Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

Search results for: Tshilenge Kabongo

2 Economic Analysis of an Integrated Anaerobic Digestion and Ozonolysis System

Authors: Tshilenge Kabongo, John Kabuba

Abstract:

The distillery wastewater has become major issues in sanitation sectors. One of the solutions to overcome this sewage is to install the Wastewater Treatment Plant. Economic analysis is fundamentally required for its viability. Integrated anaerobic digestion and advanced oxidation (AD-AOP) in the treatment of distillery wastewater (DWW), anaerobic digestion achieved sufficient biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals of 95% and 75%, respectively, and methane production of 0.292 L/g COD removed at an organic loading rate of 15 kg COD/m3/d. However, a considerable amount of biorecalcitrant compounds still existed in the anaerobically treated effluent, contributing to a residual COD of 4.5 g/L and an intense dark brown color. To remove the biorecalcitrant color and COD, ozonation, which is an AOP, was introduced as a post-treatment method to AD. Ozonation is a highly competitive treatment technique that can be easily applied to remove the biorecalcitrant compounds, including color, and turbidity. In the ozonation process carried out for an hour, more than 80% of the color was removed at an ozone dose of 45 mg O3/L/min (corresponding to 1.8 g O3/g COD). Thus, integrating AD with the AOP can be effective for organic load and color reductions during the treatment of DWW. The deliverable established the best configuration of the AD-AOP system, where DWW is first subjected to AD followed by AOP post-treatment. However, for establishing the feasibility of the industrial application of the integrated system, it is necessary to carry out the economic analysis. This may help the starting point of the wastewater treatment plant construction and its operation and maintenance costs.

Keywords: distillery wastewater, economic analysis, integrated anaerobic digestion, ozonolysis, treatment

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1 Nanostructured Transition Metal Oxides Doped Graphene for High Performance Solid-State Supercapacitor Electrodes

Authors: G. Nyongombe, Guy L. Kabongo, B. M. Mothudi, M. S. Dhlamini

Abstract:

A series of Transition Metals Oxides (TMOs) doped graphene were synthesized and successfully used as supercapacitor electrode materials. The as-synthesized materials exhibited exceptional electrochemical properties owing to the combined properties of its constituents; high surface area and good conductivity were achieved. Several analytical characterization techniques were employed to investigate the morphology, crystal structure atomic arrangement and elemental chemical state in the materials for which scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were conducted, respectively. Moreover, the electrochemical properties of the as-synthesized materials were examined by performing cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. Furthermore, the effect of doping concentration on the interlayer distance of the graphene materials and the charge transfer resistance are investigated and correlated to the exceptional current density which was multiplied by a factor of ~80 after TMOs doping in graphene. Finally, the resulting high capacitance obtained confirms the contribution of grapheme exceptional electronic conductivity and large surface area on the electrode materials. Such good-performing electrode materials are highly promising for supercapacitors and other energy storage devices.

Keywords: energy density, graphene, supercapacitors, TMOs

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