Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 96

Search results for: UV grafting

96 A Review on Bone Grafting, Artificial Bone Substitutes and Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Kasun Gayashan Samarawickrama

Abstract:

Bone diseases, defects, and fractions are commonly seen in modern life. Since bone is regenerating dynamic living tissue, it will undergo healing process naturally, it cannot recover from major bone injuries, diseases and defects. In order to overcome them, bone grafting technique was introduced. Gold standard was the best method for bone grafting for the past decades. Due to limitations of gold standard, alternative methods have been implemented. Apart from them artificial bone substitutes and bone tissue engineering have become the emerging methods with technology for bone grafting. Many bone diseases and defects will be healed permanently with these promising techniques in future.

Keywords: bone grafting, gold standard, bone substitutes, bone tissue engineering

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95 Fabricating Anti-Counterfeiting Films by Grafting Cationic Dye on Cellulose Nanofiber

Authors: Mohammadreza Biabani, Mohammad Azadfallah

Abstract:

A facile and robust strategy is required to fabricate films with high special optical properties for application in the field of anti-counterfeit marking. Nanocellulose, derived from bioresources, is a renewable material with broad application prospects. In this paper, a method for grafting the eco-friendly Berberine cationic dye on cellulose nanofiber is proposed. A functional modification was carried out by in-situ polymerization along with a grafting approach with acrylic acid(AA) in order to develop cationic dyeability of the cellulose nanofiber (CNF). The Berberine grafting on nanocellulose was significantly influenced by the reaction time and temperature during the dyeing process. The dyed CNF-films exhibited appropriate characteristics like appearance, color strength, and fastness for anti-counterfeiting application.

Keywords: Cellulose nanofiber, Berberine, Grafting, anti-counterfeiting, film

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
94 Economic Analysis, Growth and Yield of Grafting Tomato Varieties for Solanum torvum as a Rootstock

Authors: Evy Latifah, Eko Widaryanto, M. Dawam Maghfoer, Arifin

Abstract:

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is potential vegetables to develop, because it has high economic value and has the potential to be exported. There is a decrease in tomato productivity due to unfavorable growth conditions such as bacterial wilt, fusarium wilt, high humidity, high temperature and inappropriate production technology. Grafting technology is one alternative technology. In addition to being able to control the disease in the soil, grafting is also able to increase the growth and yield of production. Besides, it is also necessary to know the economic benefits if using grafting technology. A promising eggplant rootstock for tomato grafting is Solanum torvum. S. torvum is selected as a rootstock with high compatibility. The purpose of this research is to know the effect of grafting several varieties of tomatoes with Solanum torvum as a rootstock. The experiment was conducted in Agricultural Extension Center Pare. Experimental Garden of Pare Kediri sub-district from July to early December 2016. The materials used were tomato Cervo varieties, Karina, Timoty, and Solanum torvum. Economic analysis, growth, and yield including plant height, number of leaves, percentage of disease and tomato production were used as performance measures. The study showed that grafting tomato Timoty scion with Solanum torvum as rootstock had higher production. Financially, grafting tomato Timoty and Cervo scion had higher profit about. 28,6% and 16,3% compared to Timoty and Cervo variety treatment without grafting.

Keywords: grafting technology, economic analysis, growth, yield of tomato, Solanum torvum

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93 Indications and Results of the Use of Facial Fat Grafting and Fillers in Complications of Cosmetic Facial Augmentation

Authors: Jose A. Foppiani, Valeria P. Bustos, Nathalia Hassel, Samuel J. Lin

Abstract:

Introduction: Non-surgical cosmetic procedures have risen in popularity in the last decades. However, despite its popularity, a comprehensive comparison of the safety of fillers versus fat grafting has not been made. Therefore, this study aims to review the complication rate in the use of fat grafting and fillers in cosmetic facial augmentation. Methods: A systematic review of several databases was performed. Random-effect meta-analysis of proportions was conducted to assess the overall prevalence of fillers and fat grafting complications. Results: A total of 33 studies were included, pooling 9,537,299 patients with a range of ages between 18 and 85. Of those patients, 2,625 (0.03%) underwent fat grafting and 9,534,674 (99.97%) fillers for cosmetic facial augmentation. Both fat grafting and fillers for facial augmentation had similar complication rates. The most common complication found among papers in fillers were erythema/skin discoloration 15 (95% confidence interval [CI] 5-19%), bruising 10% (95%CI 5-18%), and discomfort/pain 10% (95%CI 2-21%). Conclusion: Based on this review, fat grafting and fillers were found to have similar safety profiles and be widely studied. We believe this study highlights the improvement made in techniques and product composition, as well as patient selection. However, the high heterogeneity found across the studies is a call for further studies to implement standardized treatment protocol and uniform definition of complications.

Keywords: facial augmentation, injectables, fat grafting, dermal filler, complications

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92 Topical Negative Pressure for Autologous Fat Grafting in Breast Augmentation

Authors: Mohamed Eftal Bin Mohamed Ebrahim, Alexander Varey

Abstract:

Aim: Topical negative pressure has been shown to enhance angiogenesis during wound healing, both for open and closed wounds. Since angiogenesis is a key requirement for successful fat grafting, there may be a role for topical negative pressure as a means of enhancing the take rate during autologous fat grafting to breasts. Here we present a systematic review of the literature on this topic. Methods: Ovid and Embase were utilized, with searches ranging between 1960 – 2019. Terms (“Liposculpting” OR “Fat grafting” OR “Lipofilling” OR “Lipograft” OR “Fat transfer”) AND (“Negative Pressure” OR “Brava” OR “Kiwi”) AND (“Breast”) were merged as keywords. Inclusion criteria were females, autologous fat graft to breast with topical negative pressure prior to the procedure. Studies were excluded if there was no primary endpoint or non-original article. Results: Upon reviewing 219 articles, 2 met inclusion criteria. A total of 565 and 46 breasts in each article were treated respectively using the negative pressure device BRAVA®, with each cohort having different pre-and post-operative pressure settings. Khouri et al. cohort had higher graft survival (79%) compared to Del Vecchio et al. cohort (64%); however, the latter had fewer complications compared to Khouri’s cohort, e.g., fat necrosis, pneumothorax and infection. Conclusion: There is limited evidence regarding the use of topical negative pressure for fat grafting to the breasts. However, in the two studies published, the reported rates of success are high, suggesting there may be a benefit. Consequently, a randomized controlled trial on this area is required.

Keywords: fat grafting, lipograft, negative pressure, breast, breast augmentation, brava

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91 Synthesis of Polystyrene Grafted Filler Nanoparticles: Effect of Grafting on Mechanical Reinforcement

Authors: M. Khlifa, A. Youssef, A. F. Zaed, A. Kraft, V. Arrighi

Abstract:

A series of PS-nanoparticles were prepared by grafting PS from both aggregated silica and colloidally silica using atom-transfer radical polymerisation (ATRP). The mechanical behaviour of the nanocomposites have been examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA).

Keywords: ATRP, nanocomposites, polystyrene, reinforcement

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90 Functionalization of Polypropylene with Chiral Monomer for Improving Hemocompatibility

Authors: Xiaodong Xu, Dan Zhao, Xiujuan Chang, Chunming Li, Huiyun Zhou, Xin Li, Qiang Shi, Shifang Luan, Jinghua Yin

Abstract:

Polypropylene (PP) is one of the most commonly used plastics because of its low density, outstanding mechanical properties, and low cost. However, its drawbacks such as low surface energy, poor dyeability, lack of chemical functionalities, and poor compatibility with polar polymers and inorganic materials, have restricted the application of PP. To expand its application in biomedical materials, functionalization is considered to be the most effective way. In this study, PP was functionalized with a chiral monomer, (S)-1-acryloylpyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid ((S)-APCA), by free-radical grafting in the solid phase. The grafting degree of PP-g-APCA was determined by chemical titration method, and the chemical structure of functionalized PP was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, which confirmed that the chiral monomer (S)-APCA was successfully grafted onto PP. Static water contact angle results suggested that the surface hydrophilicity of PP was significantly improved by solid phase grafting and assistance of surface water treatment. Protein adsorption and platelet adhesion results showed that hemocompatibility of PP was greatly improved by grafting the chiral monomer.

Keywords: functionalization, polypropylene, chiral monomer, hemocompatibility

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89 Effect of Grafting and Rain Shelter Technologies on Performance of Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.)

Authors: Evy Latifah, Eli Korlina, Hanik Anggraeni, Kuntoro Boga, Joko Mariyono

Abstract:

During the rainy season, the tomato plants are vulnerable to various diseases. A disease that attacks the leaves of tomato plants (foliar diseases) such as late blight (Phytophtora infestans) and spotting bacteria (bacterial spot / Xanthomonas sp.) In addition, there is a disease that attacks the roots such as fusarium and bacterial wilt. If not immediately anticipated, it will decrease the quality and quantity of crop yields. In fact, it can lead to crop failure. The aim of this research is to know the production of tomato grafting by using Timoty and CLN 3024 tomatoes at rain shelter during rainy season in lowland. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and tested further by Least Significant Difference (LSD) level of 5 %. The parameters measured were plant height (cm), stem diameter (cm), number of fruit space, canopy extended, number of branches, number of productive branches, and the number of stem segments. The results show at the beginning of growth until the end of the treatment without grafting with relative rain shelter displays the highest plant height. This was followed by extensive crop canopy. For tomato grafting and non-grafting using rain shelter able to produce the number of branches and number of productive branches at most. While at the end of the growth in the number of productive branches generated as much. Highest production of tomatoes produced by tomato dig rafting to use the shelter.

Keywords: field trail, wet and dry season, production, diseases, rain shelter

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88 Controlling Melanocytic Hyperactivity Is No More A Dream With Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Afzaal Bashir, Sunaina Afzaal

Abstract:

Background: Facial contour deformities associated with pigmentary changes are of major concern for plastic surgeons, both being important and difficult in treating such issues. No definite ideal treatment option is available to address simultaneously both the contour defect as well as related pigmentation. Objectives: The aim of the current study is to compare the long term effects of conventional adipose tissue grafting, and ex-vivo expanded MSCs enriched adipose tissue grafting for the treatment of contour deformities with pigmentary changes on the face. Material and Methods: In this study, eighty (80) patients of contour deformities of face with hyperpigmentation were recruited after informed consent. Two techniques i.e., conventional fat grafting (C-FG) and fat grafts enriched with expanded adipose stem cells (FG-ASCs), were used to address the pigmentation. Both techniques were explained to patients and enrolled patients were divided into two groups i.e. C-FG and FG-ASCS, per patients’ choice and satisfaction. Patients of FG-ASCs group were treated with fat grafts enriched with expanded adipose stem cells, while patients of C-FGsgroup were treated with conventional fat grafting. Patients were followed for 12 months, and improvement in face pigmentation was assessed clinically as well as measured objectively. Patients’ satisfaction was also documented as highlysatisfied, satisfied, andunsatisfied. This clinical trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov with ID: NTC03564808. Results: Mean age of patients was 24.42(±4.49), 66 patients were females. Forehead was involved in 61.20% cases, the cheek in 21.20% cases, chin in 11.20% cases and nose in 6.20% cases. In GF-ASCs group, the integrated color density (ICD) was decreased (1.08×106 ±4.64×10⁵) as compared to C-FG group (2.80×105±1.69×10⁵). Patients treated with fat grafts enriched with expanded adipose stem cells were significantly more satisfied as compared to patients treated with conventional fat grafting only. Conclusion: Mesenchymal stem cell enriched autologous fat grafting is preferred option for improving the contour deformities related increased pigmentation of face skin.

Keywords: hyperpigmentation, color density, enriched adipose tissue graft, fat grafting, contour deformities, image J.

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87 Nanoparticles Modification by Grafting Strategies for the Development of Hybrid Nanocomposites

Authors: Irati Barandiaran, Xabier Velasco-Iza, Galder Kortaberria

Abstract:

Hybrid inorganic/organic nanostructured materials based on block copolymers are of considerable interest in the field of Nanotechnology, taking into account that these nanocomposites combine the properties of polymer matrix and the unique properties of the added nanoparticles. The use of block copolymers as templates offers the opportunity to control the size and the distribution of inorganic nanoparticles. This research is focused on the surface modification of inorganic nanoparticles to reach a good interface between nanoparticles and polymer matrices which hinders the nanoparticle aggregation. The aim of this work is to obtain a good and selective dispersion of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles into different types of block copolymers such us, poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA), poly(styrene-b-ε-caprolactone) (PS-b-PCL) poly(isoprene-b-methyl methacrylate) (PI-b-PMMA) or poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-methyl methacrylate) (SBM) by using different grafting strategies. Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles have been surface-modified with polymer or block copolymer brushes following different grafting methods (grafting to, grafting from and grafting through) to achieve a selective location of nanoparticles into desired domains of the block copolymers. Morphology of fabricated hybrid nanocomposites was studied by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and with the aim to reach well-ordered nanostructured composites different annealing methods were used. Additionally, nanoparticle amount has been also varied in order to investigate the effect of the nanoparticle content in the morphology of the block copolymer. Nowadays different characterization methods were using in order to investigate magnetic properties of nanometer-scale electronic devices. Particularly, two different techniques have been used with the aim of characterizing synthesized nanocomposites. First, magnetic force microscopy (MFM) was used to investigate qualitatively the magnetic properties taking into account that this technique allows distinguishing magnetic domains on the sample surface. On the other hand, magnetic characterization by vibrating sample magnetometer and superconducting quantum interference device. This technique demonstrated that magnetic properties of nanoparticles have been transferred to the nanocomposites, exhibiting superparamagnetic behavior similar to that of the maghemite nanoparticles at room temperature. Obtained advanced nanostructured materials could found possible applications in the field of dye-sensitized solar cells and electronic nanodevices.

Keywords: atomic force microscopy, block copolymers, grafting techniques, iron oxide nanoparticles

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86 Early and Mid-Term Results of Anesthetic Management of Minimal Invasive Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Using One Lung Ventilation

Authors: Devendra Gupta, S. P. Ambesh, P. K Singh

Abstract:

Introduction: Minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting (MICABG) is a less invasive method of performing surgical revascularization. Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB) provides many anesthetic challenges including one lung ventilation (OLV), managing myocardial ischemia, and pain. We present an early and midterm result of the use of this technique with OLV. Method: We enrolled 62 patients for analysis operated between 2008 and 2012. Patients were anesthetized and left endobronchial tube was placed. During the procedure left lung was isolated and one lung ventilation was maintained through right lung. Operation was performed utilizing off pump technique of coronary artery bypass grafting through a minimal invasive incision. Left internal mammary artery graft was done for single vessel disease and radial artery was utilized for other grafts if required. Postoperative ventilation was done with single lumen endotracheal tube. Median follow-up is 2.5 years (6 months to 4 years). Results: Median age was 58.5 years (41-77) and all were male. Single vessel disease was present in 36, double vessel in 24 and triple vessel disease in 2 patients. All the patients had normal left ventricular size and function. In 2 cases difficulty were encounter in placement of endobronchial tube. In 1 case cuff of endobronchial tube was ruptured during intubation. High airway pressure was developed on OLV in 1 case and surgery was accomplished with two lung anesthesia with low tidal volume. Mean postoperative ventilation time was 14.4 hour (11-22). There was no perioperative and 30 day mortality. Conversion to median sternotomy to complete the operation was done in 3.23% (2 out of 62 patients). One patient had acute myocardial infarction postoperatively and there were no deaths during follow-up. Conclusion: MICABG is a safe and effective method of revascularization with OLV in low risk candidates for coronary artery bypass grafting.

Keywords: MIDCABG, one lung ventilation, coronary artery bypass grafting, endobronchial tube

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85 Synthesis and Characterization of Lactic Acid Grafted TiO2 Nanocomposites

Authors: Qasar Saleem

Abstract:

The aim of this project was to synthesize and analyze Polylactic acid-grafted TiO2 nanocomposite. When dispersed at the nanoscale TiO2 can behave as see through transparent UV filters and thermomechanical materials. The synthesis plan involved three stages. First, dispersion of TiO2 white powder in water/ethanol solvent system. Second grafting TiO2 surface by oligomers of lactic acid aimed at changing its surface features. Third polymerization of lactic acid monomer with grafted TiO2 in the presence of anhydrous stannous chloride as a catalyst. Polylactic acid grafted-TiO2 nanocomposite was synthesized by melt polycondensation in situ of lactic acid onto titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles surface. The product was characterized by TGA, DSC, FTIR, and UV analysis and degradation observation. An idea regarding bonds between the grafting polymer and surface modified titanium oxide nanoparticles. Characteristics peaks of Ti–carbonyl bond, the related intensities of the Fourier transmission absorption peaks of graft composite, the melt and decomposition behavior stages of Polylactic acid-grafted TiO2 nanocomposite convinced that oligomers of polylactic acid were chemically bonded on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles. Through grafting polylactic acid, the Polylactic acid grafted -TiO2 sample shown good absorption in UV region and degradation behavior under normal atmospheric conditions. Regaining transparency of degraded white opaque Polylactic acid-grafted TiO2 nanocomposite on heating was another character. Polylactic acid-grafted TiO2 nanocomposite will be a potential candidate in future for biomedical, UV shielding and environment friendly material.

Keywords: condensation, nanocomposites, oligomers, polylactic

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84 Crystallinity, Antimicrobial Activity and Dyeing Properties of Chitosan-G-Poly(N-Acryloyl Morpholine) Copolymer

Authors: Fakhreia A. Al Sagheer, Enas I. Ibrahim, Khaled D. Khalil

Abstract:

N-Acryloyl morpholine, NAM, was grafted onto chitosan utilizing homogeneous conditions with 1% acetic acid as the solvent, and potassium persulfate and sodium sulfite as the redox initiator. The effects of various reaction parameters, such as time, temperature, and monomer and initiator concentrations, on the percentage of grafting (G%) and the grafting efficiency (E%) were determined. The graft copolymer showed a remarkably improved crystallinity, as compared to the unmodified chitosan, based on the FESEM, XRD, and DSC results. Chitosan-g-poly(N-acryloyl morpholine) (Cs-PNAM), the copolymer obtained by using this procedure, was characterized by utilizing FTIR, FESEM, TGA, and XRD analysis. As expected, the results of an evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal activities show that the grafted chitosan copolymers exhibit stronger inhibitory effects against both types of microbes than does chitosan. Moreover, the size of the inhibition zone created by the graft copolymer was observed to be proportional to its G% corresponding to its morpholine content. Fortunately, the graft copolymer showed a marked growth inhibition against candidiasis (C.Albicans and C.Kefyr). We conclude that the graft copolymer may be highly effective in the prevention and treatment of candidiasis. In addition, the extent and pH dependence of uptake of different types of dyes (acidic: EBT, and MV; and basic: MB) by grafted chitosan in pH 6.5 aqueous solutions was determined. The results show that, the grafted copolymer exhibited a greater affinity to absorb the acid dyes more than the basic ones especially at relatively low temperature. Thus the modified chitosan can be used, in wastewater treatment, as efficient economic absorbent especially for anionic dyes from the industrial processing effluents.

Keywords: chitosan, N-Acryloyl morpholine, homogeneous grafting, antimicrobial activity, dye uptake

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83 Cationic Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Conjugated with Anti-Melantransferrin and Apolipoprotein E for Delivering Doxorubicin to U87MG Cells

Authors: Yung-Chih Kuo, Yung-I Lou

Abstract:

Cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (CSLNs) with anti-melanotransferrin (AMT) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) were used to carry antimitotic doxorubicin (Dox) across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treatment. Dox-loaded CSLNs were prepared in microemulsion, grafted covalently with AMT and ApoE, and applied to human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs), human astrocytes, and U87MG cells. Experimental results revealed that an increase in the weight percentage of stearyl amine (SA) from 0% to 20% increased the size of AMT-ApoE-Dox-CSLNs. In addition, an increase in the stirring rate from 150 rpm to 450 rpm decreased the size of AMT-ApoE-Dox-CSLNs. An increase in the weight percentage of SA from 0% to 20% enhanced the zeta potential of AMT-ApoE-Dox-CSLNs. Moreover, an increase in the stirring rate from 150 rpm to 450 rpm reduced the zeta potential of AMT-ApoE-Dox-CSLNs. AMT-ApoE-Dox-CSLNs exhibited a spheroid-like geometry, a minor irregular boundary deviating from spheroid, and a somewhat distorted surface with a few zigzags and sharp angles. The encapsulation efficiency of Dox in CSLNs decreased with increasing weight percentage of Dox and the order in the encapsulation efficiency of Dox was 10% SA > 20% SA > 0% SA. However, the reverse order was true for the release rate of Dox, suggesting that AMT-ApoE-Dox-CSLNs containing 10% SA had better-sustained release characteristics. An increase in the concentration of AMT from 2.5 to 7.5 μg/mL slightly decreased the grafting efficiency of AMT and an increase in that from 7.5 to 10 μg/mL significantly decreased the grafting efficiency. Furthermore, an increase in the concentration of ApoE from 2.5 to 5 μg/mL slightly reduced the grafting efficiency of ApoE and an increase in that from 5 to 10 μg/mL significantly reduced the grafting efficiency. Also, AMT-ApoE-Dox-CSLNs at 10 μg/mL of ApoE could slightly reduce the transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and increase the permeability of propidium iodide (PI). An incorporation of 10 μg/mL of ApoE could reduce the TEER and increase the permeability of PI. AMT-ApoE-Dox-CSLNs at 10 μg/mL of AMT and 5-10 μg/mL of ApoE could significantly enhance the permeability of Dox across the BBB. AMT-ApoE-Dox-CSLNs did not induce serious cytotoxicity to HBMECs. The viability of HBMECs was in the following order: AMT-ApoE-Dox-CSLNs = AMT-Dox-CSLNs = Dox-CSLNs > Dox. The order in the efficacy of inhibiting U87MG cells was AMT-ApoE-Dox-CSLNs > AMT-Dox-CSLNs > Dox-CSLNs > Dox. A surface modification of AMT and ApoE could promote the delivery of AMT-ApoE-Dox-CSLNs to cross the BBB via melanotransferrin and low density lipoprotein receptor. Thus, AMT-ApoE-Dox-CSLNs have appropriate physicochemical properties and can be a potential colloidal delivery system for brain tumor chemotherapy.

Keywords: anti-melanotransferrin, apolipoprotein E, cationic catanionic solid lipid nanoparticle, doxorubicin, U87MG cells

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82 Fresh Amnion Membrane Grafting for the Regeneration of Skin in Full Thickness Burn in Newborn - Case Report

Authors: Priyanka Yadav, Umesh Bnasal, Yashvinder Kumar

Abstract:

The placenta is an important structure that provides oxygen and nutrients to the growing fetus in utero. It is usually thrown away after birth, but it has a therapeutic role in the regeneration of tissue. It is covered by the amniotic membrane, which can be easily separated into the amnion layer and the chorion layer—the amnion layer act as a biofilm for the healing of burn wound and non-healing ulcers. The freshly collected membrane has stem cells, cytokines, growth factors, and anti-inflammatory properties, which act as a biofilm for the healing of wounds. It functions as a barrier and prevents heat and water loss and also protects from bacterial contamination, thus supporting the healing process. The application of Amnion membranes has been successfully used for wound and reconstructive purposes for decades. It is a very cheap and easy process and has shown superior results to allograft and xenograft. However, there are very few case reports of amnion membrane grafting in newborns; we intend to highlight its therapeutic importance in burn injuries in newborns. We present a case of 9 days old male neonate who presented to the neonatal unit of Maulana Azad Medical College with a complaint of fluid-filled blisters and burns wound on the body for six days. He was born outside the hospital at 38 weeks of gestation to a 24-year-old primigravida mother by vaginal delivery. The presentation was cephalic and the amniotic fluid was clear. His birth weight was 2800 gm and APGAR scores were 7 and 8 at 1 and 5 minutes, respectively. His anthropometry was appropriate for gestational age. He developed respiratory distress after birth requiring oxygen support by nasal prongs for three days. On the day of life three, he developed blisters on his body, starting from than face then over the back and perineal region. At a presentation on the day of life nine, he had blisters and necrotic wound on the right side of the face, back, right shoulder and genitalia, affecting 60% of body surface area with full-thickness loss of skin. He was started on intravenous antibiotics and fluid therapy. Pus culture grew Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, for which culture-specific antibiotics were started. Plastic surgery reference was taken and regular wound dressing was done with antiseptics. He had a storming course during the hospital stay. On the day of life 35 when the baby was hemodynamically stable, amnion membrane grafting was done on the wound site; for the grafting, fresh amnion membrane was removed under sterile conditions from the placenta obtained by caesarean section. It was then transported to the plastic surgery unit in half an hour in a sterile fluid where the graft was applied over the infant’s wound. The amnion membrane grafting was done twice in two weeks for covering the whole wound area. After successful uptake of amnion membrane, skin from the thigh region was autografted over the whole wound area by Meek technique in a single setting. The uptake of autograft was excellent and most of the areas were healed. In some areas, there was patchy regeneration of skin so dressing was continued. The infant was discharged after three months of hospital stay and was later followed up in the plastic surgery unit of the hospital.

Keywords: amnion membrane grafting, autograft, meek technique, newborn, regeneration of skin

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81 Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of Some Selected Dye-Functionalized P and N-Type Nanoparticles in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: Arifa Batool, Ghulam Hussain Bhatti, Syed Mujtaba Shah

Abstract:

Inorganic n-type (TiO2, CdO) and p-type (NiO, CuO) metal oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by a facile wet chemical method at room temperature. The morphological, compositional, structural and optical properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, FT-IR, XRD analysis, UV/Visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. All semiconducting nanoparticles were photosensitized with Ru (II) based Z907 dye in ethanol solvent by grafting. Grafting of dye on the surface of nanoparticles was confirmed by UV/Visible and FT-IR spectroscopy. The synthesized photo-active nanohybrid was thoroughly blended with P3HT, a solid electrolyte and I-V measurements under solar stimulated radiations 1000 W/m2 (AM 1.5) were recorded. Maximum incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 0.9% was achieved with dye functionalized Z907-TiO2 hybrid, IPCE of 0.72% was achieved with bulk-heterojunction of TiO2-Z907-CuO and IPCE of 0.68% was attained with nanocomposite of TiO2-CdO. TiO2 based Solar cells have maximum Jscvalue i.e.4.63 mA/cm2. Dye-functionalized TiO2-based photovoltaic devices were found more efficient than the reference device but the morphology of the device was a major check in progress.

Keywords: solar cell, bulk heterojunction, nanocomposites, photosensitization, dye sensitized solar cell

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80 Preparation, Structure, and Properties of Hydroxyl Containing Acrylate Monomer Grafted Silk Fabrics by HRP-Catalyzed ATRP Method

Authors: Tieling Xing, Jinqiu Yang, Guoqiang Chen

Abstract:

It is environmentally friendly to use horseradish peroxidase (HRP) instead of the traditional transition metal catalyst for the catalyst of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Silk fabrics were successfully grafted with hydroxyl-containing acrylate monomer to improve its crease resistance by HRP-catalyzed ATRP method. Taking grafting yield as the evaluation index, single factor tests revealed that the optimum grafting reaction condition was as follow: monomer mass fraction 120-210%(o.w.f), HRP concentration 360-480U/mL, molar ratio of HRP to NaAsc 1:150, reaction temperature 50-60℃, reaction time 24h. Raman spectra showed hydroxyl-containing acrylate monomer were successfully grafted on silk fabrics. SEM figures indicated the surface of grafted silk became rougher, and graft copolymer was distributed evenly on the surface of silk fiber. The crease-resistant recovery property of grafted silk fabric was greatly improved, especially in wet crease recovery angle. The result showed hydroxyl-containing acrylate monomer can be successfully grafted onto silk fabric based on HRP-catalyzed ATRP method.

Keywords: atom transfer radical polymerization, catalysis, horseradish peroxidase, hydroxyl-containing acrylate monomer

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79 Preparation and Characterization of Poly(L-Lactic Acid)/Oligo(D-Lactic Acid) Grafted Cellulose Composites

Authors: Md. Hafezur Rahaman, Mohd. Maniruzzaman, Md. Shadiqul Islam, Md. Masud Rana

Abstract:

With the growth of environmental awareness, enormous researches are running to develop the next generation materials based on sustainability, eco-competence, and green chemistry to preserve and protect the environment. Due to biodegradability and biocompatibility, poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) has a great interest in ecological and medical applications. Also, cellulose is one of the most abundant biodegradable, renewable polymers found in nature. It has several advantages such as low cost, high mechanical strength, biodegradability and so on. Recently, an immense deal of attention has been paid for the scientific and technological development of α-cellulose based composite material. PLLA could be used for grafting of cellulose to improve the compatibility prior to the composite preparation. Here it is quite difficult to form a bond between lower hydrophilic molecules like PLLA and α-cellulose. Dimmers and oligomers can easily be grafted onto the surface of the cellulose by ring opening or polycondensation method due to their low molecular weight. In this research, α-cellulose extracted from jute fiber is grafted with oligo(D-lactic acid) (ODLA) via graft polycondensation reaction in presence of para-toluene sulphonic acid and potassium persulphate in toluene at 130°C for 9 hours under 380 mmHg. Here ODLA is synthesized by ring opening polymerization of D-lactides in the presence of stannous octoate (0.03 wt% of lactide) and D-lactic acids at 140°C for 10 hours. Composites of PLLA with ODLA grafted α-cellulose are prepared by solution mixing and film casting method. Confirmation of grafting was carried out through FTIR spectroscopy and SEM analysis. A strongest carbonyl peak of FTIR spectroscopy at 1728 cm⁻¹ of ODLA grafted α-cellulose confirms the grafting of ODLA onto α-cellulose which is absent in α-cellulose. It is also observed from SEM photographs that there are some white areas (spot) on ODLA grafted α-cellulose as compared to α-cellulose may indicate the grafting of ODLA and consistent with FTIR results. Analysis of the composites is carried out by FTIR, SEM, WAXD and thermal gravimetric analyzer. Most of the FTIR characteristic absorption peak of the composites shifted to higher wave number with increasing peak area may provide a confirmation that PLLA and grafted cellulose have better compatibility in composites via intermolecular hydrogen bonding and this supports previously published results. Grafted α-cellulose distributions in composites are uniform which is observed by SEM analysis. WAXD studied show that only homo-crystalline structures of PLLA present in the composites. Thermal stability of the composites is enhanced with increasing the percentages of ODLA grafted α-cellulose in composites. As a consequence, the resultant composites have a resistance toward the thermal degradation. The effects of length of the grafted chain and biodegradability of the composites will be studied in further research.

Keywords: α-cellulose, composite, graft polycondensation, oligo(D-lactic acid), poly(L-lactic acid)

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78 Ferulic Acid-Grafted Chitosan: Thermal Stability and Feasibility as an Antioxidant for Active Biodegradable Packaging Film

Authors: Sarekha Woranuch, Rangrong Yoksan

Abstract:

Active packaging has been developed based on the incorporation of certain additives, in particular antimicrobial and antioxidant agents, into packaging systems to maintain or extend product quality and shelf-life. Ferulic acid is one of the most effective natural phenolic antioxidants, which has been used in food, pharmaceutical and active packaging film applications. However, most phenolic compounds are sensitive to oxygen, light and heat; its activities are thus lost during product formulation and processing. Grafting ferulic acid onto polymer is an alternative to reduce its loss under thermal processes. Therefore, the objectives of the present research were to study the thermal stability of ferulic acid after grafting onto chitosan, and to investigate the possibility of using ferulic acid-grafted chitosan (FA-g-CTS) as an antioxidant for active biodegradable packaging film. FA-g-CTS was incorporated into biodegradable film via a two-step process, i.e. compounding extrusion at temperature up to 150 °C followed by blown film extrusion at temperature up to 175 °C. Although incorporating FA-g-CTS with a content of 0.02–0.16% (w/w) caused decreased water vapor barrier property and reduced extensibility, the films showed improved oxygen barrier property and antioxidant activity. Radical scavenging activity and reducing power of the film containing FA-g-CTS with a content of 0.04% (w/w) were higher than that of the naked film about 254% and 94%, respectively. Tensile strength and rigidity of the films were not significantly affected by adding FA-g-CTS with a content of 0.02–0.08% (w/w). The results indicated that FA-g-CTS could be potentially used as an antioxidant for active packaging film.

Keywords: active packaging film, antioxidant activity, chitosan, ferulic acid

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77 The Incidence of Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Patients with Local and Diffuse Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Kamil Ganaev, Elina Vlasova, Andrei Shiryaev, Renat Akchurin

Abstract:

De novo atrial fibrillation (AF) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a common complication. To date, there are no data on the possible effect of diffuse lesions of coronary arteries on the incidence of postoperative AF complications. Methods. Patients operated on-pump under hypothermic conditions during the calendar year (2020) were studied. Inclusion criteria - isolated CABG and achievement of complete myocardial revascularization. Patients with a history of AF moderate and severe valve dysfunction, hormonal thyroid pathology, initial CHF(Congestive heart failure), as well as patients with developed perioperative complications (IM, acute heart failure, massive blood loss) and deceased were excluded. Thus 227 patients were included; mean age 65±9 years; 69% were men. 89% of patients had a 3-vessel lesion of the coronary artery; the remainder had a 2-vessel lesion. Mean LV size: 3.9±0.3 cm, indexed LV volume: 29.4±5.3 mL/m2. Two groups were considered: D (n=98), patients with diffuse coronary heart disease, and L (n=129), patients with local coronary heart disease. Clinical and demographic characteristics in the groups were comparable. Rhythm assessment: continuous bedside ECG monitoring up to 5 days; ECG CT at 5-7 days after CABG; daily routine ECG registration. Follow-up period - postoperative hospital period. Results. The Median follow-up period was 9 (7;11) days. POFP (Postoperative atrial fibrillation) was detected in 61/227 (27%) patients: 34/98 (35%) in group D versus 27/129 (21%) in group L; p<0.05. Moreover, the values of revascularization index in groups D and L (3.9±0.7 and 3.8±0.5, respectively) were equal, and the mean time Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (107±27 and 80±13min), as well as the mean ischemic time (67±17 and 55±11min) were significantly longer in group D (p<0.05). However, a separate analysis of these parameters in patients with and without developed AF did not reveal any significant differences in group D (CPB time 99±21.2 min, ischemic time 63±12.2 min), or in group L (CPB time 88±13.1 min, ischemic time 58.7±13.2 min). Conclusion. With the diffuse nature of coronary lesions, the incidence of AF in the hospital period after isolated CABG definitely increases. To better understand the role of severe coronary atherosclerosis in the development of POAF, it is necessary to distinguish the influence of organic features of atrial and ventricular myocardium (as a consequence of chronic coronary disease) from the features of surgical correction in diffuse coronary lesions.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, diffuse coronary artery disease, coronary artery bypass grafting, local coronary artery disease

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76 The Effect of Surface Modified Nano-Hydroxyapatite Incorporation into Polymethylmethacrylate Cement on Biocompatibility and Mechanical Properties

Authors: Yu-Shan Wu, Po-Liang Lai, I-Ming Chu

Abstract:

Poly(methylmethacrylate)(PMMA) is the most frequently used bone void filler for vertebral augmentation in osteoporotic fracture. PMMA bone cement not only exhibits strong mechanical properties but also can fabricate according to the shape of bone defect. However, the adhesion between the PMMA-based cement and the adjacent bone is usually weak and as PMMA bone cement is inherently bioinert. The combination of bioceramics and polymers as composites may increase cell adhesion and improve biocompatibility. The nano-hydroxyapatite(HAP) not only plays a significant role in maintaining the properties of the natural bone but also offers a favorable environment for osteoconduction, protein adhesion, and osteoblast proliferation. However, defects and cracks can form at the polymer/ceramics interface, resulting in uneven distribution of stress and subsequent inferior mechanical strength. Surface-modified HAP nano-crystals were prepared by chemically grafting poly(ε-caprolactone)(PCL) on surface-modified nano-HAP surface to increase the affinity of polymer/ceramic phases .Thus, incorporation of surface-modified nano-hydroxyapatite (EC-HAP) may not only improve the interfacial adhesion between cement and bone and between nanoparticles and cement, but also increase biocompatibility. In this research, PMMA mixing with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 wt% EC-HAP were examined. MC3T3-E1 cells were used for the biological evaluation of the response to the cements in vitro. Morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical properties of HAP/PMMA and EC-HAP/PMMA cement were investigated by compression test. Surface wettability of the cements was measured by contact angles.

Keywords: bone cement, biocompatibility, nano-hydroxyapatite, polycaprolactone, PMMA, surface grafting

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75 Lymphomas as Estrogen-Regulated Cancers

Authors: M. S. Hasni, J. Guan, K. Yakimchuk, M. Berglund, B. Sander, G. Enblad, R. M. Amini, S. Okret

Abstract:

Lymphomas are generally not considered as endocrine-related cancers. However, most lymphoid malignancies show gender differences in incidence and show prognosis with males being more affected. Furthermore, some epidemiological data indicate a protective role of estrogens against Non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Recent studies have demonstrated estrogen receptor β (ERβ) to be the major ER expressed in normal and malignant cells of lymphoid origin. We have analyzed the effects of estradiol and selective ERα and ERβ agonists on lymphoma growth in culture and in vivo. Treating lymphoma cells with estradiol or ERα selective agonist had minor or no effect on cell growth while selective ERβ agonist treatment showed an antiproliferative effect. When grafting mice with murine T lymphoma cells, male mice developed larger tumors compared to female mice, a difference that was abolished following ovariectomy, demonstrating estrogen-dependent growth in vivo. When subcutaneously grafting lymphoma cells to mice, so far growth of all tested human B lymphoma tumors (Raji and Ramos Burkitt lymphoma, SU.DHL4 (GC) and U2932 (ABC) DLBCL, Granta-519, Maver1 and Z138 MCL cells), were reduced following treatment with ERβ selective agonist (ref. 2 and unpublished). Moreover, the number and size of liver foci of disseminating Raji cells was reduced. We have identified target genes and mechanism that could explain the above effects of ERβ agonists. This included effects on angio and lymphangiogenesis. Now we have further analyzed effects of ERβ agonists on Ibrutinib-sensitive and -insensitive MCL cells in xenograft experiments as well as ERβ expression in primary lymphoma material (DLBCL). Preliminary statistical analysis has been done correlating ERβ expression to other biomarkers and clinical data.

Keywords: lymphomas, estrogen receptors, cancer, liver foci

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74 Obtaining Composite Cotton Fabric by Cyclodextrin Grafting

Authors: U. K. Sahin, N. Erdumlu, C. Saricam, I. Gocek, M. H. Arslan, H. Acikgoz-Tufan, B. Kalav

Abstract:

Finishing is an important part of fabric processing with which a wide range of features are imparted to greige or colored fabrics for various end-uses. Especially, by the addition or impartation of nano-scaled particles to the fabric structure composite fabrics, a kind of composite materials can be acquired. Composite materials, generally shortened as composites or in other words composition materials, are engineered or naturally occurring materials made from two or more component materials with significantly different physical, mechanical or chemical characteristics remaining separate and distinctive at the macroscopic or microscopic scale within the end product structure. Therefore, the technique finishing which is one of the fundamental methods to be applied on fabrics for obtainment of composite fabrics with many functionalities was used in the current study with the same purpose. However, regardless of the finishing materials applied, the efficient life of finished product on offering desired feature is low, since the durability of finishes on the material is limited. Any increase in durability of these finishes on textiles would enhance the life of use for textiles, which will result in happier users. Therefore, in this study, since higher durability was desired for the finishing materials fixed on the fabrics, nano-scaled hollow structured cyclodextrins were chemically imparted by grafting to the structure of conventional cotton fabrics by the help of finishing technique in order to be fixed permanently. By this way, a processed and functionalized base fabric having potential to be treated in the subsequent processes with many different finishing agents and nanomaterials could be obtained. Henceforth, this fabric can be used as a multi-functional fabric due to the encapturing ability of cyclodextrins to molecules/particles via physical/chemical means. In this study, scoured and rinsed woven bleached plain weave 100% cotton fabrics were utilized because textiles made of cotton are the most demanded textile products in the textile market by the textile consumers in daily life. Cotton fabric samples were immersed in treating baths containing β-cyclodextrin and 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid and to reduce the curing temperature the catalyst sodium hypophosphite monohydrate was used. All impregnated fabric samples were pre-dried. The reaction of grafting was performed in dry state. The treated and cured fabric samples were rinsed with warm distilled water and dried. The samples were dried for 4 h and weighed before and after finishing and rinsing. Stability and durability of β-cyclodextrins on fabric surface against external factors such as washing as well as strength of functionalized fabric in terms of tensile and tear strength were tested. Presence and homogeneity of distribution of β-cyclodextrins on fabric surface were characterized.

Keywords: cotton fabric, cyclodextrine, improved durability, multifunctional composite textile

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73 Synthesis and Characterization of Water Soluble Ferulic Acid-Grafted Chitosan

Authors: Sarekha Woranuch, Rangrong Yoksan

Abstract:

Chitosan is a derivative of chitin, which is a second most naturally abundant polysaccharide found in crab shells, shrimp shells, and squid pens. The applications of chitosan in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food and packaging industries have been reported owing to its general recognition as safe, excellent biodegradability and biocompatibility, as well as ability to form films, membranes, gels, beads, fibers and particles. Nevertheless, chitosan is an amino polysaccharide consisting of strong inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds which limit its solubility in neutral pH water resulting in restricted utilization. Chemical modification is an alternative way to impede hydrogen bond formation. The objective of the present research is to improve water solubility and antioxidant activity of chitosan by grafting with ferulic acid. Ferulic acid was grafted onto chitosan at the C-2 position via a carbodiimide-mediated coupling reaction. Different mole ratios of chitosan to ferulic acid (i.e. 1.0:0.0, 1.0:0.5, 1.0:1.0, 1.0:1.5, 1.0:2.0, and 1.0:2.5) and various reaction temperatures (i.e. 40, 60, and 80 °C) were used. The reaction was performed at different times (i.e. 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 h). The obtained ferulic acid-grafted chitosan was characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR technique. The influences of ferulic acid on crystallinity, solubility and radical scavenging activity of chitosan were also investigated. Ferulic acid grafted chitosan was successfully synthesized as confirmed from (i) the appearance of FTIR absorption band at 1517 cm-1 belonging to C=C aromatic ring of ferulic acid and the increased C–H stretching band intensity and (ii) the appearance of proton signals at δ = 6.31-7.67 ppm ascribing to methine protons of ferulic acid. The condition in which the reaction temperature of 60°C, reaction time of 3 h and the mole ratio of chitosan to ferulic acid of 1:1 gave the highest ferulic acid substitution degree, i.e. 0.37. The resulting ferulic acid grafted chitosan was soluble in water (1.3 mg/mL) due to its reduced crystallinity as compared with chitosan and also exhibited 90% greater radical scavenging activity than chitosan. The result suggested the utilization of ferulic acid grafted chitosan as an antioxidant material.

Keywords: antioxidant property, chitosan, ferulic acid, grafting

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72 Development of Carrageenan-Psyllium/Montmorillonite Clay Hybrid Hydrogels for Agriculture Purpose

Authors: D. Aydinoglu, N. Karaca, O. Ceylan

Abstract:

Limited water resources on the earth come first among the most alarming issues. In this respect, several solutions from treatment of waste water to water management have been proposed. Recently, use of hydrogels as soil additive, which is one of the water management ways in agriculture, has gained increasing interest. In traditional agriculture applications, water used with irrigation aim, rapidly flows down between the pore structures in soil, without enough useful for soil. To overcome this fact and increase the abovementioned limit values, recently, several natural based hydrogels have been suggested and tested to find out their efficiency in soil. However, most of these researches have dealt with grafting of synthetic acrylate based monomers on natural gelling agents, most probably due to reinforced of the natural gels. These results motivated us to search a natural based hydrogel formulations, not including any synthetic component, and strengthened with montmorillonite clay instead of any grafting polymerization with synthetic monomer and examine their potential in this field, as well as characterize of them. With this purpose, carrageenan-psyllium/ montmorillonite hybrid hydrogels have been successively prepared. Their swelling capacities were determined both in deionized and tap water and were found to be dependent on the carrageenan, psyllium and montmorillonite ratios, as well as the water type. On the other hand, mechanical tests revealed that especially carrageenan and montmorillonite contents have a great effect on gel strength, which is one of the essential features, preventing the gels from cracking resulted in readily outflow of all the water in the gel without beneficial for soil. They found to reach 0.23 MPa. The experiments carried out with soil indicated that hydrogels significantly improved the water uptake capacities and water retention degrees of the soil from 49 g to 85 g per g of soil and from 32 to 67%, respectively, depending on the ingredient ratios. Also, biodegradation tests demonstrated that all the hydrogels undergo biodegradation, as expected from their natural origin. The overall results suggested that these hybrid hydrogels have a potential for use as soil additive and can be safely used owing to their totally natural structure.

Keywords: carrageenan, hydrogel, montmorillonite, psyllium

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71 Polymer Mediated Interaction between Grafted Nanosheets

Authors: Supriya Gupta, Paresh Chokshi

Abstract:

Polymer-particle interactions can be effectively utilized to produce composites that possess physicochemical properties superior to that of neat polymer. The incorporation of fillers with dimensions comparable to polymer chain size produces composites with extra-ordinary properties owing to very high surface to volume ratio. The dispersion of nanoparticles is achieved by inducing steric repulsion realized by grafting particles with polymeric chains. A comprehensive understanding of the interparticle interaction between these functionalized nanoparticles plays an important role in the synthesis of a stable polymer nanocomposite. With the focus on incorporation of clay sheets in a polymer matrix, we theoretically construct the polymer mediated interparticle potential for two nanosheets grafted with polymeric chains. The self-consistent field theory (SCFT) is employed to obtain the inhomogeneous composition field under equilibrium. Unlike the continuum models, SCFT is built from the microscopic description taking in to account the molecular interactions contributed by both intra- and inter-chain potentials. We present the results of SCFT calculations of the interaction potential curve for two grafted nanosheets immersed in the matrix of polymeric chains of dissimilar chemistry to that of the grafted chains. The interaction potential is repulsive at short separation and shows depletion attraction for moderate separations induced by high grafting density. It is found that the strength of attraction well can be tuned by altering the compatibility between the grafted and the mobile chains. Further, we construct the interaction potential between two nanosheets grafted with diblock copolymers with one of the blocks being chemically identical to the free polymeric chains. The interplay between the enthalpic interaction between the dissimilar species and the entropy of the free chains gives rise to a rich behavior in interaction potential curve obtained for two separate cases of free chains being chemically similar to either the grafted block or the free block of the grafted diblock chains.

Keywords: clay nanosheets, polymer brush, polymer nanocomposites, self-consistent field theory

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70 The Capacity of Bolted and Screw Connections in Cold-Formed Steel Truss Structure through Analytical and Experimental Method

Authors: Slamet Setioboro, Rahutami Kusumaningsih, Prabowo Setiyawan, Danna Darmayadi

Abstract:

Designing of cold-formed steel capacity connections often based on the formula used for hot rolled steel. It makes the result of the actual capacity connection doesn’t accurate anymore. When the hot rolled steel receives the axial load pull, it will have different characteristics. As the result, there will be failure result when designing Truss structure made of hot rolled steel. This research aims to determine the capacity of actual cold-formed steel connections section which is loaded by the axial tensile force. It will test the appeal of the connection using bolt grafting tool and screw grafting tool. The variations of the test will be on the type of connection (single and double slap), the number of the connection tools and connection configuration. Bold and screw connections failure mode observed in this research are different each other. Failure mode of bolted connections includes sliding pivot plate, tearing at the plate and cutting of the bolt head. While the failure mode of screw connections includes tilting, hole-bearing, pull over and cutting the screw body out. This research was conducted using a laboratory test of HW2-600S Universal Testing Machine model with ASTM E8. It has done in the materials testing laboratory of Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering UNNES. The results obtained through the laboratory diversification towards theoretical calculations using the standards specified in ISO 7971-2013 Cold-Rolled Steel Structures. Based on the research, it can be concluded that the effective connection in receiving force strength is bolted connections neither single nor double plate. The method used is by applying 4 bolts through 2 parallel lines configuration. Furthermore, this connection deals with the consequences of holding the highest Pmaks, lowest failure risk and getting a little kind of mode of failure.

Keywords: axial load, cold-formed steel, capacity connections, bolted connections, screw connections

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69 Long-Term Results of Surgical Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease: One Center Experience

Authors: Emil Sakharov, Alex Zotov, Ilkin Osmanov, Oleg Shelest, Aleksander Troitskiy, Robert Khabazov

Abstract:

Objective: Since 2015, our center has been actively implementing methods of surgical correction of atrial fibrillation, in particular, in patients with coronary heart disease. The study presents a comparative analysis of the late postoperative period in patients with coronary artery bypass grafting and atrial fibrillation. Methods: The study included 150 patients with ischemic heart disease and atrial fibrillation for the period from 2015 to 2021. Patients were divided into 2 groups. The first group is represented by patients with ischemic heart disease and atrial fibrillation who underwent coronary bypass surgery and surgical correction of atrial fibrillation (N=50). The second group is represented by patients with ischemic heart disease and atrial fibrillation who underwent only myocardial revascularization (N=100). Patients were comparable in age, gender, and initial severity of the condition. Among the patients in group 1 there were 82% were men, while in the second group, their number was 75%. Among the patients of the first group, there were 36% with persistent atrial fibrillation, 20% with long-term persistent atrial fibrillation. In the second group, 10% with persistent atrial fibrillation and 17% with long-term persistent atrial fibrillation. Results: Average follow-up for groups 1 and 2 amounted to 47 months. There were no complications in group 1, such as bleeding and stroke. There was only 1 patient in group 1, who had died from cardiovascular disease. Freedom of atrial fibrillation was in 82% without AADs therapy. In group 2 there were 8 patients who had died from cardiovascular diseases and total freedom of atrial fibrillation was in 35% of patients, among which 42.8% had additional AADs therapy. Follow-up data are presented in Table 2. Progression of heart failure was observed in 3% in group 1 and 7% in group 2. Combined endpoints (recurrence of AF, stroke, progression of heart failure, myocardial infarction) were achieved in 16% in group 1 and 34% in group 2, respectively. Freedom from atrial fibrillation without antiarrhythmic therapy was 82% for group 1 and 35% for group 2. In the first group, there is a more pronounced decrease in heart failure rates. Deaths from cardiovascular causes were recorded in 2% for group 1 and 7% for group 2. Conclusion: Surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation helps to reduce adverse complications in the late postoperative period and contributes to the regression of heart failure.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, coronary artery bypass grafting, ischaemic heart disease, heart failure

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68 Preparation of Poly(Acrylic Acid) Functionalized Magnetic Graphene Oxide Composite and Its Application for Pb(II) Removal

Authors: Yu Wang, Xibang Chen, Maolin Zhai, Jing Peng, Jiuqiang Li

Abstract:

Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) functionalized magnetic graphene oxide (GO) composite was synthesized through a two-step process. Magnetic Fe₃O₄/GO was first prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. A radiation-induced grafting technique was used to graft PAA to Fe₃O₄/GO to obtain the Fe₃O₄/GO-g-PAA subsequently. The characteristics results of FTIR, Raman, XRD, SEM, TEM, and VSM showed that Fe₃O₄/GO-g-PAA was successfully prepared. The Fe₃O₄/GO-g-PAA composites were used as sorbents for the removal of Pb(II) ions, and the maximum adsorption capacity for Pb(II) was 176.92 mg/g.

Keywords: Fe₃O₄, graphene oxide, magnetic, Pb(II) removal, radiation-induced

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67 Effective Layer-by-layer Chemical Grafting of a Reactive Oxazoline Polymer and MWCNTs onto Carbon Fibers for Enhancing Mechanical Properties of Composites using Polystyrene as a Model Thermoplastic Matrix

Authors: Ryoma Tokonami, Teruya Goto, Tatsuhiro Takahashi,

Abstract:

For enhancing the mechanical property ofcarbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP), the surface modification of carbon fiber (CF) by multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) has received considerable attention using direct MWCNT growth on CF with a catalysis, MWCNT electrophoresis, and layer-by-layer of MWCNT with reactive polymers, etc. Among above approaches, the layer-by-layer method is the simplest process, however, the amount of MWCNTs on CF is very little, resulting in the small amount of improvement of the mechanical property of the composite. The remaining amount of MWCNT on CF after melt mixing of CF (short fiber) with thermoplastic matrix polymer was not examined clearly in the former studies. The present research aims to propose an effective layer-by-layer chemical grafting of a highly reactive oxazoline polymer, which has not been used before, and MWCNTs onto CF using the highly reactivity of oxazoline and COOH on the surface of CF and MWCNTs.With layer-by-layer method, the first uniform chemically bonded mono molecular layer on carbon fiber was formed by chemical surface reaction of carbon fiber, a reactive oxazoline polymer solution between COOH of carbon fiber and oxazoline. The second chemically bonded uniform layer of MWCNTs on the first layer was prepared through the first layer coated carbon fiber in MWCNT dispersion solution by chemical reaction between oxazoline and COOH of MWCNTs. The quantitative analysis of MWCNTs on carbon fiber was performed, showing 0.44 wt.% of MWCNTs based on carbon fiber, which is much larger amount compared with the former studies in layer-by-layer method. In addition, MWCNTs were also observed uniform coating on carbon fiber by scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Carbon fiber composites were prepared by melting mixing using polystyrene (PS) as a thermoplastic matrix because of easy removal of PS by solvent for additional analysis, resulting the 20% of enhancement of tensile strength and modulus by tensile strength test. It was confirmed bySEM the layer-by-layer structure on carbon fibers were remained after the melt mixing by removing PS with a solvent. As a conclusion, the effectiveness for the enhancement of the mechanical properties of CF(short fiber)/PS composite using the highly reactive oxazoline polymer for the first layer and MWCNT for the second layer, which act as the physical anchor, was demonstrated.

Keywords: interface, layer-by-layer, multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), oxazoline

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