Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2356

Search results for: adopt heritage scheme

2356 Highlighting Adverse Effects of Privatization of Heritage on Taj Mahal and Providing Solutions to Improve the Condition without Privatizing

Authors: Avani Saraswat

Abstract:

The paper studies the present condition of Taj Mahal (the UNESCO world heritage site) and the reasons behind deterioration. Analysis is done to explore the reasons behind this building to be included in the list of adopt heritage scheme, by the Government of India. The aim is to find out the future effects on Taj Mahal after being adopted by a private body. Finally, it suggests solutions which can lead to improvement of the present condition of the building. In order to establish a research, a further analysis is done through a case study of Red Fort, New Delhi (another UNESCO world heritage site). This monument was given to Dalmia Group of India Pvt. Ltd. for the tenure of 5 years. Paper discusses the consequences of privatization on Red Fort and then analyze it for Taj Mahal. It terms monument as riches of a heritage chest, not as a commercial tourist place. The study is concluded with the ideas and suggestions proposed for saving Taj Mahal and advantages on improving the health of the building.

Keywords: privatisation of heritage, heritage, Taj Mahal, adopt heritage scheme

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2355 Advanced CoMP Scheme for LTE-based V2X System

Authors: Su-Hyun Jung, Young-Su Ryu, Yong-Jun Kim, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In this paper, a highly efficient coordinated multiple-point (CoMP) scheme for vehicular communication is proposed. The proposed scheme controls the transmit power and applies proper transmission scheme for the various situations. The proposed CoMP scheme provides comparable performance to the conventional dynamic cell selection (DCS) scheme. Moreover, this scheme provides improved power efficiency compared with the conventional joint transmission (JT) scheme. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can achieve more enhanced performance with the high power efficiency and improve the cell capacity.

Keywords: CoMP, LTE-A, V2I, V2V, V2X.

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2354 Generalization of Blom Key Predistribution Scheme

Authors: Abbas Cheraghi

Abstract:

A key predistribution scheme provides one method to distribute secret ahead of time. Blom’s scheme is a symmetric threshold key exchange protocol in cryptography. The scheme was proposed by the Swedish cryptographer Rolf Blom. In this kind of scheme, trusted authority gives each user a secret key and a public identifier, which enables any two users to create independently a shared key for communicating between each other. However, if an attacker can compromise the keys of at least Known numbers of users, he can break the scheme and reconstruct every shared key. In this paper generalized Blom’s Scheme by multivariate Lagrange interpolation formula. This scheme is a form of threshold secret sharing scheme. In this new scheme, the amount of information transmitted by the trusted authority is independent of the numbers of users. In addition, this scheme is unconditionally secure against any individual user.

Keywords: key predistribution, blom’s scheme, secret sharing, unconditional secure

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2353 Linguistic Attitudes and Language Learning Needs of Heritage Language Learners of Spanish in the United States

Authors: Sheryl Bernardo-Hinesley

Abstract:

Heritage language learners are students who have been raised in a home where a minority language is spoken, who speaks or merely understand the minority heritage language, but to some degree are bilingual in the majority and the heritage language. In view of the rising university enrollment by Hispanics in the United States who have chosen to study Spanish, university language programs are currently faced with challenges of accommodating the language needs of heritage language learners of Spanish. The present study investigates the heritage language perception and language attitudes by heritage language learners of Spanish, as well as their classroom language learning experiences and needs. In order to carry out the study, a qualitative survey was used to gather data from university students. Analysis of students' responses indicates that heritage learners are motivated to learn the heritage language. In relation to the aspects of focus of a language course for heritage learners, results show that the aspects of interest are accent marks and spelling, grammatical accuracy, vocabulary, writing, reading, and culture.

Keywords: heritage language learners, language acquisition, linguistic attitudes, Spanish in the US

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2352 Heritage Tree Expert Assessment and Classification: Malaysian Perspective

Authors: B.-Y.-S. Lau, Y.-C.-T. Jonathan, M.-S. Alias

Abstract:

Heritage trees are natural large, individual trees with exceptionally value due to association with age or event or distinguished people. In Malaysia, there is an abundance of tropical heritage trees throughout the country. It is essential to set up a repository of heritage trees to prevent valuable trees from being cut down. In this cross domain study, a web-based online expert system namely the Heritage Tree Expert Assessment and Classification (HTEAC) is developed and deployed for public to nominate potential heritage trees. Based on the nomination, tree care experts or arborists would evaluate and verify the nominated trees as heritage trees. The expert system automatically rates the approved heritage trees according to pre-defined grades via Delphi technique. Features and usability test of the expert system are presented. Preliminary result is promising for the system to be used as a full scale public system.

Keywords: arboriculture, Delphi, expert system, heritage tree, urban forestry

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2351 Community Development and Preservation of Heritage in Igbo Area of Nigeria

Authors: Elochukwu A. Nwankwo, Matthias U. Agboeze

Abstract:

Many heritage sites abound in the shores of Nigeria with enormous tourism potentials. Heritage sites do not only depict the cultural and historical transmutation of people but also functions in the image design and promotion of a locality. This reveals the unique role of heritage sites to structural development of an area. Heritage sites have of recent been a victim of degradation and social abuse arising from seasonal ignorance; hence minimizing its potentials to the socio-economic development of an area. This paper is emphasizing on the adoption of community development approaches in heritage preservation in Igbo area. Its modalities, applications, challenges and prospect were discussed. Such understanding will serve as a catalyst in aiding general restoration and preservation of heritage sites in Nigeria and other African states.

Keywords: heritage resources, community development, preservation, sustainable development, approaches

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2350 Study on the Central Differencing Scheme with the Staggered Version (STG) for Solving the Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations

Authors: Narumol Chintaganun

Abstract:

In this paper we present the second-order central differencing scheme with the staggered version (STG) for solving the advection equation and Burger's equation. This scheme based on staggered evolution of the re-constructed cell averages. This scheme results in the second-order central differencing scheme, an extension along the lines of the first-order central scheme of Lax-Friedrichs (LxF) scheme. All numerical simulations presented in this paper are obtained by finite difference method (FDM) and STG. Numerical results are shown that the STG gives very good results and higher accuracy.

Keywords: central differencing scheme, STG, advection equation, burgers equation

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2349 Cultural Regeneration and Social Impacts of Industrial Heritage Transformation: The Case of Westergasfabriek Cultural Park, Netherland

Authors: Hsin Hua He

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to strengthen the social cohesion of the local community by injecting the cultural and creative concept into the industrial heritage transformation. The paradigms of industrial heritage research tend to explore from the perspective of space analysis, which concerned less about the cultural regeneration and the development of local culture. The paradigms of cultural quarter research use to from the perspective of creative economy and urban planning, concerned less about the social impacts and the interaction between residents and industrial sites. This research combines these two research areas of industrial heritage and cultural quarter, and focus on the social and cultural aspects. The transformation from the industrial heritage into a cultural park not only enhances the cultural capital and the quality of residents’ lives, but also preserves the unique local values. Internally it shapes the local identity, while externally establishes the image of the city. This paper uses Westergasfabriek Cultural Park in Amsterdam as the case study, through literature analysis, field work, and depth interview to explore how the cultural regeneration transforms industrial heritage. In terms of the planners’ and residents’ point of view adopt the theory of community participation, social capital, and sense of place to analyze the social impact of the industrial heritage transformation. The research finding is through cultural regeneration policies like holding cultural activities, building up public space, social network and public-private partnership, and adopting adaptive reuse to fulfil the people’s need and desire and reach the social cohesion. Finally, the study will examine the transformation of Taiwan's industrial heritage into cultural and creative quarters. The results are expected to use the operating experience of the Amsterdam cases and provide directions for Taiwan’s industrial heritage management to meet the cultural, social, economic symbiosis.

Keywords: cultural regeneration, community participation, social capital, sense of place, industrial heritage transformation

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2348 Adaptive Cooperative Scheme Considering the User Location

Authors: Bit-Na Kwon, Hyun-Jee Yang, Dong-Hyun Ha, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In this paper, an adaptive cooperative scheme in the cell edge is proposed. The proposed scheme considers the location of a user and applies the suitable cooperative scheme. In cellular systems, the performance of communication is degraded if the user is located in the cell edge. In conventional scheme, two base stations are used in order to obtain diversity gain. However, the performance of communication is not sufficiently improved since the distance between each base station and a user is still distant. Therefore, we propose a scheme that the relays are used and the cooperative scheme is adaptively applied according to the user location. Through simulation results, it is confirmed that the proposed scheme has better performance than the conventional scheme.

Keywords: adaptive transmission, cooperative communication, diversity gain, OFDM

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2347 Data Hiding by Vector Quantization in Color Image

Authors: Yung Gi Wu

Abstract:

With the growing of computer and network, digital data can be spread to anywhere in the world quickly. In addition, digital data can also be copied or tampered easily so that the security issue becomes an important topic in the protection of digital data. Digital watermark is a method to protect the ownership of digital data. Embedding the watermark will influence the quality certainly. In this paper, Vector Quantization (VQ) is used to embed the watermark into the image to fulfill the goal of data hiding. This kind of watermarking is invisible which means that the users will not conscious the existing of embedded watermark even though the embedded image has tiny difference compared to the original image. Meanwhile, VQ needs a lot of computation burden so that we adopt a fast VQ encoding scheme by partial distortion searching (PDS) and mean approximation scheme to speed up the data hiding process. The watermarks we hide to the image could be gray, bi-level and color images. Texts are also can be regarded as watermark to embed. In order to test the robustness of the system, we adopt Photoshop to fulfill sharpen, cropping and altering to check if the extracted watermark is still recognizable. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can resist the above three kinds of tampering in general cases.

Keywords: data hiding, vector quantization, watermark, color image

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2346 The World Heritage List: A Big Data Spatial Econometrics Approach to Sites Promoting the Brand

Authors: David Wuepper, Marc Patry

Abstract:

UNESCO’s World Heritage program requests the inscribed locations to promote the World Heritage brand by clearly presenting information about it on-site. Based on feedback from over 319,000 visitors at 791 locations, we create an index that shows how much the World Heritage sites actually brand themselves as such. We find great heterogeneity throughout the list and explain this econometrically mostly with the economic benefit for the sites but also with cultural brand preferences, which are highest in Asia, followed by Europe and North America. We also find a positive relationship between World Heritage branding and conservation status and a U-shaped relationship between visitor numbers and WH branding. Based on our findings, we recommend to make clear World Heritage branding mandatory for all sites.

Keywords: UNESCO World Heritage, collective brand, cultural tourism, heritage conservation, brand equity, spatial econometrics

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2345 Improved Performance Using Adaptive Pre-Coding in the Cellular Network

Authors: Yong-Jun Kim, Jae-Hyun Ro, Chang-Bin Ha, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

This paper proposes the cooperative transmission scheme with pre-coding because the cellular communication requires high reliability. The cooperative transmission scheme uses pre-coding method with limited feedback information among small cells. Particularly, the proposed scheme has adaptive mode according to the position of mobile station. Thus, demand of recent wireless communication is resolved by this scheme. From the simulation results, the proposed scheme has better performance compared to the conventional scheme in the cellular network.

Keywords: CDD, cellular network, pre-coding, SPC

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2344 Cultural Heritage Management and Tourism in Kosovo

Authors: Valon Shkodra

Abstract:

In our paper, we will give an overview of the cultural heritage and tourism in Kosovo. Kosovo has a history, culture, tradition and architecture that are different from those of other countries in the region, and each country has its own characteristics and peculiarities. In this paper, we will mainly present the situation of cultural heritage and its interpretation. The research is based on fieldwork and the aim of the research is to live the situation of cultural heritage and tourism. The reason why we chose this topic is that cultural heritage and tourism are now the most important industry developing many countries in the world. Besides the benefits that tourism brings, it also has an impact on the preservation, protection and promotion of culture in general. Kosovo, with its cultural diversity and very good geographical location, is also very well suited to develop these two areas as a bridge to each other. The cultural heritage holds traces from the earliest eras and shows a diversity of different civilizations that have just begun to be explored and presented.

Keywords: cultural heritage, economy, tourism, development, institutions, protection

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2343 Blending Values for Historic Neighborhood Upliftment: Case of Heritage Hotel in Ahmedabad

Authors: Vasudha Saraogi

Abstract:

Heritage hotels are architectural marvels and embody a number of values of heritage discourses within them. The adaptive re-use of old structures to make them commercially viable as heritage hotels, not only boosts tourism and the local economy but also brings in development for the neighborhood in which it is located. This paper seeks to study the value created by heritage hotels in general and French Haveli (Ahmedabad) in particular using the single case study methodology. The paper draws upon the concept of the Italian model of Albergo Diffuso and its implementation via French Haveli, for value creation and development in Dhal Ni Pol (a historic neighborhood) while recognizing the importance of stakeholders to the process of the historic neighborhood upliftment.

Keywords: heritage discourses, historic neighborhoods, heritage hotel, Old City Ahmedabad

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2342 Curve Designing Using an Approximating 4-Point C^2 Ternary Non-Stationary Subdivision Scheme

Authors: Muhammad Younis

Abstract:

A ternary 4-point approximating non-stationary subdivision scheme has been introduced that generates the family of $C^2$ limiting curves. The theory of asymptotic equivalence is being used to analyze the convergence and smoothness of the scheme. The comparison of the proposed scheme has been demonstrated using different examples with the existing 4-point ternary approximating schemes, which shows that the limit curves of the proposed scheme behave more pleasantly and can generate conic sections as well.

Keywords: ternary, non-stationary, approximation subdivision scheme, convergence and smoothness

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2341 Arts and Cultural Heritage Digitalization in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects

Authors: Okechukwu Uzoma Nkwocha, Edward Uche Omeire

Abstract:

Information and communication technologies (ICT) undeniably, have expanded the sphere of arts and creativity. It proves to be an important tool for production, preservation, sharing and utilization of arts and cultural heritage. While art and heritage institutions around the globe are increasingly utilizing ICT for the promotion and sharing of their collections, the story seems different in most part of Africa. In this paper, we will examine the prospects and problems of utilizing ICT in promotion, preservation and sharing of arts and cultural heritage.

Keywords: arts, cultural heritage, digitalization, ICT

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2340 Management of Cultural Heritage: Bologna Gates

Authors: Alfonso Ippolito, Cristiana Bartolomei

Abstract:

A growing demand is felt today for realistic 3D models enabling the cognition and popularization of historical-artistic heritage. Evaluation and preservation of Cultural Heritage is inextricably connected with the innovative processes of gaining, managing, and using knowledge. The development and perfecting of techniques for acquiring and elaborating photorealistic 3D models, made them pivotal elements for popularizing information of objects on the scale of architectonic structures.

Keywords: cultural heritage, databases, non-contact survey, 2D-3D models

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2339 Traditional Management Systems and the Conservation of Cultural and Natural Heritage: Multiple Case Studies in Zimbabwe

Authors: Nyasha Agnes Gurira, Petronella Katekwe

Abstract:

Traditional management systems (TMS) are a vital source of knowledge for conserving cultural and natural heritage. TMS’s are renowned for their ability to preserve both tangible and intangible manifestations of heritage. They are a construct of the intricate relationship that exists between heritage and host communities, where communities are recognized as owners of heritage and so, set up management mechanisms to ensure its adequate conservation. Multiple heritage condition surveys were conducted to assess the effectiveness of using TMS in the conservation of both natural and cultural heritage. Surveys were done at Nharira Hills, Mahwemasimike, Dzimbahwe, Manjowe Rock art sites and Norumedzo forest which are heritage places in Zimbabwe. It assessed the state of conservation of the five case studies and assessed the role that host communities play in the management of these heritage places. It was revealed that TMS’s are effective in the conservation of natural heritage, however in relation to heritage forms with cultural manifestations, there are major disparities. These range from differences in appreciation and perception of value within communities leading to vandalism, over emphasis in the conservation of the intangible element as opposed to the tangible. This leaves the tangible element at risk. Despite these issues, TMS are a reliable knowledge base which enables more holistic conservation approaches for cultural and natural heritage.

Keywords: communities, cultural intangible, tangible heritage, traditional management systems, natural

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2338 Omni-Relay (OR) Scheme-Aided LTE-A Communication Systems

Authors: Hassan Mahasneh, Abu Sesay

Abstract:

We propose the use of relay terminals at the cell edge of an LTE-based cellar system. Each relay terminal is equipped with an omni-directional antenna. We refer to this scheme as the Omni-Relay (OR) scheme. The OR scheme coordinates the inter-cell interference (ICI) stemming from adjacent cells and increases the desired signal level at cell-edge regions. To validate the performance of the OR scheme, we derive the average signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (SINR) and the average capacity and compare it with the conventional universal frequency reuse factor (UFRF). The results show that the proposed OR scheme provides higher average SINR and average capacity compared to the UFRF due to the assistance of the distributed relay nodes.

Keywords: the UFRF scheme, the OR scheme, ICI, relay terminals, SINR, spectral efficiency

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2337 Efficient Iterative V-BLAST Detection Technique in Wireless Communication System

Authors: Hwan-Jun Choi, Sung-Bok Choi, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

Recently, among the MIMO-OFDM detection techniques, a lot of papers suggested V-BLAST scheme which can achieve high data rate. Therefore, the signal detection of MIMOOFDM system is important issue. In this paper, efficient iterative VBLAST detection technique is proposed in wireless communication system. The proposed scheme adjusts the number of candidate symbol and iterative scheme based on channel state. According to the simulation result, the proposed scheme has better BER performance than conventional schemes and similar BER performance of the QRD-M with iterative scheme. Moreover complexity of proposed scheme has 50.6 % less than complexity of QRD-M detection with iterative scheme. Therefore the proposed detection scheme can be efficiently used in wireless communication.

Keywords: MIMO-OFDM, V-BLAST, QR-decomposition, QRDM, DFE, iterative scheme, channel condition

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2336 Efficient Variable Modulation Scheme Based on Codebook in the MIMO-OFDM System

Authors: Yong-Jun Kim, Jae-Hyun Ro, Chang-Bin Ha, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

Because current wireless communication requires high reliability in a limited bandwidth environment, this paper proposes the variable modulation scheme based on the codebook. The variable modulation scheme adjusts transmission power using the codebook in accordance with hannel state. Also, if the codebook is composed of many bits, the reliability is more improved by the proposed scheme. The simulation results show that the performance of proposed scheme has better reliability than the the performance of conventional scheme.

Keywords: MIMO-OFDM, variable modulation, codebook, channel state

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2335 A Cooperative Space-Time Transmission Scheme Based On Symbol Combinations

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

This paper proposes a cooperative Alamouti space time transmission scheme with low relay complexity for the cooperative communication systems. In the proposed scheme, the source node combines the data symbols to construct the Alamouti-coded form at the destination node, while the conventional scheme performs the corresponding operations at the relay nodes. In simulation results, it is shown that the proposed scheme achieves the second order cooperative diversity while maintaining the same bit error rate (BER) performance as that of the conventional scheme.

Keywords: Space-time transmission, cooperative communication system, MIMO.

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2334 A Meaning-Making Approach to Understand the Relationship between the Physical Built Environment of the Heritage Sites including the Intangible Values and the Design Development of the Public Open Spaces: Case Study Liverpool Pier Head

Authors: May Newisar, Richard Kingston, Philip Black

Abstract:

Heritage-led regeneration developments have been considered as one of the cornerstones of the economic and social revival of historic towns and cities in the UK. However, this approach has proved its deficiency within the development of Liverpool World Heritage site. This is due to the conflict between sustaining the tangible and intangible values as well as achieving the aimed economic developments. Accordingly, the development of such areas is influenced by a top-down approach which considers heritage as consumable experience and urban regeneration as the economic development for it. This neglects the heritage sites characteristics and values as well as the design criteria for public open spaces that overlap with the heritage sites. Currently, knowledge regarding the relationship between the physical built environment of the heritage sites including the intangible values and the design development of the public open spaces is limited. Public open spaces have been studied from different perspectives such as increasing walkability, a source of social cohesion, provide a good quality of life as well as understanding users’ perception. While heritage sites have been discussed heavily on how to maintain the physical environment, understanding the courses of threats and how to be protected. In addition to users’ experiences and motivations of visiting such areas. Furthermore, new approaches tried to overcome the gap such as the historic urban landscape approach. This approach is focusing on the entire human environment with all its tangible and intangible qualities. However, this research aims to understand the relationship between the heritage sites and public open spaces and how the overlap of the design and development of both could be used as a quality to enhance the heritage sites and improve users’ experience. A meaning-making approach will be used in order to understand and articulate how the development of Liverpool World Heritage site and its value could influence and shape the design of public open space Pier Head in order to attract a different level of tourists to be used as a tool for economic development. Consequently, this will help in bridging the gap between the planning and conservation areas’ policies through an understanding of how flexible is the system in order to adopt alternative approaches for the design and development strategies for those areas.

Keywords: historic urban landscape, environmental psychology, urban governance, identity

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2333 Understanding of Heritage Values within University Education Systems in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mahmoud Tarek Mohamed Hammad

Abstract:

Despite the importance of the role and efforts made by the universities of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in reviving and preserving heritage architecture as an important cultural heritage in the Kingdom, The idea revolves around restoration and conservation processes and neglects the architectural heritage values, whose content can be used in sustainable contemporary architectural works. Educational values based on heritage architecture and how to integrate with the contemporary requirements were investigated in this research. For this purpose, by understanding the heritage architectural values as well as educational, academic process, the researcher presented an educational model of questionnaire forms for architecture students and the staff at the Architecture Department at Al-Baha University as a case study that serves the aims of the research. The results of the research show that heritage values especially those interview results are considered as a positive indicator of the importance of these values. The students and the staff need both to gain an understanding of heritage values as well as an understanding of theories of incorporating those values into the design process of contemporary local architecture. The research concludes that a correct understanding of the heritage values, its performance, and its reintegration with modern architecture technology should be focused on architectural education.

Keywords: heritage architecture, academic work, heritage values, sustainable contemporary local architectural

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2332 A Critical Evaluation of the Factors that Influence Visitor Engagement with U.K. Slavery Heritage Museums: A Passive Symbolic Netnographic Study

Authors: Shemroy Roberts

Abstract:

Despite minor theoretical contributions in slavery heritage tourism research that have commented on the demand-side perspective, visitor behavior and engagement with slavery heritage attractions remain unexplored. Thus, there is a need for empirical studies and theoretical knowledge to understand visitor engagement with slavery heritage attractions, particularly U.K. slavery heritage museums. The purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate the factors that influence visitor engagement with U.K. slavery heritage museums. This qualitative research utilizes a passive symbolic ethnographic methodology. Seven U.K. slavery heritage museums will be used to collect data through unobtrusive internet-mediated observations of TripAdvisor reviews and online semi-structured interviews with managers and curators. Preliminary findings indicate that social media, prior knowledge, multiple motivations, cultural capital, and the design and layout of exhibits influence visitor engagement with slavery heritage museums. This research contributes to an understanding of visitor engagement with U.K. slavery heritage museums. The findings of this paper will provide insights into the factors that influence visitor engagement with U.K. slavery heritage museums to managers, curators, and decision-makers responsible for designing and managing those attractions. Therefore, the results of this paper will enable museum professionals to better manage visitor engagement with slavery heritage museums.

Keywords: museums, netnography, slavery, visitor engagement

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2331 Risk Management Strategy for Protecting Cultural Heritage: Case Study of the Institute of Egypt

Authors: Amany A. Ragheb, Ghada Ragheb, Abd ElRahman A.

Abstract:

Egypt has a countless heritage of mansions, castles, cities, towns, villages, industrial and manufacturing sites. This richness of heritage provides endless and matchless prospects for culture. Despite being famous worldwide, Egypt’s heritage still is in constant need of protection. Political conflicts and religious revolutions form a direct threat to buildings in various areas, historic, archaeological sites, and religious monuments. Egypt has witnessed two revolutions in less than 60 years; both had an impact on its architectural heritage. In this paper, the authors aim to review legal and policy framework to protect the cultural heritage and present the risk management strategy for cultural heritage in conflict. Through a review of selected international models of devastated architectural heritage in conflict zones and highlighting some of their changes, we can learn from the experiences of other countries to assist towards the development of a methodology to halt the plundering of architectural heritage. Finally, the paper makes an effort to enhance the formulation of a risk management strategy for protection and conservation of cultural heritage, through which to end the plundering of Egypt’s architectural legacy in the Egyptian community (revolutions, 1952 and 2011); and by presenting to its surrounding community the benefits derived from maintaining it.

Keywords: cultural heritage, legal regulation, risk management, preservation

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2330 Heritage Value and Industrial Tourism Potential of the Urals, Russia

Authors: Anatoly V. Stepanov, Maria Y. Ilyushkina, Alexander S. Burnasov

Abstract:

Expansion of tourism, especially after WWII, has led to significant improvements in the regional infrastructure. The present study has revealed a lot of progress in the advancement of industrial heritage narrative in the Central Urals. The evidence comes from the general public’s increased fascination with some of Europe’s oldest mining and industrial sites, and the agreement of many stakeholders that the Urals industrial heritage should be preserved. The development of tourist sites in Nizhny Tagil and Nevyansk, gold-digging in Beryosovsky, gemstone search in Murzinka, and the progress with the Urals Gemstone Ring project are the examples showing the immense opportunities of industrial heritage tourism development in the region that are still to be realized. Regardless of the economic future of the Central Urals, whether it will remain an industrial region or experience a deeper deindustrialization, the sprouts of the industrial heritage tourism should be advanced and amplified for the benefit of local communities and the tourist community at large as it is hard to imagine a more suitable site for the discovery of industrial and mining heritage than the Central Urals Region of Russia.

Keywords: industrial heritage, mining heritage, Central Urals, Russia

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2329 Efficient Relay Selection Scheme Utilizing OVSF Code in Cooperative Communication System

Authors: Yeong-Seop Ahn, Myoung-Jin Kim, Young-Min Ko, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

This paper proposes a relay selection scheme utilizing an orthogonal variable spreading factor (OVSF) code in a cooperative communication. The relay selection scheme influences on the communication performance in the cooperative communication. Conventional relay selection schemes such as the best harmonic mean relay selection scheme or the threshold-based relay selection scheme should know information such as channel state information (CSI) in advance. The proposed relay selection scheme does not require information in advance by using a reference signal utilizing the OVSF code. The simulation result shows that bit error rate (BER) performance of proposed relay selection scheme is similar to the best harmonic mean relay selection scheme that is known as one of the optimal relay selection schemes.

Keywords: cooperative communication, relay selection, OFDM, OVSF code

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2328 Adapting Built Heritage to Address Climate Change: A Perspective from the Maltese Islands

Authors: Nadia Theuma

Abstract:

Climate change is a reality that has started to leave an impact on the physical environment as well as on the built environment, in particular built heritage. This paper explores the argument that climate change is also a trigger which can lead to identifying a number of creative solutions that can transform built heritage into sustainable buildings. Using the Maltese Islands, and in particular the city of Valletta which is also a World Heritage Site, this paper illustrates some of the innovative solutions that are being developed to make heritage buildings more sustainable and in doing so, mitigating the negative impacts of climate change. The paper looks in detail at the most notable initiatives being developed, their implementation and application, which at times is not easy considering the restrictions within protected built heritage areas and the positive impacts that they will have on visitor experience and overall sustainability of the Maltese tourism product. The paper will conclude by outlining how these solutions can be adapted to buildings with similar climatic conditions.

Keywords: built heritage, creative solutions, climate change, Maltese Islands

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2327 Economic Analysis of the Impact of Commercial Agricultural Credit Scheme (CACS) on Farmers Income in Nigeria

Authors: Titus Wuyah Yunana

Abstract:

This study analyzed the impact of commercial agricultural credit scheme on income of beneficiary farmers in Kaduna State using the Net farm income and double difference method. A questionnaire was used to source the data from 306 farmers comprising of 153 beneficiaries and 153 non-beneficiaries. The results indicated that the net farm income of the commercial agricultural credit scheme beneficiaries increases from N15,006,352.00 before scheme to N24,862,585.00 after the first and the second phases of the scheme. There was also an increase in the net farm income of the non-beneficiaries from N9, 670,385.40 to N14, 391,469.00 during the scheme. The double difference method analysis indicated a positive mean income difference value between beneficiaries and nonbeneficiaries after the first and the second phases of the scheme. The study recommends expansion in the number of beneficiaries and efficient allocation and utilization of the resources. The government should also introduce more programs that will assist the farmers to increase their productivity, income and the economy as a whole.

Keywords: agriculture, credit scheme, farmers, income, beneficiary

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