Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 786

Search results for: acute MI

786 Characteristics of Acute Poisoning in Emergency Departments: Multicenter Study in Korea

Authors: Hyuk-Hoon Kim, Young Gi Min

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Background: Acute poisoning is the common cause of morbidity and mortality. Characteristics of acute poisoning differ between countries. While other countries operate the database system for poisoning, Korea has not collected the database for acute poisoning. Distribution of incidence of acute poisoning depending on the types of materials have also not studied in Korea. Our aims are to evaluate the etiologic and demographic characteristics of acute poisoning cases and to obtain up-to-date information on acute poisonings. Method: We retrospectively recorded cases of acute poisoning from eight emergency departments of second level or university hospitals from different cities in Gyeonggi province in Korea from April 2006 and March 2015. The distributions of incidence of acute poisoning depending on the types of materials are mapped by geographic information system. Result: A total of 3,449 poisoned cases were analyzed. Mean estimated age of patients was 39.56 ± 22.40 years. Mean male to female ratio of patients was 1:1.4. Mean proportion of intentional poisoning was 57.9%. Common materials are benzodiazepine (16.6%), carbon monoxide (10.5%), pesticide (8.1%) and zolpidem (7.1%) Common route of exposure is ingestion (79.5%) and followed by inhalation (16.5%). Common treatment methods are gastric lavage (20%) and activated charcoal (30%). Most cases had uneventful recovery; 61.4% were treated as outpatients and 0.1% of the poisoning resulted in death in ER. Conclusion: Even though the cases enrolled in our study is not the overall cases of acute poisoning in Korea, our study could be the basis of countermeasures for analysis and prevention of acute poisoning in Korea.

Keywords: acute poisoning, emergency department, epidemiology, Korea

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
785 The Analysis of Acute Pancreatitis Patients in a University Hospital

Authors: Adnan Sahin, Ufuk Uylas, Ercument Pasaoglu, Tarik Caga, Enver Ihtiyar, Serdar Erkasap, Ersin Ates, Fatih Yasar

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Background: In this study, it was evaluated the demographic features, etiological factors and the management of acute pancreatitis. Methods: 106 patient hospitalized due to acute pancreatitis were retrospectively examined from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2015 in Department of General Surgery of ESOGUMF. The data of gender, signs and symptoms, etiological factors, WBC, AST, ALT, Amilase, USG and CT findings treatment options ERCP, and complications, mortality rate were analysed. Results: The mean age of patients were 58.8 (53 men and 53 women). The causes of acute pancreatitis were as follows: gallbladder stone was 89, hyperlipidemia was 5 and idiopathic were 16 patients. Severe pancreatitis was developed in 16 patients in the biliary pancreatitis group and ERCP was performed. Cholecystectomy was performed to all biliary pancreatitis group patients after acute pancreatitis subside. The mean hospital stay period was 9.33 (2-37) day. Discussion and conclusion: Severe acute pancreatitis is a mortal disease. The most common etiological cause of acute pancreatitis is biliary origin. The first line treatment modality of acute pancreatitis is medical. Cholecystectomy should be planned to the all-biliary caused acute pancreatitis patients after the attack subside. ERCP is a useful treatment modality in the case of clinical worsening and suspicion of acute cholangitis. ERCP procedure used 16 patients in our series and these patients have a good morbidity and mean hospital period is lower than the others. We suppose that ERCP procedure should be planned selectively and conservatively.

Keywords: acute pancreatitis, ERCP, morbidity, treatment

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784 Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB): A Review for the Prehospital Clinician

Authors: Theo Welch

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Background: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a depressant of the central nervous system with euphoric effects. It is being increasingly used recreationally in the United Kingdom (UK) despite associated morbidity and mortality. Due to the lack of evidence, healthcare professionals remain unsure as to the optimum management of GHB acute toxicity. Methods: A literature review was undertaken of its pharmacology and the emergency management of its acute toxicity.Findings: GHB is inexpensive and readily available over the Internet. Treatment of GHB acute toxicity is supportive. Clinicians should pay particular attention to the airway as emesis is common. Intubation is required in a minority of cases. Polydrug use is common and worsens prognosis. Conclusion: An inexpensive and readily available drug, GHB acute toxicity can be difficult to identify and treat. GHB acute toxicity is generally treated conservatively. Further research is needed to ascertain the indications, benefits, and risks of intubating patients with GHB acute toxicity. instructions give you guidelines for preparing papers for the conference.

Keywords: GHB, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, prehospital, emergency, toxicity, management

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783 Clash of Civilizations without Civilizational Groups: Revisiting Samuel P. Huntington´s Clash of Civilizations Theory

Authors: Jamal Abdi

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This paper is largely a response/critique of Samuel P. Huntington´s Clash of Civilizations thesis. The overriding argument is that Huntington´s thesis is characterized by failure to distinguish between ´groups´ and ´categories´. Multinational civilizations overcoming their internal collective action problems, which would enable them to pursue a unified strategy vis-à-vis the West, is a rather foundational assumption in his theory. Without assigning sufficient intellectual attention to the processes through which multinational civilizations may gain capacity for concerted action i.e. become a group, he contended that the post-cold-war world would be shaped in large measure by interactions among seven or eight major civilizations. Thus, failure in providing a convincing analysis of multi-national civilizations´ transition from categories to groups is a significant weakness in Huntington´s clash theory. It is also suggested that so-called Islamic terrorism and the war on terror is not to be taken as an expression of presence of clash between a Western and an Islamic civilization, as terrorist organizations would be superfluous in a world characterized by clash of civilizations. Consequences of multinational civilizations becoming a group are discussed in relation to contemporary Western superiority.

Keywords: categories, civilizations, clash, groups, groupness

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782 A Case of Postpartum Pulmonary Edema Induced by Oxytocin

Authors: May Zaw, Amber Latif, William Lim

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Postpartum dyspnea can be due to many causes, such as pulmonary embolism, amniotic fluid embolism, and peripartum cardiomyopathy, but less frequently due to acute pulmonary edema. The incidence of acute pulmonary edema during pregnancy and in the postpartum period has been estimated to be around 0.08%. About half of the cases are attributed to tocolytic therapy. Herein, we present a case of a young woman presenting with acute hypoxia after induction of labor with oxytocin and found to have acute pulmonary edema. This case aims to illustrate and add to a growing body of literature regarding oxytocin-induced acute pulmonary edema and highlights the importance of recognizing the rare complication of oxytocin and necessary interventions to avoid complications. Oxytocin-induced pulmonary edema is a relatively uncommon condition, but physicians should have a high index of suspicion to initiate timely intervention and avoid fetal complications.

Keywords: pulmonary, pregnancy, oxytocin, postpartum

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781 Spontaneous Tumour Lysis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Authors: Rojith K. Balakrishnan

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Spontaneous tumour lysis syndrome is a constellation of electrolyte abnormalities and an acute renal failure which occurs in the setting of rapid cell turnover prior to the administration of cytotoxic chemotherapy. While spontaneous tumour lysis well-described in patients with Burkitt lymphoma, it is thought to occur less commonly in patients with other hematological malignancies. We present a case of forty-year-old female who presented with features of acute renal failure, on further evaluation turned out to be a newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia with spontaneous tumour lysis best of our knowledge only three cases of AML with spontaneous tumour lysis has reported world wide.

Keywords: AML, tumour lysis, renal failure, myeloid leukemia

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780 Challenges of Management of Acute Pancreatitis in Low Resource Setting

Authors: Md. Shakhawat Hossain, Jimma Hossain, Md. Naushad Ali

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Acute pancreatitis is a dangerous medical emergency in the practice of gastroenterology. Management of acute pancreatitis needs multidisciplinary approach with support starts from emergency to ICU. So, there is a chance of mismanagement in every steps, especially in low resource settings. Other factors such as patient’s financial condition, education, social custom, transport facility, referral system from periphery may also challenge the current guidelines for management. The present study is intended to determine the clinico-pathological profile, severity assessment and challenges of management of acute pancreatitis in a government laid tertiary care hospital to image the real scenario of management in a low resource place. A total 100 patients of acute pancreatitis were studied in this prospective study, held in the Department of Gastroenterology, Rangpur medical college hospital, Bangladesh from July 2017 to July 2018 within one year. Regarding severity, 85 % of the patients were mild, whereas 13 were moderately severe, and 2 had severe acute pancreatitis according to the revised Atlanta criteria. The most common etiologies of acute pancreatitis in our study were gall stone (15%) and biliary sludge (15%), whereas 54% were idiopathic. The most common challenges we faced were delay in hospital admission (59%) and delay in hospital diagnosis (20%). Others are non-adherence of patient party, and lack of investigation facility, physician’s poor knowledge about current guidelines. We were able to give early aggressive fluid to only 18% of patients as per current guideline. Conclusion: Management of acute pancreatitis as per guideline is challenging when optimum facility is lacking. So, modified guidelines for assessment and management of acute pancreatitis should be prepared for low resource setting.

Keywords: acute pancreatitis, challenges of management, severity, prognosis

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779 Combination of Lamotrigine and Duloxetine: A Potential Approach for the Treatment of Acute Bipolar Depression

Authors: Kedar S. Prabhavalkar, Nimmy Baby Poovanpallil

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Lamotrigine is approved for maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder. However, its role in the treatment of acute bipolar depression is not well clear. Its efficacy in the treatment of major depressive disorders including refractory unipolar depression suggested the use of lamotrigine as an augmentation drug for acute bipolar depression. The present study aims to evaluate and perform a comparative analysis of the therapeutic effects of lamotrigine, an epileptic mood stabilizer, when used alone and in combination with duloxetine in treating acute bipolar depression at different doses of lamotrigine. Male swiss albino mice were used. For evaluation of efficacy of combination, immobility period was analyzed 30 min after the treatment from forced swim and tail suspension tests. Further amount of sucrose consumed in sucrose preference test was estimated. The combination of duloxetine and lamotrigine showed potentiation of antidepressant activity in acute models. Decrease in immobility time and increase in the amount of sucrose consumption in stressed mice were higher in combined group compared to lamotrigine monotherapy group. Brain monoamine levels were also attenuated more with combination compared to monotherapy. Results of the present study suggest potential role of lamotrigine and duloxetine combination in the treatment of acute bipolar depression.

Keywords: lamotrigine, duloxetine, acute bipolar depression, augmentation

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778 Acute Asthma in Emergency Department, Prevalence of Respiratory and Non-Respiratory Symptoms

Authors: Sherif Refaat, Hassan Aref

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Background: Although asthma is a well-identified presentation to the emergency department, little is known about the frequency and percentage of respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms in patients with acute asthma in the emergency department (ED). Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between acute asthma exacerbation and different respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms including chest pain encountered by patients visiting the emergency department. Subjects and methods: Prospective study included 169 (97 females and 72 males) asthmatic patients who were admitted to emergency department of two tertiary care facility hospitals for asthma exacerbation from the period of September 2010 to August 2013, an anonyms questionnaire was used to collect symptoms and analysis of symptoms. Results: Females were 97 (57%) of the patients, mean age was 35.6 years; dyspnea on exertion was the commonest symptom accounting for 161 (95.2%) of patients, followed by dyspnea at rest 155 (91.7%), wheezing in 152 (89.9%), chest pain was present in 82 patients (48.5%), the pain was burning in 36 (43.9%) of the total patients with chest pain. Non-respiratory symptoms were seen frequently in acute asthma in ED. Conclusions: Dyspnea was the commonest chest symptoms encountered in patients with acute asthma followed by wheezing. Chest pain in acute asthma is a common symptom and should be fully studied to exclude misdiagnosis as of cardiac origin; there is a need for a better dissemination of knowledge about this disease association with chest pain. It was also noted that other non-respiratory symptoms are frequently encountered with acute asthma in emergency department.

Keywords: asthma, emergency department, respiratory symptoms, non respiratory system

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777 Chronic and Sub-Acute Lumbosacral Radiculopathies Behave Differently to Repeated Back Extension Exercises

Authors: Sami Alabdulwahab

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Background: Repeated back extension exercises (RBEEs) are among the management options for symptoms associated with lumbosacral radiculopathy (LSR). RBEEs have been reported to cause changes in the distribution and intensity of radicular symptoms caused by possible compression/decompression of the compromised nerve root. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the RBEEs on the neurophysiology of the compromised nerve root and on standing mobility and pain intensity in patients with sub-acute and chronic LSR. Methods: A total of 40 patients with unilateral sub-acute/chronic lumbosacral radiculopathy voluntarily participated in the study; the patients performed 3 sets of 10 RBEEs in the prone position with 1 min of rest between the sets. The soleus H-reflex, standing mobility and pain intensity were recorded before and after the RBEEs. Results: The results of the study showed that the RBEEs significantly improved the H-reflex, standing mobility and pain intensity in patients with sub-acute LSR (p<0.01); there was not a significant improvement in the patients with chronic LSR (p<0.61). Conclusion: RBEEs in prone position is recommended for improving the neurophysiological function of the compromised nerve root and standing mobility in patients with sub-acute LSR. Implication: Sub-acute and chronic LSR responded differently to RBEEs. Sub-acute LSR appear to have flexible and movable disc structures, which could be managed with RBEEs.

Keywords: h-reflex, back extension, lumbosacral radiculopathy, pain

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776 Unsupervised Segmentation Technique for Acute Leukemia Cells Using Clustering Algorithms

Authors: N. H. Harun, A. S. Abdul Nasir, M. Y. Mashor, R. Hassan

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Leukaemia is a blood cancer disease that contributes to the increment of mortality rate in Malaysia each year. There are two main categories for leukaemia, which are acute and chronic leukaemia. The production and development of acute leukaemia cells occurs rapidly and uncontrollable. Therefore, if the identification of acute leukaemia cells could be done fast and effectively, proper treatment and medicine could be delivered. Due to the requirement of prompt and accurate diagnosis of leukaemia, the current study has proposed unsupervised pixel segmentation based on clustering algorithm in order to obtain a fully segmented abnormal white blood cell (blast) in acute leukaemia image. In order to obtain the segmented blast, the current study proposed three clustering algorithms which are k-means, fuzzy c-means and moving k-means algorithms have been applied on the saturation component image. Then, median filter and seeded region growing area extraction algorithms have been applied, to smooth the region of segmented blast and to remove the large unwanted regions from the image, respectively. Comparisons among the three clustering algorithms are made in order to measure the performance of each clustering algorithm on segmenting the blast area. Based on the good sensitivity value that has been obtained, the results indicate that moving k-means clustering algorithm has successfully produced the fully segmented blast region in acute leukaemia image. Hence, indicating that the resultant images could be helpful to haematologists for further analysis of acute leukaemia.

Keywords: acute leukaemia images, clustering algorithms, image segmentation, moving k-means

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775 Information Management Approach in the Prediction of Acute Appendicitis

Authors: Ahmad Shahin, Walid Moudani, Ali Bekraki

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This research aims at presenting a predictive data mining model to handle an accurate diagnosis of acute appendicitis with patients for the purpose of maximizing the health service quality, minimizing morbidity/mortality, and reducing cost. However, acute appendicitis is the most common disease which requires timely accurate diagnosis and needs surgical intervention. Although the treatment of acute appendicitis is simple and straightforward, its diagnosis is still difficult because no single sign, symptom, laboratory or image examination accurately confirms the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in all cases. This contributes in increasing morbidity and negative appendectomy. In this study, the authors propose to generate an accurate model in prediction of patients with acute appendicitis which is based, firstly, on the segmentation technique associated to ABC algorithm to segment the patients; secondly, on applying fuzzy logic to process the massive volume of heterogeneous and noisy data (age, sex, fever, white blood cell, neutrophilia, CRP, urine, ultrasound, CT, appendectomy, etc.) in order to express knowledge and analyze the relationships among data in a comprehensive manner; and thirdly, on applying dynamic programming technique to reduce the number of data attributes. The proposed model is evaluated based on a set of benchmark techniques and even on a set of benchmark classification problems of osteoporosis, diabetes and heart obtained from the UCI data and other data sources.

Keywords: healthcare management, acute appendicitis, data mining, classification, decision tree

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774 Demand for Care in Primary Health Care in the Governorate of Ariana: Results of a Survey in Ariana Primary Health Care and Comparison with the Last 30 Years

Authors: Chelly Souhir, Harizi Chahida, Hachaichi Aicha, Aissaoui Sihem, Chahed Mohamed Kouni

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Introduction: In Tunisia, few studies have attempted to describe the demand for primary care in a standardized and systematic way. The purpose of this study is to describe the main reasons for demand for care in primary health care, through a survey of the Ariana Governorate PHC and to identify their evolutionary trend compared to last 30 years, reported by studies of the same type. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study which concerns the study of consultants in the first line of the governorate of Ariana and their use of care recorded during 2 days in the same week during the month of May 2016, in each of these PHC. The same data collection sheet was used in all CSBs. The coding of the information was done according to the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC). The data was entered and analyzed by the EPI Info 7 software. Results: Our study found that the most common ICPC chapters are respiratory (42%) and digestive (13.2%). In 1996 were the respiratory (43.5%) and circulatory (7.8%). In 2000, we found also the respiratory (39,6%) and circulatory (10,9%). In 2002, respiratory (43%) and digestive (10.1%) motives were the most frequent. According to the ICPC, the pathologies in our study were acute angina (19%), acute bronchitis and bronchiolitis (8%). In 1996, it was tonsillitis ( 21.6%) and acute bronchitis (7.2%). For Ben Abdelaziz in 2000, tonsillitis (14.5%) follow by acute bronchitis (8.3%). In 2002, acute angina (15.7%), acute bronchitis and bronchiolitis (11.2%) were the most common. Conclusion: Acute angina and tonsillitis are the most common in all studies conducted in Tunisia.

Keywords: acute angina, classification of primary care, primary health care, tonsillitis, Tunisia

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773 Uncommon Causes of Acute Abdominal Pain: A Pictorial Essay

Authors: Mahesh Hariharan, Rajan Balasubramaniam, Sharath Kumar Shetty, Shanthala Yadavalli, Mohammed Ahetasham, Sravya Devarapalli

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Acute abdomen is one of the most common clinical conditions requiring a radiological investigation. Ultrasound is the primary modality of choice which can diagnose some of the common causes of acute abdomen. However, sometimes the underlying cause for the pain is far more complicated than expected to mandate a high degree of suspicion to suggest further investigation with contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we have compiled a comprehensive series of selected cases to highlight the conditions which can be easily overlooked unless carefully sought for. This also emphasizes the importance of multimodality approach to arrive at the final diagnosis with an increased overall diagnostic accuracy which in turn improves patient management and prognosis.

Keywords: acute abdomen, contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging, plain radiographs, ultrasound

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772 Exploring the Meaning of Safety in Acute Mental Health Inpatient Units from the Consumer Perspective

Authors: Natalie Cutler, Lorna Moxham, Moira Stephens

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Safety is a priority in mental health services, and no more so than in the acute inpatient setting. Mental health service policies and accreditation frameworks commonly approach safety from a risk reduction or elimination perspective leading to service approaches that are arguably more focused on risk than on safety. An exploration what safety means for people who have experienced admission to an acute mental health inpatient unit is currently under way in Sydney, Australia. Using a phenomenographic research approach, this study is seeking to understand the meaning of safety from the perspective of people who use, rather than those who deliver mental health services. Preliminary findings suggest that the meanings of safety for users of mental health services vary from the meanings inherent in the policies and frameworks that inform how mental health services and mental health practice are delivered. This variance has implications for the physical and environmental design of acute mental health inpatient facilities, the policies and practices, and the education and training of mental health staff in particular nurses, who comprise the majority of the mental health workforce. These variances will be presented, along with their implications for the way quality and safety in mental health services are evaluated.

Keywords: acute inpatient, mental health, nursing, phenomenography, recovery, safety

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771 Antioxidant and Acute Toxicity of Stem Extracts of the Ficus Iteophylla

Authors: Muhammad Mukhtar

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The aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant activity and acute toxicity of the extracts of Ficus iteophylla by reactions with 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and method developed by Lork 1983, respectively. Stem bark of Ficus iteophylla was collected, air dried, pulverized to fine powdered and sequentially extracted using acetone, methanol and water in order of increasing polarity. The result shows strong radical scavenging activity against DPPH for all the extracts when compared with ascorbic acid. The LD50 of 316 mg/kg was calculated for all the three extras, and the values were found to be within the practically toxic range, and therefore, care should be taken when using the plants in traditional medicine.

Keywords: antioxidant, acute toxicity, Ficus iteophylla

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770 New Test Algorithm to Detect Acute and Chronic HIV Infection Using a 4th Generation Combo Test

Authors: Barun K. De

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Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by two types of human immunodeficiency viruses, collectively designated HIV. HIV infection is spreading globally particularly in developing countries. Before an individual is diagnosed with HIV, the disease goes through different phases. First there is an acute early phase that is followed by an established or chronic phase. Subsequently, there is a latency period after which the individual becomes immunodeficient. It is in the acute phase that an individual is highly infectious due to a high viral load. Presently, HIV diagnosis involves use of tests that do not detect the acute phase infection during which both the viral RNA and p24 antigen are expressed. Instead, these less sensitive tests detect antibodies to viral antigens which are typically sero-converted later in the disease process following acute infection. These antibodies are detected in both asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals as well as AIDS patients. Studies indicate that early diagnosis and treatment of HIV infection can reduce medical costs, improve survival, and reduce spreading of infection to new uninfected partners. Newer 4th generation combination antigen/antibody tests are highly sensitive and specific for detection of acute and established HIV infection (HIV1 and HIV2) enabling immediate linkage to care. The CDC (Center of Disease Control, USA) recently recommended an algorithm involving three different tests to screen and diagnose acute and established infections of HIV-1 and HIV-2 in a general population. Initially a 4th generation combo test detects a viral antigen p24 and specific antibodies against HIV -1 and HIV-2 envelope proteins. If the test is positive it is followed by a second test known as a differentiation assay which detects antibodies against specific HIV-1 and HIV-2 envelope proteins confirming established infection of HIV-1 or HIV-2. However if it is negative then another test is performed that measures viral load confirming an acute HIV-1 infection. Screening results of a Phoenix area population detected 0.3% new HIV infections among which 32.4% were acute cases. Studies in the U.S. indicate that this algorithm effectively reduces HIV infection through immediate treatment and education following diagnosis.

Keywords: new algorithm, HIV, diagnosis, infection

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769 A Qualitative Study to Explore the Experiences of Muslim Nurses Working in an Acute Setting During the Covid-19 Pandemic

Authors: Sujatha Shanmugasundaram

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Background: It has been since one year that COVID-19 has emerged into the world. Since then, healthcare professionals facing a great challenge in to fight against this deadly virus. According to World Health Organization (WHO) 2021, it is estimated that more than 131 million confirmed cases and 2million deaths around the world due to this pandemic. Nurses are the frontline workers who play a major role in safeguarding the lives of the people in acute care settings. Evidence suggests that there are numbers of research have been carried out on nurses' and healthcare provider’s experiences during the pandemic. But, unfortunately, there are no or little evidence available on Muslim nurse’s perspective. Hence, this research will investigate the experiences of Muslim nurses working in an acute care setting during the pandemic. Purpose: The purpose of the study is to explore the experiences of Muslim nurses working in an acute setting during the COVID-19 pandemic. Research Methods: A qualitative research approach will be utilized for the study. Semi-structured interview schedule will be used to collect the data. Face to face interviews will be conducted. All interviews will be conducted in Arabic, and it will be audio recorded. Verbatim will be noted. Muslim nurses working in an acute setting will be included in the study. Convenient sampling technique will be used to recruit the participants. Ethical approval will be obtained from the study sites. Strauss and Corbin's thematic analysis will be used to analyze the data. Conclusion: Considering that nurses are the frontline workers, they have a significant role in dealing with this COVID-19. It is a great challenge for the nurses working in an acute care setting. Thus, this study will bring out significant findings that will impact the nursing practice.

Keywords: acute care, COVID-19, experiences, muslim nurses

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768 An Autopsy Case of Blunt Chest Trauma from a Traffic Accident Complicated by Chest Compression Due to Resuscitation Attempts

Authors: Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi

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Coronary artery dissection leading to acute myocardial infarction after blunt chest trauma is extremely rare. A 67-year-old woman suffered blunt chest trauma following a traffic accident. The electrocardiogram revealed acute posterior ST-segment elevation and myocardial infarction and coronary angiography demonstrated acute right coronary artery dissection. Following the death of the victim an autopsy was performed after cardiopulmonary support had been carried out. In this case report, we describe the case of a woman with blunt chest trauma, who developed an acute myocardial infarction secondary to right coronary artery dissection. Although there was additional the blunt chest trauma due to chest compression, we confirmed the injury at autopsy and by histological findings.

Keywords: blunt chest trauma, right coronary artery dissection, coronary angiography, autopsy, histological examination

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767 The Use of Regional Blocks Versus IV Opioid Analgesics for Acute Traumatic Pain Management in the Emergency Department

Authors: Lajeesh Jabbar, Shibu T. Varghese

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Being under pain is a very distressing factor that it prolongs the healing of any kind of trauma and add to the post traumatic stressful state. Alleviating the pain from acute traumatic conditions like fracture, degloving injury etc will help in faster recovery and also decrease the incidence of post traumatic stress disorder. Most of the emergency departments in INDIA are using IV opioid analgesics to relieve the patient from pain in cases of acute traumatic injuries. None of the Emergency Departments practice regional blocks in the country. In this study, we are comparing the efficacy of Regional Blocks in relieving the pain in lower limb fractures versus the use of IV analgesics for the same in the emergency department. The site of study is Malabar Institute Of Medical Sciences in Calicut in Kerala in India and is a place which receives approximately 10-20 traumatic fracture cases per day. The fracture sites used for the study purpose are femur fracture and phalangeal fractures.

Keywords: regional blocks, IV analgesia, acute traumatic pain, femur fractures, phalanx fractures

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766 The Admitting Hemogram as a Predictor for Severity and in-Hospital Mortality in Acute Pancreatitis

Authors: Florge Francis A. Sy

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Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory condition of the pancreas with local and systemic complications. Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) has a higher mortality rate. Laboratory parameters like the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), red cell distribution width (RDW), and mean platelet volume (MPV) have been associated with SAP but with conflicting results. This study aims to determine the predictive value of these parameters on the severity and in-hospital mortality of AP. This retrospective, cross-sectional study was done in a private hospital in Cebu City, Philippines. One-hundred five patients were classified according to severity based on the modified Marshall scoring. The admitting hemogram, including the NLR, RDW, and MPV, was obtained from the complete blood count (CBC). Cut-off values for severity and in-hospital mortality were derived from the ROC. Association between NLR, RDW, and MPV with SAP and mortality were determined with a p-value of < 0.05 considered significant. The mean age for AP was 47.6 years, with 50.5% being male. Most had an unknown cause (49.5%), followed by a biliary cause (37.1%). Of the 105 patients, 23 patients had SAP, and 4 died. Older age, longer in-hospital duration, congestive heart failure, elevated creatinine, urea nitrogen, and white blood cell count were seen in SAP. The NLR was associated with in-hospital mortality using a cut-off of > 10.6 (OR 1.133, 95% CI, p-value 0.003) with 100% sensitivity, 70.3% specificity, 11.76% PPV and 100% NPV (AUC 0.855). The NLR was not associated with SAP. The RDW and MPV were not associated with SAP and mortality. The admitting NLR is, therefore, an easily accessible parameter that can predict in-hospital mortality in acute pancreatitis. Although the present study did not show an association of NLR with SAP nor RDW and MPV with both SAP and mortality, further studies are suggested to establish their clinical value.

Keywords: acute pancreatitis, mean platelet volume, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, red cell distribution width

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765 Utility of Routine Colonoscopy in Acute Diverticulitis

Authors: Naya Masood, Russell Hodgson, Mark Tacey

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Purpose: Patients with acute diverticulitis (AD) have an increased risk of underlying colorectal cancer (CRC); however, those with uncomplicated AD may have the same underlying population risk. This study informs on an Australian AD population who were not routinely offered colonoscopic follow-up. Methods: A 2-year (July 2016 – June 2018) retrospective study of patients admitted with CT-confirmed acute diverticulitis was conducted. CT findings were categorised as ‘complicated’ and ‘uncomplicated’ and were correlated with the detection of cancer in subsequent colonoscopy or follow-up. Results: 67.7% (n=292) of 431 patients were seen to have had complicated AD on an abdominopelvic CT scan. Patients were complicated most commonly due to bowel wall thickening reported on CT (90.4%), perforation (20.2%), or an abscess (12%). Follow-up colonoscopic evaluation was conducted in 52.9% (n=228) of total cases of AD, out of which 156 suffered complicated AD and the rest uncomplicated. None of the uncomplicated AD patients in our cohort were found to have CRC. Of those with complicated AD, six were found to have CRC. Conclusion: The only CRC diagnoses were made in patients with complicated AD. Despite available evidence, a significant proportion of uncomplicated AD patients were still undergoing colonoscopy. There is scope to further safely decrease the number of colonoscopies performed in AD patients.

Keywords: acute diverticulitis, colonoscopy, colorectal cancer, advanced adenoma, complicated diverticulitis

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764 A Medical Resource Forecasting Model for Emergency Room Patients with Acute Hepatitis

Authors: R. J. Kuo, W. C. Cheng, W. C. Lien, T. J. Yang

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Taiwan is a hyper endemic area for the Hepatitis B virus (HBV). The estimated total number of HBsAg carriers in the general population who are more than 20 years old is more than 3 million. Therefore, a case record review is conducted from January 2003 to June 2007 for all patients with a diagnosis of acute hepatitis who were admitted to the Emergency Department (ED) of a well-known teaching hospital. The cost for the use of medical resources is defined as the total medical fee. In this study, principal component analysis (PCA) is firstly employed to reduce the number of dimensions. Support vector regression (SVR) and artificial neural network (ANN) are then used to develop the forecasting model. A total of 117 patients meet the inclusion criteria. 61% patients involved in this study are hepatitis B related. The computational result shows that the proposed PCA-SVR model has superior performance than other compared algorithms. In conclusion, the Child-Pugh score and echogram can both be used to predict the cost of medical resources for patients with acute hepatitis in the ED.

Keywords: acute hepatitis, medical resource cost, artificial neural network, support vector regression

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763 Management of Acute Biliary Pathology at Gozo General Hospital

Authors: Kristian Bugeja, Upeshala A. Jayawardena, Clarissa Fenech, Mark Zammit Vincenti

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Introduction: Biliary colic, acute cholecystitis, and gallstone pancreatitis are some of the most common surgical presentations at Gozo General Hospital (GGH). National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines advise that suitable patients with acute biliary problems should be offered a laparoscopic cholecystectomy within one week of diagnosis. There has traditionally been difficulty in achieving this mainly due to the reluctance of some surgeons to operate in the acute setting, limited, timely access to MRCP and ERCP, and organizational issues. Methodology: A retrospective study was performed involving all biliary pathology-related admissions to GGH during the two-year period of 2019 and 2020. Patients’ files and electronic case summary (ECS) were used for data collection, which included demographic data, primary diagnosis, co-morbidities, management, waiting time to surgery, length of stay, readmissions, and reason for readmissions. NICE clinical guidance 188 – Gallstone disease were used as the standard. Results: 51 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 58 years, and 35 (68.6%) were female. The main diagnoses on admission were biliary colic in 31 (60.8%), acute cholecystitis in 10 (19.6%). Others included gallstone pancreatitis in 3 (5.89%), chronic cholecystitis in 2 (3.92%), gall bladder malignancy in 4 (7.84%), and ascending cholangitis in 1 (1.97%). Management included laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 34 (66.7%); conservative in 8 (15.7%) and ERCP in 6 (11.7%). The mean waiting time for laparoscopic cholecystectomy for patients with acute cholecystitis was 74 days – range being between 3 and 146 days since the date of diagnosis. Only one patient who was diagnosed with acute cholecystitis and managed with laparoscopic cholecystectomy was done so within the 7-day time frame. Hospital re-admissions were reported in 5 patients (9.8%) due to vomiting (1), ascending cholangitis (1), and gallstone pancreatitis (3). Discussion: Guidelines were not met for patients presenting to Gozo General Hospital with acute biliary pathology. This resulted in 5 patients being re-admitted to hospital while waiting for definitive surgery. The local issues resulting in the delay to surgery need to be identified and steps are taken to facilitate the provision of urgent cholecystectomy for suitable patients.

Keywords: biliary colic, acute cholecystits, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, conservative management

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762 Effects of Acute Exposure to WIFI Signals (2,45 GHz) on Heart Variability and Blood Pressure in Albinos Rabbit

Authors: Linda Saili, Amel Hanini, Chiraz Smirani, Iness Azzouz, Amina Azzouz, Hafedh Abdemelek, Zihad Bouslama

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Electrocardiogram and arterial pressure measurements were studied under acute exposures to WIFI (2.45 GHz) during one hour in adult male rabbits. Antennas of WIFI were placed at 25 cm at the right side near the heart. Acute exposure of rabbits to WIFI increased heart frequency (+ 22%) and arterial blood pressure (+14%). Moreover, analysis of ECG revealed that WIFI induced a combined increase of PR and QT intervals. By contrast, the same exposure failed to alter the maximum amplitude and P waves. After intravenously injection of dopamine (0.50 ml/kg) and epinephrine (0.50ml/kg) under acute exposure to RF we found that WIFI alter catecholamines(dopamine, epinephrine) action on heart variability and blood pressure compared to control. These results suggest for the first time, as far as we know, that exposure to WIFI affect heart rhythm, blood pressure, and catecholamines efficacy on cardiovascular system; indicating that radio frequency can act directly and/or indirectly on the cardiovascular system.

Keywords: heart rate (HR), arterial pressure (PA), electrocardiogram (ECG), the efficacy of catecholamines, dopamine, epinephrine

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761 Rainfall–Runoff Simulation Using WetSpa Model in Golestan Dam Basin, Iran

Authors: M. R. Dahmardeh Ghaleno, M. Nohtani, S. Khaledi

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Flood simulation and prediction is one of the most active research areas in surface water management. WetSpa is a distributed, continuous, and physical model with daily or hourly time step that explains precipitation, runoff, and evapotranspiration processes for both simple and complex contexts. This model uses a modified rational method for runoff calculation. In this model, runoff is routed along the flow path using Diffusion-Wave equation which depends on the slope, velocity, and flow route characteristics. Golestan Dam Basin is located in Golestan province in Iran and it is passing over coordinates 55° 16´ 50" to 56° 4´ 25" E and 37° 19´ 39" to 37° 49´ 28"N. The area of the catchment is about 224 km2, and elevations in the catchment range from 414 to 2856 m at the outlet, with average slope of 29.78%. Results of the simulations show a good agreement between calculated and measured hydrographs at the outlet of the basin. Drawing upon Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient for calibration periodic model estimated daily hydrographs and maximum flow rate with an accuracy up to 59% and 80.18%, respectively.

Keywords: watershed simulation, WetSpa, stream flow, flood prediction

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760 A Rare Case of Endometriosis Lesion in Caecum Causing Acute Small Bowel Obstruction

Authors: Freda Halim

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Endometriosis in bowel is rare condition, about 3-37% of endometriosis cases. Most of bowel endometriosis rising in the rectosigmoid (90% of bowel endometriosis). The incidence of caecal endometriosis is very low ( < 5% of bowel endometriosis) and almost never causing acute small bowel obstruction. The aim of this paper is to show that although bowel obstruction caused by caecal endometriosis is difficult to diagnose as it is rare, and may require laparotomy to make definite diagnosis, but it should be considered in infertile female patient. The case is 37 years old woman infertile woman with intestinal obstruction with pre-operative diagnosis total acute small bowel obstruction caused by right colonic mass, with sepsis as the complication. Before the acute small bowel obstruction, she complained of chronic right lower quadrant pain with chronic constipation alternate with chronic diarrhea, symptoms that happened both in bowel endometriosis and colorectal malignancy. She also complained of chronic pelvic pain and dysmenorrhea. She was married for 10 years with no child. The patient was never diagnosed with endometriosis and never seek medical attention for infertility and the chronic pelvic pain. The patient underwent Abdominal CT Scan, with results: massive small bowel obstruction, and caecal mass that causing acute small bowel obstruction. Diagnosis of acute small bowel obstruction due to right colonic mass was made, and exploratory laparotomy was performed in the patient. During the laparotomy, mass at caecum and ileocaecal that causing massive small bowel obstruction was found and standard right hemicolectomy and temporary ileostomy were performed. The pathology examination showed ectopic endometriosis lesions in caecum and ileocaecal valve. The histopathology also confirmed with the immunohistochemistry, in which positive ER, PR, CD 10 and CD7 was found the ileocaecal and caecal mass. In the second operation, reanastomosis of the ileum was done 3 months after the first operation. The chronic pelvic pain is decreasing dramatically after the first and second operation. In conclusion, although bowel obstruction caused by caecal endometriosis is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction, but it can be considered as a cause in infertile female patient

Keywords: acute, bowel obstruction, caecum, endometriosis

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759 CP-96345 Rregulates Hydrogen Sulphide Induced TLR4 Signaling Pathway Adhesion Molecules in Caerulein Treated Pancreatic Acinar Cells

Authors: Ramasamy Tamizhselvi, Leema George, Madhav Bhatia

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We have earlier shown that mouse pancreatic acinar cells produce hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and play a role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. This study is to determine the effect of H2S on TLR4 mediated innate immune signaling in acute pancreatitis via substance P (SP). Male Swiss mice were treated with hourly intraperitoneal injection of caerulein (50μg/kg) for 10 hour. DL-propargylglycine (PAG) (100 mg/kg i.p.), an inhibitor of H2S formation was administered 1h after the induction of acute pancreatitis. Pancreatic acinar cells from male Swiss mice were incubated with or without caerulein (10–7 M for 60 min) and CP-96345 (NK1R inhibitor). To better understand the effect of H2S in inflammation, acinar cells were stimulated with caerulein after addition of H2S donor, NaHS. In addition, caerulein treated pancreatic acinar cells were pretreated with PAG (30 µM), for 1h. H2S inhibitor, PAG, eliminated TLR4, IRAK4, TRAF6 and NF-kB levels in an in vitro and in vivo model of caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. PPTA gene deletion reduced TLR4, MyD88, IRAK4, TRAF6, adhesion molecules and NF-kB in caerulein treated pancreatic acinar cells whereas administration of NaHS resulted in further rise in TLR4 and NF-kB levels in caerulein treated pancreatic acinar cells. In addition, acini isolated from mice and treated with PPTA gene receptor NK1R antagonist CP96345 did not exhibit further increase in TLR4, IRAK4, TRAF6, adhesion molecules and NF-kB levels after NaHS pretreatment. The present findings show for the first time that in acute pancreatitis, H2S up-regulates TLR4 pathway and NF-kB via substance P.

Keywords: preprotachykinin-A gene, H2S, TLR4, acute pancreatitis

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758 Pupils´ Questions at School Attendance Beginning and Teachers´ Teaching Strategy

Authors: Marie Pavelková, Hana Lukášová

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Pupils´ inquisitiveness at the beginning of their school attendance is reflected by characteristics of the questions they ask. Clearly most of the classroom communication sequences are initiated by the teacher. But the teaching process also includes questions initiated by pupils in the need to satisfy their need for knowledge. The purpose of our research is to present the results of our pre-research strategy of occurrence of pupil-initiated questions in math lessons at the lower elementary school level, and to reveal the extent to which they are influenced by the teacher´s teaching strategy. We used the research methods of direct and indirect observations of fifth year classes in primary school. We focused on questions asked by the pupils in their math lessons. Our research sample for the pre-research observation method was a collection of video recordings available online. We used them for analysing the nature of pupils´ questions identified there. On the basis of the analysis, we hereby present the results concerning the nature of pupils´ questions asked in math lessons on the lower elementary school level. The interpretation of the collected results will be the starting point for the selection of research strategies in the next research stages concerning pupils’ questions in the future.

Keywords: beginning of schooling, pre-research, questions of pupils, teaching strategy

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757 Acute Phase Proteins, Proinflammatory Cytokines and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Sheep with Pneumonic Pasteurellosis

Authors: Wael M. El-Deeb

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The aim of this study was to assess the pathophysiological importance of lipid profile, acute phase proteins, proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers in sheep with pneumonic pasteurellosis. Blood samples were collected from 36 Pasteurellamultocida-infected sheep, together with 20 healthy controls. Samples for bacteriological examination (nasal swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage) were collected from all animals and subjected to bacteriological examinations. Moreover, heart blood and lung samples were collected from the dead pneumonic sheep and subjected also to bacteriological examinations. A lipid profile was determined, along with a blood picture and other biochemical parameters. The acute phase proteins (fibrinogen, haptoglobin, serum amyloid A), the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6), interferon-gamma and the oxidative stress markers malondialdehyde, super oxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase were also measured. The examined biochemical parameters were increased in the pneumonic sheep, except for cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), which were significantly lower than control group. Acute phase proteins and cytokines were significantly higher in the pneumonic sheep when compared to the healthy sheep. There was a significant increase in the levels of malondialdehyde; however, a significant decrease in the levels of super oxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase was observed. The present study shed the light on the possible pathphysiological role of lipid profile, acute phase proteins (APPs), proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers in pneumonic pasteurelosis in sheep.

Keywords: acute phase proteins, sheep, pasteurella, interleukins, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 316