Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 170

Search results for: Vitor Hugo Simon

110 Challenges of Good Government in Enhancing Food Security for Sustainable National Development in Nigeria

Authors: Agi Sunday, Egboja Simon

Abstract:

One of the most important key to success of a nation is to ensure steady development and national economic self - sufficiency and independence. There have been challenges in food security related issues in many developing nations. The problems may be as a result of rise in food price across the globe diminishing global food reserve and erratic weather patterns among other factors. In Nigeria several Agricultural politics have been formulated to curtail food security challenges. Unfortunately, these policies have not yielded the deserved results of increase food production. This paper is designed to identify the various challenges confronting food security in Nigeria with a view of highlighting the reasons that accounting for these problems. This paper also suggests ways of addressing these challenges and concludes by saying that subsidization of the process of farm inputs like fertilizer, improved seed and agro chemicals education of the farmers on modern methods of farming through extension services, improvisation of villages based food storage mechanism and provision of infrastructural facilities in rural areas to facilitate the preservation and easy evacuation of farm produce should be encouraged.

Keywords: Food, Development, Security, Society, Governance, Sustainability, Conflict, Hunger

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109 Cessna Citation X Performances Improvement by an Adaptive Winglet during the Cruise Flight

Authors: Marine Segui, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez, Simon Bezin

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As part of a ‘Morphing-Wing’ idea, this study consists of measuring how a winglet, which is able to change its shape during the flight, is efficient. Conventionally, winglets are fixed-vertical platforms at the wingtips, optimized for a cruise condition that the airplane should use most of the time. However, during a cruise, an airplane flies through a lot of cruise conditions corresponding to altitudes variations from 30,000 to 45,000 ft. The fixed winglets are not optimized for these variations, and consequently, they are supposed to generate some drag, and thus to deteriorate aircraft fuel consumption. This research assumes that it exists a winglet position that reduces the fuel consumption for each cruise condition. In this way, the methodology aims to find these optimal winglet positions, and to further simulate, and thus estimate the fuel consumption of an aircraft wearing this type of adaptive winglet during several cruise conditions. The adaptive winglet is assumed to have degrees of freedom given by the various changes of following surfaces: the tip chord, the sweep and the dihedral angles. Finally, results obtained during cruise simulations are presented in this paper. These results show that an adaptive winglet can reduce, thus improve up to 2.12% the fuel consumption of an aircraft during a cruise.

Keywords: Optimization, Aerodynamic, winglet, Cessna, Citation X

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108 A Study of Primary School Parents’ Interaction with Teachers’ in Malaysia

Authors: Shireen Simon

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This study explores the interactions between primary school parents-teachers in Malaysia. Schools in the country are organized to promote participation between parents and teachers. Exchanges of dialogue are most valued between parents and teachers because teachers are in daily contact with pupils’ and the first line of communication with parents. Teachers are considered by parents as the most important connection to improve children learning and well-being. Without a good communication, interaction or involvement between parent-teacher might tarnish a pupils’ performance in school. This study tries to find out multiple emotions among primary school parents-teachers, either estranged or cordial, when they communicate in a multi-cultured society in Malaysia. Important issues related to parent-teacher interactions are discussed further. Parents’ involvement in an effort to boost better education in school is significantly more effective with parents’ involvement. Lastly, this article proposes some suggestions for parents and teachers to build a positive relationship with effective communication and establish more democratic open door policy.

Keywords: parental involvement, multi-cultured society, parent-teacher relationships, parents’ interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
107 The Culex Pipiens Niche: Assessment with Climatic and Physiographic Variables via a Geographic Information System

Authors: Maria C. Proença, Maria T. Rebelo, Maria J. Alves, Sofia Cunha, Marília Antunes, Hugo Osório, João Casaca

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Using a geographic information system (GIS), the relations between a georeferenced data set of Culex pipiens sl. mosquitoes collected in Portugal mainland during seven years (2006-2012) and meteorological and physiographic parameters such as: air relative humidity, air temperature (minima, maxima and mean daily temperatures), daily total rainfall, altitude, land use/land cover and proximity to water bodies are evaluated. Focus is on the mosquito females; the characterization of its habitat is the key for the planning of chirurgical non-aggressive prophylactic countermeasures to avoid ambient degradation. The GIS allow for the spatial determination of the zones were the mosquito mean captures has been above average; using the meteorological values at these coordinates, the limits of each parameter are identified/computed. The meteorological parameters measured at the net of weather stations all over the country are averaged by month and interpolated to produce raster maps that can be segmented according to the thresholds obtained for each parameter. The intersection of the maps obtained for each month show the evolution of the area favorable to the species through the mosquito season, which is from May to October at these latitudes. In parallel, mean and above average captures were related to the physiographic parameters. Three levels of risk could be identified for each parameter, using above average captures as an index. The results were applied to the suitability meteorological maps of each month. The Culex pipiens critical niche is delimited, reflecting the critical areas and the level of risk for transmission of the pathogens to which they are competent vectors (West Nile virus, iridoviruses, rheoviruses and parvoviruses).

Keywords: Risk management, Risk Assessment, Culex pipiens, ecological niche

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106 Residents' Satisfaction with Infrastructural Facilities in the Peri-Urban Area of Ibadan, Southwest of Nigeria

Authors: Simon Ayorinde Okanlawon

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This study examines residents’ assessment of with infrastructural facilities in the urban fringe of Ibadan, Nigeria. Random sampling technique was used in selecting four Local Government Areas out of the six suburban LGAs of the city. Google earth and ground trotting were used in capturing and selecting seven hundred and forty-two new houses. The questionnaires administered on house owners were harvested on the spot. The information collected includes socio-economic and demographic characteristics of residents as well as characteristics of infrastructural facilities. The study utilised both descriptive and inferential statistical analyses; Facility Availability Index (FAI) Facility Functionality Index (FFI) and Residents’ Satisfactions Index (RSI) were used to compare respectively residents’ perceived levels of availability of, the functionality of, and satisfaction with facilities across Local Government Areas. The study shows that levels of both availability of, and satisfaction with infrastructural facilities are low with respective overall FAI (0.8) and RSI (0.05), while the functionality of the facilities is generally very poor IFFI = - 0.58). Strategies were proposed to enhance the good, livable, and healthy environment.

Keywords: infrastructural facilities, infrastructural perception index, residents’ satisfaction, urban fringe of Ibadan

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105 Investigating the UAE Residential Valuation System: A Framework for Analysis

Authors: Ebraheim Lahbash, Simon Huston, Ali Parsa

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The development of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) into a regional trade, tourism, finance and logistics hub has transformed its real estate markets. However, speculative activity and price volatility remain concerns. UAE residential market values (MV) are exposed to fluctuations in capital flows and migration which in turn are affected by geopolitical uncertainty, oil price volatility, and global investment market sentiment. Internally, a complex interplay between administrative boundaries, land tenure, building quality and evolving location characteristics fragments UAE residential property markets. In short, the UAE Residential Valuation System (UAE-RVS) confronts multiple challenges to collect, filter and analyze relevant information in complex and dynamic spatial and capital markets. A robust (RVS) can mitigate the risk of unhelpful volatility, speculative excess or investment mistakes. The research outlines the institutional, ontological, dynamic, and epistemological issues at play. We highlight the importance of system capabilities, valuation standard salience and stakeholders trust.

Keywords: Information, Property Rights, Trust, Institutions, Valuation, salience

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104 Mental Health of the Elderly: Evaluating a Newly Developed Structured Life-Review Manual Using a Within-Subjects Pre-Post Design

Authors: Wladislaw Mill, Hariet Kirschner, Anna Zimmermann, Sashi Singh, Simon Forstmeier, Uwe Berger, Bernhard Strauss, Benedikt Werner

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Introduction: A promising method to improve mental health of elderly people are structured life-reviews. We report the evaluation of our newly developed manual for structured life-reviews. The manual was created with the emphasis on straightforward application so that it can be used by professionals and lay people alike. Method: A within-subjects pre-post design is used to evaluate the manual using a geriatric depression scale and a self-integrity measure. Participants are elderly people living by themselves and in nursing homes. Findings: It is shown that elderly people perceive the structured life-review as a very positive experience. More importantly, it is shown that a negative trend of self-integrity and geriatric depression is significantly reduced by the intervention. Conclusion: The data suggest that the manual contributes positively to self- perception and mental health. We conclude that this newly developed device is very valuable to augment elderly care.

Keywords: structured life-review, self-integrity, geriatric depression, preventation research

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103 Effect of Exercise Training on Body Composition and Metabolic Profile in Older Adults during Cancer Treatment

Authors: Adeline Fontvieille, Hugo Parent-Roberge, Marie-France Langlois, Tamas Fulop, Michel Pavic, Eleonor Riesco

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Introduction: Total lean body mass is reduced during cancer treatment. This loss is called cancer cachexia and is accompanied by a progressive loss of fat mass. In older adults, these body composition changes can have a larger impact on metabolic health, physical autonomy, and cancer survival. Although currently untreatable, exercise training could reduce these effects. Hence, the objective of this pilot study is to investigate if 12 weeks of exercise training during cancer treatment can mitigate the loss of muscle mass and fat mass in older adults. Methods: A total of 40 older adults (65-80 years) with an ongoing treatment for a curable cancer are currently recruited and randomised in two groups: 1) Combined training (EX, n=20) and 2) Control group (CON, n=20). All variables are measured before and after 12 weeks of intervention: Anthropometry (weight, height, body mass index), body composition (total fat mass, visceral adipose tissue, total and appendicular muscle mass; DXA), metabolic profile (HDL-C and LDL-C, triglycerides, glucose and insulin levels). Results: Preliminary analyses revealed no impact of exercise training on appendicular muscle mass (p=0,31) and fat mass (p=0,31). Furthermore, total body weight, waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, glucose and insulin levels remained unchanged (all p ≥ 0.79) after 12 weeks of training. However, statistical analyses revealed that triglyceride levels slightly increased (p=0.03), irrespective of the group. Conclusion: Preliminary analyses did not reveal any impact of aerobic and resistance exercise training on body composition in oncogeriatric patients. Furthermore, exercise training seems not efficient to prevent the cancer treatment-related triglyceride levels increase.

Keywords: Cancer, Aging, fat mass, metabolic profile, muscle mass, combined training

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102 Emile Meyerson's Philosophy of Science in Lacan's Early Theories

Authors: Hugo T. Jorge, Richard T. Simanke

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Lacan’s work addresses overarching issues concerning the scientific intelligibility of the subject in its philosophical sense. Even though his reflection is not, strictly speaking, philosophy of science, it contains many traits that are typical of this branch of philosophy. However, the relation between Lacan’s early thought and the philosophy of science of the time is often disregarded or only incompletely accounted for in Lacanian scholarship. French philosopher of science Emile Meyerson was often implicitly or explicitly referred to in Lacan’s works, yet few publications can be found on their relationship. The objective of this paper is to contribute to the analysis of this relationship, indicating some of its possible implications. For this, the convergence between Meyerson’s doctrine of science and Lacan’s works between 1936 and 1953 is discussed, as well as the conditions under which Lacan’s reception of Meyerson’s ideas take place. In conclusion, it is argued that this convergence allows for the clarification of important issues in Lacan’s early work, such as the concept of imago, his views on the nature of truth, and his thesis of the anthropomorphism of natural sciences. Meyerson’s argument for the permanence of common sense within science makes Lacan’s claims on the anthropomorphism of natural sciences more understandable. Similarly, Meyerson’s views on the epistemological shortfall of the Principle of Identity sheds some light on Lacan’s 1936 critique of associationistic concepts of engram and truth and may be at the origins of his antirealist and anti-idealist stances. Meyerson’s Principle of Identity is also related to some aspects of Lacan’s concept of imago. The imago understood as the unconscious condition for the identity in time of family figures in childhood, would be an excellent expression of the Principle of Identity. In this sense, the Principle of Identity may be linked to the concept of imaginary as developed by Lacan in the 1950s. However, Lacan considerably distorts Meyerson’s views in his 1936 critique of Freud’s concept of libido. Finally, a possible relationship between Lacan’s late concept of the real and Meyerson’s concept of the irrational is suggested.

Keywords: Philosophy of Science, real, imaginary, Lacan, Meyerson

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101 Kinetics and Adsorption Studies of Tetracycline from Aqueous Solution Using Melon Husk

Authors: Ungwanen John Ahile, Sylvester Obaike Adejo, Simon Terver Ubwa, Raymond Lubem Tyohemba, Pius Utange, Mnena G. Ikyagh

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The adsorption of tetracycline from aqueous solution was carried out using melon husk as a low-cost adsorbent. The adsorption was characterized using standard methods and values obtained were; pH = 7.80, bulk density = 0.43 g/mL, ash content = 2.2 %, moisture content = 8.27 %, attrition = 1%, and iodine number = 552 mg/g. Adsorption capacity was found to vary with initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time and temperature, the maximum adsorption capacity in each case was found to be at; 30 mg/L for concentration, 0.8 g for adsorbent dose, 5 for pH, 60 minutes for time and 30 °C for temperature. FTIR analysis was done to analyses the surface functional groups which shows the presence of O-H stretch, at 3743.92 corresponding to alcohol, phenols, C-H stretch at 2923.27 indicative of alkanes, H-C=O: C-H stretch at 2725.76 corresponding to aldehyde, C-C stretch at 1462.72 corresponding to aromatic, SEM analysis carried out revealed a rough and smooth morphology of the uncontacted and contacted adsorbent respectively. The experimental data judging from the R2 values fitted best into the Temkin isotherm. The fitting of tetracycline adsorption into the pseudo second order kinetic model (R2 of 0.9992) is suggestive of chemisorption for the adsorbent.

Keywords: Adsorption, Antibiotics, adsorbent isotherm, tertracycline

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100 The Practices of Creative Tourism in Urban and Rural Areas at International Level

Authors: Miguel Pereira, Isabel Freitas, Paula Remoaldo, Olga Matos, Ricardo Goja, Juliana Araujo, Vitor Ribeiro

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Several destinations have been experiencing a transition from a massified cultural tourism to a creative tourism approach. In this new segment of tourism, urban territories have been the focus for several decades. Urban studies on creative industries and initiatives have been taking place in big cities marginalizing small towns and more specifically rural areas. This paper envisages evaluating the differences between rural and urban institutions/platforms, mostly certified by the Creative Tourism Network, in what concerns the practices and initiatives in creative tourism worldwide. In the research carried out between March 2017 and March 2018, we had three levels of primary data and qualitative analysis: i) research on Google (web) by using several keywords like 'creative tourism initiatives', 'creative cities', 'best practices in creative tourism' (from March to August 2017). With the help of the certification of institutions/platforms by the Creative Tourism Network, 24 institutions were found and declared to be developing creative initiatives. It was decided to try to unravel the type of activities and some practices and initiatives carried out by these institutions and the analysis of the differences between rural and urban initiatives. A database of 20 items (e.g., institutions in charge of implementing the initiatives, year of implementation, site, activities developed, place of development, country of origin, type of partners chosen) was created for each institution/platform; ii) A deeper analysis was made on the websites’ information on the institutions (from September to December 2017). The type of professionals involved in the activities, the language used in the activities and the type of activity performed were some of the data analysed and iii) To complement these data, semi-structured interviews were done to representatives of the institutions, conducted mainly by Skype from July 2017 to April 2018. The interviews consisted of 17 questions. In the present paper, these interviews are used to complement the analysis of the same items. Some of the qualitative analysis was supported by the narratives of the leaders of the twenty-four institutions that were surveyed. The results indicate that creative tourism is more active and diverse in urban areas. Some more consolidated communication strategies and partnerships are needed for these activities to become economically more sustainable. The findings of this research provide researchers and practitioners with a better understanding of creative tourism and give some information of how creative tourism is developed in rural and urban areas, the gaps and lack of information, and all the possible directions towards the development of the creative tourism industry.

Keywords: urban areas, rural areas, Creative Tourism, practices of creative tourism

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99 Yawning and Cortisol as a Potential Biomarker for Early Detection of Multiple Sclerosis

Authors: Simon B. N. Thompson

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Cortisol is essential to the regulation of the immune system and yawning is a pathological symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). Electromyography activity (EMG) in the jaw muscles typically rises when the muscles are moved and with yawning is highly correlated with cortisol levels in healthy people. Saliva samples from 59 participants were collected at the start and after yawning, or at the end of the presentation of yawning-provoking stimuli, in the absence of a yawn, together with EMG data and questionnaire data: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Yawning Susceptibility Scale, General Health Questionnaire, demographic, health details. Exclusion criteria: chronic fatigue, diabetes, fibromyalgia, heart condition, high blood pressure, hormone replacement therapy, multiple sclerosis, stroke. Significant differences were found between the saliva cortisol samples for the yawners, t (23) = -4.263, p = 0.000, as compared with the non-yawners between rest and post-stimuli, which was non-significant. Significant evidence was found to support the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis suggesting that rises in cortisol levels are associated with yawning. Further research is exploring the use of cortisol as an early diagnostic tool for MS. Ethics approval granted and professional code of conduct, confidentiality, and safety issues are approved therein.

Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, cortisol, yawning, thompson cortisol hypothesis

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98 Exploring Selected Cultures in Mitigating an Array of Social Vices in South Africa: A Literature Review

Authors: M. Kang'ethe Simon, Nomngcoyiya Thanduxolo

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The aim of this article is to explore the role of selected cultural practices and assess how they can be a panacea in mitigating the state of social vices in South Africa. The article uses a review of literature methodology. Findings indicate that Africans were hoodwinked by white people to abandon their cultures for western based cultures. African cultures continue to weaken as they succumb to forces of westernization, eurocentrism, modernization, civilization, and globalization. Africans have realised that their cultures abandoned such as virginity testing, sexual mores and taboos and circumcision could be a panacea in mitigating some of the societal ills such as moral decadence and HIV/AIDS. The article urges for a resuscitation of cultural practices such as virginity testing, thigh sex (ukumetsha), circumcision and teachings that accompanied initiation schools; and societies to undergo an attitudinal and cultural paradigm shift that will consider the invaluable aspects of cultures that can effectuate and facilitate mitigation of social ills in African countries such as South Africa.

Keywords: Circumcision, virginity testing (reed dance), initiation schools, African Renaissance, thigh sex, moral decadence, cultural custodians, state of anomie

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97 Adaptive Swarm Balancing Algorithms for Rare-Event Prediction in Imbalanced Healthcare Data

Authors: Jinyan Li, Simon Fong, Raymond Wong, Mohammed Sabah, Fiaidhi Jinan

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Clinical data analysis and forecasting have make great contributions to disease control, prevention and detection. However, such data usually suffer from highly unbalanced samples in class distributions. In this paper, we target at the binary imbalanced dataset, where the positive samples take up only the minority. We investigate two different meta-heuristic algorithms, particle swarm optimization and bat-inspired algorithm, and combine both of them with the synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE) for processing the datasets. One approach is to process the full dataset as a whole. The other is to split up the dataset and adaptively process it one segment at a time. The experimental results reveal that while the performance improvements obtained by the former methods are not scalable to larger data scales, the later one, which we call Adaptive Swarm Balancing Algorithms, leads to significant efficiency and effectiveness improvements on large datasets. We also find it more consistent with the practice of the typical large imbalanced medical datasets. We further use the meta-heuristic algorithms to optimize two key parameters of SMOTE. Leading to more credible performances of the classifier, and shortening the running time compared with the brute-force method.

Keywords: Big Data, Imbalanced dataset, meta-heuristic algorithm, SMOTE

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96 Arduino-Based Laser Communication

Authors: Edward Lim, Simon Bambey, Kai Corley-Jory, Pooya Taheri

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The main goal of this paper is to propose a simple and low-cost microcontroller-based laser communication link. To demonstrate that laser communication is a viable and efficient means for transmitting data, a transceiver capable of transfer rates of approximately 0.7 kB/s is prototyped. The hardware used for the transceiver consists of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) lasers, photodiodes, and the Arduino Mega 2560 which is an open-source and easy-to-use microcontroller-based platform intended for making interactive projects. A graphic user interface utilizing the Meteor framework is developed to facilitate the communication between the user and transceiver. The developed transceiver prototype is capable of receiving and transmitting data at significant ranges with no loss of information. Furthermore, stable and secure communication is achieved through several mechanisms developed to manage simultaneous sending and receiving, in addition to detecting physical interruptions during transmission. The design setup is scalable and with further development can be transformed into a fiber-optic transmission system. Due to its nature, laser communication is very secure and can provide a safe and private communication link. Overall, this paper demonstrates how laser communication can be an economical, durable, and effective means of information transfer.

Keywords: Wireless Communication, User Interfaces, Laser applications, Arduino microcontrollers

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95 Management of Facial Nerve Palsy Following Physiotherapy

Authors: Bassam Band, Simon Freeman, Rohan Munir, Hisham Band

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Objective: To determine efficacy of facial physiotherapy provided for patients with facial nerve palsy. Design: Retrospective study Subjects: 54 patients diagnosed with Facial nerve palsy were included in the study after they met the selection criteria including unilateral facial paralysis and start of therapy twelve months after the onset of facial nerve palsy. Interventions: Patients received the treatment offered at a facial physiotherapy clinic consisting of: Trophic electrical stimulation, surface electromyography with biofeedback, neuromuscular re-education and myofascial release. Main measures: The Sunnybrook facial grading scale was used to evaluate the severity of facial paralysis. Results: This study demonstrated the positive impact of physiotherapy for patient with facial nerve palsy with improvement of 24.2% on the Sunnybrook facial grading score from a mean baseline of 34.2% to 58.2%. The greatest improvement looking at different causes was seen in patient who had reconstructive surgery post Acoustic Neuroma at 31.3%. Conclusion: The therapy shows significant improvement for patients with facial nerve palsy even when started 12 months post onset of paralysis across different causes. This highlights the benefit of this non-invasive technique in managing facial nerve paralysis and possibly preventing the need for surgery.

Keywords: Physiotherapy, treatment, facial nerve palsy, bells palsy, acoustic neuroma, ramsey-hunt syndrome

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94 Virtual Modelling of Turbulent Fibre Flow in a Low Consistency Refiner for a Sustainable and Energy Efficient Process

Authors: Vijay Shankar, Simon Ingelsten, Anton Lundberg, Lars-Olof Landström, Örjan Johansson

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The flow in a low consistency disc refiner is simulated with the aim of identifying flow structures possibly being of importance for a future study to optimise the energy efficiency in refining processes. A simplified flow geometry is used, where a single groove of a refiner disc is modelled. Two different fibre models are used to simulate turbulent fibre suspension flow in the groove. The first model is a Bingham viscoplastic fluid model where the fibre suspension is treated as a non-Newtonian fluid with a yield stress. The second model is a new model proposed in a recent study where the suspended fibres effect on flow is accounted for through a modelled orientation distribution function (ODF). Both models yielded similar results with small differences. Certain flow characteristics that were expected and that was found in the literature were identified. Some of these flow characteristics may be of importance in a future process to optimise the refiner geometry to increase the energy efficiency. Further study and a more detailed flow model is; however, needed in order for the simulations to yield results valid for quantitative use in such an optimisation study. An outline of the next steps in such a study is proposed.

Keywords: Sustainability, Turbulence Modelling, disc refiner, fibre flow

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93 Numerical Solution of Magneto-Hydrodynamic Flow of a Viscous Fluid in the Presence of Nanoparticles with Fractional Derivatives through a Cylindrical Tube

Authors: Asma Rashid Butt, Muhammad Abdullah, Nauman Raza

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Biomagnetic fluids like blood play key role in different applications of medical science and bioengineering. In this paper, the magnetohydrodynamic flow of a viscous fluid with magnetic particles through a cylindrical tube is investigated. The fluid is electrically charged in the presence of a uniform external magnetic field. The movement in the fluid is produced due to the cylindrical tube. Initially, the fluid and tube are at rest and at time t=0⁺, the tube starts to move along its axis. To obtain the mathematical model of flow with fractional derivatives fractional calculus approach is used. The solution of the flow model is obtained by using Laplace transformation. The Simon's numerical algorithm is employed to obtain inverse Laplace transform. The hybrid technique, we are employing has less computational effort as compared to other methods. The numerical calculations have been performed with Mathcad software. As the special cases of our problem, the solution of flow model with ordinary derivatives and flow without magnetic particles has been procured. Finally, the impact of non-integer fractional parameter alpha, Hartmann number Ha, and Reynolds number Re on flow and magnetic particles velocity is analyzed and depicted by graphs.

Keywords: Fractional Calculus, Magnetic Particles, viscous fluid, laplace transformation

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92 Water Access and Food Security: A Cross-Sectional Study of SSA Countries in 2017

Authors: Davod Ahmadi, Narges Ebadi, Ethan Wang, Hugo Melgar-Quiñonez

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Compared to the other Least Developed Countries (LDCs), major countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have limited access to the clean water. People in this region, and more specifically females, suffer from acute water scarcity problems. They are compelled to spend too much of their time bringing water for domestic use like drinking and washing. Apart from domestic use, water through affecting agriculture and livestock contributes to the food security status of people in vulnerable regions like SSA. Livestock needs water to grow, and agriculture requires enormous quantities of water for irrigation. The main objective of this study is to explore the association between access to water and individuals’ food security status. Data from 2017 Gallup World Poll (GWP) for SSA were analyzed (n=35,000). The target population in GWP is the entire civilian, non-institutionalized, aged 15 and older population. All samples selection is probability based and nationally representative. The Gallup surveys an average of 1,000 samples of individuals per country. Three questions related to water (i.e., water quality, availability of water for crops and availability of water for livestock) were used as the exposure variables. Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES) was used as the outcome variable. FIES measures individuals’ food security status, and it is composed of eight questions with simple dichotomous responses (1=Yes and 0=No). Different statistical analyses such as descriptive, crosstabs and binary logistic regression, form the basis of this study. Results from descriptive analyses showed that more than 50% of the respondents had no access to enough water for crops and livestock. More than 85% of respondents were categorized as “food insecure”. Findings from cross-tabulation analyses showed that food security status was significantly associated with water quality (0.135; P=0.000), water for crops (0.106; P=0.000) and water for livestock (0.112; P=0.000). In regression analyses, the probability of being food insecure increased among people who expressed no satisfaction with water quality (OR=1.884 (OR=1.768-2.008)), not enough water for crops (OR=1.721 (1.616-1.834)) and not enough water for livestock (OR=1.706 (1.819)). In conclusion, it should note that water access affects food security status in SSA.

Keywords: Agriculture, Livestock, water access, FIES

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91 Factory Virtual Environment Development for Augmented and Virtual Reality

Authors: Michal Gregor, Michal Šimon, Jiri Polcar, Petr Horejsi

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Machine visualization is an area of interest with fast and progressive development. We present a method of machine visualization which will be applicable in real industrial conditions according to current needs and demands. Real factory data were obtained in a newly built research plant. Methods described in this paper were validated on a case study. Input data were processed and the virtual environment was created. The environment contains information about dimensions, structure, disposition, and function. Hardware was enhanced by modular machines, prototypes, and accessories. We added new functionalities and machines into the virtual environment. The user is able to interact with objects such as testing and cutting machines, he/she can operate and move them. Proposed design consists of an environment with two degrees of freedom of movement. Users are in touch with items in the virtual world which are embedded into the real surroundings. This paper describes the development of the virtual environment. We compared and tested various options of factory layout virtualization and visualization. We analyzed possibilities of using a 3D scanner in the layout obtaining process and we also analyzed various virtual reality hardware visualization methods such as Stereoscopic (CAVE) projection, Head Mounted Display (HMD), and augmented reality (AR) projection provided by see-through glasses.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Virtual Environment, spatial scanner

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90 Forecasting Future Demand for Energy Efficient Vehicles: A Review of Methodological Approaches

Authors: Dimitrios I. Tselentis, Simon P. Washington

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Considerable literature has been focused over the last few decades on forecasting the consumer demand of Energy Efficient Vehicles (EEVs). These methodological issues range from how to capture recent purchase decisions in revealed choice studies and how to set up experiments in stated preference (SP) studies, and choice of analysis method for analyzing such data. This paper reviews the plethora of published studies on the field of forecasting demand of EEVs since 1980, and provides a review and annotated bibliography of that literature as it pertains to this particular demand forecasting problem. This detailed review addresses the literature not only to Transportation studies, but specifically to the problem and methodologies around forecasting to the time horizons of planning studies which may represent 10 to 20 year forecasts. The objectives of the paper are to identify where existing gaps in literature exist and to articulate where promising methodologies might guide longer term forecasting. One of the key findings of this review is that there are many common techniques used both in the field of new product demand forecasting and the field of predicting future demand for EEV. Apart from SP and RP methods, some of these new techniques that have emerged in the literature in the last few decades are survey related approaches, product diffusion models, time-series modelling, computational intelligence models and other holistic approaches.

Keywords: Demand forecasting, Methodological Approaches, Energy Efficient Vehicles (EEVs), forecasting methodologies review

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89 The Mineral and Petroleum Sectors of Papua New Guinea: An Overview

Authors: James Wapyer, Simon A. Kawagle

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The current downturn in the metal and oil prices has significantly affected the mineral and petroleum sectors of Papua New Guinea. The sectors have not grown substantially in the last three years compared to previous years. Resources of several projects have not been proved up as well as feasibility studies not undertaken on advanced projects. In the 2012-2015 periods, however, development licences for four projects have been granted - the Solwara-1 project in the Manus Basin, the Woodlark project, the Crater Mountains project and the Stanley gas-condensate project. There has been some progress on three advanced projects – Frieda River copper-gold porphyry, Mount Kare gold, and the Wafi-Golpu projects. The oilfields are small by world standard but have been high rates of production. The developments of liquefied natural gas projects are progressing well and the first LNG project with ExxonMobil and partners shipped its first cargo in May 2014, the second with Total and partners involving Elk-Antelope gas-condensate fields is in its development stage, and the third with Horizon Oil and partners involving gas fields in the western Papuan basin is in the planning stage. Significantly, in the years 2012-2015, the country has exported liquefied natural gas, nickel, cobalt and chromium, and has granted exploration licences for iron-sands and coal measures for the first time.

Keywords: Petroleum, Mineral, Exploration, Papua New Guinea

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88 The Effect of Physical Therapy on Triceps Surae Myofascial Trigger Point

Authors: M. Šimon, O. Peillon, R. Seijas, P. Alvarez, A. Pérez-Bellmunt

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Introduction: Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are defined as hyperirritable areas within taut bands of skeletal muscle and classified as either active or latent. Although they could be present in any muscle, the triceps surae is one of the most affected of the lower limb. The aim of this study was described which treatments are more used and their principal results. Study design: We performed a systematic literature search using strategies for the concepts of “Trigger Points and Gastrocnemius and Soleus not Trapezius” in Medline. Articles were screened by authors and included if they contained a rehabilitation intervention of MTrPs in healthy subjects or patients. Results: The treatments used were mostly invasive interventions and only a small part of the studies used non-invasive treatments. The methodology (time o type of intervention, characteristics of treatment, etc.) used in these treatments were frequently undefined. Overall, examination variables varied significantly among the included studies, but they were improving their parameters when the MTrPs were treated. Conclusions: There are a high variety of physical therapy treatments to improve the symptomatology of MTrPs when affect triceps surae muscle. Even so, not a single study analyzing the skeletal muscle contractile parameters (as maximal displacement or delay time) change with MTrPS therapy has been found. The treatments have to better specificity the methodology used in the futures investigation.

Keywords: Physical Therapy, fascia, myofascial trigger points, triceps surae

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87 Materials for Electrically Driven Aircrafts: Highly Conductive Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: Simon Bard, Martin Demleitner, Florian Schonl, Volker Altstadt

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For an electrically driven aircraft, whose engine is based on semiconductors, alternative materials are needed. The avoid hotspots in the materials thermally conductive polymers are necessary. Nevertheless, the mechanical properties of these materials should remain. Herein, the work of three years in a project with airbus and Siemens is presented. Different strategies have been pursued to achieve conductive fiber-reinforced composites: Metal-coated carbon fibers, pitch-based fibers and particle-loaded matrices have been investigated. In addition, a combination of copper-coated fibers and a conductive matrix has been successfully tested for its conductivity and mechanical properties. First, prepregs have been produced with a laboratory scale prepreg line, which can handle materials with maximum width of 300 mm. These materials have then been processed to fiber-reinforced laminates. For the PAN-fiber reinforced laminates, it could be shown that there is a strong dependency between fiber volume content and thermal conductivity. Laminates with 50 vol% of carbon fiber offer a conductivity of 0.6 W/mK, those with 66 vol% of fiber a thermal conductivity of 1 W/mK. With pitch-based fiber, the conductivity enhances to 1.5 W/mK for 61 vol% of fiber, compared to 0.81 W/mK with the same amount of fibers produced from PAN (+83% in conducitivity). The thermal conductivity of PAN-based composites with 50 vol% of fiber is at 0.6 W/mK, their nickel-coated counterparts with the same fiber volume content offer a conductivity of 1 W/mK, an increase of 66%.

Keywords: Polymer, Carbon, Thermal Conductivity, electric aircraft

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86 International Entrepreneurial Orientation and Institutionalism: The Effect on International Performance for Latin American SMEs

Authors: William Castillo, Hugo Viza, Arturo Vargas

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The Pacific Alliance is a trade bloc that is composed of four emerging economies: Chile, Colombia, Peru, and Mexico. These economies have gained macroeconomic stability in the past decade and as a consequence present future economic progress. Under this positive scenario, international business firms have flourished. However, the literature in this region has been widely unexamined. Therefore, it is critical to fill this theoretical gap, especially considering that Latin America is starting to become a global player and it possesses a different institutional context than developed markets. This paper analyzes the effect of international entrepreneurial orientation and institutionalism on international performance, for the Pacific Alliance small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs). The literature considers international entrepreneurial orientation to be a powerful managerial capability – along the resource based view- that firms can leverage to obtain a satisfactory international performance. Thereby, obtaining a competitive advantage through the correct allocation of key resources to exploit the capabilities here involved. Entrepreneurial Orientation is defined around five factors: innovation, proactiveness, risk-taking, competitive aggressiveness, and autonomy. Nevertheless, the institutional environment – both local and foreign, adversely affects International Performance; this is especially the case for emerging markets with uncertain scenarios. In this way, the study analyzes an Entrepreneurial Orientation, key endogenous variable of international performance, and Institutionalism, an exogenous variable. The survey data consists of Pacific Alliance SMEs that have foreign operations in at least another country in the trade bloc. Findings are still in an ongoing research process. Later, the study will undertake a structural equation modeling (SEM) using the variance-based partial least square estimation procedure. The software that is going to be used is the SmartPLS. This research contributes to the theoretical discussion of a largely postponed topic: SMEs in Latin America, that has had limited academic research. Also, it has practical implication for decision-makers and policy-makers, providing insights into what is behind international performance.

Keywords: SMEs, Institutional Theory, international entrepreneurial orientation, international performance, Pacific Alliance

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85 Negotiating Increased Food Production with African Indigenous Agricultural Knowledge: The Ugandan Case

Authors: Harriet Najjemba, Simon Peter Rutabajuuka, Deo Katono Nzarwa

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Scientific agricultural knowledge was introduced in Africa, including Uganda, during colonial rule. While this form of knowledge was introduced as part of Western scientific canon, African indigenous knowledge was not destroyed and has remained vital in food production. Modern scientific methods were devoted to export crops while food crop production was left to Africans who continued to use indigenous knowledge. Today, indigenous agricultural knowledge still provides farming skills and practices, more than a century since modern scientific agricultural knowledge was introduced in Uganda. It is evident that there is need to promote the still useful and more accessible indigenous agricultural practices in order to sustain increased food production. It is also important to have a tailor made agricultural knowledge system that combines practical indigenous practices with financially viable western scientific agricultural practices for sustained food production. The proposed paper will explain why the African indigenous agricultural knowledge has persisted and survived for over a century after colonial introduction of western scientific agricultural knowledge. The paper draws on research findings for a PhD study at Makerere University, Uganda. The study uses both written and oral sources, including colonial and postcolonial archival documents, and interviews. It critiques the parameters within which Western farming methods were introduced to African farmers.

Keywords: food production, food shortage, indigenous agricultural knowledge, western scientific agricultural practices

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84 Design and Implementation of the Embedded Control System for the Electrical Motor Based Cargo Vehicle

Authors: Syed M. Rizvi, Yiqing Meng, Simon Iwnicki

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With an increased demand in the land cargo industry, it is predicted that the freight trade will rise to a record $1.1 trillion in revenue and volume in the following years to come. This increase is mainly driven by the e-commerce model ever so popular in the consumer market. Many innovative ideas have stemmed from this demand and change in lifestyle likes of which include e-bike cargo and drones. Rural and urban areas are facing air quality challenges to keep pollution levels in city centre to a minimum. For this purpose, this paper presents the design and implementation of a non-linear PID control system, employing a micro-controller and low cost sensing technique, for controlling an electrical motor based cargo vehicle with various loads, to follow a leading vehicle (bike). Within using this system, the cargo vehicle will have no load influence on the bike rider on different gradient conditions, such as hill climbing. The system is being integrated with a microcontroller to continuously measure several parameters such as relative displacement between bike and the cargo vehicle and gradient of the road, and process these measurements to create a portable controller capable of controlling the performance of electrical vehicle without the need of a PC. As a result, in the case of carrying 180kg of parcel weight, the cargo vehicle can maintain a reasonable spacing over a short length of sensor travel between the bike and itself.

Keywords: Embedded system, microcontroller, self-adaptive, inertial measurement unit (IMU), e-bike, cargo, nonlinear pid

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83 Impact of Traditional Male Circumcision Mishaps Towards Newly Initiated Men's Advancement in Education in South Africa

Authors: Thanduxolo Nomngcoyiya, Simon M. Kang’ethe

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The aim of this article is to explore whether a relationship exists between traditional male circumcision mishaps and level of education in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, exemplified by an empirical case study. The study used qualitative paradigm; was exploratory in nature and used case study design that was descriptive and exploratory; and entailed interviewing twenty-eight (28) research participants comprising of eleven (11) newly initiated men and their families on one-on-one in-depth interviews, twelve (12) traditional nurses and community members in focus group discussions; and five (5) society key informants on key informant method. An interview guide served as a data collection instrument for focus group discussions, key informant method and in-depth interviews with unstructured open-ended questions. Findings indicated an array of traditional male circumcision (TMC) gaps, some of which were indicative of a relationship between the mishaps and level of education: the phenomenon of schooling became secondary in newly initiated men’s lives; TMC mishaps became a drawback towards the newly initiated men’s education progression; the newly initiated men are sacrificed at the altar of culture, and TMC mishaps ushered in socioeconomic setback to the newly initiated men. The study suggested that: TMC be developmental; TMC as a cultural endeavor be educational and human rights friendly; and the need to identify and integrate all other players with diverse specialties.

Keywords: Culture, Education for All, millennium development goals, traditional male circumcision, EFA

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82 Influence of Morphology and Coatings in the Tribological Behavior of a Texturised Deterministic Surface by Photochemical Machining

Authors: Juan C. Sanchez, Jose L. Endrino, Alejandro Toro, Hugo A. Estupinan, Glenn Leighton

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For years, the reduction of friction and wear has been a matter of interest in the engineering field. Several solutions have been proposed to address this issue, including the use of lubricants and coatings to reduce the frictional forces and to increase the surface wear resistance. Alternatively, texturing processes have been used in a wide variety of materials, in many cases inspired in natural surfaces. Nature has shown how species adapt to the environment and the engineers try to understand natural surfaces for particular applications by analyzing outstanding species such as gecko for high adhesion, lotus leaves for hydrophobicity, sharks for reduced flow resistance and snakes for optimized frictional response. Texturized surfaces have shown a superior performance in terms of the frictional response in many situations, and the control of its behavior greatly depends on the manufacturing process. The focus of this work is to evaluate the tribological behavior of AISI 52100 steel samples texturized by Photochemical Machining (PCM). The surface texture was inspired by several features of the snakeskin such as aspect ratio of fibrils and mean fibril spacing. Two coatings were applied on the texturized surface, namely Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) and Molybdenum Disulphide (MoS₂), and their tribological behavior after pin-on-disk tests were compared with that of the non-texturized and uncovered surfaces. The samples were characterised through Stereoscopic Microscope (SM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Optical Microscope (OM), Profilometer, Raman Spectrometer (RS) and X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD). The Coefficient of Friction (COF) measured in pin-on-disk tests showed correlations with the sliding direction (relative to the texture features) and the aspect ratio of the texture features. Regarding the coated surfaces, the DLC and MoS₂ coating had a good performance in terms of wear rate and coefficient of friction compared with the uncoated and non-texturized surfaces. On the other hand, for the uncoated surfaces, the texture showed an influence in the tribological performance with respect to the non-texturized surface.

Keywords: Coating, coefficient of friction, deterministic surface, photochemical machining

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81 Saliva Cortisol and Yawning as a Predictor of Neurological Disease

Authors: Simon B. N. Thompson

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Cortisol is important to our immune system, regulates our stress response, and is a factor in maintaining brain temperature. Saliva cortisol is a practical and useful non-invasive measurement that signifies the presence of the important hormone. Electrical activity in the jaw muscles typically rises when the muscles are moved during yawning and the electrical level is found to be correlated with the cortisol level. In two studies using identical paradigms, a total of 108 healthy subjects were exposed to yawning-provoking stimuli so that their cortisol levels and electrical nerve impulses from their jaw muscles was recorded. Electrical activity is highly correlated with cortisol levels in healthy people. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Yawning Susceptibility Scale, General Health Questionnaire, demographic, health details were collected and exclusion criteria applied for voluntary recruitment: chronic fatigue, diabetes, fibromyalgia, heart condition, high blood pressure, hormone replacement therapy, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Significant differences were found between the saliva cortisol samples for the yawners as compared with the non-yawners between rest and post-stimuli. Significant evidence supports the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis that suggests rises in cortisol levels are associated with yawning. Ethics approval granted and professional code of conduct, confidentiality, and safety issues are approved therein.

Keywords: Diagnosis, cortisol, yawning, thompson cortisol hypothesis, neurological disease

Procedia PDF Downloads 182