Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Zhenyu Yan

15 Automated Resin Transfer Moulding of Carbon Phenolic Composites

Authors: Zhenyu Du, Ed Collings, James Meredith


The high cost of composite materials versus conventional materials remains a major barrier to uptake in the transport sector. This is exacerbated by a shortage of skilled labour which makes the labour content of a hand laid composite component (~40 % of total cost) an obvious target for reduction. Automation is a method to remove labour cost and improve quality. This work focuses on the challenges and benefits to automating the manufacturing process from raw fibre to trimmed component. It will detail the experimental work required to complete an automation cell, the control strategy used to integrate all machines and the final benefits in terms of throughput and cost.

Keywords: automation, low cost technologies, processing and manufacturing technologies, resin transfer moulding

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14 Housing Harmony: Social Integration in Singapore Public Housing

Authors: Yingjie Feng, Lei Xu, Zhenyu Cao


In the process of urbanization, public housing is often a powerful means to deal with large floating population. In the developed countries like the U.S, France, Singapore, and Japan, the experience on how to make use of public housing to realize social integration in aspects of race, class, religion, income is gained through years of practice. Take the example of Singapore, the article first introduces the ethnic composition background and public housing development in Singapore, and then gives a detailed explanation and analysis on social integration in public housing from the views of Ethnic quotas policy, community organization construction and design of public space. Finally, combined with the Chinese situation, the article points out that the solution for social integration in China is the organic mix of different income groups in public housing.

Keywords: floating population, public housing, Singapore, social integration, urbanization

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13 Trace Network: A Probabilistic Relevant Pattern Recognition Approach to Attribution Trace Analysis

Authors: Jian Xu, Xiaochun Yun, Yongzheng Zhang, Yafei Sang, Zhenyu Cheng


Network attack prevention is a critical research area of information security. Network attack would be oppressed if attribution techniques are capable to trace back to the attackers after the hacking event. Therefore attributing these attacks to a particular identification becomes one of the important tasks when analysts attempt to differentiate and profile the attacker behind a piece of attack trace. To assist analysts in expose attackers behind the scenes, this paper researches on the connections between attribution traces and proposes probabilistic relevance based attribution patterns. This method facilitates the evaluation of the plausibility relevance between different traceable identifications. Furthermore, through analyzing the connections among traces, it could confirm the existence probability of a certain organization as well as discover its affinitive partners by the means of drawing relevance matrix from attribution traces.

Keywords: attribution trace, probabilistic relevance, network attack, attacker identification

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12 Distributed Actor System for Traffic Simulation

Authors: Han Wang, Zhuoxian Dai, Zhe Zhu, Hui Zhang, Zhenyu Zeng


In traditional microscopic traffic simulation, various approaches have been suggested to implement the single-agent behaviors about lane changing and intelligent driver model. However, when it comes to very large metropolitan areas, microscopic traffic simulation requires more resources and become time-consuming, then macroscopic traffic simulation aggregate trends of interests rather than individual vehicle traces. In this paper, we describe the architecture and implementation of the actor system of microscopic traffic simulation, which exploits the distributed architecture of modern-day cloud computing. The results demonstrate that our architecture achieves high-performance and outperforms all the other traditional microscopic software in all tasks. To the best of our knowledge, this the first system that enables single-agent behavior in macroscopic traffic simulation. We thus believe it contributes to a new type of system for traffic simulation, which could provide individual vehicle behaviors in microscopic traffic simulation.

Keywords: actor system, cloud computing, distributed system, traffic simulation

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11 Personalized Email Marketing Strategy: A Reinforcement Learning Approach

Authors: Lei Zhang, Tingting Xu, Jun He, Zhenyu Yan


Email marketing is one of the most important segments of online marketing. It has been proved to be the most effective way to acquire and retain customers. The email content is vital to customers. Different customers may have different familiarity with a product, so a successful marketing strategy must personalize email content based on individual customers’ product affinity. In this study, we build our personalized email marketing strategy with three types of emails: nurture, promotion, and conversion. Each type of email has a different influence on customers. We investigate this difference by analyzing customers’ open rates, click rates and opt-out rates. Feature importance from response models is also analyzed. The goal of the marketing strategy is to improve the click rate on conversion-type emails. To build the personalized strategy, we formulate the problem as a reinforcement learning problem and adopt a Q-learning algorithm with variations. The simulation results show that our model-based strategy outperforms the current marketer’s strategy.

Keywords: email marketing, email content, reinforcement learning, machine learning, Q-learning

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10 Fengqiao: An Ongoing Experiment with 'UrbanMemory' Theory in an Ancient Town and ItsDesign Experience

Authors: Yibei Ye, Lei Xu, Zhenyu Cao


Ancient town is a unique carrier of urban culture, maintaining the core culture of a region and continuing the urban context. Fengqiao, a nearly 2000-year-old town was on the brink of dilapidation in the past few decades. The town faced such problems as poor construction quality, environmental degeneration, inadequate open space, cultural characteristics and industry vitality. Therefore, the research upholds the principle of ‘organic renewal’ and puts forward three practical updated strategies which are ‘Repair Old as Ever,' ‘Activate Function’ and ‘Fill in with The New’. Also as a participant in updating the design, the author aims to ‘keep the memory of the history and see the development of the present’ as the goal of updating the design and regards the process of town renewal as the experimental venue for realizing this purpose. The research will sum up innovations on the designing process and the engineering progress in the past two years, and find out the innovation experiment and the effect of its implementation on the methodological level of the organic renewal design in Fengqiao ancient town. From here, we can also enjoy the very characteristic development trend presented by China in the design practice of the organic renewal in the ancient town.

Keywords: characteristic town, Fengqiao, organic renewal, urban memory

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9 Meditation Based Brain Painting Promotes Foreign Language Memory through Establishing a Brain-Computer Interface

Authors: Zhepeng Rui, Zhenyu Gu, Caitilin de Bérigny


In the current study, we designed an interactive meditation and brain painting application to cultivate users’ creativity, promote meditation, reduce stress, and improve cognition while attempting to learn a foreign language. User tests and data analyses were conducted on 42 male and 42 female participants to better understand sex-associated psychological and aesthetic differences. Our method utilized brain-computer interfaces to import meditation and attention data to create artwork in meditation-based applications. Female participants showed statistically significantly different language learning outcomes following three meditation paradigms. The art style of brain painting helped females with language memory. Our results suggest that the most ideal methods for promoting memory attention were meditation methods and brain painting exercises contributing to language learning, memory concentration promotion, and foreign word memorization. We conclude that a short period of meditation practice can help in learning a foreign language. These findings provide new insights into meditation, creative language education, brain-computer interface, and human-computer interactions.

Keywords: brain-computer interface, creative thinking, meditation, mental health

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8 Minimum-Fuel Optimal Trajectory for Reusable First-Stage Rocket Landing Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Kevin Spencer G. Anglim, Zhenyu Zhang, Qingbin Gao


Reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) present a more environmentally-friendly approach to accessing space when compared to traditional launch vehicles that are discarded after each flight. This paper studies the recyclable nature of RLVs by presenting a solution method for determining minimum-fuel optimal trajectories using principles from optimal control theory and particle swarm optimization (PSO). This problem is formulated as a minimum-landing error powered descent problem where it is desired to move the RLV from a fixed set of initial conditions to three different sets of terminal conditions. However, unlike other powered descent studies, this paper considers the highly nonlinear effects caused by atmospheric drag, which are often ignored for studies on the Moon or on Mars. Rather than optimizing the controls directly, the throttle control is assumed to be bang-off-bang with a predetermined thrust direction for each phase of flight. The PSO method is verified in a one-dimensional comparison study, and it is then applied to the two-dimensional cases, the results of which are illustrated.

Keywords: minimum-fuel optimal trajectory, particle swarm optimization, reusable rocket, SpaceX

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7 Research on Users' Obesity and Office Tower Core-Tube Design from the Perspective of Physical Activities

Authors: Ming Ma, Zhenyu Cai, Rui Li


People are more vulnerable to health problems than ever before, such as overweight and obesity due to the change of built environment. In the high-rise buildings, the core-tube layout is closely associated with user’s physical activities which will affect human’s health in a long-term. As for the white-collars who spends the amount of time working in the office tower, using staircase seems to provide an opportunity for them to increase the physical activities in the workplaces. This paper is aiming to find out the specific relationship between health and core-tube in the office tower through analyzing the correlation between staircase’s layout and user’s health. The variables of staircase’s layout are consisted of two indicators: plan layout and space design, including nine factors while health variable is applying BIM as the only main factor. 14 office towers in downtown Shanghai are selected as the research samples because of its typical users’ pattern and similar core-tube layout. In the result, it is obvious that the users from these 14 cases have higher BMI than average partly because that the staircases are mainly designed for emergency and fire instead of daily use. After the regression and correlation analysis of the variables of health and staircases, it’s found that users’ BMI is significantly associated with the factors of floor guide-signs and distance from lobby to the staircase. In addition, the factors of comfort level of staircase such as width and daylighting have a certain correlation with users’ BMI.

Keywords: office tower, staircase, design, obesity, physical activity

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6 Silicon-Photonic-Sensor System for Botulinum Toxin Detection in Water

Authors: Binh T. T. Nguyen, Zhenyu Li, Eric Yap, Yi Zhang, Ai-Qun Liu


Silicon-photonic-sensor system is an emerging class of analytical technologies that use evanescent field wave to sensitively measure the slight difference in the surrounding environment. The wavelength shift induced by local refractive index change is used as an indicator in the system. These devices can be served as sensors for a wide variety of chemical or biomolecular detection in clinical and environmental fields. In our study, a system including a silicon-based micro-ring resonator, microfluidic channel, and optical processing is designed, fabricated for biomolecule detection. The system is demonstrated to detect Clostridium botulinum type A neurotoxin (BoNT) in different water sources. BoNT is one of the most toxic substances known and relatively easily obtained from a cultured bacteria source. The toxin is extremely lethal with LD50 of about 0.1µg/70kg intravenously, 1µg/ 70 kg by inhalation, and 70µg/kg orally. These factors make botulinum neurotoxins primary candidates as bioterrorism or biothreat agents. It is required to have a sensing system which can detect BoNT in a short time, high sensitive and automatic. For BoNT detection, silicon-based micro-ring resonator is modified with a linker for the immobilization of the anti-botulinum capture antibody. The enzymatic reaction is employed to increase the signal hence gains sensitivity. As a result, a detection limit to 30 pg/mL is achieved by our silicon-photonic sensor within a short period of 80 min. The sensor also shows high specificity versus the other type of botulinum. In the future, by designing the multifunctional waveguide array with fully automatic control system, it is simple to simultaneously detect multi-biomaterials at a low concentration within a short period. The system has a great potential to apply for online, real-time and high sensitivity for the label-free bimolecular rapid detection.

Keywords: biotoxin, photonic, ring resonator, sensor

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5 Research on Spatial Pattern and Spatial Structure of Human Settlement from the View of Spatial Anthropology – A Case Study of the Settlement in Sizhai Village, City of Zhuji, Zhejiang Province, China

Authors: Ni Zhenyu


A human settlement is defined as the social activities, social relationships and lifestyles generated within a certain territory, which is also relatively independent territorial living space and domain composed of common people. Along with the advancement of technology and the development of society, the idea, presented in traditional research, that human settlements are deemed as substantial organic integrity with strong autonomy, are more often challenged nowadays. Spatial form of human settlements is one of the most outstanding external expressions with its subjectivity and autonomy, nevertheless, the projections of social, economic activities on certain territories are even more significant. What exactly is the relationship between human beings and the spatial form of the settlements where they live in? a question worth thinking over has been raised, that if a new view, a spatial anthropological one , can be constructed to review and respond to spatial form of human settlements based on research theories and methods of cultural anthropology within the profession of architecture. This article interprets how the typical spatial form of human settlements in the basin area of Bac Giang Province is formed under the collective impacts of local social order, land use condition, topographic features, and social contracts. A particular case of the settlement in Sizhai Village, City of Zhuji, Zhejiang Province is chosen to study for research purpose. Spatial form of human settlements are interpreted as a modeled integrity affected corporately by dominant economy, social patterns, key symbol marks and core values, etc.. Spatial form of human settlements, being a structured existence, is a materialized, behavioral, and social space; it can be considered as a place where human beings realize their behaviors and a path on which the continuity of their behaviors are kept, also for social practice a territory where currant social structure and social relationships are maintained, strengthened and rebuilt. This article aims to break the boundary of understanding that spatial form of human settlements is pure physical space, furthermore, endeavors to highlight the autonomy status of human beings, focusing on their relationships with certain territories, their interpersonal relationships, man-earth relationships and the state of existence of human beings, elaborating the deeper connotation behind spatial form of human settlements.

Keywords: spatial anthropology, human settlement, spatial pattern, spatial structure

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4 Resistance Evaluation of Common Wheat Varieties/Lines to Leaf Rust and Stripe Rust at Seedling and Adult-Plant Stage in China, Gansu Province

Authors: Shelin Jin, Jin Huang, Shiqin Cao, Qiuzhen Jia, Bo Zhang, Zhenyu Sun


Stripe rust and leaf rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici and Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici are two of the most damaging diseases of wheat in China. In recent years, leaf rust has migrated to some wheat growing areas previously suitable for stripe rust, resulting in a mixture of the two diseases occurring in the same area and at the same time, and seriously damage wheat production in China, Gansu Province. The most effective method of prevention those two diseases are through the use of resistant cultivars. However, many studies have only carried out of resistance of wheat varieties for a single disease; resistance to both diseases is unknown. In order to definite the resistance composition of wheat varieties to these two diseases, 715 wheat varieties/lines from 8 breeding units in Gansu province were collected to test for the resistance to stripe rust and leaf rust at seedling stage in greenhouse and at adult plant stage in field in 2016-2018, respectively. Spore suspensions with the fresh mixture races of CYR32, CYR33, and CYR34 of Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici and mixture races of THTP, THTT, TKTT, and THTS of Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici were used for inoculation separately. The result shows that only 4.74% of the varieties/lines show comprehensive resistance to strip rust and leaf rust at all growth stages, and there are 34 wheat varieties/lines including Tianxuan 67, 2006-1-4-1-4-2-7-2-3-10, 03-139-1-2-2-1-2-1, Qingnong 21, Lenghan 5, 04-203-1-1-1 and so on. In seedling stage, the frequencies of resistant varieties/lines to wheat strip rust and leaf rust were 56.64% and 30.23%. While the materials were susceptible to these diseases were 43.36% and 69.77%. 71 varieties/lines were resistant to those two diseases, accounted for 9.93%. 10 varieties/lines, accounted for 1.4%, were highly resistant (including immune/near immune) to those two diseases. In adult-plant stage, the frequencies of resistant varieties/lines to wheat strip rust and leaf rust were 76.53% and 36.11%. While the materials were susceptible to these diseases were 23.47% and 63.89%. 137 varieties/lines were resistant to those two diseases, accounted for 19.16%. 59 varieties/lines, accounted for 8.25%, were highly resistant (including immune/near immune) to those two diseases. Overall, the 715 varieties /lines had high resistance to wheat strip rust, but poor resistance to leaf rust. This study found out some resistant materials which had better comprehensive resistance to leaf rust and strip rust, also pointed out the resistance characteristics of 715 varieties/lines to those two diseases at the seedling stage and adult-plant stage, which will be of great guiding significance in wheat resistance breeding and comprehensive control those two diseases in China, Gansu Province in the future.

Keywords: Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici, Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici, resistance of variety, wheat

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3 Molecular Dynamics Simulations on Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability of Li-H2 Interface at Ultra High-Speed Shock Loads

Authors: Weirong Wang, Shenghong Huang, Xisheng Luo, Zhenyu Li


Material mixing process and related dynamic issues at extreme compressing conditions have gained more and more concerns in last ten years because of the engineering appealings in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and hypervelocity aircraft developments. However, there lacks models and methods that can handle fully coupled turbulent material mixing and complex fluid evolution under conditions of high energy density regime up to now. In aspects of macro hydrodynamics, three numerical methods such as direct numerical simulation (DNS), large eddy simulation (LES) and Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations (RANS) has obtained relative acceptable consensus under the conditions of low energy density regime. However, under the conditions of high energy density regime, they can not be applied directly due to occurrence of dissociation, ionization, dramatic change of equation of state, thermodynamic properties etc., which may make the governing equations invalid in some coupled situations. However, in view of micro/meso scale regime, the methods based on Molecular Dynamics (MD) as well as Monte Carlo (MC) model are proved to be promising and effective ways to investigate such issues. In this study, both classical MD and first-principle based electron force field MD (eFF-MD) methods are applied to investigate Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability of metal Lithium and gas Hydrogen (Li-H2) interface mixing at different shock loading speed ranging from 3 km/s to 30 km/s. It is found that: 1) Classical MD method based on predefined potential functions has some limits in application to extreme conditions, since it cannot simulate the ionization process and its potential functions are not suitable to all conditions, while the eFF-MD method can correctly simulate the ionization process due to its ‘ab initio’ feature; 2) Due to computational cost, the eFF-MD results are also influenced by simulation domain dimensions, boundary conditions and relaxation time choices, etc., in computations. Series of tests have been conducted to determine the optimized parameters. 3) Ionization induced by strong shock compression has important effects on Li-H2 interface evolutions of RMI, indicating a new micromechanism of RMI under conditions of high energy density regime.

Keywords: first-principle, ionization, molecular dynamics, material mixture, Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

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2 Accounting for Downtime Effects in Resilience-Based Highway Network Restoration Scheduling

Authors: Zhenyu Zhang, Hsi-Hsien Wei


Highway networks play a vital role in post-disaster recovery for disaster-damaged areas. Damaged bridges in such networks can disrupt the recovery activities by impeding the transportation of people, cargo, and reconstruction resources. Therefore, rapid restoration of damaged bridges is of paramount importance to long-term disaster recovery. In the post-disaster recovery phase, the key to restoration scheduling for a highway network is prioritization of bridge-repair tasks. Resilience is widely used as a measure of the ability to recover with which a network can return to its pre-disaster level of functionality. In practice, highways will be temporarily blocked during the downtime of bridge restoration, leading to the decrease of highway-network functionality. The failure to take downtime effects into account can lead to overestimation of network resilience. Additionally, post-disaster recovery of highway networks is generally divided into emergency bridge repair (EBR) in the response phase and long-term bridge repair (LBR) in the recovery phase, and both of EBR and LBR are different in terms of restoration objectives, restoration duration, budget, etc. Distinguish these two phases are important to precisely quantify highway network resilience and generate suitable restoration schedules for highway networks in the recovery phase. To address the above issues, this study proposes a novel resilience quantification method for the optimization of long-term bridge repair schedules (LBRS) taking into account the impact of EBR activities and restoration downtime on a highway network’s functionality. A time-dependent integer program with recursive functions is formulated for optimally scheduling LBR activities. Moreover, since uncertainty always exists in the LBRS problem, this paper extends the optimization model from the deterministic case to the stochastic case. A hybrid genetic algorithm that integrates a heuristic approach into a traditional genetic algorithm to accelerate the evolution process is developed. The proposed methods are tested using data from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, based on a regional highway network in Sichuan, China, consisting of 168 highway bridges on 36 highways connecting 25 cities/towns. The results show that, in this case, neglecting the bridge restoration downtime can lead to approximately 15% overestimation of highway network resilience. Moreover, accounting for the impact of EBR on network functionality can help to generate a more specific and reasonable LBRS. The theoretical and practical values are as follows. First, the proposed network recovery curve contributes to comprehensive quantification of highway network resilience by accounting for the impact of both restoration downtime and EBR activities on the recovery curves. Moreover, this study can improve the highway network resilience from the organizational dimension by providing bridge managers with optimal LBR strategies.

Keywords: disaster management, highway network, long-term bridge repair schedule, resilience, restoration downtime

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1 Resilience-Based Emergency Bridge Inspection Routing and Repair Scheduling under Uncertainty

Authors: Zhenyu Zhang, Hsi-Hsien Wei


Highway network systems play a vital role in disaster response for disaster-damaged areas. Damaged bridges in such network systems can impede disaster response by disrupting transportation of rescue teams or humanitarian supplies. Therefore, emergency inspection and repair of bridges to quickly collect damage information of bridges and recover the functionality of highway networks is of paramount importance to disaster response. A widely used measure of a network’s capability to recover from disasters is resilience. To enhance highway network resilience, plenty of studies have developed various repair scheduling methods for the prioritization of bridge-repair tasks. These methods assume that repair activities are performed after the damage to a highway network is fully understood via inspection, although inspecting all bridges in a regional highway network may take days, leading to the significant delay in repairing bridges. In reality, emergency repair activities can be commenced as soon as the damage data of some bridges that are crucial to emergency response are obtained. Given that emergency bridge inspection and repair (EBIR) activities are executed simultaneously in the response phase, the real-time interactions between these activities can occur – the blockage of highways due to repair activities can affect inspection routes which in turn have an impact on emergency repair scheduling by providing real-time information on bridge damages. However, the impact of such interactions on the optimal emergency inspection routes (EIR) and emergency repair schedules (ERS) has not been discussed in prior studies. To overcome the aforementioned deficiencies, this study develops a routing and scheduling model for EBIR while accounting for real-time inspection-repair interactions to maximize highway network resilience. A stochastic, time-dependent integer program is proposed for the complex and real-time interacting EBIR problem given multiple inspection and repair teams at locations as set post-disaster. A hybrid genetic algorithm that integrates a heuristic approach into a traditional genetic algorithm to accelerate the evolution process is developed. Computational tests are performed using data from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, based on a regional highway network in Sichuan, China, consisting of 168 highway bridges on 36 highways connecting 25 cities/towns. The results show that the simultaneous implementation of bridge inspection and repair activities can significantly improve the highway network resilience. Moreover, the deployment of inspection and repair teams should match each other, and the network resilience will not be improved once the unilateral increase in inspection teams or repair teams exceeds a certain level. This study contributes to both knowledge and practice. First, the developed mathematical model makes it possible for capturing the impact of real-time inspection-repair interactions on inspection routing and repair scheduling and efficiently deriving optimal EIR and ERS on a large and complex highway network. Moreover, this study contributes to the organizational dimension of highway network resilience by providing optimal strategies for highway bridge management. With the decision support tool, disaster managers are able to identify the most critical bridges for disaster management and make decisions on proper inspection and repair strategies to improve highway network resilience.

Keywords: disaster management, emergency bridge inspection and repair, highway network, resilience, uncertainty

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