Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 44

Search results for: Yuta Yamamoto

44 Impact Force Difference on Natural Grass Versus Synthetic Turf Football Fields

Authors: Nathaniel C. Villanueva, Ian K. H. Chun, Alyssa S. Fujiwara, Emily R. Leibovitch, Brennan E. Yamamoto, Loren G. Yamamoto


Introduction: In previous studies of high school sports, over 15% of concussions were attributed to contact with the playing surface. While artificial turf fields are increasing in popularity due to lower maintenance costs, artificial turf has been associated with more ankle and knee injuries, with inconclusive data on concussions. In this study, natural grass and artificial football fields were compared in terms of deceleration on fall impact. Methods: Accelerometers were placed on the forehead, apex of the head, and right ear of a Century Body Opponent Bag (BOB) manikin. A Riddell HITS football helmet was secured onto the head of the manikin over the accelerometers. This manikin was dropped onto natural grass (n = 10) and artificial turf (n = 9) high school football fields. The manikin was dropped from a stationary position at a height of 60 cm onto its front, back, and left side. Each of these drops was conducted 10 times at the 40-yard line, 20-yard line, and endzone. The net deceleration on impact was calculated as a net vector from each of the three accelerometers’ x, y, and z vectors from the three different locations on the manikin’s head (9 vector measurements per drop). Results: Mean values for the multiple drops were calculated for each accelerometer and drop type for each field. All accelerometers in forward and backward falls and one accelerometer in side falls showed significantly greater impact force on synthetic turf compared to the natural grass surfaces. Conclusion: Impact force was higher on synthetic fields for all drop types for at least one of the accelerometer locations. These findings suggest that concussion risk might be higher for athletes playing on artificial turf fields.

Keywords: concussion, football, biomechanics, sports

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43 The Interaction between Hydrogen and Surface Stress in Stainless Steel

Authors: Osamu Takakuwa, Yuta Mano, Hitoshi Soyama


This paper reveals the interaction between hydrogen and surface stress in austenitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction stress measurement and thermal desorption analysis before and after being charged with hydrogen. The surface residual stress was varied by surface finishing using several disc polishing agents. The obtained results show that the residual stress near surface had a significant effect on hydrogen absorption behavior, that is, tensile residual stress promoted the hydrogen absorption and compressive one did opposite. Also, hydrogen induced equi-biaxial stress and this stress has a linear correlation with hydrogen content.

Keywords: hydrogen embrittlement, residual stress, surface finishing, stainless steel

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42 Membrane Permeability of Middle Molecules: A Computational Chemistry Approach

Authors: Sundaram Arulmozhiraja, Kanade Shimizu, Yuta Yamamoto, Satoshi Ichikawa, Maenaka Katsumi, Hiroaki Tokiwa


Drug discovery is shifting from small molecule based drugs targeting local active site to middle molecules (MM) targeting large, flat, and groove-shaped binding sites, for example, protein-protein interface because at least half of all targets assumed to be involved in human disease have been classified as “difficult to drug” with traditional small molecules. Hence, MMs such as peptides, natural products, glycans, nucleic acids with various high potent bioactivities become important targets for drug discovery programs in the recent years as they could be used for ‘undruggable” intracellular targets. Cell membrane permeability is one of the key properties of pharmacodynamically active MM drug compounds and so evaluating this property for the potential MMs is crucial. Computational prediction for cell membrane permeability of molecules is very challenging; however, recent advancement in the molecular dynamics simulations help to solve this issue partially. It is expected that MMs with high membrane permeability will enable drug discovery research to expand its borders towards intracellular targets. Further to understand the chemistry behind the permeability of MMs, it is necessary to investigate their conformational changes during the permeation through membrane and for that their interactions with the membrane field should be studied reliably because these interactions involve various non-bonding interactions such as hydrogen bonding, -stacking, charge-transfer, polarization dispersion, and non-classical weak hydrogen bonding. Therefore, parameters-based classical mechanics calculations are hardly sufficient to investigate these interactions rather, quantum mechanical (QM) calculations are essential. Fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method could be used for such purpose as it performs ab initio QM calculations by dividing the system into fragments. The present work is aimed to study the cell permeability of middle molecules using molecular dynamics simulations and FMO-QM calculations. For this purpose, a natural compound syringolin and its analogues were considered in this study. Molecular simulations were performed using NAMD and Gromacs programs with CHARMM force field. FMO calculations were performed using the PAICS program at the correlated Resolution-of-Identity second-order Moller Plesset (RI-MP2) level with the cc-pVDZ basis set. The simulations clearly show that while syringolin could not permeate the membrane, its selected analogues go through the medium in nano second scale. These correlates well with the existing experimental evidences that these syringolin analogues are membrane-permeable compounds. Further analyses indicate that intramolecular -stacking interactions in the syringolin analogues influenced their permeability positively. These intramolecular interactions reduce the polarity of these analogues so that they could permeate the lipophilic cell membrane. Conclusively, the cell membrane permeability of various middle molecules with potent bioactivities is efficiently studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Insight of this behavior is thoroughly investigated using FMO-QM calculations. Results obtained in the present study indicate that non-bonding intramolecular interactions such as hydrogen-bonding and -stacking along with the conformational flexibility of MMs are essential for amicable membrane permeation. These results are interesting and are nice example for this theoretical calculation approach that could be used to study the permeability of other middle molecules. This work was supported by Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) under Grant Number 18ae0101047.

Keywords: fragment molecular orbital theory, membrane permeability, middle molecules, molecular dynamics simulation

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41 Plasma Actuator Application to Control Surfaces of a Model Aircraft

Authors: Yuta Moriyama, Etsuo Morishita


Plasma actuator is very effective to recover stall flows over an upper airfoil surface. We first manufacture the actuator, test the stability of the device by trial and error basis and find the conditions for steady operations. We visualize the flow around an airfoil in the smoke tunnel and observe the stall recovery. The plasma actuator is stationary device and has no moving parts, and it might be an ideal device to control a model aircraft. We can use the actuator not only as a stall recovery device but also as a spoiler. We put the actuator near the leading edge of an elevator of a model aircraft as a spoiler, and measure the aerodynamic forces by a three-component balance. We observe the effect of the plasma actuator on the aerodynamic forces and the device effectiveness changes depending on the angle of attack whether it is positive or negative. We also visualize the flow caused by the plasma actuator by a desk-top Schlieren photography which is otherwise very difficult in a low-speed wind tunnel experiment.

Keywords: aerodynamics, plasma actuator, model aircraft, wind tunnel

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40 Indigo-Reducing Activity by Microorganisms from the Fermented Indigo Dyeing Solution

Authors: Yuta Tachibana, Ayuko Itsuki


The three strains of bacteria (Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus, Bacillus kochii, and Enterococcus sp.) were isolated from the fermented Indigo (Polygonum tinctorium) dyeing solution using the dilution plate method and some fermentation conditions were determined. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the indigo concentration. When the isolated bacteria were cultured in the indigo liquid culture containing various sugars, starch, and ethanol, the indigo culture solutions containing galactose, mannose, ribose, and ethanol were remarkably decreased. Comparison of decreasing indigo between three strains showed that Enterococcus sp. had the fastest growth and decrease of indigo. However, decreasing indigo per unit micro biomass did not correspond to the results of decreasing indigo―Bacillus kochii had higher indigo-reducing activity than Enterococcus sp. and Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus.

Keywords: fermentation condition, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), indigo dyeing solution, indigo-reducing activity

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39 Exciting Voltage Control for Efficiency Maximization for 2-D Omni-Directional Wireless Power Transfer Systems

Authors: Masato Sasaki, Masayoshi Yamamoto


The majority of wireless power transfer (WPT) systems transfer power in a directional manner. This paper describes a discrete exciting voltage control technique for WPT via magnetic resonant coupling with two orthogonal transmitter coils (2D omni-directional WPT system) which can maximize the power transfer efficiency in response to the change of coupling status. The theory allows the equations of the efficiency of the system to be determined at all the rate of the mutual inductance. The calculated results are included to confirm the advantage to one directional WPT system and the validity of the theory and the equations.

Keywords: wireless power transfer, omni-directional, orthogonal, efficiency

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38 Aerodynamic Devices Development for Model Aircraft Control and Wind-Driven Bicycle

Authors: Yuta Moriyama, Tsuyoshi Yamazaki, Etsuo Morishita


Several aerodynamic devices currently attract engineers and research students. The plasma actuator is one of them, and it is very effective to control the flow. The actuator recovers a separated flow to an attached one. The actuator is also inversely applied to a spoiler. The model aircraft might be controlled by this actuator. We develop a model aircraft with the plasma actuator. Another interesting device is the Wells turbine which rotates in one direction. The present authors propose a bicycle with the Wells turbine in the wheels. Power reduction is measured when the turbine is driven by an electric motor at the exit of a wind tunnel. Several Watts power reduction might be possible. This means that the torque of the bike can be augmented by the turbine in the cross wind. These devices are tested in the wind tunnel with a three-component balance and the aerodynamic forces and moment are obtained. In this paper, we introduce these devices and their aerodynamic characteristics. The control force and moment of the plasma actuator are clarified and the power reduction of the bicycle is quantified.

Keywords: aerodynamics, model aircraft, plasma actuator, Wells turbine

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37 Teaching Professional Competences through Projects: Experiencing Curriculum Development through Active Learning

Authors: Flavio Campos, Patricia Masmo, Fernanda Yamamoto


The report presents a research about teaching professional competencies through projects, considering the student as an active learner and curriculum development. Considering project based-learning, the report articulate the result of research about curriculum development for professional competencies and teaching-learning strategies to help the development of professional competencies in learning environments in the courses of National Learning Service in São Paulo, Brazil. There so, intend to demonstrate fundamentals to elaborate curriculum to learning environment, specific about teaching methodologies to enrich student-learning process, using projects. The practice that has been taking place since 2013 indicates the needs of rethinking knowledge and practice in courses that prepared students to labor.

Keywords: curriculum design, active learning, professional competencies, project based-learning

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36 Interference of Contaminants in the Characterization of Sugarcane Straw for Energy Purpose

Authors: Gabriela T. Nakashima, Ana Larissa S. Hansted, Gabriela B. Belini, Carlos R. Sette Jr, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Fabio M. Yamaji


The aim of this study was to determine the interference from contaminants in the characterization of sugarcane straw. The sugarcane straw was collected after the harvest and taken to the drying oven, and then it was crushed in the mill type Willey. Analyzes of ash contents and Klason lignin were done in triplicate and high heating value (HHV) in duplicate, according to ASTM standard. The results obtained for the sugarcane straw were 5.29% for ash content, 29.87% for Klason lignin and 17.67 for HHV. Also, the material was analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The presence of contaminants was observed, such as silica. The high amount of contaminants in the samples may impact the results of analyzes, also raising its values, for example in the Klason lignin content. These contaminants can also adversely affect the quality of the biomass. Even using the standards is important to know what the purpose of the analysis and care mainly of sampling.

Keywords: biomass, bioenergy, residues, solid fuel

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35 Building Information Models Utilization for Design Improvement of Infrastructure

Authors: Keisuke Fujioka, Yuta Itoh, Masaru Minagawa, Shunji Kusayanagi


In this study, building information models of the underground temporary structures and adjacent embedded pipes were constructed to show the importance of the information on underground pipes adjacent to the structures to enhance the productivity of execution of construction. Next, the bar chart used in actual construction process were employed to make the Gantt chart, and the critical pass analysis was carried out to show that accurate information on the arrangement of underground existing pipes can be used for the enhancement of the productivity of the construction of underground structures. In the analyzed project, significant construction delay was not caused by unforeseeable existence of underground pipes by the management ability of the construction manager. However, in many cases of construction executions in the developing countries, the existence of unforeseeable embedded pipes often causes substantial delay of construction. Design change based on uncertainty on the position information of embedded pipe can be also important risk for contractors in domestic construction. So CPM analyses were performed by a project-management-software to the situation that influence of the tasks causing construction delay was assumed more significant. Through the analyses, the efficiency of information management on underground pipes and BIM analysis in the design stage for workability improvement was indirectly confirmed.

Keywords: building-information modelling, construction information modelling, design improvement, infrastructure

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34 Surface Modification of Polyethylene Terephthalate Substrates via Direct Fluorination to Promote the Ag+ Ions Adsorption

Authors: Kohei Yamamoto, Jae-Ho Kim, Susumu Yonezawa


The surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was modified with fluorine gas at 25 ℃ and 100 Torr for one h. Moreover, the effect of ethanol washing on surface modification was investigated in this study. The surface roughness of the fluorinated and washed PET samples was approximately six times larger than that (0.6 nm) of the untreated thing. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the bonds such as -C=O and -C-Hx derived from raw PET decreased and were converted into fluorinated bonds such as -CFx after surface fluorination. Even after washing with ethanol, the fluorinated bonds stably existed on the surface. These fluorinated bonds showed higher electronegativity according to the zeta potential results. The negative surface charges were increased by washing the ethanol, and it caused to increase in the number of polar groups such as -CHF- and -C-Fx. The fluorinated and washed surface of PET could promote the adsorption of Ag+ ions in AgNO₃ solution because of the increased surface roughness and the negatively charged surface.

Keywords: Ag+ ions adsorption, polyethylene terephthalate, surface fluorination, zeta potential

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33 Analysis of the Performance of a Solar Water Heating System with Flat Collector

Authors: Georgi Vendramin, Aurea Lúcia, Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo, Camargo Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo, Lenz, Anderson Miguel, Souza Melegari, Samuel N.


The thermal performance of a solar water heating with 1.00 m2 flat plate collectors in Cascavel-PR, is which presented in this article, paper presents the solution to leverage the marketing of solar heating systems through detailed constituent materials of the solar collector studies, these abundant materials in construction, such as expanded polyethylene, PVC, aluminum and glass tubes, mixing them with new materials to minimize loss of efficiency while decreasing its cost. The system was tested during months and the collector obtained maximum recorded temperature of outlet fluid of 55 °C, while the maximum temperature of the water at the bottom of the hot water tank was 35 °C. The average daily energy collected was 19 6 MJ/d; the energy supplied by the solar plate was 16.2 MJ/d; the loss in the feed pipe was 3.2 MJ/d; the solar fraction was 32.2%, the efficiency of the collector was 45.6% and the efficiency of the system was 37.8%.

Keywords: recycling materials, energy efficiency, solar collector, solar water heating system

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32 Numerical Investigation on Tsunami Suppression by Submerged Breakwater

Authors: Tasuku Hongo, Hiroya Mamori, Naoya Fukushima, Makoto Yamamoto


A tsunami induced by an earthquake gives a severe disaster in coastal area. As well known, the huge earthquake in Japan 2011 induced a huge tsunami and the tsunami caused serious damage in the Tohoku and Kanto area. Although breakwaters were constructed in the coast to suppress the tsunami, these were collapsed, and it resulted in severe disasters. In order to decrease the tsunami disaster, we propose the submerged breakwaters and investigate its effect on the tsunami behavior by means of numerical simulations. In order to reproduce tsunami and capture its interface, we employed a moving particle method which is one of the Lagragian methods. Different from ordinary breakwaters, the present breakwater is located in the under-sea. An effective installation condition is investigated by the parametric study. The results show that the submerged breakwater can decrease the wave force by the tsunami. Moreover, the combination of two submerged breakwaters can reduce the tsunami safely and effectively. Therefore, the present results give the effective condition of the installation of the under-sea breakwaters and its mechanism.

Keywords: coastal area, tsunami force reduction, MPS method, submerged breakwater

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31 Developing Value Chain of Synthetic Methane for Net-zero Carbon City Gas Supply in Japan

Authors: Ryota Kuzuki, Mitsuhiro Kohara, Noboru Kizuki, Satoshi Yoshida, Hidetaka Hirai, Yuta Nezasa


About fifty years have passed since Japan's gas supply industry became the first in the world to switch from coal and oil to LNG as a city gas feedstock. Since the Japanese government target of net-zero carbon emission in 2050 was announced in October 2020, it has now entered a new era of challenges to commit to the requirement for decarbonization. This paper describes the situation that synthetic methane, produced from renewable energy-derived hydrogen and recycled carbon, is a promising national policy of transition toward net-zero society. In November 2020, the Japan Gas Association announced the 'Carbon Neutral Challenge 2050' as a vision to contribute to the decarbonization of society by converting the city gas supply to carbon neutral. The key technologies is methanation. This paper shows that methanation is a realistic solution to contribute to the decarbonization of the whole country at a lower social cost, utilizing the supply chain that already exists, from LNG plants to burner chips. The challenges during the transition period (2030-2050), as CO2 captured from exhaust of thermal power plants and industrial factories are expected to be used, it is proposed that a system of guarantee of origin (GO) for H2 and CO2 should be established and harmonize international rules for calculating and allocating greenhouse gas emissions in the supply chain, a platform is also needed to manage tracking information on certified environmental values.

Keywords: synthetic methane, recycled carbon fuels, methanation, transition period, environmental value transfer platform

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30 A Business-to-Business Collaboration System That Promotes Data Utilization While Encrypting Information on the Blockchain

Authors: Hiroaki Nasu, Ryota Miyamoto, Yuta Kodera, Yasuyuki Nogami


To promote Industry 4.0 and Society 5.0 and so on, it is important to connect and share data so that every member can trust it. Blockchain (BC) technology is currently attracting attention as the most advanced tool and has been used in the financial field and so on. However, the data collaboration using BC has not progressed sufficiently among companies on the supply chain of manufacturing industry that handle sensitive data such as product quality, manufacturing conditions, etc. There are two main reasons why data utilization is not sufficiently advanced in the industrial supply chain. The first reason is that manufacturing information is top secret and a source for companies to generate profits. It is difficult to disclose data even between companies with transactions in the supply chain. In the blockchain mechanism such as Bitcoin using PKI (Public Key Infrastructure), in order to confirm the identity of the company that has sent the data, the plaintext must be shared between the companies. Another reason is that the merits (scenarios) of collaboration data between companies are not specifically specified in the industrial supply chain. For these problems this paper proposes a Business to Business (B2B) collaboration system using homomorphic encryption and BC technique. Using the proposed system, each company on the supply chain can exchange confidential information on encrypted data and utilize the data for their own business. In addition, this paper considers a scenario focusing on quality data, which was difficult to collaborate because it is a top secret. In this scenario, we show a implementation scheme and a benefit of concrete data collaboration by proposing a comparison protocol that can grasp the change in quality while hiding the numerical value of quality data.

Keywords: business to business data collaboration, industrial supply chain, blockchain, homomorphic encryption

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29 Temporal Focus Scale: Examination of the Reliability and Validity in Japanese Adolescents and Young Adults

Authors: Yuta Chishima, Tatsuya Murakami, Michael McKay


Temporal focus is described as one component of an individual’s time perspective and defined as the attention individuals devote to thinking about the past, present, and future. It affects how people incorporate perceptions about past experiences, current situations, and future expectations into their attitudes, cognitions, and behavior. The 12-item Temporal Focus Scale (TFS) is comprised of three-factors (past, current and future focus). The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of TFS scores in Japanese adolescents and young adults. The TFS was translated into Japanese by a professional translator, and the original author confirmed the back translated items. Study 1 involved 979 Japanese university students aged 18-25 years old in a questionnaire-based study. The hypothesized three-factor structure (with reliability) was confirmed, although there were problems with item 10. Internal consistency estimates for scores without item 10 were over .70, and test-retest reliability was also adequate. To verify the concurrent and convergent validity, we tested the relationship between TFS scores and life satisfaction, time perspective, self-esteem, and career efficacy. Results of correlational analyses supported our hypotheses. Specifically, future focus was strongly correlated to career efficacy, while past and current focus was not. Study 2 involved 1030 Japanese junior and junior high school students aged 12-18 years old in a questionnaire-based study, and results of multigroup analyses supported the age invariance of the TFS.

Keywords: Japanese, reliability, scale, temporal focus, validity

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28 Application of Medium High Hydrostatic Pressure in Preserving Textural Quality and Safety of Pineapple Compote

Authors: Nazim Uddin, Yohiko Nakaura, Kazutaka Yamamoto


Compote (fruit in syrup) of pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merrill) is expected to have a high market potential as one of convenient ready-to-eat (RTE) foods worldwide. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) in combination with low temperature (LT) was applied to the processing of pineapple compote as well as medium HHP (MHHP) in combination with medium-high temperature (MHT) since both processes can enhance liquid impregnation and inactivate microbes. MHHP+MHT (55 or 65 °C) process, as well as the HHP+LT process, has successfully inactivated the microbes in the compote to a non-detectable level. Although the compotes processed by MHHP+MHT or HHP+LT have lost the fresh texture as in a similar manner as those processed solely by heat, it was indicated that the texture degradations by heat were suppressed under MHHP. Degassing process reduced the hardness, while calcium (Ca) contributed to be retained hardness in MHT and MHHP+MHT processes. Electrical impedance measurement supported the damage due to degassing and heat. The color, Brix, and appearance were not affected by the processing methods significantly. MHHP+MHT and HHP+LT processes may be applicable to produce high-quality, safe RTE pineapple compotes. Further studies on the optimization of packaging and storage condition will be indispensable for commercialization.

Keywords: compote of pineapple, RTE, medium high hydrostatic pressure, postharvest loss, texture

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27 Lean Manufacturing: Systematic Layout Planning Application to an Assembly Line Layout of a Welding Industry

Authors: Fernando Augusto Ullmann Tobe, Moacyr Amaral Domingues, Figueiredo, Stephany Rie Yamamoto Gushiken


The purpose of this paper is to present the process of elaborating the layout of an assembly line of a welding industry using the principles of lean manufacturing as the main driver. The objective of this paper is relevant since the current layout of the assembly line causes non-productive times for operators, being related to the lean waste of unnecessary movements. The methodology used for the project development was Project-based Learning (PBL), which is an active way of learning focused on real problems. The process of selecting the methodology for layout planning was developed considering three criteria to evaluate the most relevant one for this paper's goal. As a result of this evaluation, Systematic Layout Planning was selected, and three steps were added to it – Value Stream Mapping for the current situation and after layout changed and the definition of lean tools and layout type. This inclusion was to consider lean manufacturing in the layout redesign of the industry. The layout change resulted in an increase in the value-adding time of operations carried out in the sector, reduction in movement times between previous and final assemblies, and in cost savings regarding the man-hour value of the employees, which can be invested in productive hours instead of movement times.

Keywords: assembly line, layout, lean manufacturing, systematic layout planning

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26 Biocompatibility and Electrochemical Assessment of Biomedical Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn Produced by Spark Plasma Sintering

Authors: Jerman Madonsela, Wallace Matizamhuka, Akiko Yamamoto, Ronald Machaka, Brendon Shongwe


In this study, biocompatibility evaluation of nanostructured near beta Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn (Ti2448) alloy with non-toxic elements produced utilizing Spark plasma sintering (SPS) of very fine microsized powders attained through mechanical alloying was performed. The results were compared with pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) alloy. Cell proliferation test was performed using murine osteoblastic cells, MC3T3-E1 at two cell densities; 400 and 4000 cells/mL for 7 days incubation. Pure titanium took a lead under both conditions suggesting that the presence of other oxide layers influence cell proliferation. No significant difference in cell proliferation was observed between Ti64 and Ti2448. Potentiodynamic measurement in Hanks, 0.9% NaCl and cell culture medium showed no distinct difference on the anodic polarization curves of the three alloys, indicating that the same anodic reaction occurred on their surface but with different rates. However, Ti2448 showed better corrosion resistance in cell culture medium with a slightly lower corrosion rate of 2.96 nA/cm2 compared to 4.86 nA/cm2 and 5.62 nA/cm2 of Ti and Ti64 respectively. Ti2448 adsorbed less protein as compared to Ti and Ti64 though no notable difference in surface wettability was observed.

Keywords: biocompatibility, osteoblast, corrosion, surface wettability, protein adsorption

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25 Effect of Nanostructure on Hydrogen Embrittlement Resistance of the Severely Deformed 316LN Austenitic Steel

Authors: Frank Jaksoni Mweta, Nozomu Adachi, Yoshikazu Todaka, Hirokazu Sato, Yuta Sato, Hiromi Miura, Masakazu Kobayashi, Chihiro Watanabe, Yoshiteru Aoyagi


Advances in the consumption of hydrogen fuel increase demands of high strength steel pipes and storage tanks. However, high strength steels are highly sensitive to hydrogen embrittlement. Because the introduction of hydrogen into steel during the fabrication process or from the environment is unavoidable, it is essential to improve hydrogen embrittlement resistance of high strength steels through microstructural control. In the present study, the heterogeneous nanostructure with a tensile strength of about 1.8 GPa and the homogeneous nanostructure with a tensile strength of about 2.0 GPa of 316LN steels were generated after 92% heavy cold rolling and high-pressure torsion straining, respectively. The heterogeneous nanostructure is composed of twin domains, shear bands, and lamellar grains. The homogeneous nanostructure is composed of uniformly distributed ultrafine nanograins. The influence of heterogeneous and homogenous nanostructures on the hydrogen embrittlement resistance was investigated. The specimen for each nanostructure was electrochemically charged with hydrogen for 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours, respectively. Under the same hydrogen charging time, both nanostructures show almost the same concentration of the diffusible hydrogen based on the thermal desorption analysis. The tensile properties of the homogenous nanostructure were severely affected by the diffusible hydrogen. However, the diffusible hydrogen shows less impact on the tensile properties of the heterogeneous nanostructure. The difference in embrittlement behavior between the heterogeneous and homogeneous nanostructures was elucidated based on the mechanism of the cracks' growth observed in the tensile fractography. The hydrogen embrittlement was suppressed in the heterogeneous nanostructure because the twin domain became an obstacle for crack growth. The homogeneous nanostructure was not consisting an obstacle such as a twin domain; thus, the crack growth resistance was low in this nanostructure.

Keywords: diffusible hydrogen, heterogeneous nanostructure, homogeneous nanostructure, hydrogen embrittlement

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24 Demographic Dividend and Creation of Human and Knowledge Capital in Liberal India: An Endogenous Growth Process

Authors: Arjun K., Arumugam Sankaran, Sanjay Kumar, Mousumi Das


The paper analyses the existence of endogenous growth scenario emanating from the demographic dividend in India during the liberalization period starting from 1980. Demographic dividend creates a fertile ground for the cultivation of human and knowledge capitals contributing to technological progress which can be measured using total factor productivity. The relationship among total factor productivity, human and knowledge capitals are examined in an open endogenous framework for the period 1980-2016. The control variables such as foreign direct investment, trade openness, energy consumption are also employed. The data are sourced from Reserve Bank of India, World Bank, International Energy Agency and The National Science and Technology Management Information System. To understand the dynamic association among variables, ARDL bounds approach to cointegration followed by Toda-Yamamoto causality test are used. The results reveal a short run and long run relationship among the variables supported by the existence of causality. This calls for an integrated policy to build and augment human capital and research and development activities to sustain and pace up growth and development in the nation.

Keywords: demographic dividend, young population, open endogenous growth models, human and knowledge capital

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23 Effect of Sensory Manipulations on Human Joint Stiffness Strategy and Its Adaptation for Human Dynamic Stability

Authors: Aizreena Azaman, Mai Ishibashi, Masanori Ishizawa, Shin-Ichiroh Yamamoto


Sensory input plays an important role to human posture control system to initiate strategy in order to counterpart any unbalance condition and thus, prevent fall. In previous study, joint stiffness was observed able to describe certain issues regarding to movement performance. But, correlation between balance ability and joint stiffness is still remains unknown. In this study, joint stiffening strategy at ankle and hip were observed under different sensory manipulations and its correlation with conventional clinical test (Functional Reach Test) for balance ability was investigated. In order to create unstable condition, two different surface perturbations (tilt up-tilt (TT) down and forward-backward (FB)) at four different frequencies (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 Hz) were introduced. Furthermore, four different sensory manipulation conditions (include vision and vestibular system) were applied to the subject and they were asked to maintain their position as possible. The results suggested that joint stiffness were high during difficult balance situation. Less balance people generated high average joint stiffness compared to balance people. Besides, adaptation of posture control system under repetitive external perturbation also suggested less during sensory limited condition. Overall, analysis of joint stiffening response possible to predict unbalance situation faced by human.

Keywords: balance ability, joint stiffness, sensory, adaptation, dynamic

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22 Associations between Sleep Problems and Disordered Eating in Japanese Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Takaharu Hirai, Yuta Mitobe, Hiromi Hirai


Introduction: Eating disorders (ED) are serious psychiatric disorders that affect individuals, especially adolescents. It has been suggested that nonclinical ED-like characteristics are related to sleep problems. However, studies exploring the association between potential ED and sleep disorders have primarily been conducted in Europe and the United States. We conducted a survey of Japanese adolescents to investigate this claim. Method: In this cross-sectional study, 398 school-aged adolescents, aged 12–18 years old, matched for gender ratio, responded to a self-administered questionnaire survey. We used the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) and the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) to measure potential ED and sleep problems, respectively. In this study, participants with an EAT-26 total score of 0–19 points were classified as non-ED, while those with scores of 20 points or higher were classified as potential ED. Result: Of the 398 participants, 17 (4.3%) had an EAT-26 total score of 20 or higher. Among boys, the rate was 6 of 199 participants (3%), and among girls, the rate was 11 of 182 participants (6%). There were 89 participants (22.4%) with an AIS score of 6 points or higher, of which 36 (17.6%) were boys, and 53 (27.5%) were girls. Adolescents with potential ED had significantly higher rates of daytime sleep problems than those without ED. Further, while examining the types of sleep problems, adolescents with potential ED had greater problems with a sense of well-being and physical and mental functioning during the day. In contrast, no significant associations were found between potential ED and sleep initiation, awakenings during the night, early morning awakening, total sleep duration, or overall quality of sleep. Finally, nocturnal and daytime sleep scores were significantly associated with dieting, bulimia, and oral control EAT-26 sub-scores. Discussion: While Japanese adolescents with possible ED do not experience nighttime sleep problems, they do experience problems related to well-being and mental and physical functioning, which are indicators of daytime sleep problems. This may assist with early detection of disordered eating in adolescents. The study suggested that professionals working towards adolescent mental health issues need an approach that comprehensively integrates both sleep problems and potential ED.

Keywords: adolescents, potential eating disorders, sleep problems, eating attitudes test-26

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21 Prosocial Behavior and Satisfaction with School Life in Elementary Children: From the Perspective of Classroom Environment

Authors: Takuma Yamamoto


Present study investigated the relationship between elementary school children’s prosocial behavior in classroom and satisfaction with school life (approval and victimization from other children) with considering from the perspective of classroom social goal structures (prosocial and compliance goal structures). Participants were 755 elementary school children (393 boys, 362 girls, mean range= 10-12, 5th grader and 6th grader) who were living in Chugoku District, Japan. They filled up questionnaire which was consisted of Murakami, Nishimura and Sakurai’s (2016) prosocial behavior toward friend scale, Kawamura and Tagami’s (1997) satisfaction in classroom scale and Ohtani, Okada, Nakaya and Ito’s (2016) classroom social goal structures scale. Regression lines that satisfaction in classroom is dependent variable and prosocial behavior is independent variable for each class were drawn. There were two types of classroom which children’s prosocial behavior correlated with satisfaction positively and did not. Then one-way MANOVA was conducted to further describe two types of classroom which prosocial behavior increased satisfaction in classroom (type 1) and prosocial behavior decreased satisfaction (type 2). MANOVA for Prosocial goal structure was significant, type 1 > type 2. There were two key findings from this study. First, MANOVA for prosocial goal structure was significant. Second, high score of prosocial goal structure was not necessary condition for the classroom type which children’s prosocial behavior correlated with satisfaction. The implications from these key findings were: (1) in the low prosocial goal structure classroom, children will not behave prosocially because of their negative expectation for the effect of prosocial behavior, (2) this study can be a contribution for classroom management that teachers need to consider about the negative possibilities of prosocial behavior when they try to increase the amount of children’s positive behavior.

Keywords: elementary school children, classroom social goal structure, satisfaction with school life, prosocial behavior

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20 Towards a Sustainable Energy Future: Method Used in Existing Buildings to Implement Sustainable Energy Technologies

Authors: Georgi Vendramin, Aurea Lúcia, Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo, Souza Melegari, N. Samuel


This article describes the development of a model that uses a method where openings are represented by single glass and double glass. The model is based on a healthy balance equations purely theoretical and empirical data. Simplified equations are derived through a synthesis of the measured data obtained from meteorological stations. The implementation of the model in a design tool integrated buildings is discussed in this article, to better punctuate the requirements of comfort and energy efficiency in architecture and engineering. Sustainability, energy efficiency, and the integration of alternative energy systems and concepts are beginning to be incorporated into designs for new buildings and renovations to existing buildings. Few means have existed to effectively validate the potential performance benefits of the design concepts. It was used a method of degree-days for an assessment of the energy performance of a building showed that the design of the architectural design should always be considered the materials used and the size of the openings. The energy performance was obtained through the model, considering the location of the building Central Park Shopping Mall, in the city of Cascavel - PR. Obtained climatic data of these locations and in a second step, it was obtained the coefficient of total heat loss in the building pre-established so evaluating the thermal comfort and energy performance. This means that the more openings in buildings in Cascavel – PR, installed to the east side, they may be higher because the glass added to the geometry of architectural spaces will cause the environment conserve energy.

Keywords: sustainable design, energy modeling, design validation, degree-days methods

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19 How Children Synchronize with Their Teacher: Evidence from a Real-World Elementary School Classroom

Authors: Reiko Yamamoto


This paper reports on how synchrony occurs between children and their teacher, and what prevents or facilitates synchrony. The aim of the experiment conducted in this study was to precisely analyze their movements and synchrony and reveal the process of synchrony in a real-world classroom. Specifically, the experiment was conducted for around 20 minutes during an English as a foreign language (EFL) lesson. The participants were 11 fourth-grade school children and their classroom teacher in a public elementary school in Japan. Previous researchers assert that synchrony causes the state of flow in a class. For checking the level of flow, Short Flow State Scale (SFSS) was adopted. The experimental procedure had four steps: 1) The teacher read aloud the first half of an English storybook to the children. Both the teacher and the children were at their own desks. 2) The children were subjected to an SFSS check. 3) The teacher read aloud the remaining half of the storybook to the children. She made the children remove their desks before reading. 4) The children were again subjected to an SFSS check. The movements of all participants were recorded with a video camera. From the movement analysis, it was found that the children synchronized better with the teacher in Step 3 than in Step 1, and that the teacher’s movement became free and outstanding without a desk. This implies that the desk acted as a barrier between the children and the teacher. Removal of this barrier resulted in the children’s reactions becoming synchronized with those of the teacher. The SFSS results proved that the children experienced more flow without a barrier than with a barrier. Apparently, synchrony is what caused flow or social emotions in the classroom. The main conclusion is that synchrony leads to cognitive outcomes such as children’s academic performance in EFL learning.

Keywords: engagement in a class, English as a foreign language (EFL) learning, interactional synchrony, social emotions

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18 Purification of Zr from Zr-Hf Resources Using Crystallization in HF-HCl Solvent Mixture

Authors: Kenichi Hirota, Jifeng Wang, Sadao Araki, Koji Endo, Hideki Yamamoto


Zirconium (Zr) has been used as a fuel cladding tube for nuclear reactors, because of the excellent corrosion resistance and the low adsorptive material for neutron. Generally speaking, the natural resource of Zr is often containing Hf that has similar properties. The content of Hf in the Zr resources is about 2~4 wt%. In the industrial use, the content of Hf in Zr resources should be lower than the 100 ppm. However, the separation of Zr and Hf is not so easy, because of similar chemical and physical properties such as melting point, boiling point and things. Solvent extraction method has been applied for the separation of Zr and Hf from Zr natural resources. This method can separate Hf with high efficiency (Hf < 100ppm), however, it needs much amount of organic solvents for solvent extraction and the cost of its disposal treatment is high. Therefore, we attached attention for the fractional crystallization. This separation method depends on the solubility difference of Zr and Hf in the solvent. In this work, hexafluorozirconate (hafnate) (K2Zr(Hf)F6) was used as model compound. Solubility of K2ZrF6 in water showed lower than that of K2HfF6. By repeating of this treatment, it is possible to purify Zr, practically. In this case, 16-18 times of recrystallization stages were needed for its high purification. The improvement of the crystallization process was carried out in this work. Water, hydrofluoric acid (HF) and hydrofluoric acid (HF) +hydrochloric acid (HCl) mixture were chosen as solvent for dissolution of Zr and Hf. In the experiment, 10g of K2ZrF6 was added to each solvent of 100mL. Each solution was heated for 1 hour at 353K. After 1h of this operation, they were cooled down till 293K, and were held for 5 hours at 273K. Concentration of Zr or Hf was measured using ICP analysis. It was found that Hf was separated from Zr-Hf mixed compound with high efficiency, when HF-HCl solution was used for solvent of crystallization. From the comparison of the particle size of each crystal by SEM, it was confirmed that the particle diameter of the crystal showed smaller size with decreasing of Hf content. This paper concerned with purification of Zr from Zr-Hf mixture using crystallization method.

Keywords: crystallization, zirconium, hafnium, separation

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17 Comparison of the Indocyanine Green Dye Method versus the Combined Method of Indigo Carmine Blue Dye with Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Imaging for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Conservative Therapy for Early Breast Cancer

Authors: Nobuyuki Takemoto, Ai Koyanagi, Masanori Yasuda, Hiroshi Yamamoto


Background: Fluorescence imaging (FI) is one of the methods to identify sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). However, the procedure is technically complicated and requires procedural skills, as SLN biopsy must be conducted in dim light conditions. As an improved version of this method, we introduced a combined method (Combined mixed dye and fluorescence; CMF) consisting of indigo carmine blue dye and FI. The direct visualization of SLNs under shadowless surgical light conditions is facilitated by the addition of the blue dye. We compared the SLN detection rates of CMF with that of the indocyanine green (ICG) dye method (ICG-D). Methods: A total of 202 patients with stage ≤ IIA breast cancer who underwent breast conservative therapy with separate incision from January 2004 to February 2017 were reviewed. Details of the two methods are as follows: (1) ICG-D: 2ml of ICG (10mg) was used and the green-stained SLNs were resected via a 3-4cm axillary incision; (2) CMF: A combination of 1ml of ICG (5mg) and 1-3ml of indigo carmine (4-12mg) was used. Using Photodynamic Eye (PDE), a 1.5-2 cm incision was made near the point of disappearance of the fluorescence and SLNs with intermediate color of blue and green were resected. Results: There were 92 ICG-D and 110 CMF cases. CMF resulted in a significantly higher detection rate than ICG-D (96.4% vs. 83.7%; p=0.003). This difference was particularly notable in those aged ≥ 60 years (98.3% vs. 74.3%) and individuals with BMI ≥ 25kg/m2 (90.3% vs. 58.3%). Conclusion: CMF is an effective method to identify SLNs which is safe, efficient, and cost-effective. Furthermore, radiation exposure can be avoided, and it can be performed in institutes without nuclear medicine facilities. CMF achieves a high SLN identification rate, and most of this procedure is feasible under shadowless surgical light conditions. CMF can reliably perform SLN biopsy even in those aged ≥ 60 years and individuals with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2.

Keywords: sentinel lymph node biopsy, identification rate, indocyanine green (ICG), indigocarmine, fluorescence

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16 Acoustic Radiation Pressure Detaches Myoblast from Culture Substrate by Assistance of Serum-Free Medium

Authors: Yuta Kurashina, Chikahiro Imashiro, Kiyoshi Ohnuma, Kenjiro Takemura


Research objectives and goals: To realize clinical applications of regenerative medicine, a mass cell culture is highly required. In a conventional cell culture, trypsinization was employed for cell detachment. However, trypsinization causes proliferation decrease due to injury of cell membrane. In order to detach cells using an enzyme-free method, therefore, this study proposes a novel cell detachment method capable of detaching adherent cells using acoustic radiation pressure exposed to the dish by the assistance of serum-free medium with ITS liquid medium supplement. Methods used In order to generate acoustic radiation pressure, a piezoelectric ceramic plate was glued on a glass plate to configure an ultrasonic transducer. The glass plate and a chamber wall compose a chamber in which a culture dish is placed in glycerol. Glycerol transmits acoustic radiation pressure to adhered cells on the culture dish. To excite a resonance vibration of transducer, AC signal with 29-31 kHz (swept) and 150, 300, and 450 V was input to the transducer for 5 min. As a pretreatment to reduce cell adhesivity, serum-free medium with ITS liquid medium supplement was spread to the culture dish before exposed to acoustic radiation pressure. To evaluate the proposed cell detachment method, C2C12 myoblast cells (8.0 × 104 cells) were cultured on a ø35 culture dish for 48 hr, and then the medium was replaced with the serum-free medium with ITS liquid medium supplement for 24 hr. We replaced the medium with phosphate buffered saline and incubated cells for 10 min. After that, cells were exposed to the acoustic radiation pressure for 5 min. We also collected cells by using trypsinization as control. Cells collected by the proposed method and trypsinization were respectively reseeded in ø60 culture dishes and cultured for 24 hr. Then, the number of proliferated cells was counted. Results achieved: By a phase contrast microscope imaging, shrink of lamellipodia was observed before exposed to acoustic radiation pressure, and no cells remained on the culture dish after the exposed of acoustic radiation pressure. This result suggests that serum-free medium with ITS liquid inhibits adhesivity of cells and acoustic radiation pressure detaches cells from the dish. Moreover, the number of proliferated cells 24 hr after collected by the proposed method with 150 and 300 V is the same or more than that by trypsinization, i.e., cells were proliferated 15% higher with the proposed method using acoustic radiation pressure than with the traditional cell collecting method of trypsinization. These results proved that cells were able to be collected by using the appropriate exposure of acoustic radiation pressure. Conclusions: This study proposed a cell detachment method using acoustic radiation pressure by the assistance of serum-free medium. The proposed method provides an enzyme-free cell detachment method so that it may be used in future clinical applications instead of trypsinization.

Keywords: acoustic radiation pressure, cell detachment, enzyme free, ultrasonic transducer

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15 The Effect of Cross-Curriculum of L1 and L2 on Elementary School Students’ Linguistic Proficiency: To Sympathize with Others

Authors: Reiko Yamamoto


This paper reports on a project to integrate Japanese (as a first language) and English (as a second language) education. This study focuses on the mutual effects of the two languages on the linguistic proficiency of elementary school students. The research team consisted of elementary school teachers and researchers at a university. The participants of the experiment were students between 3rd and 6th grades at an elementary school. The research process consisted of seven steps: 1) specifying linguistic proficiency; 2) developing the cross-curriculum of L1 and L2; 3) forming can-do statements; 4) creating a self-evaluation questionnaire; 5) executing the self-evaluation questionnaire at the beginning of the school year; 6) instructing L1 and L2 based on the curriculum; and 7) executing the self-evaluation questionnaire at the beginning of the next school year. In Step 1, the members of the research team brainstormed ways to specify elementary school students’ linguistic proficiency that can be observed in various scenes. It was revealed that the teachers evaluate their students’ linguistic proficiency on the basis of the students’ utterances, but also informed by their non-verbal communication abilities. This led to the idea that competency for understanding others’ minds through the use of physical movement or bodily senses in communication in L1 – to sympathize with others – can be transferred to that same competency in communication in L2. Based on the specification of linguistic proficiency that L1 and L2 have in common, a cross-curriculum of L1 and L2 was developed in Step 2. In Step 3, can-do statements based on the curriculum were also formed, building off of the action-oriented approach from the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) used in Europe. A self-evaluation questionnaire consisting of the main can-do statements was given to the students between 3rd grade and 6th grade at the beginning of the school year (Step 4 and Step 5), and all teachers gave L1 and L2 instruction based on the curriculum to the students for one year (Step 6). The same questionnaire was given to the students at the beginning of the next school year (Step 7). The results of statistical analysis proved the enhancement of the students’ linguistic proficiency. This verified the validity of developing the cross-curriculum of L1 and L2 and adapting it in elementary school. It was concluded that elementary school students do not distinguish between L1 and L2, and that they just try to understand others’ minds through physical movement or senses in any language.

Keywords: cross curriculum of L1 and L2, elementary school education, language proficiency, sympathy with others

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