Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: Yosra Makni

13 The Impact of Audit Committee on Real Earnings Management: Evidence from Netherlands

Authors: Sana Masmoudi, Yosra Makni

Abstract:

Regulators highlight the importance of the Audit Committee (AC) as a key internal corporate governance mechanism. One of the most important roles of this committee is to oversee the financial reporting process. The purpose of this paper is to examine the link between the characteristics of an audit committee and the financial reporting quality by investigating whether the formation of audit committees and their characteristics are associated with improved financial reporting quality. This study provides empirical evidence of the association between audit committee independence, financial expertise, gender diversity, and meetings and Real Earnings Management (REM) as a proxy of financial reporting quality. Using data from, with a sample of 80 companies listed on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange during 2010-2017, the study finds that independence and AC Gender diversity are strongly related to financial reporting quality. In fact, these two characteristics constrain REM. The results also suggest that AC-financial expertise reduces to some extent, the likelihood of engaging in REM. These conclusions provide support then to the audit committee requirement under the Dutch Corporate Governance Code rules regarding gender diversity and AC meetings.

Keywords: audit committee, financial expertise, independence, real earnings management

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12 The Effect of Book-Tax Conformity on Audit Quality: Evidence from Canada

Authors: Yosra Makni Fourati, Sana Masmoudi Mardassi

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effect of Book-tax conformity on audit quality regarding the proxies of audit fees, auditors’ industry specialization and audit report lag. Using a sample of Canadian firms listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange spanning the years 2006- 2016, we applied an Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression to test hypotheses of this research. The authors find that higher Book-tax conformity leads to lower audit fees. They also provide evidence that there is a negative association between Book-tax conformity and auditors’ industry specialization, whereas there is a positive association between Book-tax conformity and audit report lag. Overall, the findings are prominent to better understanding the effect of Book-tax conformity on audit quality and are relevant for academic researchers, practitioners, and regulators. As the paper investigates the relationship of Book-tax conformity and audit quality using a sample of Canadian firms, it brings original insights regarding the importance of audit fees and Book-tax conformity. In addition, it considers the role of auditor’s industry specialization in the relation between audit quality and Book-tax conformity by considering a sample listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange. This paper contributes to the existing literature by highlighting the Canadian setting, to our best knowledge. In addition, our results are prominent to the auditing literature as they introduce a different determinant of auditors’ industry specialization and audit report lag.

Keywords: audit fees, auditors' industry specialization, audit report lag, book-tax conformity

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11 Corporate Social Responsibility and Firm Performance: The Mediating Role of Reputation

Authors: Yosra Makni, Mariam Dammak, Dhouha Abed

Abstract:

Purpose: This paper investigates the mediating role of corporate reputation on the relationship between corporate social responsibility and financial performance. Design/Methodology/Approach: Based on a sample of 4329 drawn from 33 developed and developing countries and over a period of eight-year ranging from 2009 to 2016, we apply an Ordinary Least Squares regression (OLS) regressions to test our hypotheses. Findings: The authors find that there is a positive association between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) engagement and the financial performance of a company. They also document that there is a positive association between CSR engagement and a company's reputation and the company's reputation mediates the relationship between engagement in CSR activities and financial performance. Originality Value: This study contributes to the literature in the following ways. First, our research advances the understanding of the link between corporate social responsibility and financial performance by responding to the requests of several researchers to study the mechanisms of mediation between these two concepts given the scarcity relative to currently available research. So we include the most important predicted advantage of CSR, namely reputation, by developing and testing a more complex relationship. Secondly, these relationships have been investigated using an international sample drawn from a large number of countries with a high reputation. Using Judy and Kenny's method, we have confirmed that the company's reputation can play the role of a mediating variable on the relationship between CSR's commitment to operations and the financial performance of the company. More specifically, the more the company is engaged in the activities of CSR, the more it can have a good reputation, more than it has a good financial performance.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, company's reputation, financial performance, mediating variable

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10 Impact of Audit Committee on Real Earnings Management: Cases of Netherlands

Authors: Sana Masmoudi Mardassi, Yosra Makni Fourati

Abstract:

Regulators highlight the importance of the Audit Committee (AC) as a key internal corporate governance mechanism. One of the most important roles of this committee is to oversee the financial reporting process. The purpose of this paper is to examine the link between the characteristics of an audit committee and the financial reporting quality by investigating whether the characteristics of audit committees are associated with improved financial reporting quality, especially the Real Earnings Management. In the current study, a panel data from 80 nonfinancial companies listed on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange during the period between 2010 and 2017 were used. To measure audit committee characteristics, four proxies have been used, specifically, audit committee independence, financial expertise, gender diversity and AC meetings. For this research, a linear regression model was used to identify the influence of a set of board characteristics of the audit committee on real earnings management after controlling for firm audit committee size, leverage, size, loss, growth and board size. This research provides empirical evidence of the association between audit committee independence, financial expertise, gender diversity and meetings and Real Earnings Management (REM) as a proxy of financial reporting quality. The study finds that independence and AC Gender diversity are strongly related to financial reporting quality. In fact, these two characteristics constrain REM. The results also suggest that AC- financial expertise reduces to some extent, the likelihood of engaging in REM. These conclusions provide support then to the audit committee requirement under the Dutch Corporate Governance Code rules regarding gender diversity and AC meetings.

Keywords: audit committee, financial expertise, independence, real earnings management

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9 The History of Chartered Certified Accountants: The Case of Tunisia

Authors: Mariam Dammak, Yosra Makni Fourati, Rania Mnejja

Abstract:

This paper aims to highlight the conditions and the context of the birth and the implementation of the Chartered Certified Accountants in Tunisian universities. For this purpose, we present an historical overview of the establishment of institutions that started the courses of Chartered accounting, including the Institute of Higher Commercial Studies (IHEC) of Carthage, the Higher Institute of Management (ISG) of Tunis, the Faculty of Economics and Management (FSEG) of Sfax and later the Higher Institute of Accounting and Administration of Enterprises (ISCAE) of Tunis. Then, it would be relevant to examine the changes, carried out by the Tunisian government, of the regulations in force relating to this academic path, from its birth during the 1970s until nowadays. We conducted a documentary study (archival documents, official documents, etc.) accompanied by semi-structured interviews with key actors (accountants, academics, officials of the Ministry of Higher Education) who marked the history of the studies of Tunisian charted accounting. Addressing this research question in Tunisia may contribute to the literature in three ways. First, previous researches dealing with the history of charted accounting-education are scared. Second, this paper allows us to understand the circumstances and context of the birth and teaching of accounting in Tunisia. Eventually, it helps to position the accounting curriculum in relation to international requirements. In fact, the training of accountants is closely related to the practice of the profession, regulated by the Order of Chartered Accountants in Tunisia (OECT). This Order is a member of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC), since its creation in the 80s, has obligations to align with international requirements, particularly those relating to higher education, set up in 2005 and updated in 2015 (International Standard Education: IES).

Keywords: accounting history, chartered certified accountants, higher accounting education, Tunisian context

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8 Investigating Water-Oxidation Using a Ru(III) Carboxamide Water Coordinated Complex

Authors: Yosra M. Badiei, Evelyn Ortiz, Marisa Portenti, David Szalda

Abstract:

Water-oxidation half-reaction is a critical reaction that can be driven by a sustainable energy source (e.g., solar or wind) and be coupled with a chemical fuel making reaction which stores the released electrons and protons from water (e.g., H₂ or methanol). The use of molecular water-oxidation catalysts (WOC) allow the rationale design of redox active metal centers and provides a better understanding of their structure-activity-relationship. Herein, the structure of a Ru(III) complex bearing a doubly deprotonated N,N'-bis(aryl)pyridine-2,6-dicarboxamide ligand which contains a water molecule in its primary coordination sphere was elucidated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Further spectroscopic experimental data and pH-dependent electrochemical studies reveal its water-oxidation reactivity. Emphasis on mechanistic details for O₂ formation of this complex will be addressed.

Keywords: water-oxidation, catalysis, ruthenium, artificial photosynthesis

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7 Unveiling Special Policy Regime, Judgment, and Taylor Rules in Tunisia

Authors: Yosra Baaziz, Moez Labidi

Abstract:

Given limited research on monetary policy rules in revolutionary countries, this paper challenges the suitability of the Taylor rule in characterizing the monetary policy behavior of the Tunisian Central Bank (BCT), especially in turbulent times. More specifically, we investigate the possibility that the Taylor rule should be formulated as a threshold process and examine the validity of such nonlinear Taylor rule as a robust rule for conducting monetary policy in Tunisia. Using quarterly data from 1998:Q4 to 2013:Q4 to analyze the movement of nominal short-term interest rate of the BCT, we find that the nonlinear Taylor rule improves its performance with the advent of special events providing thus a better description of the Tunisian interest rate setting. In particular, our results show that the adoption of an appropriate nonlinear approach leads to a reduction in the errors of 150 basis points in 1999 and 2009, and 60 basis points in 2011, relative to the linear approach.

Keywords: policy rule, central bank, exchange rate, taylor rule, nonlinearity

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6 Heterogeneous Intelligence Traders and Market Efficiency: New Evidence from Computational Approach in Artificial Stock Markets

Authors: Yosra Mefteh Rekik

Abstract:

A computational agent-based model of financial markets stresses interactions and dynamics among a very diverse set of traders. The growing body of research in this area relies heavily on computational tools which by-pass the restrictions of an analytical method. The main goal of this research is to understand how the stock market operates and behaves how to invest in the stock market and to study traders’ behavior within the context of the artificial stock markets populated by heterogeneous agents. All agents are characterized by adaptive learning behavior represented by the Artificial Neuron Networks. By using agent-based simulations on artificial market, we show that the existence of heterogeneous agents can explain the price dynamics in the financial market. We investigate the relation between market diversity and market efficiency. Our empirical findings demonstrate that greater market heterogeneity play key roles in market efficiency.

Keywords: agent-based modeling, artificial stock market, heterogeneous expectations, financial stylized facts, computational finance

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5 Ultra Reliable Communication: Availability Analysis in 5G Cellular Networks

Authors: Yosra Benchaabene, Noureddine Boujnah, Faouzi Zarai

Abstract:

To meet the growing demand of users, the fifth generation (5G) will continue to provide services to higher data rates with higher carrier frequencies and wider bandwidths. As part of the 5G communication paradigm, Ultra Reliable Communication (URC) is envisaged as an important technology pillar for providing anywhere and anytime services to end users. Ultra Reliable Communication (URC) is considered an important technology that why it has become an active research topic. In this work, we analyze the availability of a service in the space domain. We characterize spatially available areas consisting of all locations that meet a performance requirement with confidence, and we define cell availability and system availability, individual user availability, and user-oriented system availability. Poisson point process (PPP) and Voronoi tessellation are adopted to model the spatial characteristics of a cell deployment in heterogeneous networks. Numerical results are presented, also highlighting the effect of different system parameters on the achievable link availability.

Keywords: URC, dependability and availability, space domain analysis, Poisson point process, Voronoi Tessellation

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4 Artificial Intelligence Methods for Returns Expectations in Financial Markets

Authors: Yosra Mefteh Rekik, Younes Boujelbene

Abstract:

We introduce in this paper a new conceptual model representing the stock market dynamics. This model is essentially based on cognitive behavior of the intelligence investors. In order to validate our model, we build an artificial stock market simulation based on agent-oriented methodologies. The proposed simulator is composed of market supervisor agent essentially responsible for executing transactions via an order book and various kinds of investor agents depending to their profile. The purpose of this simulation is to understand the influence of psychological character of an investor and its neighborhood on its decision-making and their impact on the market in terms of price fluctuations. Therefore, the difficulty of the prediction is due to several features: the complexity, the non-linearity and the dynamism of the financial market system, as well as the investor psychology. The Artificial Neural Networks learning mechanism take on the role of traders, who from their futures return expectations and place orders based on their expectations. The results of intensive analysis indicate that the existence of agents having heterogeneous beliefs and preferences has provided a better understanding of price dynamics in the financial market.

Keywords: artificial intelligence methods, artificial stock market, behavioral modeling, multi-agent based simulation

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3 Earnings Volatility and Earnings Predictability

Authors: Yosra Ben Mhamed

Abstract:

Most previous research that investigates the importance of earnings volatility for a firm’s value has focused on the effects of earnings volatility on the cost of capital. Many study illustrate that earnings volatility can reduce the firm’s value by enhancing the cost of capital. However, a few recent studies directly examine the relation between earnings volatility and subsequent earnings levels. In our study, we further explore the role of volatility in forecasting. Our study makes two primary contributions to the literature. First, taking into account the level of current firm’s performance, we provide causal theory to the link between volatility and earnings predictability. Nevertheless, previous studies testing the linearity of this relationship have not mentioned any underlying theory. Secondly, our study contributes to the vast body of fundamental analysis research that identifies a set of variables that improve valuation, by showing that earnings volatility affects the estimation of future earnings. Projections of earnings are used by valuation research and practice to derive estimates of firm value. Since we want to examine the impact of volatility on earnings predictability, we sort the sample into three portfolios according to the level of their earnings volatility in ascending order. For each quintile, we present the predictability coefficient. In a second test, each of these portfolios is, then, sorted into three further quintiles based on their level of current earnings. These yield nine quintiles. So we can observe whether volatility strongly predicts decreases on earnings predictability only for highest quintile of earnings. In general, we find that earnings volatility has an inverse relationship with earnings predictability. Our results also show that the sensibility of earnings predictability to ex-ante volatility is more pronounced among profitability firms. The findings are most consistent with overinvestment and persistence explanations.

Keywords: earnings volatility, earnings predictability, earnings persistence, current profitability

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2 Dermatophytoses: Spectrum Evolution of Dermatophytes in Sfax, Tunisia, Between 1999 and 2019

Authors: Khemakhem Nahed, Hammami Fatma, Trabelsi Houaida, Neji Sourour, Sellami Hayet, Makni Fattouma, Turki Hamida, Ayadi Ali

Abstract:

Dermatophytoses are considered a public health problem and represent 10% of dermatological consultations in our region. Their epidemiology is influenced by various factors, such as lifestyle, human migration patterns, changes in the environment and the host relationship. The understanding of epidemiology has a major impact on their prevention and treatment. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence pattern of aetiological agents and to describe the clinical characteristics of dermatophytoses between 1999 and 2019. Out of 65 059 subjects suspected to have superficial mycoses, 36 220 (55.67%) were affected with dermatophytoses. The mean age was 40.1 years (range: 10 days to 99 years). The sex ratio was 0.8. Our patients were from urban regions in 80.9% of cases. The most common type of infection was onychomycosis (42.64%), followed by tinea pedis (20.8%), intertrigo (18.3%), tinea corporis (8.48%) and tinea capitis (7.87%). The most isolated dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum (76.5%), followed by T. mentagrophytes complex (6.3%), Microsporum canis (5.8%), T. violaceum (5.3%), T. verrucosum (0.83%) and Epidermophyton floccosum (0.3%). Zoophilic agents have become more prevalent and their frequency has been increased from 6.46% in 1999 to 13% in 2019. It is interesting to note that M. canis has been on the rise since 2010 and it was the first etiological agent of tinea capitis (48%), while infections caused by T. violaceum continued to decrease from 1999 (16.2%) to 2019 (4.7%). Other dermatophytes have been rarely isolated: T. tonsurans (9 cases), T. schoenleinii (3 cases), T. soudanense (2 cases), M. fulvum (1 case), M. audouinii (1 case) and M. ferrugineum (2 cases).T. mentagrophytes var. quinckeanum was isolated from an inflammatory tinea capitis lesion in an a-3-year-old girl. T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei was isolated from the first case of tinea manuum, in-a-10-year-old girl. The same fungus was isolated from the hair and scales of the hedgehog. Our study showed significant changes in the dermatophytes spectrum in our region. The prevalence of zoophilic species increased in recent years due to people's behavioral changes with the adoption of pets and animal husbandry in urban settings. Molecular methods are often crucial that help us to refine the identification strains of dermatophytes and to identify their origin of the contamination.

Keywords: dermatophytoses, PCR-sequencing, spectrum, Sfax, Tunisia

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1 A Research on a Historical Architectural Heritage of the Village: Zriba El Olia

Authors: Yosra Ben Salah, Wang Li Jun, Salem Bellil

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The village Hammem Zriba is a lost little paradise in the middle of a beautiful landscape that captures the eyes of every visitor. The village alone is a rich expression of different elements such as urban, architecture, technical and vernacular elements, as well as sociological, spiritual and religious behaviors. This heritage is in degrading conditions and is threatened by disappearing soon; thus, actions have to be taken as soon as possible to preserve this heritage, record, analyze and learn from its traditional ways of construction. The strategy of this study is to examine the architecture within the Berber society over a period of time and influenced by a certain location and its relationship to the social and cultural aspects; this research will focus on historical, environmental, social and cultural aspects influencing architecture. The contents of this paper should mainly be constructed by three successive layouts of historical view, a cultural view and an architectural view that will include the urban and domestic scale. This research relies on the integration of both theoretical and empirical investigations. On the theoretical level: A documentary analysis of secondary data is used. Documentary analysis means content analysis of the relevant documents that include books, journals, magazines, archival data, and field survey and observations. On the empirical level: analysis of these traditional ways of planning and house building will be carried out. Through the Analysis, three techniques will be employed to collect primary data. These techniques are; systematic analysis of the architectural drawings, quantitative analysis to the houses statistics, and a direct observation. Through this research, the technical, architectural and urban achievements of the Berber people who represent a part of the general history and architectural history will be emphasized. And on a second point the potential for the sustainability present in this traditional urban planning and housing to be used to formulate guidelines for modern urban and housing development.

Keywords: culture, history, traditional architecture, values

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