Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 254

Search results for: Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary

254 Differential Antibrucella Activity of Bovine and Murine Macrophages

Authors: Raheela Akhtar, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary, Yongqun Oliver He, Muhammad Younus, Aftab Ahmad Anjum

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Brucella abortus is an intracellular pathogen affecting macrophages. Macrophages release some components such as lysozymes (LZ), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrite intermediates (RNI) which are important tools against intracellular survival of Brucella. The antibrucella activity of bovine and murine macrophages was compared following stimulation with Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharides. Our results revealed that murine macrophages were ten times more potent to produce antibrucella components than bovine macrophages. The differential production of these components explained the differential Brucella killing ability of these species that was measured in terms of intramacrophagic survival of Brucella in murine and bovine macrophages.

Keywords: bovine macrophages, Brucella abortus, cell stimulation, cytokines, Murine macrophages

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253 The Development of Private Housing Schemes to Address the Housing Problem: A Case Study of Islamabad

Authors: Zafar Iqbal Zafar, Abdul Waheed

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The Capital Development Authority (CDA) Ordinance 1960 requires CDA to acquire land for the provision of housing in Islamabad. However, the pace of residential development was slow and the demand for housing was increasing rapidly. To resolve the growing housing problem, CDA involved the private sector in the development of housing schemes. Detailed bye-laws for regulation of private housing schemes were prepared and these bylaws were called “Modalities & Procedures”. This paper explains how the Modalities and Procedures of CDA have been successful in regulating the development of private housing schemes in Islamabad.

Keywords: housing schemes, master plan, development works, zoning regulations

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
252 Iqbal's Philosophy of Action in the Light of Contemporary Philosophy of Action

Authors: Sevcan Ozturk

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The aim of this paper is to analyze the twentieth-century Muslim philosopher Muhammad Iqbal’s philosophy of action in the light of the main issues of contemporary philosophy of action. Iqbal is one of the most celebrated and eminent figures of modern Islamic thought. However, a review of the works on Iqbal shows that most of the central concepts of his philosophy have not received enough attention. His notion of ‘action’ in its philosophical context is one of these concepts. One of the main characteristics of Iqbal’s approach is that he develops his discussion around the main themes of contemporary philosophy of action, which includes ontological and conceptual questions regarding the nature of human actions. He also discusses that action is the only way to develop human personality, and that the human being can only achieve immortality promised by Islam through his actions. Therefore, while presenting an approach that can be read in the light of contemporary philosophy of action, which has become one of the significant parts of modern philosophical discussions in the west particularly since the nineteenth century, he, at the same time, develops his own philosophy of action in the light of Islamic resources. Consequently, these two main characteristics of his discussion of the notion of action make his philosophy of action an important contribution to contemporary philosophy of action, a field that ignores the discussions of Muslim philosophers on action. Therefore, this paper aims at highlighting Iqbal’s contribution to the modern debate of action by analysing Iqbal’s notion of action in the light of the contemporary issues of philosophy of action. This will, first of all, include an examination of contemporary action theory. Although the main discussions of contemporary philosophy of action will provide the methodology of this study, the main paradigms of Iqbal’s approach to the notion of action will also be considered during the examination of the discussions of philosophy of action. Then, Iqbal’s own philosophy of action will be established in the light of the contemporary philosophy of action. It is hoped that this paper will cultivate a dialogue between Iqbal scholars and those working in the field of philosophy of action, and that it will be a contribution to the fields of Iqbal studies, philosophy of action, and intercultural philosophy.

Keywords: action, development of personality, Muhammad Iqbal, philosophy of action

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251 A Kierkegaardian Reading of Iqbal's Poetry as a Communicative Act

Authors: Sevcan Ozturk

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The overall aim of this paper is to present a Kierkegaardian approach to Iqbal’s use of literature as a form of communication. Despite belonging to different historical, cultural, and religious backgrounds, the philosophical approaches of Soren Kierkegaard, ‘the father of existentialism,' and Muhammad Iqbal ‘the spiritual father of Pakistan’ present certain parallels. Both Kierkegaard and Iqbal take human existence as the starting point for their reflections, emphasise the subject of becoming genuine religious personalities, and develop a notion of the self. While doing these they both adopt parallel methods, employ literary techniques and poetical forms, and use their literary works as a form of communication. The problem is that Iqbal does not provide a clear account of his method as Kierkegaard does in his works. As a result, Iqbal’s literary approach appears to be a collection of contradictions. This is mainly because despite he writes most of his works in the poetical form, he condemns all kinds of art including poetry. Moreover, while attacking on Islamic mysticism, he, at the same time, uses classical literary forms, and a number of traditional mystical, poetic symbols. This paper will argue that the contradictions found in Iqbal’s approach are actually a significant part of Iqbal’s way of communicating his reader. It is the contention of this paper that with the help of the parallels between the literary and philosophical theories of Kierkegaard and Iqbal, the application of Kierkegaard’s method to Iqbal’s use of poetry as a communicative act will make it possible to dispel the seeming ambiguities in Iqbal’s literary approach. The application of Kierkegaard’s theory to Iqbal’s literary method will include an analysis of the main principles of Kierkegaard’s own literary technique of ‘indirect communication,' which is a crucial term of his existentialist philosophy. Second, the clash between what Iqbal’s says about art and poetry and what he does will be highlighted in the light of Kierkegaardian theory of indirect communication. It will be argued that Iqbal’s literary technique can be considered as a form of ‘indirect communication,' and that reading his technique in this way helps on dispelling the contradictions in his approach. It is hoped that this paper will cultivate a dialogue between those who work in the fields of comparative philosophy Kierkegaard studies, existentialism, contemporary Islamic thought, Iqbal studies, and literary criticism.

Keywords: comparative philosophy, existentialism, indirect communication, intercultural philosophy, literary communication, Muhammad Iqbal, Soren Kierkegaard

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
250 Correlation between Microalbuminuria and Hypertension in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Authors: Alia Ali, Azeem Taj, Muhammed Joher Amin, Farrukh Iqbal, Zafar Iqbal

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Background: Hypertension is commonly found in patients with Diabetic Kidney Disease (DKD). Microalbuminuria is the first clinical sign of involvement of kidneys in patients with type 2 diabetes. Uncontrolled hypertension induces a higher risk of cardiovascular events, including death, increasing proteinuria and progression to kidney disease. Objectives: To determine the correlation between microalbuminuria and hypertension and their association with other risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: One hundred and thirteen type 2 diabetic patients were screened for microalbuminuria and raised blood pressure, attending the diabetic clinic of Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. The study was conducted from November 2012 to June 2013. Results: Patients were divided into two groups. Group 1, those with normoalbuminuria (n=63) and Group 2, those having microalbuminuria (n=50). Group 2 patients showed higher blood pressure values as compared to Group 1. The results were statistically significant and showed poor glycemic control as a contributing risk factor. Conclusion: The study concluded that there is high frequency of hypertension among type 2 diabetics but still much higher among those having microalbuminuria. So, early recognition of renal dysfunction through detection of microalbuminuria and to start treatment without any delay will confer future protection from end-stage renal disease as well as hypertension and its complications in type 2 diabetic patients.

Keywords: hypertension, microalbuminuria, diabetic kidney disease, type 2 Diabetes mellitus

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249 Evidence on Scale Economies in National Bank of Pakistan

Authors: Sohail Zafar, Sardar Javaid Iqbal Khan

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We use a parametric approach within a translog cost function framework to estimate the economies of scale in National Bank of Pakistan from 1997 to 2013. The results indicate significant economies of scale throughout the sample at aggregates and disaggregates taking in account size subject to stipulation ownership. The factor markets often produce scale inefficiencies in the banking of developing countries like Pakistan such inefficiencies are common due to distortion in factor markets leading to the use of inappropriate factor proportions. The findings suggest that National Bank of Pakistan diversify their asset portfolios that it has cost advantage, therefore, expansion in size should be encouraged under current technology because it appears to be cost effective. In addition, our findings support the implementation of universal banking model in Pakistan.

Keywords: scale economies, cost function, disaggregates, aggregates

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248 Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols for WLAN Based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)

Authors: Noman Shabbir, Roheel Nawaz, Muhammad N. Iqbal, Junaid Zafar

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This paper focuses on the performance evaluation of routing protocols in WLAN based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). A comparative analysis of routing protocols such as Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing System (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) is been made against different network parameters like network load, end to end delay and throughput in small, medium and large-scale sensor network scenarios to identify the best performing protocol. Simulation results indicate that OLSR gives minimum network load in all three scenarios while AODV gives the best throughput in small scale network but in medium and large scale networks, DSR is better. In terms of delay, OLSR is more efficient in small and medium scale network while AODV is slightly better in large networks.

Keywords: WLAN, WSN, AODV, DSR, OLSR

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247 The Occurrence of Depression with Chronic Liver Disease

Authors: Roop Kiran, Muhammad Shoaib Zafar, Nazish Idrees Chaudhary

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Depression is known to be the second most frequently occurring comorbid mental illness among patients suffering from chronic physical conditions. Around the world, depression is associated with chronic liver diseases as one of the dominant symptoms. This evidence brings attention to the research about various predictors for short life expectancy and poor quality of life in patients suffering from comorbid depression and CLD. Following are the objectives of this study i) measure the occurrence rate of comorbid depression among patients with CLD and ii) find the frequency of risk factors between patients with and without depression comorbid with CLD. This is a quantitative study with a cross-sectional design. The research data was collected through a measure called Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) with a demographic Performa from 100 patients who visited the Department of Psychiatry for consultation at Mayo Hospital Lahore with a diagnosed CLD from the last four years. There were (42%) patients with CLD who had comorbid depression. Among depressed and non-depressed patients, significant differences were found (p<0.05) for unemployment in 25 (59.5%) males and 20 (34.5%) female patients, for co-morbidity in 25 (59.5%) males and 18 (31.0%) female patients, for illiteracy in 18 (42.9%) males and 13 (22.4%) female patients, for the history of CLD for more than the last 2years in 41 (97.6%) males and 47 (81.0%) female patients, for severity of CLD in 26 (61.9%) males and 20 (34.5%) female patients. This concludes that depression frequently occurs among patients with CLD. This study recommends considerable attention to plan preventative measures in the future and develop such intervention protocols that consider the management of risk factors that significantly influence comorbid depression with CLD.

Keywords: psychiatry, comorbid, health, quality of life

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246 Causes and Implications of Obesity in Urban School Going Children

Authors: Mohammad Amjad, Muhammad Iqbal Zafar, Ashfaq Ahmed Maan, Muhammad Tayyab Kashif

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Obesity is an abnormal physical condition where an increased and undesirable fat accumulates in the human body. Obesity is an international phenomenon. In the present study, 12 schools were randomly selected from each district considering the areas i.e. Elite Private Schools in the private sector, Government schools in urban areas and Government schools in rural areas. Interviews were conducted with male students studying in grade 5 to grade 9 in each school. The sample size was 600 students; 300 from Faisalabad district and 300 from Rawalpindi district in Pakistan. A well-structured and pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection. The calibrated scales were used to attain the heights and weights of the respondents. Obesity of school-going children depends on family types, family size, family history, junk food consumption, mother’s education, weekly time spent in walking, and sports facility at school levels. Academic performance, physical health and psychological health of school going children are affected with obesity. Concrete steps and policies could minimize the incidence of obesity in children in Pakistan.

Keywords: body mass index, cardiovascular disease, fast food, morbidity, overweight

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245 Re-Visiting Rumi and Iqbal on Self-Enhancement for Social Responsibility

Authors: Javed Y. Uppal

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The background of this study is the great degree of stress that the world is experiencing today, internationally among the countries, within a community among people, and even individually within one’s own self. The significance of the study is the attempt to find a solution of this stress in the philosophy of the olden times of Jalaluddin Rumi and comparatively recently of that of Allama Iqbal. The methodology adopted in this paper is firstly exploration of the perspectives of these philosophers that are being consolidated by a number of psychic and spiritual experts of today, who are being widely read but less followed. This paper further goes on presenting brief life sketches of Rumi and Iqbal. It expounds the key concepts proposed by them and the social change that was resulted in the times of the two above mentioned metaphysical philosophers. It is further amplified that with the recent advancements, in both metaphysics and the physical sciences, the gap between the two is closing down. Both Rumi and Iqbal emphasized their common essence. The old time's concepts, postulates, and philosophies are hence once again becoming valid. The findings of this paper are that the existence of human empathy, affection and mutual social attraction among humans is still valid. The positive inner belief system that dictates our thoughts and actions is vital. As a conclusion, empathy should enable us solving our problems collectively. We need to strengthen our inner communication system, to listen to the messages that come to our inner-selves. We need to get guidance and strength from them. We need to value common needs and purposes collectively to achieve results. Spiritual energy among us is to be harnessed and utilized. Connectivity is to be recognized to unify and strengthen ties among people. Mutual bonding at small and large group levels is to be employed for the survival of the disadvantaged, and sustainability of the empowering trends. With the above guidelines, hopefully, we can define a framework towards a brave and happy new humane world.

Keywords: belief system, connectivity, human empathy, inner-self, mutual bonding, spiritual energy

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244 The U.S.-Taliban Peace Deal: Two-level Game Logic and Actors’ Payoffs

Authors: Zafar Iqbal

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This article aims at analyzing the U.S.-Taliban peace deal considering the cross- pressures that both parties (U.S. and Taliban) faced and eventually paved the way for a negotiated settlement to the two-decade-long war. The paper first discusses the peace process initiated by President Obama in 2009 and then explores the factors that compelled both the parties to sign this deal. The study is based on secondary data and interviews done with the leading experts on Afghanistan along with the Taliban Qatar office spokesperson’s interview. The theoretical framework is based on the interplay of diplomacy and domestic politics: two-level games logic proposed by Robert D. Putnam. The two-level games suggest that actors involved in negotiations face cross-pressures and are constrained both by the expectations of the domestic audience and their counterpart’s zone of possible agreement. This paper will take the cross pressures for both sides as the permissive factors for the entire process of negotiations. However, there will be a slight aberration in the application of Putnam’s two-level games. In this case, it is not inter-state negotiations but between an all-powerful state and the unyielding non-state actors. The study concludes that both the parties faced domestic as well as international pressure which compelled them to sign a deal that could lead to an end of the two-decade-long war. Furthermore, it looks at the potential prospects and challenges of the deal following the U.S. withdrawal.

Keywords: neo-Taliban insurgency, negotiations, two-level game, U.S.-Taliban peace deal, U.S. withdrawal

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243 Rural Development through Women Participation in Livestock Care and Management in District Faisalabad

Authors: Arfan Riasat, M. Iqbal Zafar, Gulfam Riasat

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Pakistani women actively participate in livestock management activities, along with their normal domestic chores. The study was designed to measure the position and contribution of rural women, their constraints in livestock management activities and mainly how the rural women contribute for development in the district Faisalabad. It was envisioned that women participation in livestock activities have rarely been investigated. A multistage random sampling technique was used to collect the data from Tehsil Summandry of the district selected at random. Two union councils were taken by using simple random sampling technique. Four Chak (village) from each union council were selected at random and fifteen woman were further selected randomly from each selected chak. The results show that a vast majority of women were illiterate, having annual family income of one to two lac. They are living in joint family system. Their main occupation is agriculture and they spend long hours in whole livestock related activities to support their families. A large proportion of the respondents reported that they had to face problems and constraints in livestock activities in the context of decision making, medication, awareness, training along with social and economic issues. Analysis indicated that education level of women, income of household, age were significantly associated with level of participation. Women participation in livestock activities increased production and they were involved in income generating activities for better economic conditions of their families.

Keywords: women, participation, livestock, management, rural development

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242 Distribution of Spotted Fever Group in Ixodid Ticks, Domestic Cattle and Buffalos of Faisalabad District, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Qurat-ul-Ain, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Nisar Khan, Asma Kausar, Adil Ejaz

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Rickettsiosis, caused by a Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae (SFGR), is considered as an emerging infectious disease from public and veterinary perspective. The present study reports distribution of SFGR in the host (buffalo and cattle) and vector (ticks) population determined through gene specific amplification through PCR targeting outer membrane protein (ompA). Tick and blood samples were collected using standard protocols through convenient sampling from district Faisalabad. Ticks were dissected to extract salivary glands (SG). Blood and tick SG pools were subjected to DNA extraction and amplification of ompA using PCR. Overall prevalence of SFGR was reported as 21.5% and 33.6 % from blood and ticks, respectively. Hyalomma anatolicum was more prevalent tick associated with SFGR as compared to Rhipicephalus sp. Higher prevalence of SFGR was reported in cattle (25%) population as compared to that of buffalo (17.07%). On seasonal basis, high SFGR prevalence was recorded during spring season (48.1%, 26.32%, 17.76%) as compared to winter (27.9%, 21.43%, 15.38%) in vector and host (cattle and buffalo respectively) population. Sequencing analysis indicated that rickettsial endo-symbionts were associated with ticks of the study area. These results provided baseline information about the prevalence of SFGR in vector and host population.

Keywords: Rickettsia, livestock, polymerase chain reaction, sequencing, ticks, vectors

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241 Analysis of Solvent Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Poly(Ether Ether Ketone) Using Nano-Indentation

Authors: Tanveer Iqbal, Saima Yasin, Muhammad Zafar, Ahmad Shakeel, Fahad Nazir, Paul F. Luckham

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The contact performance of polymeric composites is dependent on the localized mechanical properties of materials. This is particularly important for fiber oriented polymeric materials where self-lubrication from top layers has been the basic requirement. The nanoindentation response of fiber reinforced poly(etheretherketone), PEEK, composites have been evaluated to determine the near-surface mechanical characteristics. Load-displacement compliance, hardness and elastic modulus data based on contact compliance mode (CSM) indentation of carbon fiber oriented and glass fiber oriented PEEK composites are reported as a function of indentation contact displacement. The composite surfaces were indented to a maximum penetration depth of 5µm using Berkovich tip indenter. A typical multiphase response of the composite surface is depicted from analysis of the indentation data for the composites, showing presence of polymer matrix, fibers, and interphase regions. The observed experimental results show that although the surface mechanical properties of carbon fiber based PEEK composite were comparatively higher, the properties of matrix material were seen to be increased in the presence of glass fibers. The experimental methodology may provide a convenient means to understand morphological description of the multimodal polymeric composites.

Keywords: nanoindentation, PEEK, modulus, hardness, plasticization

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240 Nematicidal Activity of the Cell Extract from Penicillium Sp EU0013 and Its Metabolite Profile Using High Performance Liquid Chromatograpy

Authors: Zafar Iqbal, Sana Irshad Khan

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Organic extract from newly isolated plant growth promoting fungus (PGPF) Penicillium sp EU0013 was subjected to bioassays including anti fungal (disc diffusion) cytotoxicity (brine shrimp lethality), herbicidal (Lemna minor) and nematicidal activities. Metabolite profile of the extract was also assessed using HPLC analysis with the aim to identify bioactive natural products in the extract as new drug candidate(s). The extract showed anti fungal potential against tested fungal pathogens. Growth of the Wilt pathogen Fusarium oxyosproum was inhibited up to 63% when compared to negative reference. Activity against brine shrimps was weak and mortality up to 10% was observed at concentration of 200 µg. mL-1. The extract exhibited no toxicity against Lemna minor frond at 200 µg. mL-1. Nematicidal activity was observed very potent against root knot nematode and LC50 value was calculated as 52.5 ug. mL-1 using probit analysis. Methodically assessment of metabolites profile by HPLC showed the presence of kojic acid (Rt 1.4 min) and aflatoxin B1 (Rt 5.9 min) in the mycellial extract as compared with standards. The major unidentified metabolite was eluted at Rt 8.6 along with other minor peaks. The observed high toxicity against root knot nematode was attributed to the unidentified compounds that make fungal extract worthy of further exploration for isolation and structural characterization studies for development of future commercial nematicidal compound(s).

Keywords: penicillium, nematicidal activity, metabolites, HPLC

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239 A Study to Explore the Views of Students regarding E-Learning as an Instructional Tool at University Level

Authors: Zafar Iqbal

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This study involved students of 6th semester enrolled in a Bachelor of Computer Science Program at university level. In this era of science and technology, e-learning can be helpful for grassroots in providing them access to education tenant in less developed areas. It is a potential substitute of face-to-face teaching being used in different countries. The purpose of the study was to explore the views of students about e-learning (Facebook) as an instructional tool. By using purposive sampling technique an intact class of 30 students included both male and female were selected where e-learning was used as an instructional tool. The views of students were explored through qualitative approach by using focus group interviews. The approach was helpful to develop comprehensive understanding of students’ views towards e- learning. In addition, probing questions were also asked and recorded. Data was transcribed, generated nodes and then coded text against these nodes. For this purpose and further analysis, NVivo 10 software was used. Themes were generated and tangibly presented through cluster analysis. Findings were interesting and provide sufficient evidence that face book is a subsequent e-learning source for students of higher education. Students acknowledged it as best source of learning and it was aligned with their academic and social behavior. It was not time specific and therefore, feasible for students who work day time and can get on line access to the material when they got free time. There were some distracters (time wasters) reported by the students but can be minimized by little effort. In short, e-learning is need of the day and potential learning source for every individual who have access to internet living at any part of the globe.

Keywords: e-learning, facebook, instructional tool, higher education

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238 Alterations in Esterases and Phosphatases of Three Economically Important Stored Grain Insect Pests Exposed to Botanical Extracts, Nicotiana tabacum and Eucalyptus globulus

Authors: Kazam Ali, Muhammad Sagheer, Mansoor-Ul- Hasan, Abdul Rashid, Chaudhary Muhammad Shahid Hanif, Fawad Zafar Ahmad Khan, Hafiz Muhammad Aatif

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Natural extracts of two medicinal plants Nicotiana tabacum and Eucalyptus globulus were tested for their toxic and enzyme inhibition effects against three insects species of stored grains Tribolium castaneum, Trogoderma granarium and Sitophilus granarius. Responses of insects varied with exposure periods and dilution levels of acetone extracts of plants. Both plant extracts were lethal to insects but the crude leaf extract of N. tabacum evidenced strong toxic action against three tested insect species. Maximum mortality 36.30% in S. granarius, 25.96% in T. castaneum, and 21.88% in T. granarium were found at 20% dilution level, after 10 days exposure to botanical extract of N. tabacum. The impact of N. tabacum and E. globulus on the activity of esterases; acetylcholinesterase (AChE), α-carboxylesterase (α-CE), β-carboxylesterase (β-CE) and phosphatses; acid phosphatase (AcP), alkaline phosphatase (AlP) of three stored grain insect species were also studied in the survivors of toxicity assay. Whole body homogenates of insects were used for enzyme determination and consumption of high dose rate N. tabacum extract containing diet resulted in maximum 55.33% inhibition of AChE and 26.17% AlP inhibition in T. castaneum, while 44.17% of α-CE and 31.67% inhibition of β-CE activity were noted in S. granarius. Maximum inhibition 23.44% of AcP activity was found in T. granarium exposed to diet treated with the extract of E. globulus. The findings indicate that acetone extracts of N. tabacum and E. globulus are naturally occurring pesticide and facts of the enzyme inhibition relations specify that their effect changes with the insect species.

Keywords: natural extract, medicinal plant, toxic effects, enzyme inhibition, acetone extract

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237 Competitor Integration with Voice of Customer Ratings in QFD Studies Using Geometric Mean Based on AHP

Authors: Zafar Iqbal, Nigel P. Grigg, K. Govindaraju, Nicola M. Campbell-Allen

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Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is structured approach. It has been used to improve the quality of products and process in a wide range of fields. Using this systematic tool, practitioners normally rank Voice of Customer ratings (VoCs) in order to produce Improvement Ratios (IRs) which become the basis for prioritising process / product design or improvement activities. In one matrix of the House of Quality (HOQ) competitors are rated. The method of obtaining improvement ratios (IRs) does not always integrate the competitors’ rating in a systematic way that fully utilises competitor rating information. This can have the effect of diverting QFD practitioners’ attention from a potentially important VOC to less important VOC. In order to enhance QFD analysis, we present a more systematic method for integrating competitor ratings, utilising the geometric mean of the customer rating matrix. In this paper we develop a new approach, based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), in which we generating a matrix of multiple comparisons of all competitors, and derive a geometric mean for each competitor. For each VOC an improved IR is derived which-we argue herein - enhances the initial VOC importance ratings by integrating more information about competitor performance. In this way, our method can help overcome one of the possible shortcomings of QFD. We then use a published QFD example from literature as a case study to demonstrate the use of the new AHP-based IRs, and show how these can be used to re-rank existing VOCs to -arguably- better achieve the goal of customer satisfaction in relation VOC ratings and competitors’ rankings. We demonstrate how two dimensional AHP-based geometric mean derived from the multiple competitor comparisons matrix can be useful for analysing competitors’ rankings. Our method utilises an established methodology (AHP) applied within an established application (QFD), but in an original way (through the competitor analysis matrix), to achieve a novel improvement.

Keywords: quality function deployment, geometric mean, improvement ratio, AHP, competitors ratings

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236 Emotional Intelligence and Age in Open Distance Learning

Authors: Naila Naseer

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Emotional Intelligence (EI) concept is not new yet unique and interesting. EI is a person’s ability to be aware of his/her own emotions and to manage, handle and communicate emotions with others effectively. The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between emotional intelligence and age of graduate level students at Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU). Population consisted of Allama Iqbal Open University students (B.Ed 3rd Semester, Autumn 2007) from Rawalpindi and Islamabad regions. Total number of sample consisted of 469 participants was randomly drawn out by using table of random numbers. Bar-On EQ-i was administered on the participants through personal contact. The instrument was also validated through pilot study on a random sample of 50 participants (B.Ed students Spring 2006), who had completed their B.Ed degree successfully. Data was analyzed and tabulated in percentages, frequencies, mean, standard deviation, correlation, and scatter gram in SPSS (version 16.0 for windows). The results revealed that students with higher age group had scored low on the scale (Bar-On EQ-i). Moreover, the students in low age groups exhibited higher levels of EI as compared with old age students.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, age level, learning, emotion-related feelings

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235 Association of Phytomineral Supplementation with the Seasonal Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites of Grazing Sheep in the Scenario of Climate Change

Authors: Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Hafiz Muhammad Rizwan, Ashfaq Ahmad Chatta, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Saqib

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Changes in the climate are posing threats to the livestock community throughout the globe. Agro-grazing animals and natural vegetation as their forages are the most important components of animal production. Climate and local conditions not only determine the nature and kind of plants, their distribution, composition and nutritive value in different cropping belts and grazing sites but also influence number and kinds of grazing animals. Phytomineral supplementation can act as an indirect tool to boost-up immunological profile of animals leading to the development of resilience against parasitic infections. The present study correlates the trace element (Cu, Co, Mn, Zn) profile of grazing sheep, feedstuffs, respective soils and their GI helminths in a selected district of Sialkot, Punjab, Pakistan. Ten species of GI helminths were found during the survey. A significant (P < 0.05) variation in the concentrations (conc.) of Zn, Cu, Mn and Co was recorded in a total of 16 collected forages. During autumn, mean conc. of Cu, Zn and Co in sera were inversely proportional to the GI helminth burden; while, during spring, only Zn was inversely proportional to the GI helminth burden in grazing sheep. During autumn the highest conc. of Zn, Cu, Mn and Co were recorded in Echinochloa colona, Amaranthus viridis, Cannabis sativa, and Brachiaria ramose and during spring in Cichorium intybus, Cynodon dactylon, Parthenium hysterophorus and Coronopus didymus respectively. The trace element-rich forages, preferably Zn, found effective against helminth infection are advisable supplemental remedies to improve the trace element profile in grazing sheep. This mitigation strategy may ultimately improve the resilience against GI helminth infections especially in the resource poor countries like Pakistan.

Keywords: coprological examination, Trace elements, Sheep, Gastro-intestinal parasites, Prevalence, Sialkot, Pakistan

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234 Landfill Site Selection Using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis A Case Study for Gulshan-e-Iqbal Town, Karachi

Authors: Javeria Arain, Saad Malik

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The management of solid waste is a crucial and essential aspect of urban environmental management especially in a city with an ever increasing population such as Karachi. The total amount of municipal solid waste generated from Gulshan e Iqbal town on average is 444.48 tons per day and landfill sites are a widely accepted solution for final disposal of this waste. However, an improperly selected site can have immense environmental, economical and ecological impacts. To select an appropriate landfill site a number of factors should be kept into consideration to minimize the potential hazards of solid waste. The purpose of this research is to analyse the study area for the construction of an appropriate landfill site for disposal of municipal solid waste generated from Gulshan e-Iqbal Town by using geospatial techniques considering hydrological, geological, social and geomorphological factors. This was achieved using analytical hierarchy process and fuzzy analysis as a decision support tool with integration of geographic information sciences techniques. Eight most critical parameters, relevant to the study area, were selected. After generation of thematic layers for each parameter, overlay analysis was performed in ArcGIS 10.0 software. The results produced by both methods were then compared with each other and the final suitability map using AHP shows that 19% of the total area is Least Suitable, 6% is Suitable but avoided, 46% is Moderately Suitable, 26% is Suitable, 2% is Most Suitable and 1% is Restricted. In comparison the output map of fuzzy set theory is not in crisp logic rather it provides an output map with a range of 0-1, where 0 indicates least suitable and 1 indicates most suitable site. Considering the results it is deduced that the northern part of the city is appropriate for constructing the landfill site though a final decision for an optimal site could be made after field survey and considering economical and political factors.

Keywords: Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), fuzzy set theory, Geographic Information Sciences (GIS), Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
233 Highly Efficient in Vitro Regeneration of Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) Karsten: A Critically Endangered Medicinal Plant

Authors: Mahendran Ganesan, Sanjeet Kumar Verma, Zafar Iqbal, Ashish Chandran, Zakir Husain, Shama Afroz, Sana Shahid, Laiq Ur Rahman

Abstract:

Highly efficient in vitro regeneration system has been developed for Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) H. Karst, a high prized traditional medicinal plant to treat numerous ailments such as liver disorders, malaria and diabetes and are reported to have a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. Its medicinal usage is well-documented in Indian pharmaceutical codex, the British and the American pharmacopeias, and in different traditional medicine such as the Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha medical systems. Nodal explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various phytohormones for multiple shoot induction. The nodal segments failed to respond in growth regulator free medium. All the concentrations of BAP, Kin and TDZ facilitated shoot bud break and multiple shoot induction. Among the various cytokinins tested, BAP was found to be more effective with respect to initiation and subsequent development of shoots. Of the various concentrations BAP tested, BAP at 4.0 mg/L showed the higher average number of shoot regeneration (10.80 shoots per explant). Kin at 4 mg/L and TDZ at 4 mg/L induced 5.70 and 04.5+0 shoots per explant, respectively. Further increase in concentration did not favour an increase in the number of shoots. However, these shoots failed to elongate further. Hence, addition of GA₃ (1 mg/L) was added to the above medium. This treatment resulted in the elongation of shoots (2.50 cm) and a further increase in the number of microshoots (34.20 shoots/explant). Roots were also induced in the same medium containing BAP (4 mg/L) + GA₃ (1 mg/L) + NAA (0.5 mg/L). In vitro derived plantlets with well-developed roots were transferred to the potting media containing garden soil: sand: vermicompost (2:1:1). Plantlets were covered with a polyethylene bag and irrigated with water. The pots were maintained at 25 ± 2ºC, and then the polyethylene cover was gradually loosened, thus dropping the humidity (65–70%). This procedure subsequently resulted in in vitro hardening of the plantlet.

Keywords: micropropagation, nodal explant, plant growth regulators, Swertia chirayita

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232 Seasonal Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites and Their Association with Trace Element Contents in Sera of Sheep, Grazing Forages and Soils of Sialkot District, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Hafiz M. Rizwan, Muhammad S. Sajid, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Saqib

Abstract:

Gastro-intestinal (GI) helminths infection in sheep causes a substantial loss in terms of productivity and constitutes serious economic losses in the world. Different types of forages are rich in trace element contents and may act as a natural resource to improve the trace element deficiencies leading to immunity boost-up in general and against gastrointestinal parasitic infections in particular. In the present study, the level of trace elements (Cu, Co, Mn, Zn) determined in sera of different breeds of sheep, available feedstuffs, respective soil samples and their association with GI helminths in Sialkot district, Punjab, Pakistan. Almost similar prevalence of GI helminths was recorded (32.81%) during spring 2015 and (32.55%) during autumn 2014. The parasitic species identified from the microscopically scanned faecal samples of district Sialkot were Fasciola (F.) hepatica, F. gigantica, Haemonchus contortus, Eimeria crandallis, Gongylonema pulchrum, Oesophagostomum sp., Trichuris ovis, Strongyles sp., Cryptosporidium sp. and Trichostrongylus sp. Among variables like age, sex, and breed, only sex was found significant in district Sialkot. A significant (P < 0.05) variation in the concentration of Zn, Cu, Mn, and Co was recorded in collected forages species. Soils of grazing field showed insignificant (P > 0.05) variation among soils of different tehsils of Sialkot district. Statistically, sera of sheep showed no variation (P > 0.05) during autumn 2014, While, variation (P < 0.05) among different tehsils of Sialkot district during spring 2015 except Co. During autumn 2014 the mean concentration of Cu, Zn, and Co in sera was inversely proportional to the mean EPG of sheep while during spring 2015 only Zn was inversely proportional to the mean EPG of sheep. The trace element-rich forages preferably Zn were effective ones against helminths infection. The trace element-rich forages will be recommended for their utilization as an alternate to improve the trace element deficiencies in sheep which ultimately boost up the immunity against gastrointestinal parasitic infections.

Keywords: coprological examination, gastro-intestinal parasites, prevalence, sheep, trace elements

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231 Infectivity of Hyalomma Ticks for Theileria annulata Using 18s rRNA PCR

Authors: Muhammad S. Sajid, A. Iqbal, A. Kausar, M. Jawad-ul-Hassan, Z. Iqbal, Hafiz M. Rizwan, M. Saqib

Abstract:

Among the ixodid ticks, species of genus Hyalomma are of prime importance as they can survive in harsh conditions better than those of other species. Similarly, among various tick-borne pathogens, Theileria (T.) annulata, the causative agent of tropical theileriosis in large ruminants, is responsible for reduced productivity and ultimately substantial economic losses due to morbidity and mortality. The present study was planned to screening of vector ticks through molecular techniques for determination of tick-borne theileriosis in district Toba Tek Singh (T. T. Singh), Punjab, Pakistan. For this purpose, among the collected ticks (n = 2252) from livestock and their microclimate, Hyalomma spp. were subjected to dissection for procurement of salivary glands (SGs) and formation of pool (averaged 8 acini in each pool). Each pool of acini was used for DNA extraction, quantification and primer-specific amplification of 18S rRNA of Theileria (T.) annulata. The amplicons were electrophoresed using 1.8% agarose gel following by imaging to identify the band specific for T. annulata. For confirmation, the positive amplicons were subjected to sequencing, BLAST analysis and homology search using NCBI software. The number of Theileria-infected acini was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in female ticks vs male ticks, infesting ticks vs questing ticks and riverine-collected vs non-riverine collected. The data provides first attempt to quantify the vectoral capacity of ixodid ticks in Pakistan for T. annulata which can be helpful in estimation of risk analysis of theileriosis to the domestic livestock population of the country.

Keywords: Hyalomma anatolicum, ixodids, PCR, Theileria annulata

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230 Influence of Pseudomonas japonica on Growth and Metal Tolerance of Celosia cristata L.

Authors: Muhammad Umair Mushtaq, Ameena Iqbal, Muhammad Aqib Hassan Ali Khan, Ismat Nawaz, Sohail Yousaf, Mazhar Iqbal

Abstract:

Heavy metals are one of the priority pollutants as they pose serious health and environmental threats. They can be removed by various physiochemical methods but are costly and responsible for additional environmental problems. Bioremediation that exploits plants and their associated microbes have been referred as cost effective and environmental friendly technique. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the potential of Celosia cristata and effects of bacteria, Pseudomonas japonica, and organic amendment moss/compost on tolerating/accumulating heavy metals. Two weeks old seedlings were transferred to soil in pots, and after four weeks they were inoculated with bacterial strain, while after growth of six weeks they were watered with a metal containing synthetic wastewater and were harvested after a growth period of nine weeks. After harvesting, morphological and physiological parameters and metal content of plants were measured. The results showed highest plant growth and biomass production in case of organic amendments while highest metal uptake has been found in non-amended pots. Positive controls have shown highest Pb uptake of 2900 mg/kg DW, while P. japonica amended pots have shown highest Cd, Cr, Ni and Cu uptake of 963.53, 1481.17, 1022.01 and 602.17 mg/kg DW, respectively. In conclusion organic amendments have strong impacts on growth enhancement while P. japonica enhances metal translocation and accumulation to aerial parts with little significant involvement in plant growth.

Keywords: ornamental plants, plant microbe interaction, amendments, bacteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
229 Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols in Vehicular Adhoc Networks

Authors: Salman Naseer, Usman Zafar, Iqra Zafar

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This study explores the implication of Vehicular Adhoc Network (VANET) - in the rural and urban scenarios that is one domain of Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET). VANET provides wireless communication between vehicle to vehicle and also roadside units. The Federal Commission Committee of United States of American has been allocated 75 MHz of the spectrum band in the 5.9 GHz frequency range for dedicated short-range communications (DSRC) that are specifically designed to enhance any road safety applications and entertainment/information applications. There are several vehicular related projects viz; California path, car 2 car communication consortium, the ETSI, and IEEE 1609 working group that have already been conducted to improve the overall road safety or traffic management. After the critical literature review, the selection of routing protocols is determined, and its performance was well thought-out in the urban and rural scenarios. Numerous routing protocols for VANET are applied to carry out current research. Its evaluation was conceded with the help of selected protocols through simulation via performance metric i.e. throughput and packet drop. Excel and Google graph API tools are used for plotting the graphs after the simulation results in order to compare the selected routing protocols which result with each other. In addition, the sum of the output from each scenario was computed to undoubtedly present the divergence in results. The findings of the current study present that DSR gives enhanced performance for low packet drop and high throughput as compared to AODV and DSDV in an urban congested area and in rural environments. On the other hand, in low-density area, VANET AODV gives better results as compared to DSR. The worth of the current study may be judged as the information exchanged between vehicles is useful for comfort, safety, and entertainment. Furthermore, the communication system performance depends on the way routing is done in the network and moreover, the routing of the data based on protocols implement in the network. The above-presented results lead to policy implication and develop our understanding of the broader spectrum of VANET.

Keywords: AODV, DSDV, DSR, Adhoc network

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228 A Next Generation Multi-Scale Modeling Theatre for in silico Oncology

Authors: Safee Chaudhary, Mahnoor Naseer Gondal, Hira Anees Awan, Abdul Rehman, Ammar Arif, Risham Hussain, Huma Khawar, Zainab Arshad, Muhammad Faizyab Ali Chaudhary, Waleed Ahmed, Muhammad Umer Sultan, Bibi Amina, Salaar Khan, Muhammad Moaz Ahmad, Osama Shiraz Shah, Hadia Hameed, Muhammad Farooq Ahmad Butt, Muhammad Ahmad, Sameer Ahmed, Fayyaz Ahmed, Omer Ishaq, Waqar Nabi, Wim Vanderbauwhede, Bilal Wajid, Huma Shehwana, Muhammad Tariq, Amir Faisal

Abstract:

Cancer is a manifestation of multifactorial deregulations in biomolecular pathways. These deregulations arise from the complex multi-scale interplay between cellular and extracellular factors. Such multifactorial aberrations at gene, protein, and extracellular scales need to be investigated systematically towards decoding the underlying mechanisms and orchestrating therapeutic interventions for patient treatment. In this work, we propose ‘TISON’, a next-generation web-based multiscale modeling platform for clinical systems oncology. TISON’s unique modeling abstraction allows a seamless coupling of information from biomolecular networks, cell decision circuits, extra-cellular environments, and tissue geometries. The platform can undertake multiscale sensitivity analysis towards in silico biomarker identification and drug evaluation on cellular phenotypes in user-defined tissue geometries. Furthermore, integration of cancer expression databases such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Human Proteome Atlas (HPA) facilitates in the development of personalized therapeutics. TISON is the next-evolution of multiscale cancer modeling and simulation platforms and provides a ‘zero-code’ model development, simulation, and analysis environment for application in clinical settings.

Keywords: systems oncology, cancer systems biology, cancer therapeutics, personalized therapeutics, cancer modelling

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227 Software Architectural Design Ontology

Authors: Muhammad Irfan Marwat, Sadaqat Jan, Syed Zafar Ali Shah

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Software architecture plays a key role in software development but absence of formal description of software architecture causes different impede in software development. To cope with these difficulties, ontology has been used as artifact. This paper proposes ontology for software architectural design based on IEEE model for architecture description and Kruchten 4+1 model for viewpoints classification. For categorization of style and views, ISO/IEC 42010 has been used. Corpus method has been used to evaluate ontology. The main aim of the proposed ontology is to classify and locate software architectural design information.

Keywords: semantic-based software architecture, software architecture, ontology, software engineering

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226 Influence of Rotation on Rayleigh-Type Wave in Piezoelectric Plate

Authors: Soniya Chaudhary, Sanjeev Sahu

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Propagation of Rayleigh-type waves in a rotating piezoelectric plate is investigated. The materials are assumed to be transversely isotropic crystals. The frequency equation have been derived for electrically open and short cases. Effect of rotation and piezoelectricity have been shown. It is also found that piezoelectric material properties have an important effect on Rayleigh wave propagation. The result is relevant to the analysis and design of various acoustic surface wave devices constructed from piezoelectric materials also in SAW devices.

Keywords: rotation, frequency equation, piezoelectricity, rayleigh-type wave

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225 Direct Integration of 3D Ultrasound Scans with Patient Educational Mobile Application

Authors: Zafar Iqbal, Eugene Chan, Fareed Ahmed, Mohamed Jama, Avez Rizvi

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Advancements in Ultrasound Technology have enabled machines to capture 3D and 4D images with intricate features of the growing fetus. Sonographers can now capture clear 3D images and 4D videos of the fetus, especially of the face. Fetal faces are often seen on the ultrasound scan of the third trimester where anatomical features become more defined. Parents often want 3D/4D images and videos of their ultrasounds, and particularly image that capture the child’s face. Sidra Medicine developed a patient education mobile app called 10 Moons to improve care and provide useful information during the length of their pregnancy. In addition to general information, we built the ability to send ultrasound images directly from the modality to the mobile application, allowing expectant mothers to easily store and share images of their baby. 10 Moons represent the length of the pregnancy on a lunar calendar, which has both cultural and religious significance in the Middle East. During the third trimester scan, sonographers can capture 3D pictures of the fetus. Ultrasound machines are connected with a local 10 Moons Server with a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) application running on it. Sonographers are able to send images directly to the DICOM server by a preprogrammed button on the ultrasound modality. Mothers can also request which pictures they would like to be available on the app. An internally built DICOM application receives the image and saves the patient information from DICOM header (for verification purpose). The application also anonymizes the image by removing all the DICOM header information and subsequently converts it into a lossless JPEG. Finally, and the application passes the image to the mobile application server. On the 10 Moons mobile app – patients enter their Medical Record Number (MRN) and Date of Birth (DOB) to receive a One Time Password (OTP) for security reasons to view the images. Patients can also share the images anonymized images with friends and family. Furthermore, patients can also request 3D printed mementos of their child through 10 Moons. 10 Moons is unique patient education and information application where expected mothers can also see 3D ultrasound images of their children. Sidra Medicine staff has the added benefit of a full content management administrative backend where updates to content can be made. The app is available on secure infrastructure with both local and public interfaces. The application is also available in both English and Arabic languages to facilitate most of the patients in the region. Innovation is at the heart of modern healthcare management. With Innovation being one of Sidra Medicine’s core values, our 10 Moons application provides expectant mothers with unique educational content as well as the ability to store and share images of their child and purchase 3D printed mementos.

Keywords: patient educational mobile application, ultrasound images, digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM), imaging informatics

Procedia PDF Downloads 53