Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: Umran Kahraman

37 The Effects of the Corporate Governance on the Level of Internet Financial Reporting: Evidence from Turkish Companies

Authors: Raif Parlakkaya, Umran Kahraman, Huseyin Cetin


Internet financial reporting and corporate governance issues are in the focus of academic and professional studies due to their attributed importance by stakeholders of corporations. Major aim of this study is to reveal the relationship between internet financial reporting which is held as dependent variable and some indicators of corporate governance such as the ratio of managerial ownership, blockholder ownership, number of independent members in the board of directors, frequency of meetings by audit committee and education level of audit committee members which are held as independent variables. Main purpose is to reveal the effect of corporate governance on the voluntary efforts of Internet Financial reporting. The scope of the research is limited to the Turkish Corporations listed in Borsa Istanbul (Istanbul Stock Exchange) and findings which are generated by means of SPSS software are revealed in results section and interpreted in conclusions.

Keywords: audit committee, corporate governance, internet financial reporting, managerial ownership

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36 Organizational Mortality of Insurance Organizations under the Conditions of Environmental Changes

Authors: Erdem Kirkbesoglu, A. Bugra Soylu, E. Deniz Kahraman


The aim of this study is to examine the effects of some variables on organizational mortality of the Turkish insurance industry and calculate the carrying capacities of Turkish insurance industry according to cities and regions. In the study, organizational mortality was tested with the level of reaching the population's carrying capacity. The findings of this study show that the insurance sales potentials can be calculated according to the provinces and regions of Turkey. It has also been proven that the organizations that feed on the same source will have a carrying capacity in the evolutionary process.

Keywords: insurance, carrying capacity, organizational mortality, organization

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35 Computational Fluid Dynamics and Experimental Evaluation of Two Batch Type Electrocoagulation Stirred Tank Reactors Used in the Removal of Cr (VI) from Waste Water

Authors: Phanindra Prasad Thummala, Umran Tezcan Un


In this study, hydrodynamics analysis of two batch type electrocoagulation stirred tank reactors, used for the electrocoagulation treatment of Cr(VI) wastewater, was carried using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of mixing characteristics on overall performance of electrocoagulation reactor. The CFD simulations were performed using ANSYS FLUENT 14.4 software. The mixing performance of each reactor was evaluated by numerically modelling tracer dispersion in each reactor configuration. The uniformity in tracer dispersion was assumed when 90% of the ratio of the maximum to minimum concentration of the tracer was realized. In parallel, experimental evaluation of both the electrocoagulation reactors for removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater was also carried out. The results of CFD and experimental analysis clearly show that the reactor which can give higher uniformity in lesser time, will perform better as an electrocoagulation reactor for removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater.

Keywords: CFD, stirred tank reactors, electrocoagulation, Cr(VI) wastewater

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34 Effects of Plant Densities on Seed Yield and Some Agricultural Characteristics of Jofs Pea Variety

Authors: Ayhan Aydoğdu, Ercan Ceyhan, Ali Kahraman, Nursel Çöl


This research was conducted to determine effects of plant densities on seed yield and some agricultural characteristics of pea variety- Jofs in Konya ecological conditions during 2012 vegetation period. The trial was set up according to “Randomized Blocks Design” with three replications. The material “Jofs” pea variety was subjected to 3-row spaces (30, 40 and 50 cm) and 3-row distances (5, 10 and 15 cm). According to the results, difference was shown statistically for the effects of row spaces and row distances on seed yield. The highest seed yield was 2582.1 kg ha-1 on 30 cm of row spaces while 2562.2 kg ha-1 on 15 cm of distances. Consequently, the optimum planting density was determined as 30 x 15 cm for Jofs pea variety growing in Konya.

Keywords: pea, row space, row distance, seed yield

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33 Highly Selective Polymeric Fluorescence Sensor for Cd(II) Ions

Authors: Soner Cubuk, Ozge Yilmaz, Ece Kok Yetimoglu, M. Vezir Kahraman


In this work, a polymer based highly selective fluorescence sensor membrane was prepared by the photopolymerization technique for the determination Cd(II) ion. Sensor characteristics such as effects of pH, response time and foreign ions on the fluorescence intensity of the sensor were also studied. Under optimized conditions, the polymeric sensor shows a rapid, stable and linear response for 4.45x10-⁹ mol L-¹ - 4.45x10-⁸ mol L-¹ Cd(II) ion with the detection limit of 6.23x10-¹⁰ mol L-¹. In addition, sensor membrane was selective which is not affected by common foreign metal ions. The concentrations of the foreign ions such as Pb²+, Co²+, Ag+, Zn²+, Cu²+, Cr³+ are 1000-fold higher than Cd(II) ions. Moreover, the developed polymeric sensor was successfully applied to the determination of cadmium ions in food and water samples. This work was supported by Marmara University, Commission of Scientific Research Project.

Keywords: cadmium(II), fluorescence, photopolymerization, polymeric sensor

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32 Chaotic Control, Masking and Secure Communication Approach of Supply Chain Attractor

Authors: Unal Atakan Kahraman, Yilmaz Uyaroğlu


The chaotic signals generated by chaotic systems have some properties such as randomness, complexity and sensitive dependence on initial conditions, which make them particularly suitable for secure communications. Since the 1990s, the problem of secure communication, based on chaos synchronization, has been thoroughly investigated and many methods, for instance, robust and adaptive control approaches, have been proposed to realize the chaos synchronization. In this paper, an improved secure communication model is proposed based on control of supply chain management system. Control and masking communication simulation results are used to visualize the effectiveness of chaotic supply chain system also performed on the application of secure communication to the chaotic system. So, we discover the secure phenomenon of chaos-amplification in supply chain system

Keywords: chaotic analyze, control, secure communication, supply chain attractor

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31 A Turn-on Fluorescent Sensor for Pb(II)

Authors: Ece Kök Yetimoğlu, Soner Çubuk, Neşe Taşci, M. Vezir Kahraman


Lead(II) is one of the most toxic environmental pollutants in the world, due to its high toxicity and non-biodegradability. Lead exposure causes severe risks to human health such as central brain damages, convulsions, kidney damages, and even death. To determine lead(II) in environmental or biological samples, scientists use atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), fluorescence spectrometry and electrochemical techniques. Among these systems the fluorescence spectrometry and fluorescent chemical sensors have attracted considerable attention because of their good selectivity and high sensitivity. The fluorescent polymers usually contain covalently bonded fluorophores. In this study imidazole based UV cured polymeric film was prepared and designed to act as a fluorescence chemo sensor for lead (II) analysis. The optimum conditions such as influence of pH value and time on the fluorescence intensity of the sensor have also been investigated. The sensor was highly sensitive with a detection limit as low as 1.87 × 10−8 mol L-1 and it was successful in the determination of Pb(II) in water samples.

Keywords: fluorescence, lead(II), photopolymerization, polymeric sensor

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30 A Fluorescent Polymeric Boron Sensor

Authors: Soner Cubuk, Mirgul Kosif, M. Vezir Kahraman, Ece Kok Yetimoglu


Boron is an essential trace element for the completion of the life circle for organisms. Suitable methods for the determination of boron have been proposed, including acid - base titrimetric, inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy flame atomic absorption and spectrophotometric. However, the above methods have some disadvantages such as long analysis times, requirement of corrosive media such as concentrated sulphuric acid and multi-step sample preparation requirements and time-consuming procedures. In this study, a selective and reusable fluorescent sensor for boron based on glycosyloxyethyl methacrylate was prepared by photopolymerization. The response characteristics such as response time, pH, linear range, limit of detection were systematically investigated. The excitation/emission maxima of the membrane were at 378/423 nm, respectively. The approximate response time was measured as 50 sec. In addition, sensor had a very low limit of detection which was 0.3 ppb. The sensor was successfully used for the determination of boron in water samples with satisfactory results.

Keywords: boron, fluorescence, photopolymerization, polymeric sensor

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29 Pregnancy and Birth Experience, Opinions regarding the Delivery Method of the Patients' Vaginal Deliveries

Authors: Umran Erciyes, Filiz Okumus


The purpose of this study was the determination of factors which impact the pregnancy, birth experience and the opinions regarding the delivery type of the puerperants, after vaginal birth. This descriptive study includes 349 patients who gave births with normal birth in one of the hospital in İstanbul in May- November 2014. After birth, we interview with these women face to face. The descriptive information form and Perception of Birth Scale were used as data collection tool. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) was used for statistical analysis. The average age of patients was 27.13, and the average score was 76.93±20.22. The patients are primary school graduate, and they do not have a job. They expressed an income outcome equality. More than half of women did not get educated before birth. Among educated patients, few women got educated overcoming the pain during labor process. As the time spent in the hospital for the birth increases, the birth perception of mothers is affected negatively. %86.8 of participants gave assisted delivery. Spontaneous vaginal birth has positive effects on birth perception. Establishing a vascular access, induction of labor performing enema, restriction of orally intake and movement, fundal pressure, episiotomy, nor to perform skin to skin contact with the baby after birth has adverse effects on the birth perceptions.

Keywords: antenatal care, birth experience, perception of birth, vaginal birth

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28 Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose Based Antimicrobial Food Packaging Materials

Authors: Memet Vezir Kahraman, Ferhat Sen


This study aimed to develop polyelectrolyte structured antimicrobial food packaging materials that do not contain any antimicrobial agents. Cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose was synthesized and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared, carbon and proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. Its nitrogen content was determined by the Kjeldahl method. Polyelectrolyte structured antimicrobial food packaging materials were prepared using hydroxyethyl cellulose, cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose, and sodium alginate. Antimicrobial activity of materials was defined by inhibition zone method (disc diffusion method). Thermal stability of samples was evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Surface morphology of samples was investigated by scanning electron microscope. The obtained results prove that produced food packaging materials have good thermal and antimicrobial properties, and they can be used as food packaging material in many industries.

Keywords: antimicrobial food packaging, cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose, polyelectrolyte, sodium alginate

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27 Electrolyte Loaded Hexagonal Boron Nitride/Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers for Lithium Ion Battery Application

Authors: Umran Kurtan, Hamide Aydin, Sevim Unugur Celik, Ayhan Bozkurt


In the present work, novel hBN/polyacrylonitrile composite nanofibers were produced via electrospinning approach and loaded with the electrolyte for rechargeable lithium-ion battery applications. The electrospun nanofibers comprising various hBN contents were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The influence of hBN/PAN ratios onto the properties of the porous composite system, such as fiber diameter, porosity, and the liquid electrolyte uptake capability were systematically studied. Ionic conductivities and electrochemical characterizations were evaluated after loading electrospun hBN/PAN composite nanofiber with liquid electrolyte, i.e., 1 M lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) in ethylene carbonate (EC)/ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:1 vol). The electrolyte loaded nanofiber has a highest ionic conductivity of 10−3 S cm⁻¹ at room temperature. According to cyclic voltammetry (CV) results it exhibited a high electrochemical stability window up to 4.7 V versus Li+/Li. Li//10 wt% hBN/PAN//LiCO₂ cell was produced which delivered high discharge capacity of 144 mAhg⁻¹ and capacity retention of 92.4%. Considering high safety and low cost properties of the resulting hBN/PAN fiber electrolytes, these materials can be suggested as potential separator materials for lithium-ion batteries.

Keywords: hexagonal boron nitride, polyacrylonitrile, electrospinning, lithium ion battery

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26 Analysis of Process for Solution of Fiber-Ends after Biopolishing on the Surface of Cotton Knit Fabric

Authors: P. Altay, G. Kartal, B. Kizilkaya, S. Kahraman, N. C. Gursoy


Biopolishing is applied to remove the fuzz or pills on the fiber or fabric surface which will reduce its tendency to pill or fuzz after repetitive launderings. After biopolishing process, the fuzzes ripped by cellulase enzymes cannot be thoroughly removed from fabric surface, they remain on the fabric or fiber surface; accordingly disturb the user and lead to decrease in productivity of drying process. The main objective of this study is to develop a method for removing weakened fuzz fibers and surface pills from biofinished fabric surface before drying process. Fuzzes in the lattice structure of fabric were completely removed from the internal structure of the fabric by air blowing. The presence of fuzzes leads to problems with formation of pilling and faded appearance; the removal of fuzzes from the fabric results in reduced tendency to pill formation, cleaner, smoother and softer surface, improved handling properties of fabric with maintaining original color.

Keywords: biopolishing, fuzz fiber, weakened fiber, biofinished cotton fabric

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25 Development of Polymeric Fluorescence Sensor for the Determination of Bisphenol-A

Authors: Neşe Taşci, Soner Çubuk, Ece Kök Yetimoğlu, M. Vezir Kahraman


Bisphenol-A (BPA), 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenly)propane, is one of the highest usage volume chemicals in the world. Studies showed that BPA maybe has negative effects on the central nervous system, immune and endocrine systems. Several of analytical methods for the analysis of BPA have been reported including electrochemical processes, chemical oxidation, ozonization, spectrophotometric, chromatographic techniques. Compared with other conventional analytical techniques, optic sensors are reliable, providing quick results, low cost, easy to use, stands out as a much more advantageous method because of the high precision and sensitivity. In this work, a new photocured polymeric fluorescence sensor was prepared and characterized for Bisphenol-A (BPA) analysis. Characterization of the membrane was carried out by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) techniques. The response characteristics of the sensor including dynamic range, pH effect and response time were systematically investigated. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) under Grant 115Y469.

Keywords: bisphenol-a, fluorescence, photopolymerization, polymeric sensor

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24 Thermal Properties of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes/Polyimide Nanocomposite

Authors: Seyfullah Madakbas, Hatice Birtane, Memet Vezir Kahraman


In this study, we aimed to synthesize and characterize polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes containing polyimide nanocomposite. Polyimide nanocomposites widely have been used in membranes in fuel cell, solar cell, gas filtration, sensors, aerospace components, printed circuit boards. Firstly, polyamic acid was synthesized and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared. Then, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes containing polyimide nanocomposite was prepared with thermal imidization method. The obtained polyimide nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared, Scanning Electron Microscope, Thermal Gravimetric Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Thermal stability of polyimide nanocomposite was evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Surface morphology of composite samples was investigated by scanning electron microscope. The obtained results prove that successfully prepared polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes are containing polyimide nanocomposite. The obtained nanocomposite can be used in many industries such as electronics, automotive, aerospace, etc.

Keywords: polyimide, nanocomposite, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes

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23 Effect in Animal Nutrition of Genetical Modified Plant(GM)

Authors: Abdullah Özbilgin, Oguzhan Kahraman, Mustafa Selçuk Alataş


Plant breeders have made and will continue to make important contributions toward meeting the need for more and better feed and food. The use of new techniques to modify the genetic makeup of plants to improve their properties has led to a new generation of crops, grains and their by-products for feed. Plant breeders have made and will continue to make important contributions toward meeting the need for more and better feed and food. The use of new techniques to modify the genetic makeup of plants to improve their properties has led to a new generation of crops, grains and their by-products for feed. The land area devoted to the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) plants has increased in recent years: in 2012 such plants were grown on over 170 million hectares globally, in 28 different countries, and are at resent used by 17.3 million farmers worldwide. The majority of GM plants are used as feed material for food-producing farm animals. Despite the facts that GM plants have been used as feed for years and a number of feeding studies have proved their safety for animals, they still give rise to emotional public discussion.

Keywords: crops, genetical modified plant(GM), plant, safety

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22 Determination of Some Agricultural Characters of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes

Authors: Ercan Ceyhan, Ali Kahraman, Hasan Dalgıç


This research was made during the 2011 and 2012 growing periods according to “Randomized Blocks Design” with 3 replications. Research material was the following chickpea genotype: CA119, CA128, CA149, CA150, CA222, CA250, CA254 and other 2 commercial varieties named as Gökçe and Yaşa. Some agronomical characteristics such as plant height (cm), number of pod per plant, number of seed per pod, number of seed per plant, 1000 seed weight (g) and seed yield (kg ha-1) were determined. Statistically significant variations were found amongst the genotypes for all variables except seeds per pod. Means of the two years showed the range for plant height was from 52.83 cm (Gökçe) to 73.00 cm (CA150), number of pod per plant was from 14.00 (CA149) to 26.83 (CA261), number of seed per pod was from 1.10 (Gökçe) to 1.19 (CA149 ve CA250), number of seed per plant was from 16.28 (CA149) to 31.65 (CA261), 1000 seed weight was from 295.85 g (CA149) to 437.80 g (CA261) and seed yield was from 1342.73 kg ha-1 (CA261) to 2161.50 kg ha-1 (CA128). Results of the research implicated that the new developed lines were superior compared with the control (commercial) varieties by means of most of the characteristics.

Keywords: agricultural characters, chickpea, seed yield, genotype variations

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21 Factors Affecting the Results of in vitro Gas Production Technique

Authors: O. Kahraman, M. S. Alatas, O. B. Citil


In determination of values of feeds which, are used in ruminant nutrition, different methods are used like in vivo, in vitro, in situ or in sacco. Generally, the most reliable results are taken from the in vivo studies. But because of the disadvantages like being hard, laborious and expensive, time consuming, being hard to keep the experiment conditions under control and too much samples are needed, the in vitro techniques are more preferred. The most widely used in vitro techniques are two-staged digestion technique and gas production technique. In vitro gas production technique is based on the measurement of the CO2 which is released as a result of microbial fermentation of the feeds. In this review, the factors affecting the results obtained from in vitro gas production technique (Hohenheim Feed Test) were discussed. Some factors must be taken into consideration when interpreting the findings obtained in these studies and also comparing the findings reported by different researchers for the same feeds. These factors were discussed in 3 groups: factors related to animal, factors related to feeds and factors related with differences in the application of method. These factors and their effects on the results were explained. Also it can be concluded that the use of in vitro gas production technique in feed evaluation routinely can be contributed to the comprehensive feed evaluation, but standardization is needed in this technique to attain more reliable results.

Keywords: In vitro, gas production technique, Hohenheim feed test, standardization

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20 Application of Gene Expression Programming (GEP) in Predicting Uniaxial Compressive Strength of Pyroclastic Rocks

Authors: İsmail İnce, Mustafa Fener, Sair Kahraman


The uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of rocks is an important input parameter for the design of rock engineering project. Compressive strength can be determined in the laboratory using the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) test. Although the test is relatively simple, the method is time consuming and expensive. Therefore many researchers have tried to assess the uniaxial compressive strength values of rocks via relatively simple and indirect tests (e.g. point load strength test, Schmidt Hammer hardness rebound test, P-wave velocity test, etc.). Pyroclastic rocks are widely exposed in the various regions of the world. Cappadocia region located in the Central Anatolia is one of the most spectacular cite of these regions. It is important to determine the mechanical behaviour of the pyroclastic rocks due to their ease of carving, heat insulation properties and building some civil engineering constructions in them. The purpose of this study is to estimate a widely varying uniaxial strength of pyroclastic rocks from Cappadocia region by means of point load strength, porosity, dry density and saturated density tests utilizing gene expression programming.

Keywords: pyroclastic rocks, uniaxial compressive strength, gene expression programming (GEP, Cappadocia region

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19 UV-Reactive Electrospinning: Preparation, Characterization and Cell Culture Applications of Nanofiber Scaffolds Containing Keratin

Authors: Duygu Yüksel Deniz, Memet Vezir Kahraman, Serap Erdem Kuruca, Mediha Süleymanoğlu


Our first aim was to synthesize Hydroxy Apatite (HAP) and then modify its surface by adding 4-Vinylbenzene boronic acid (4-VBBA). The characterization was done by FT-IR. By adding Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to 4- VBBA-HAP, we obtained a suitable electrospinning solution. PVA solution which was also modified by using alkoxy silanes, in order to prevent the scaffolds from being damaged by aqueous cell medium, was added. Keratin was dissolved and then added into the electrospinning solution. Keratin containing 4-VBBA- HAP/PVA composite was used to fabricate nanofiber scaffolds with the simultaneous UV-reactive electrospinning technique. The structural characterization was done by FT-IR. Thermal gravimetric analysis was also performed by using TGA. The morphological characterization was determined by SEM analyses. Our second aim was to create a scaffold where cells could grow. With this purpose, suitable nanofibers were choosen according to their SEM analysis. Keratin containing nanofibers were seeded with 3T3, ECV and SAOS cells and their cytotoxicity and cell proliferation were investigated by using MTT assay. After cell culturing process morphological characterization was determined by SEM analyses. These scaffolds were designed to be nontoxic biomaterials. Here, a comparision was made between keratin containing 3T3, ECV and SAOS seeded nanofiber scaffolds and the results were presented and discussed.

Keywords: cell culture, keratin, nanofibers, UV-reactive electrospinning

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18 Thermoplastic Polyurethane/Barium Titanate Composites

Authors: Seyfullah Madakbaş, Ferhat Şen, Memet Vezir Kahraman


The aim of this study was to improve thermal stability, mechanical and surface properties of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) with the addition of BaTiO3. The TPU/ BaTiO3 composites having various ratios of TPU and BaTiO3 were prepared. The chemical structure of the prepared composites was investigated by FT-IR. FT-IR spectra of TPU/ barium titanate composites show that they successfully were prepared. Thermal stability of the samples was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The prepared composites showed high thermal stability, and the char yield increased as barium titanate content increased. The glass transition temperatures of the composites rise with the addition of barium titanate. Mechanical properties of the samples were characterized with stress-strain test. The mechanical properties of the TPU were increased with the contribution of the contribution of the barium titanate it increased. Hydrophobicity of the samples was determined by the contact angle measurements. The contact angles have the tendency to increase the hydrophobic behavior on the surface, when barium titanate was added into TPU. Moreover, the surface morphology of the samples was investigated by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM-EDS mapping images showed that barium titanate particles were dispersed homogeneously. Finally, the obtained results prove that the prepared composites have good thermal, mechanical and surface properties and that they can be used in many applications such as the electronic devices, materials engineering and other emergent.

Keywords: barium titanate, composites, thermoplastic polyurethane, scanning electron microscopy

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17 Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Physical Mass Transfer of CO₂ by N₂O Analogy Using One Fluid Formulation in OpenFOAM

Authors: Phanindra Prasad Thummala, Umran Tezcan Un, Ahmet Ozan Celik


Removal of CO₂ by MEA (monoethanolamine) in structured packing columns depends highly on the gas-liquid interfacial area and film thickness (liquid load). CFD (computational fluid dynamics) is used to find the interfacial area, film thickness and their impact on mass transfer in gas-liquid flow effectively in any column geometry. In general modeling approaches used in CFD derive mass transfer parameters from standard correlations based on penetration or surface renewal theories. In order to avoid the effect of assumptions involved in deriving the correlations and model the mass transfer based solely on fluid properties, state of art approaches like one fluid formulation is useful. In this work, the one fluid formulation was implemented and evaluated for modeling the physical mass transfer of CO₂ by N₂O analogy in OpenFOAM CFD software. N₂O analogy avoids the effect of chemical reactions on absorption and allows studying the amount of CO₂ physical mass transfer possible in a given geometry. The computational domain in the current study was a flat plate with gas and liquid flowing in the countercurrent direction. The effect of operating parameters such as flow rate, the concentration of MEA and angle of inclination on the physical mass transfer is studied in detail. Liquid side mass transfer coefficients obtained by simulations are compared to the correlations available in the literature and it was found that the one fluid formulation was effectively capturing the effects of interface surface instabilities on mass transfer coefficient with higher accuracy. The high mesh refinement near the interface region was found as a limiting reason for utilizing this approach on large-scale simulations. Overall, the one fluid formulation is found more promising for CFD studies involving the CO₂ mass transfer.

Keywords: one fluid formulation, CO₂ absorption, liquid mass transfer coefficient, OpenFOAM, N₂O analogy

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16 Surface Modified Nano-Diamond/Polyimide Hybrid Composites

Authors: Hati̇ce Bi̇rtane, Asli Beyler Çi̇ği̇l, Memet Vezi̇r Kahraman


Polyimide (PI) is one of the most important super-engineering materials because of its mechanical properties and its thermal stability. Electronic industry is the typical extensive applications of polyimides including interlayer insulation films, buffer coating, films, alpha-ray shielding films, and alignment films for liquid crystal displays. The mechanical and thermal properties of polymers are generally improved by the addition of inorganic additives. The challenges in this area of high-performance organic/inorganic hybrid materials are to obtain significant improvements in the interfacial adhesion between the polymer matrix and the reinforcing material since the organic matrix is relatively incompatible with the inorganic phase. In this study, modified nanodiamond was prepared from the reaction of nanodiamond and (3-Mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane. Poly(amic acid) was prepared from the reaction of 3,3',4,4'-Benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and 4,4'-Oxydianiline (ODA). Polyimide/modified nanodiamond hybrids were prepared by blending of poly(amic acid) and organically modified nanodiamond. The morphology of the Polyimide/ modified nanodiamond hybrids was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical structure of polyimide and Polyimide/modified nanodiamond hybrids was characterized by FTIR. FTIR results showed that the Polyimide/modified nanodiamond hybrids were successfully prepared. A thermal property of the Polyimide/modified nanodiamond hybrids was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

Keywords: hybrid materials, nanodiamond, polyimide, polymer

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15 Synthesis and Properties of Photocured Surface Modified Polyaniline Hybrid Composites

Authors: Asli Beyler Çi̇ği̇l, Memet Vezi̇r Kahraman


Organic–inorganic hybrids have become an effective source of advanced materials because they combine the advantages of both the organic moiety such as flexibility, low dielectric constant, and processability, and inorganic moiety as rigidity, strength, durability, and thermal stability. By incorporating cross-linkable side chains, the hybrid materials can be made photosensitive and UV curable, which offers many advantages including low processing temperature, low equipment cost and compatibility. In this study, uv-curable organic-inorganic hybrid material, which was contained surface modified polyaniline particles (PANI), was prepared. PANI surface photografted with hydroxy ethyl methacrylate (HEMA) to produce hydroxyl groups. Hydroxyl functionalized PANI/HEMA was acrylated using isocyanato ethyl methacrylate (IEM) in order to improve the dispersion and interfacial interaction in composites. UV-curable formulation was prepared by mixing the surface modified PANI, polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), hydrolized 3- methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (hyd. MEMO) and photoinitiator. Chemical structure of nano-hybrid material was characterized by FTIR. FTIR spectra showed that the photografting of PANI was prepared successfully. Thermal properties of the nano-hybrid material were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The morphology of the nano-hybrid material was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Keywords: polyaniline, photograft, sol-gel, uv-curable polymer

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14 Corrosion Behvaior of CS1018 in Various CO2 Capture Solvents

Authors: Aida Rafat, Ramazan Kahraman, Mert Atilhan


The aggressive corrosion behavior of conventional amine solvents is one of main barriers against large scale commerizaliation of amine absorption process for carbon capture application. Novel CO2 absorbents that exhibit minimal corrosivity against operation conditions are essential to lower corrosion damage and control and ensure more robustness in the capture plant. This work investigated corrosion behavior of carbon steel CS1018 in various CO2 absrobent solvents. The tested solvents included the classical amines MEA, DEA and MDEA, piperazine activated solvents MEA/PZ, MDEA/PZ and MEA/MDEA/PZ as well as mixtures of MEA and Room Temperature Ionic Liquids RTIL, namely MEA/[C4MIM][BF4] and MEA/[C4MIM][Otf]. Electrochemical polarization technique was used to determine the system corrosiveness in terms of corrosion rate and polarization behavior. The process parameters of interest were CO2 loading and solution temperature. Electrochemical resulted showed corrosivity order of classical amines at 40°C is MDEA> MEA > DEA wherase at 80°C corrosivity ranking changes to MEA > DEA > MDEA. Corrosivity rankings were mainly governed by CO2 absorption capacity at the test temperature. Corrosivity ranking for activated amines at 80°C was MEA/PZ > MDEA/PZ > MEA/MDEA/PZ. Piperazine addition seemed to have a dual advanatge in terms of enhancing CO2 absorption capacity as well as nullifying corrosion. For MEA/RTIL mixtures, the preliminary results showed that the partial repalcement of aqueous phase in MEA solution by the more stable nonvolatile RTIL solvents reduced corrosion rates considerably.

Keywords: corrosion, amines, CO2 capture, piperazine, ionic liquids

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13 Enhanced Performance of Supercapacitor Based on Boric Acid Doped Polyvinyl Alcohol-H₂SO₄ Gel Polymer Electrolyte System

Authors: Hamide Aydin, Banu Karaman, Ayhan Bozkurt, Umran Kurtan


Recently, Proton Conducting Gel Polymer Electrolytes (GPEs) have drawn much attention in supercapacitor applications due to their physical and electrochemical characteristics and stability conditions for low temperatures. In this research, PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE has been used for electric-double layer capacitor (EDLCs) application, in which electrospun free-standing carbon nanofibers are used as electrodes. Introduced PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE behaves as both separator and the electrolyte in the supercapacitor. Symmetric Swagelok cells including GPEs were assembled via using two electrode arrangements and the electrochemical properties were searched. Electrochemical performance studies demonstrated that PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE had a maximum specific capacitance (Cs) of 134 F g-1 and showed great capacitance retention (%100) after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE yielded an energy density of 67 Wh kg-1 with a corresponding power density of 1000 W kg-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1. PVA-H2SO4 based polymer electrolyte was produced according to following procedure; Firstly, 1 g of commercial PVA was dissolved in distilled water at 90°C and stirred until getting transparent solution. This was followed by addition of the diluted H2SO4 (1 g of H2SO4 in a distilled water) to the solution to obtain PVA-H2SO4. PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 based polymer electrolyte was produced by dissolving H3BO3 in hot distilled water and then inserted into the PVA-H2SO4 solution. The mole fraction was arranged to ¼ of the PVA repeating unit. After the stirring 2 h at RT, gel polymer electrolytes were obtained. The final electrolytes for supercapacitor testing included 20% of water in weight. Several blending combinations of PVA/H2SO4 and H3BO3 were studied to observe the optimized combination in terms of conductivity as well as electrolyte stability. As the amount of boric acid increased in the matrix, excess sulfuric acid was excluded due to cross linking, especially at lower solvent content. This resulted in the reduction of proton conductivity. Therefore, the mole fraction of H3BO3 was chosen as ¼ of PVA repeating unit. Within this optimized limits, the polymer electrolytes showed better conductivities as well as stability.

Keywords: electrical double layer capacitor, energy density, gel polymer electrolyte, ultracapacitor

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12 Efficiency of a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for Selective Removal of Chlorpyrifos from Water Samples

Authors: Oya A. Urucu, Aslı B. Çiğil, Hatice Birtane, Ece K. Yetimoğlu, Memet Vezir Kahraman


Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide which can be found in environmental water samples. The efficiency and reuse of a molecularly imprinted polymer (chlorpyrifos - MIP) were investigated for the selective removal of chlorpyrifos residues. MIP was prepared with UV curing thiol-ene polymerization technology by using multifunctional thiol and ene monomers. The thiol-ene curing reaction is a radical induced process, however unlike other photoinitiated polymerization processes, this polymerization process is a free-radical reaction that proceeds by a step-growth mechanism, involving two main steps; a free-radical addition followed by a chain transfer reaction. It assures a very rapidly formation of a uniform crosslinked network with low shrinkage, reduced oxygen inhibition during curing and excellent adhesion. In this study, thiol-ene based UV-curable polymeric materials were prepared by mixing pentaerythritol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate), glyoxal bis diallyl acetal, polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and photoinitiator. Chlorpyrifos was added at a definite ratio to the prepared formulation. Chemical structure and thermal properties were characterized by FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The pesticide analysis was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The influences of some analytical parameters such as pH, sample volume, amounts of analyte concentration were studied for the quantitative recoveries of the analyte. The proposed MIP method was applied to the determination of chlorpyrifos in river and tap water samples. The use of the MIP provided a selective and easy solution for removing chlorpyrifos from the water.

Keywords: molecularly imprinted polymers, selective removal, thilol-ene, uv-curable polymer

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11 Determining the Spatial Vulnerability Levels and Typologies of Coastal Cities to Climate Change: Case of Turkey

Authors: Mediha B. Sılaydın Aydın, Emine D. Kahraman


One of the important impacts of climate change is the sea level rise. Turkey is a peninsula, so the coastal areas of the country are threatened by the problem of sea level rise. Therefore, the urbanized coastal areas are highly vulnerable to climate change. At the aim of enhancing spatial resilience of urbanized areas, this question arises: What should be the priority intervention subject in the urban planning process for a given city. To answer this question, by focusing on the problem of sea level rise, this study aims to determine spatial vulnerability typologies and levels of Turkey coastal cities based on morphological, physical and social characteristics. As a method, spatial vulnerability of coastal cities is determined by two steps as level and type. Firstly, physical structure, morphological structure and social structure were examined in determining spatial vulnerability levels. By determining these levels, most vulnerable areas were revealed as a priority in adaptation studies. Secondly, all parameters are also used to determine spatial typologies. Typologies are determined for coastal cities in order to use as a base for urban planning studies. Adaptation to climate change is crucial for developing countries like Turkey so, this methodology and created typologies could be a guide for urban planners as spatial directors and an example for other developing countries in the context of adaptation to climate change. The results demonstrate that the urban settlements located on the coasts of the Marmara Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean respectively, are more vulnerable than the cities located on the Black Sea’s coasts to sea level rise.

Keywords: climate change, coastal cities, vulnerability, urban land use planning

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10 Valorization of Seafood and Poultry By-Products as Gelatin Source and Quality Assessment

Authors: Elif Tugce Aksun Tumerkan, Umran Cansu, Gokhan Boran, Fatih Ozogul


Gelatin is a mixture of peptides obtained from collagen by partial thermal hydrolysis. It is an important and useful biopolymer that is used in the food, pharmacy, and photography products. Generally, gelatins are sourced from pig skin and bones, beef bone and hide, but within the last decade, using alternative gelatin resources has attracted some interest. In this study, functional properties of gelatin extracted from seafood and poultry by-products were evaluated. For this purpose, skins of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) and frog (Rana esculata) were used as seafood by-products and chicken skin as poultry by-product as raw material for gelatin extraction. Following the extraction of gelatin, all samples were lyophilized and stored in plastic bags at room temperature. For comparing gelatins obtained; chemical composition, common quality parameters including bloom value, gel strength, and viscosity in addition to some others like melting and gelling temperatures, hydroxyproline content, and colorimetric parameters were determined. The results showed that the highest protein content obtained in frog gelatin with 90.1% and the highest hydroxyproline content was in chicken gelatin with 7.6% value. Frog gelatin showed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) melting point (42.7°C) compared to that of fish (29.7°C) and chicken (29.7°C) gelatins. The bloom value of gelatin from frog skin was found higher (363 g) than chicken and fish gelatins (352 and 336 g, respectively) (P < 0.05). While fish gelatin had higher lightness (L*) value (92.64) compared to chicken and frog gelatins, redness/greenness (a*) value was significantly higher in frog skin gelatin. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that skins of different animals with high commercial value may be utilized as alternative sources to produce gelatin with high yield and desirable functional properties. Functional and quality analysis of gelatin from frog, chicken, and tuna skin showed by-product of poultry and seafood can be used as an alternative gelatine source to mammalian gelatine. The functional properties, including bloom strength, melting points, and viscosity of gelatin from frog skin were more admirable than that of the chicken and tuna skin. Among gelatin groups, significant characteristic differences such as gel strength and physicochemical properties were observed based on not only raw material but also the extraction method.

Keywords: chicken skin, fish skin, food industry, frog skin, gel strength

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9 Investigation of Light Transmission Characteristics and CO2 Capture Potential of Microalgae Panel Bioreactors for Building Façade Applications

Authors: E. S. Umdu, Ilker Kahraman, Nurdan Yildirim, Levent Bilir


Algae-culture offers new applications in sustainable architecture with its continuous productive cycle, and a potential for high carbon dioxide capture. Microalgae itself has multiple functions such as carbon dioxide fixation, biomass production, oxygen generation and waste water treatment. Incorporating microalgae cultivation processes and systems to building design to utilize this potential is promising. Microalgae cultivation systems, especially closed photo bioreactors can be implemented as components in buildings. And these systems be accommodated in the façade of a building, or in other urban infrastructure in the future. Application microalgae bio-reactors of on building’s façade has the added benefit of acting as an effective insulation system, keeping out the heat of the summer and the chill of the winter. Furthermore, microalgae can give a dynamic appearance with a liquid façade that also works as an adaptive sunshade. Recently, potential of microalgae to use as a building component to reduce net energy demand in buildings becomes a popular topic and innovative design proposals and a handful of pilot applications appeared. Yet there is only a handful of examples in application and even less information on how these systems affect building energy behavior. Further studies on microalgae mostly focused on single application approach targeting either carbon dioxide utilization through biomass production or biofuel production. The main objective of this study is to investigate effects of design parameters of microalgae panel bio-reactors on light transmission characteristics and CO2 capture potential during growth of Nannochloropsis occulata sp. A maximum reduction of 18 ppm in CO2 levels of input air during the experiments with a % light transmission of 14.10, was achieved in 6 day growth cycles. Heat transfer behavior during these cycles was also inspected for possible façade applications.

Keywords: building façade, CO2 capture, light transmittance, microalgae

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8 Validation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Inactivation on Apple-Carrot Juice Treated with Manothermosonication by Kinetic Models

Authors: Ozan Kahraman, Hao Feng


Several models such as Weibull, Modified Gompertz, Biphasic linear, and Log-logistic models have been proposed in order to describe non-linear inactivation kinetics and used to fit non-linear inactivation data of several microorganisms for inactivation by heat, high pressure processing or pulsed electric field. First-order kinetic parameters (D-values and z-values) have often been used in order to identify microbial inactivation by non-thermal processing methods such as ultrasound. Most ultrasonic inactivation studies employed first-order kinetic parameters (D-values and z-values) in order to describe the reduction on microbial survival count. This study was conducted to analyze the E. coli O157:H7 inactivation data by using five microbial survival models (First-order, Weibull, Modified Gompertz, Biphasic linear and Log-logistic). First-order, Weibull, Modified Gompertz, Biphasic linear and Log-logistic kinetic models were used for fitting inactivation curves of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The residual sum of squares and the total sum of squares criteria were used to evaluate the models. The statistical indices of the kinetic models were used to fit inactivation data for E. coli O157:H7 by MTS at three temperatures (40, 50, and 60 0C) and three pressures (100, 200, and 300 kPa). Based on the statistical indices and visual observations, the Weibull and Biphasic models were best fitting of the data for MTS treatment as shown by high R2 values. The non-linear kinetic models, including the Modified Gompertz, First-order, and Log-logistic models did not provide any better fit to data from MTS compared the Weibull and Biphasic models. It was observed that the data found in this study did not follow the first-order kinetics. It is possibly because of the cells which are sensitive to ultrasound treatment were inactivated first, resulting in a fast inactivation period, while those resistant to ultrasound were killed slowly. The Weibull and biphasic models were found as more flexible in order to determine the survival curves of E. coli O157:H7 treated by MTS on apple-carrot juice.

Keywords: Weibull, Biphasic, MTS, kinetic models, E.coli O157:H7

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