Search results for: Time Lag
16266 Execution Time Optimization of Workflow Network with Activity Lead-Time
Authors: Xiaoping Qiu, Binci You, Yue Hu
Abstract:The executive time of the workflow network has an important effect on the efficiency of the business process. In this paper, the activity executive time is divided into the service time and the waiting time, then the lead time can be extracted from the waiting time. The executive time formulas of the three basic structures in the workflow network are deduced based on the activity lead time. Taken the process of e-commerce logistics as an example, insert appropriate lead time for key activities by using Petri net, and the executive time optimization model is built to minimize the waiting time with the time-cost constraints. Then the solution program-using VC++6.0 is compiled to get the optimal solution, which reduces the waiting time of key activities in the workflow, and verifies the role of lead time in the timeliness of e-commerce logistics.
Keywords: electronic business, execution time, lead time, optimization model, petri net, time workflow networkProcedia PDF Downloads 77
16265 Memory, Self, and Time: A Bachelardian Perspective
Authors: Michael Granado
Abstract:The French philosopher Gaston Bachelard’s philosophy of time is articulated in his two works on the subject, the Intuition of the Instant (1932) and his The Dialectic of Duration (1936). Both works present a systematic methodology predicated upon the assumption that our understanding of time has radically changed as a result of Einstein and subsequently needs to be reimagined. Bachelard makes a major distinction in his discussion of time: 1. Time as it is (physical time), 2. Time as we experience it (phenomenological time). This paper will focus on the second distinction, phenomenological time, and explore the connections between Bachelard’s work and contemporary psychology. Several aspects of Bachelard’s philosophy of time nicely complement our current understanding of memory and self and clarify how the self relates to experienced time. Two points, in particular, stand out; the first is the relative nature of subjective time, and the second is the implications of subjective time in the formation of the narrative self. Bachelard introduces two philosophical concepts to explain these points: rhythmanalysis and reverie. By exploring these concepts, it will become apparent that there is an undeniable link between memory, self, and time. Through the use of narrative self, the individual connects and links memories and time together to form a sense of personal identity.
Keywords: Gaston Bachelard, memory, self, timeProcedia PDF Downloads 91
16264 A Hazard Rate Function for the Time of Ruin
Authors: Sule Sahin, Basak Bulut Karageyik
Abstract:This paper introduces a hazard rate function for the time of ruin to calculate the conditional probability of ruin for very small intervals. We call this function the force of ruin (FoR). We obtain the expected time of ruin and conditional expected time of ruin from the exact finite time ruin probability with exponential claim amounts. Then we introduce the FoR which gives the conditional probability of ruin and the condition is that ruin has not occurred at time t. We analyse the behavior of the FoR function for different initial surpluses over a specific time interval. We also obtain FoR under the excess of loss reinsurance arrangement and examine the effect of reinsurance on the FoR.
Keywords: conditional time of ruin, finite time ruin probability, force of ruin, reinsuranceProcedia PDF Downloads 251
16263 Evaluation of Reliability Indices Using Monte Carlo Simulation Accounting Time to Switch
Authors: Sajjad Asefi, Hossein Afrakhte
Abstract:This paper presents the evaluation of reliability indices of an electrical distribution system using Monte Carlo simulation technique accounting Time To Switch (TTS) for each section. In this paper, the distribution system has been assumed by accounting random repair time omission. For simplicity, we have assumed the reliability analysis to be based on exponential law. Each segment has a specified rate of failure (λ) and repair time (r) which will give us the mean up time and mean down time of each section in distribution system. After calculating the modified mean up time (MUT) in years, mean down time (MDT) in hours and unavailability (U) in h/year, TTS have been added to the time which the system is not available, i.e. MDT. In this paper, we have assumed the TTS to be a random variable with Log-Normal distribution.
Keywords: distribution system, Monte Carlo simulation, reliability, repair time, time to switch (TTS)Procedia PDF Downloads 280
16262 Temporal Axis in Japanese: The Paradox of a Metaphorical Orientation in Time
Authors: Tomoko Usui
Abstract:In the field of linguistics, it has been said that concepts associated with space and motion systematically contribute structure to the temporal concept. This is the conceptual metaphor theory. conceptual metaphors typically employ a more abstract concept (time) as their target and a more concrete or physical concept as their source (space). This paper will examine two major temporal conceptual metaphors: Ego-centered Moving Time Metaphor and Time-RP Metaphor. Moving time generally receives a front-back orientation, however, Japanese shows a different orientation given to time. By means of Ego perspective, this paper will illustrate the paradox of a metaphorical orientation in time.
Keywords: Ego-centered Moving Time Metaphor, Japanese saki, temporal metaphors, Time RP MetaphorProcedia PDF Downloads 385
16261 Unification of Indonesia Time Zones Encourages People to Be on Time for Facing ASEAN Economic Community
Authors: Hasrullah Hasrullah
Abstract:Since December 2015, the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) is officially declared in the 27th Summit Conference of ASEAN and Indonesia is one of country are listed in the ASEAN members. Per January 1st, 2016 the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) came into effect. However, its implementation in Indonesia is still weighing the pros and cons because Indonesia is considered too late to prepare for the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). In other words, rubber time of Indonesian people has been occurring in the AEC. This paper reviews how Indonesia language influences people’s attitude to be rubber time culture and how time zones of Indonesia influence people’s attitude through media on television to be rubber time culture. The author addresses this research question empirically by collecting data from various sources of data those are relevant and compare among the unification of Indonesia time zones. The result demonstrates that unification of Indonesia time zones to be Standard Indonesia Time is a solution to encourage people to be ready on time for facing ASEAN Economic Community (AEC).
Keywords: unification time zones, Indonesia Language, Rubber Time, AECProcedia PDF Downloads 285
16260 Simulation of Pedestrian Service Time at Different Delay Times
Authors: Imran Badshah
Abstract:Pedestrian service time reflects the performance of the facility, and it’s a key parameter to analyze the capability of facilities provided to serve pedestrians. The level of service of pedestrians (LOS) mainly depends on pedestrian time and safety. The pedestrian time utilized by taking a service is mainly influenced by the number of available services and the time utilized by each pedestrian in receiving a service; that is called a delay time. In this paper, we analyzed the simulated pedestrian service time with different delay times. A simulation is performed in AnyLogic by developing a model that reflects the real scenario of pedestrian services such as ticket machine gates at rail stations, airports, shopping malls, and cinema halls. The simulated pedestrian time is determined for various delay values. The simulated result shows how pedestrian time changes with the delay pattern. The histogram and time plot graph of a model gives the mean, maximum and minimum values of the pedestrian time. This study helps us to check the behavior of pedestrian time at various services such as subway stations, airports, shopping malls, and cinema halls.
Keywords: agent-based simulation, anylogic model, pedestrian behavior, time delayProcedia PDF Downloads 20
16259 Discrete-Time Bulk Queue with Service Capacity Depending on Previous Service Time
Authors: Yutae Lee
Abstract:This paper considers a discrete-time bulk-arrival bulkservice queueing system, where service capacity varies depending on the previous service time. By using the generating function technique and the supplementary variable method, we compute the distributions of the queue length at an arbitrary slot boundary and a departure time.
Keywords: discrete-time queue, bulk queue, variable service capacity, queue length distributionProcedia PDF Downloads 281
16258 Using Log Files to Improve Work Efficiency
Authors: Salman Hussam
Abstract:As a monitoring system to manage employees' time and employers' business, this system (logger) will monitor the employees at work and will announce them if they spend too much time on social media (even if they are using proxy it will catch them). In this way, people will spend less time at work and more time with family.
Keywords: clients, employees, employers, family, monitoring, systems, social media, timeProcedia PDF Downloads 428
16257 General Time-Dependent Sequenced Route Queries in Road Networks
Authors: Mohammad Hossein Ahmadi, Vahid Haghighatdoost
Abstract:Spatial databases have been an active area of research over years. In this paper, we study how to answer the General Time-Dependent Sequenced Route queries. Given the origin and destination of a user over a time-dependent road network graph, an ordered list of categories of interests and a departure time interval, our goal is to find the minimum travel time path along with the best departure time that minimizes the total travel time from the source location to the given destination passing through a sequence of points of interests belonging to each of the specified categories of interest. The challenge of this problem is the added complexity to the optimal sequenced route queries, where we assume that first the road network is time dependent, and secondly the user defines a departure time interval instead of one single departure time instance. For processing general time-dependent sequenced route queries, we propose two solutions as Discrete-Time and Continuous-Time Sequenced Route approaches, finding approximate and exact solutions, respectively. Our proposed approaches traverse the road network based on A*-search paradigm equipped with an efficient heuristic function, for shrinking the search space. Extensive experiments are conducted to verify the efficiency of our proposed approaches.
Keywords: trip planning, time dependent, sequenced route query, road networksProcedia PDF Downloads 248
16256 Performance Evaluation of Arrival Time Prediction Models
Abstract:Arrival time information is a crucial component of advanced public transport system (APTS). The advertisement of arrival time at stops can help reduce the waiting time and anxiety of passengers, and improve the quality of service. In this research, an experiment was conducted to compare the performance on prediction accuracy and precision between the link-based and the path-based historical travel time based model with the automatic vehicle location (AVL) data collected from an actual bus route. The research results show that the path-based model is superior to the link-based model, and achieves the best improvement on peak hours.
Keywords: bus transit, arrival time prediction, link-based, path-basedProcedia PDF Downloads 248
16255 Density Based Traffic System Using Pic Microcontroller
Authors: Tatipamula Samiksha Goud, .A.Naveena, M.sresta
Abstract:Traffic congestion is a major issue in many cities throughout the world, particularly in urban areas, and it is past time to switch from a fixed timer mode to an automated system. The current traffic signalling system is a fixed-time system that is inefficient if one lane is more functional than the others. A structure for an intelligent traffic control system is being designed to address this issue. When traffic density is higher on one side of a junction, the signal's green time is extended in comparison to the regular time. This study suggests a technique in which the signal's time duration is assigned based on the amount of traffic present at the time. Infrared sensors can be used to do this.
Keywords: infrared sensors, micro-controllers, LEDs, oscillatorsProcedia PDF Downloads 34
16254 Circadian Clock and Subjective Time Perception: A Simple Open Source Application for the Analysis of Induced Time Perception in Humans
Authors: Agata M. Kołodziejczyk, Mateusz Harasymczuk, Pierre-Yves Girardin, Lucie Davidová
Abstract:Subjective time perception implies connection to cognitive functions, attention, memory and awareness, but a little is known about connections with homeostatic states of the body coordinated by circadian clock. In this paper, we present results from experimental study of subjective time perception in volunteers performing physical activity on treadmill in various phases of their circadian rhythms. Subjects were exposed to several time illusions simulated by programmed timing systems. This study brings better understanding for further improvement of of work quality in isolated areas.
Keywords: biological clock, light, time illusions, treadmillProcedia PDF Downloads 264
16253 Detection of Parkinsonian Freezing of Gait
Authors: Sang-Hoon Park, Yeji Ho, Gwang-Moon Eom
Abstract:Fast and accurate detection of Freezing of Gait (FOG) is desirable for appropriate application of cueing which has been shown to ameliorate FOG. Utilization of frequency spectrum of leg acceleration to derive the freeze index requires much calculation and it would lead to delayed cueing. We hypothesized that FOG can be reasonably detected from the time domain amplitude of foot acceleration. A time instant was recognized as FOG if the mean amplitude of the acceleration in the time window surrounding the time instant was in the specific FOG range. Parameters required in the FOG detection was optimized by simulated annealing. The suggested time domain methods showed performances comparable to those of frequency domain methods.
Keywords: freezing of gait, detection, Parkinson's disease, time-domain methodProcedia PDF Downloads 351
16252 Genetic Algorithms Multi-Objective Model for Project Scheduling
Authors: Elsheikh Asser
Abstract:Time and cost are the main goals of the construction project management. The first schedule developed may not be a suitable schedule for beginning or completing the project to achieve the target completion time at a minimum total cost. In general, there are trade-offs between time and cost (TCT) to complete the activities of a project. This research presents genetic algorithms (GAs) multi-objective model for project scheduling considering different scenarios such as least cost, least time, and target time.
Keywords: genetic algorithms, time-cost trade-off, multi-objective model, project schedulingProcedia PDF Downloads 311
16251 The Role of Time Management Skills in Academic Performance of the University Lecturers
Authors: Thuduwage Lasanthika Sajeevanie
Abstract:Success is very important, and there are many factors affecting the success of any situation or a person. In Sri Lankan Context, it is hardly possible to find an empirical study relating to time management and academic success. Globally many organizations, individuals practice time management to be effective. Hence it is very important to examine the nature of time management practice. Thus this study will fill the existing gap relating to achieving academic success through proper time management practices. The research problem of this study is what is the relationship exist among time management skills and academic success of university lecturers in state universities. The objective of this paper is to identify the impact of time management skills for academic success of university lecturers. This is a conceptual study, and it was done through a literature survey by following purposive sampling technique for the selection of literature. Most of the studies have found that time management is highly related to academic performance. However, most of them have done on the academic performance of the students, and there were very few studies relating to academic performance of the university lecturers. Hence it can be further suggested to conduct a study relating to identifying the relationship between academic performance and time management skills of university lecturers.
Keywords: academic success, performance, time management skills, university lecturersProcedia PDF Downloads 271
16250 Analysis of Lead Time Delays in Supply Chain: A Case Study
Authors: Abdel-Aziz M. Mohamed, Nermeen Coutry
Abstract:Lead time is an important measure of supply chain performance. It impacts both customer satisfactions as well as the total cost of inventory. This paper presents the result of a study on the analysis of the customer order lead-time for a multinational company. In the study, the lead time was divided into three stages: order entry, order fulfillment, and order delivery. A sample of size 2,425 order lines from the company records were considered for this study. The sample data includes information regarding customer orders from the time of order entry until order delivery. Data regarding the lead time of each sage for different orders were also provided. Summary statistics on lead time data reveals that about 30% of the orders were delivered after the scheduled due date. The result of the multiple linear regression analysis technique revealed that component type, logistics parameter, order size and the customer type have significant impact on lead time. Data analysis on the stages of lead time indicates that stage 2 consumes over 50% of the lead time. Pareto analysis was made to study the reasons for the customer order delay in each of the 3 stages. Recommendation was given to resolve the problem.
Keywords: lead time reduction, customer satisfaction, service quality, statistical analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 624
16249 Comparative Dielectric Properties of 1,2-Dichloroethane with n-Methylformamide and n,n-Dimethylformamide Using Time Domain Reflectometry Technique in Microwave Frequency
Authors: Shagufta Tabassum, V. P. Pawar, jr., G. N. Shinde
Abstract:The study of dielectric relaxation properties of polar liquids in the binary mixture has been carried out at 10, 15, 20 and 25 ºC temperatures for 11 different concentrations using time domain reflectometry technique. The dielectric properties of a solute-solvent mixture of polar liquids in the frequency range of 10 MHz to 30 GHz gives the information regarding formation of monomers and multimers and also an interaction between the molecules of the liquid mixture under study. The dielectric parameters have been obtained by the least squares fit method using the Debye equation characterized by a single relaxation time without relaxation time distribution.
Keywords: excess properties, relaxation time, static dielectric constant, and time domain reflectometry techniqueProcedia PDF Downloads 78
16248 The Role of Arousal in Time Perception: Implications for Emotional Driving
Authors: Ewa Siedlecka
Abstract:Emotional stress is an important risk factor in the rate and severity of traffic accidents. Moreover, incorrect time perception is implicated in the increase of traffic violations, such as running red lights or collisions. While the role of emotional arousal on perceived time is well-established, the role of physiological arousal in time perception remains unexamined. Specific emotions can be, however, associated with distinct physiological responses. In the current research, two studies examined the role of physiological arousal in time perception. In the first experiment, 41 participants engaged in a cold pressor task and had their time perception measured throughout the experiment. In the second study, 138 participants engaged in either isometric or deep breathing exercises. These activities were designed to simulate the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, respectively. Participants completed a bisection task to measure time perception in both studies, as well as a physiological response via an Electrocardiography (ECG). Results found that activation of the parasympathetic nervous system is associated with greater time perception. These findings are discussed with reference to models of time perception, as well as implications for emotional driving and misperceptions of speed. It is important to consider the role of physiology in the misperception of time, as these factors can lead to increases in driving accidents.
Keywords: emotions, nervous system, physiology, time perceptionProcedia PDF Downloads 198
16247 Time Synchronization between the eNBs in E-UTRAN under the Asymmetric IP Network
Abstract:In this paper, we present a method for a time synchronization between the two eNodeBs (eNBs) in E-UTRAN (Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access) network. The two eNBs are cooperating in so-called inter eNB CA (Carrier Aggregation) case and connected via asymmetrical IP network. We solve the problem by using broadcasting signals generated in E-UTRAN as synchronization signals. The results show that the time synchronization with the proposed method is possible with the error significantly less than 1 ms which is sufficient considering the time transmission interval is 1 ms in E-UTRAN. This makes this method (with low complexity) more suitable than Network Time Protocol (NTP) in the mobile applications with generated broadcasting signals where time synchronization in asymmetrical network is required.
Keywords: IP scheduled throughput, E-UTRAN, Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network, NTP, Network Time Protocol, assymetric network, delayProcedia PDF Downloads 154
16246 A Hyperexponential Approximation to Finite-Time and Infinite-Time Ruin Probabilities of Compound Poisson Processes
Authors: Amir T. Payandeh Najafabadi
Abstract:This article considers the problem of evaluating infinite-time (or finite-time) ruin probability under a given compound Poisson surplus process by approximating the claim size distribution by a finite mixture exponential, say Hyperexponential, distribution. It restates the infinite-time (or finite-time) ruin probability as a solvable ordinary differential equation (or a partial differential equation). Application of our findings has been given through a simulation study.
Keywords: ruin probability, compound poisson processes, mixture exponential (hyperexponential) distribution, heavy-tailed distributionsProcedia PDF Downloads 221
16245 A Time-Reducible Approach to Compute Determinant |I-X|
Authors: Wang Xingbo
Abstract:Computation of determinant in the form |I-X| is primary and fundamental because it can help to compute many other determinants. This article puts forward a time-reducible approach to compute determinant |I-X|. The approach is derived from the Newton’s identity and its time complexity is no more than that to compute the eigenvalues of the square matrix X. Mathematical deductions and numerical example are presented in detail for the approach. By comparison with classical approaches the new approach is proved to be superior to the classical ones and it can naturally reduce the computational time with the improvement of efficiency to compute eigenvalues of the square matrix.
Keywords: algorithm, determinant, computation, eigenvalue, time complexityProcedia PDF Downloads 338
16244 Real-Time Visualization Using GPU-Accelerated Filtering of LiDAR Data
Authors: Sašo Pečnik, Borut Žalik
Abstract:This paper presents a real-time visualization technique and filtering of classified LiDAR point clouds. The visualization is capable of displaying filtered information organized in layers by the classification attribute saved within LiDAR data sets. We explain the used data structure and data management, which enables real-time presentation of layered LiDAR data. Real-time visualization is achieved with LOD optimization based on the distance from the observer without loss of quality. The filtering process is done in two steps and is entirely executed on the GPU and implemented using programmable shaders.
Keywords: filtering, graphics, level-of-details, LiDAR, real-time visualizationProcedia PDF Downloads 218
16243 Construction Time - Cost Trade-Off Analysis Using Fuzzy Set Theory
Authors: V. S. S. Kumar, B. Vikram, G. C. S. Reddy
Abstract:Time and cost are the two critical objectives of construction project management and are not independent but intricately related. Trade-off between project duration and cost are extensively discussed during project scheduling because of practical relevance. Generally when the project duration is compressed, the project calls for an increase in labor and more productive equipments, which increases the cost. Thus, the construction time-cost optimization is defined as a process to identify suitable construction activities for speeding up to attain the best possible savings in both time and cost. As there is hidden tradeoff relationship between project time and cost, it might be difficult to predict whether the total cost would increase or decrease as a result of compressing the schedule. Different combinations of duration and cost for the activities associated with the project determine the best set in the time-cost optimization. Therefore, the contractors need to select the best combination of time and cost to perform each activity, all of which will ultimately determine the project duration and cost. In this paper, the fuzzy set theory is used to model the uncertainties in the project environment for time-cost trade off analysis.
Keywords: fuzzy sets, uncertainty, qualitative factors, decision makingProcedia PDF Downloads 483
16242 Distributed Perceptually Important Point Identification for Time Series Data Mining
Authors: Tak-Chung Fu, Ying-Kit Hung, Fu-Lai Chung
Abstract:In the field of time series data mining, the concept of the Perceptually Important Point (PIP) identification process is first introduced in 2001. This process originally works for financial time series pattern matching and it is then found suitable for time series dimensionality reduction and representation. Its strength is on preserving the overall shape of the time series by identifying the salient points in it. With the rise of Big Data, time series data contributes a major proportion, especially on the data which generates by sensors in the Internet of Things (IoT) environment. According to the nature of PIP identification and the successful cases, it is worth to further explore the opportunity to apply PIP in time series ‘Big Data’. However, the performance of PIP identification is always considered as the limitation when dealing with ‘Big’ time series data. In this paper, two distributed versions of PIP identification based on the Specialized Binary (SB) Tree are proposed. The proposed approaches solve the bottleneck when running the PIP identification process in a standalone computer. Improvement in term of speed is obtained by the distributed versions.
Keywords: distributed computing, performance analysis, Perceptually Important Point identification, time series data miningProcedia PDF Downloads 195
16241 An Output Oriented Super-Efficiency Model for Considering Time Lag Effect
Authors: Yanshuang Zhang, Byungho Jeong
Abstract:There exists some time lag between the consumption of inputs and the production of outputs. This time lag effect should be considered in calculating efficiency of decision making units (DMU). Recently, a couple of DEA models were developed for considering time lag effect in efficiency evaluation of research activities. However, these models can’t discriminate efficient DMUs because of the nature of basic DEA model in which efficiency scores are limited to ‘1’. This problem can be resolved a super-efficiency model. However, a super efficiency model sometimes causes infeasibility problem. This paper suggests an output oriented super-efficiency model for efficiency evaluation under the consideration of time lag effect. A case example using a long term research project is given to compare the suggested model with the MpO model
Keywords: DEA, Super-efficiency, Time Lag, research activitiesProcedia PDF Downloads 518
16240 A Super-Efficiency Model for Evaluating Efficiency in the Presence of Time Lag Effect
Authors: Yanshuang Zhang, Byungho Jeong
Abstract:In many cases, there is a time lag between the consumption of inputs and the production of outputs. This time lag effect should be considered in evaluating the performance of organizations. Recently, a couple of DEA models were developed for considering time lag effect in efficiency evaluation of research activities. Multi-periods input(MpI) and Multi-periods output(MpO) models are integrated models to calculate simple efficiency considering time lag effect. However, these models can’t discriminate efficient DMUs because of the nature of basic DEA model in which efficiency scores are limited to ‘1’. That is, efficient DMUs can’t be discriminated because their efficiency scores are same. Thus, this paper suggests a super-efficiency model for efficiency evaluation under the consideration of time lag effect based on the MpO model. A case example using a long-term research project is given to compare the suggested model with the MpO model.
Keywords: DEA, super-efficiency, time lag, multi-periods inputProcedia PDF Downloads 368
16239 Time Compression in Engineer-to-Order Industry: A Case Study of a Norwegian Shipbuilding Industry
Authors: Tarek Fatouh, Chehab Elbelehy, Alaa Abdelsalam, Eman Elakkad, Alaa Abdelshafie
Abstract:This paper aims to explore the possibility of time compression in Engineer to Order production networks. A case study research method is used in a Norwegian shipbuilding project by implementing a value stream mapping lean tool with total cycle time as a unit of analysis. The analysis resulted in demonstrating the time deviations for the planned tasks in one of the processes in the shipbuilding project. So, authors developed a future state map by removing time wastes from value stream process.
Keywords: engineer to order, total cycle time, value stream mapping, shipbuildingProcedia PDF Downloads 95
16238 Modeling User Departure Time Choice for Trips in Urban Streets
Authors: Saeed Sayyad Hagh Shomar
Abstract:Modeling users’ decisions on departure time choice is the main motivation for this research. In particular, it examines the impact of social-demographic features, household, job characteristics and trip qualities on individuals’ departure time choice. Departure time alternatives are presented as adjacent discrete time periods. The choice between these alternatives is done using a discrete choice model. Since a great deal of early morning trips and traffic congestion at that time of the day comprise work trips, the focus of this study is on the work trip over the entire day. Therefore, this study by using questionnaire of stated preference models users’ departure time choice affected by congestion pricing plan in downtown Tehran. Experimental results demonstrate efficient social-demographic impact on work trips’ departure time. These findings have substantial outcomes for the analysis of transportation planning. Particularly, the analysis shows that ignoring the effects of these variables could result in erroneous information and consequently decisions in the field of transportation planning and air quality would fail and cause financial resources loss.
Keywords: modeling, departure time, travel timing, time of the day, congestion pricing, transportation planningProcedia PDF Downloads 346
16237 Subjective Time as a Marker of the Present Consciousness
Authors: Anastasiya Paltarzhitskaya
Abstract:Subjective time plays an important role in consciousness processes and self-awareness at the moment. The concept of intrinsic neural timescales (INT) explains the difference in perceiving various time intervals. The capacity to experience the present builds on the fundamental properties of temporal cognition. The challenge that both philosophy and neuroscience try to answer is how the brain differentiates the present from the past and future. In our work, we analyze papers which describe mechanisms involved in the perception of ‘present’ and ‘non-present’, i.e., future and past moments. Taking into account that we perceive time intervals even during rest or relaxation, we suppose that the default-mode network activity can code time features, including the present moment. We can compare some results of time perceptual studies, where brain activity was shown in states with different flows of time, including resting states and during “mental time travel”. According to the concept of mental traveling, we employ a range of scenarios which demand episodic memory. However, some papers show that the hippocampal region does not activate during time traveling. It is a controversial result that is further complicated by the phenomenological aspect that includes a holistic set of information about the individual’s past and future.
Keywords: temporal consciousness, time perception, memory, presentProcedia PDF Downloads 8