Emotions among Adolescents Taking Drugs

Authors: Monika Szpringer, Aneta Pawlinska

Abstract:

Adverse childhood experiences are linked to various types of health and adapt problems at different stages of life. They include various types of abuse, neglect, and dysfunctional environment. They have an unfavorable impact on the development of a child and his future functioning in society. Adolescents who were exposed to bad treatment may suffer from health problems during adulthood, like chronic diseases, psychological disorders, drug addiction, and suicide attempts. Objective: The aim of the project is to assess the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and the sense of efficacy and coping with emotions among teenagers aged 16-18 taking drugs. Material And Methods: The research was carried out in the period from March to December 2018 in Mazowieckie, Świętokrzyskie, Łódzkie, and Lubelskie Voivodship. The group consisted of 600 people aged 16-18 (M=16,58; SD=0, 78), men (63,2%) aged 16-18 (M=16,60;SD= 0,78) and women (35,5%) aged 16-18 (M16,55;SD=0,79). Participants included residents from Youth Educational Centers and Youth Sociotherapy Centers. Each participant filled in Author's Questionnaire, Adverse Childhood Questionnaire, then Courtland Emotional Control Scale-CECS and Generalized Self Efficacy Scale-GSES. Results and conclusions: The most common adverse experiences, according to teenagers, were family abuse, divorce/separation/parent's death, overuse of alcohol or drugs by an inmate, and emotional neglect. Adolescents who suffered from five to twelve adverse experiences had a higher level of depression's control. Adverse childhood experiences have an importance for the level of anger and depression's control among teenagers taking drugs. The greatest importance of the level of anger's control has emotional neglect. A higher level of emotional neglect is linked to a lower ability to control anger. The greatest importance of the level of depression's control has physical abuse and emotional neglect. The higher physical abuse during childhood, and the higher frequency of emotional neglect, the bigger the depression's control. The sense of efficacy in the group of people who suffered from one to four adverse experiences is close to the sense of efficacy that suffered people from five to twelve adverse experiences. The most important factor lowering the sense of one's efficacy was the intensification of sexual abuse. It was confirmed that the intensification and frequency of adverse childhood experiences were higher among women than men. Women also characterized lower anger control and greater depression's control. The authors’ own analyses confirmed the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and the sense of efficacy and coping with emotions among teenagers aged 16-18 taking drugs.

Keywords: adolescences, adverse childhood experiences, coping with emotions, drugs

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7897 Management Tools for Assessment of Adverse Reactions Caused by Contrast Media at the Hospital

Authors: Pranee Suecharoen, Ratchadaporn Soontornpas, Jaturat Kanpittaya

Abstract:

Background: Contrast media has an important role for disease diagnosis through detection of pathologies. Contrast media can, however, cause adverse reactions after administration of its agents. Although non-ionic contrast media are commonly used, the incidence of adverse events is relatively low. The most common reactions found (10.5%) were mild and manageable and/or preventable. Pharmacists can play an important role in evaluating adverse reactions, including awareness of the specific preparation and the type of adverse reaction. As most common types of adverse reactions are idiosyncratic or pseudo-allergic reactions, common standards need to be established to prevent and control adverse reactions promptly and effectively. Objective: To measure the effect of using tools for symptom evaluation in order to reduce the severity, or prevent the occurrence, of adverse reactions from contrast media. Methods: Retrospective review descriptive research with data collected on adverse reactions assessment and Naranjo’s algorithm between June 2015 and May 2016. Results: 158 patients (10.53%) had adverse reactions. Of the 1,500 participants with an adverse event evaluation, 137 (9.13%) had a mild adverse reaction, including hives, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and headache. These types of symptoms can be treated (i.e., with antihistamines, anti-emetics) and the patient recovers completely within one day. The group with moderate adverse reactions, numbering 18 cases (1.2%), had hypertension or hypotension, and shortness of breath. Severe adverse reactions numbered 3 cases (0.2%) and included swelling of the larynx, cardiac arrest, and loss of consciousness, requiring immediate treatment. No other complications under close medical supervision were recorded (i.e., corticosteroids use, epinephrine, dopamine, atropine, or life-saving devices). Using the guideline, therapies are divided into general and specific and are performed according to the severity, risk factors and ingestion of contrast media agents. Patients who have high-risk factors were screened and treated (i.e., prophylactic premedication) for prevention of severe adverse reactions, especially those with renal failure. Thus, awareness for the need for prescreening of different risk factors is necessary for early recognition and prompt treatment. Conclusion: Studying adverse reactions can be used to develop a model for reducing the level of severity and setting a guideline for a standardized, multidisciplinary approach to adverse reactions.

Keywords: role of pharmacist, management of adverse reactions, guideline for contrast media, non-ionic contrast media

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7896 Factors Contributing to Adverse Maternal and Fetal Outcome in Patients with Eclampsia

Authors: T. Pradhan, P. Rijal, M. C. Regmi

Abstract:

Background: Eclampsia is a multisystem disorder that involves vital organs and failure of these may lead to deterioration of maternal condition and hypoxia and acidosis of fetus resulting in high maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Thus, evaluation of the contributing factors for this condition and its complications leading to maternal deaths should be the priority. Formulating the plan and protocol to decrease these losses should be our goal. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the risk factors associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcome in patients with eclampsia and to correlate the risk factors associated with maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Methods: All patients with eclampsia admitted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences were enrolled after informed consent from February 2013 to February 2014. Questions as per per-forma were asked to patients, and attendants like Antenatal clinic visits, parity, number of episodes of seizures, duration from onset of seizure to magnesium sulfate and the patients were followed as per the hospital protocol, the mode of delivery, outcome of baby, post partum maternal condition like maternal Intensive Care Unit admission, neurological impairment and mortality were noted before discharge. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 11). Mean and percentage were calculated for demographic variables. Pearson’s correlation test and chi-square test were applied to find the relation between the risk factors and the outcomes. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: There were 10,000 antenatal deliveries during the study period. Fifty-two patients with eclampsia were admitted. All of the patients were unbooked for our institute. Thirty-nine patients were antepartum eclampsia. Thirty-one patients required mechanical ventilator support. Twenty-four patients were delivered by emergency c-section and 21 babies were Low Birth Weight and there were 9 stillbirths. There was one maternal mortality and 45 patients were discharged with improvement but 3 patients had neurological impairment. Mortality was significantly related with number of seizure episodes and time interval between seizure onset and administration of magnesium sulphate. Conclusion: Early detection and management of hypertensive complicating pregnancy during antenatal clinic check up. Early hospitalization and management with magnesium sulphate for eclampsia can help to minimize the maternal and fetal adverse outcomes.

Keywords: eclampsia, maternal mortality, perinatal mortality, risk factors

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7895 Pattern of Adverse Drug Reactions with Platinum Compounds in Cancer Chemotherapy at a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India

Authors: Meena Kumari, Ajitha Sharma, Mohan Babu Amberkar, Hasitha Manohar, Joseph Thomas, K. L. Bairy

Abstract:

Aim: To evaluate the pattern of occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) with platinum compounds in cancer chemotherapy at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: It was a retrospective, descriptive case record study done on patients admitted to the medical oncology ward of Kasturba Hospital, Manipal from July to November 2012. Inclusion criteria comprised of patients of both sexes and all ages diagnosed with cancer and were on platinum compounds, who developed at least one adverse drug reaction during or after the treatment period. CDSCO proforma was used for reporting ADRs. Causality was assessed using Naranjo Algorithm. Results: A total of 65 patients was included in the study. Females comprised of 67.69% and rest males. Around 49.23% of the ADRs were seen in the age group of 41-60 years, followed by 20 % in 21-40 years, 18.46% in patients over 60 years and 12.31% in 1-20 years age group. The anticancer agents which caused adverse drug reactions in our study were carboplatin (41.54%), cisplatin (36.92%) and oxaliplatin (21.54%). Most common adverse drug reactions observed were oral candidiasis (21.53%), vomiting (16.92%), anaemia (12.3%), diarrhoea (12.3%) and febrile neutropenia (0.08%). The results of the causality assessment of most of the cases were probable. Conclusion: The adverse effect of chemotherapeutic agents is a matter of concern in the pharmacological management of cancer as it affects the quality of life of patients. This information would be useful in identifying and minimizing preventable adverse drug reactions while generally enhancing the knowledge of the prescribers to deal with these adverse drug reactions more efficiently.

Keywords: adverse drug reactions, platinum compounds, cancer, chemotherapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
7894 Long Term Follow-Up, Clinical Outcomes and Quality of Life after Total Arterial Revascularisation versus Conventional Coronary Surgery: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Jitendra Jain, Cassandra Hidajat, Hansraj Riteesh Bookun

Abstract:

Graft patency underpins long-term prognosis after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG). The benefits of the combined use of only the left internal mammary artery and radial artery, referred to as total arterial revascularisation (TAR), on long-term clinical outcomes and quality of life are relatively unknown. The aim of this study was to identify whether there were differences in long term clinical outcomes between recipients of TAR compared to a cohort of mostly arterial revascularization involving the left internal mammary, at least one radial artery and at least one saphenous vein graft. A retrospective analysis was performed on all patients who underwent TAR or were re-vascularized with supplementary saphenous vein graft from February 1996 to December 2004. Telephone surveys were conducted to obtain clinical outcome parameters including major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and Short Form (SF-36v2) Health Survey responses. A total of 176 patients were successfully contacted to obtain postop follow up results. The mean follow-up length from time of surgery in our study was TAR 12.4±1.8 years and conventional 12.6±2.1. PCS score was TAR 45.9±8.8 vs LIMA/Rad/ SVG 44.9±9.2 (p=0.468) and MCS score was TAR 52.0±8.9 vs LIMA/Rad/SVG 52.5±9.3 (p=0.723). There were no significant differences between groups for NYHA class 3+ TAR 9.4% vs. LIMA/Rad/SVG 6.6%; or CCS 3+ TAR 2.35% vs. LIMA/Rad/SVG 0%.

Keywords: CABG; MACCEs; quality of life; total arterial revascularisation

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7893 Delays for Emergency Cesarean Sections and Neonatal Outcomes in Three Rural District Hospitals in Rwanda: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: J. Niyitegeka, G. Nshimirimana, A. Silverstein, J. Odhiambo, Y. Lin, T. Nkurunziza, R. Riviello, S. Rulisa, P. Banguti, H. Magge, M. Macharia, J. P. Dushime, R. Habimana, B. Hedt-Gauthier

Abstract:

In low-resource settings, women needing an emergency cesarean section experiences various delays in both reaching and receiving care that is often linked to poor neonatal outcomes. In this study, we quantified different measures of delays and assessed the association between these delays and neonatal outcomes at three rural district hospitals in Rwanda. This retrospective study included 441 neonates and their mothers who underwent emergency cesarean sections in 2015 at Butaro, Kirehe and Rwinkwavu District Hospitals. Four possible delays were measured: Time from start of labor to district hospital admission, travel time from a health center to the district hospital, time from admission to surgical incision, and time from the decision for the emergency cesarean section to surgical incision. Neonatal outcomes were categorized as unfavorable (APGAR < 7 or death) and favorable (APGAR ≥ 7). We assessed the relationship between each type of delay and neonatal outcomes using multivariate logistic regression. In our study, 38.7% (108 out of 279) of neonates’ mothers labored for 12 to 24 hours before hospital admission and 44.7% (159 of 356) of mothers were transferred from health centers that required 30 to 60 minutes of travel time to reach the district hospital. 48.1% (178 of 370) of caesarean sections started within five hours after admission and 85.2% (288 of 338) started more than thirty minutes after the decision for the emergency cesarean section was made. Neonatal outcomes were significantly worse among mothers with more than 90 minutes of travel time from the health center to the district hospital compared to health centers attached to the hospital (OR = 5.12, p = 0.02). Neonatal outcomes were also significantly different depending on decision to incision intervals; neonates with cesarean deliveries starting more than thirty minutes after decision had better outcomes than those started immediately (OR = 0.32, p = 0.04). Interventions that decrease barriers to access to maternal health care services can improve neonatal outcome after emergency cesarean section. Triaging could explain the inverse relationship between time from decision to incision and neonatal outcome; this must be studied more in the future.

Keywords: Africa, emergency obstetric care, rural health delivery, maternal and child health

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7892 Community‐Based Participatory Research in Elderly Health Care of Paisanee Ramintra 65 Community, Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: A. Kulprasutidilok

Abstract:

In order to address the social factors of elderly health care, researcher and community members have turned to more inclusive and participatory approaches to research and interventions. One such approach, community-based participatory research (CBPR) in public health, has received increased attention as the academic and public health communities struggle to address the persistent problems of disparities in the use of health care and health outcomes for several over the past decade. As Thailand becomes an ageing society, health services and proper care systems specifically for the elderly group need to be prepared and well established. The purpose of this assignment was to study the health problems and was to explore the process of community participation in elderly health care. Participants in this study were member of elderly group of Paisanee Ramintra 65 community in Bangkok, Thailand. The results indicated two important components of community participation process in elderly health care: 1) a process to develop community participation in elderly health care, and 2) outcomes resulting from such process. The development of community participation consisted of four processes. As for the outcomes of the community participation development process, they consisted of elderly in the community got jointly and formulated a group, which strengthened the project because of collaborative supervision among themselves. Moreover, inactive health care services have changed to being energetic and focus on health promotion rather than medical achievement and elderly association of community can perform health care activities for chronically illness through the achievement of this development; consequently, they increasingly gained access to physical, cognitive, and social activity.

Keywords: community-based participatory research, elderly, heath care, Thailand.

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7891 Role of HIV-Support Groups in Mitigating Adverse Sexual Health Outcomes among HIV Positive Adolescents in Uganda

Authors: Lilian Nantume Wampande

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Group-based strategies in the delivery of HIV care have opened up new avenues not only for meaningful participation for HIV positive people but also platforms for deconstruction and reconstruction of knowledge about living with the virus. Yet the contributions of such strategies among patients who live in high risk areas are still not explored. This case study research assessed the impact of HIV support networks on sexual health outcomes of HIV positive out-of-school adolescents residing in fishing islands of Kalangala in Uganda. The study population was out-of-school adolescents living with HIV and their sexual partners (n=269), members of their households (n=80) and their health service providers (n=15). Data were collected via structured interviews, observations and focus group discussions between August 2016 and March 2017. Data was then analyzed inductively to extract key themes related to the approaches and outcomes of the groups’ activities. The study findings indicate that support groups unite HIV positive adolescents in a bid for social renegotiation to achieve change but individual constraints surpass the groups’ intentions. Some adolescents for example reported increased fear which led to failure to cope, sexual violence, self-harm and denial of status as a result of the high expectations placed on them as members of the support groups. Further investigations around this phenomenon show that HIV networks play a monotonous role as information sources for HIV positive out-of-school adolescents which limit their creativity to seek information elsewhere. Results still indicate that HIV adolescent groups recognize the complexity of long-term treatment and stay in care leading to improved immunity for the majority yet; there is still scattered evidence about how effective they are among adolescents at different phases in the disease trajectory. Nevertheless, the primary focus of developing adolescent self-efficacy and coping skills significantly address a range of disclosure difficulties and supports autonomy. Moreover, the peer techniques utilized in addition to the almost homogeneous group characteristics accelerates positive confidence, hope and belongingness. Adolescent HIV-support groups therefore have the capacity to both improve and/or worsen sexual health outcomes for a young adolescent who is out-of-school. Communication interventions that seek to increase awareness about ‘self’ should therefore be emphasized more than just fostering collective action. Such interventions should be sensitive to context and gender. In addition, facilitative support supervision done by close and trusted health care providers, most preferably Village Health Teams (who are often community elected volunteers) would help to follow-up, mentor, encourage and advise this young adolescent in matters involving sexuality and health outcomes. HIV/AIDS prevention programs have extended their efforts beyond individual focus to those that foster collective action, but programs should rekindle interpersonal level strategies to address the complexity of individual behavior.

Keywords: adolescent, HIV, support groups, Uganda

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7890 An Assessment of Experiential Learning Outcomes of Study Abroad Programs in Hospitality: A Learning Style Perspective

Authors: Radesh Palakurthi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of experiential learning on learning outcomes in hospitality education. This paper presents the results of an online survey of students from the U.S. studying abroad and their self-reported change in learning outcomes as assessed using the Core Competencies Model for the Hospitality Industry developed by Employment and Training Development Office of the U.S. Department of Labor. The impact of student learning styles on learning outcomes is also evaluated in this study. Kolb’s Learning Styles Inventory Model was used to assess students’ learning style. The results show that students reported significant improvements in their learning outcomes because of engaging in study abroad experiential learning programs. The learning styles of the students had significant effect on one of core learning outcomes- personal effectiveness.

Keywords: hospitality competencies, hospitality education, Kolb’s learning style inventory, learning outcomes, study abroad

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