Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 118

Search results for: Tibetan Plateau

118 Variability of the Snowline Altitude at Different Region in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau in Recent 20 Years

Authors: Zhen Li, Chang Liu, Ping Zhang

Abstract:

These Glaciers are thought of as natural water reservoirs and are of vital importance to hydrological models and industrial production, and glacial changes act as significant indicators of climate change. The glacier snowline can be used as an indicator of the equilibrium line, which may be a key parameter to study the effect of climate change on glaciers. Using Google Earth Engine, we select optical satellite imageries and implement the Otsu thresholding method on a near-infrared band to detect snowline altitudes (SLAs) of 26 glaciers in three regions of the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Three different study regions in the eastern Tibetan Plateau have different climate regimes, which are Sepu Kangri (SK, maritime glacier), Bu’Gyai Kangri (BK, continental glacier) and west of Qiajajima (WQ, continental glacier), along a latitudinal transect from south to north. We analyzed the effects of climatic factors on the SLA changes from 1995 to 2016. SLAs are fluctuating upward, and the rising values are 100 m, 60 m, and 34 m from south to north during the 22 years. We also observed that the climatic factor that affects the variability of SLA gradually changes from precipitation to temperature from south to north. The northern continental glaciers are mainly affected by temperature, and the southern maritime glaciers affected by precipitation. Owing to the influence of primary climatic factors, continental glaciers are found to have higher SLAs on the south slope, while maritime glaciers have higher SLAs on the north slope.

Keywords: climate change, glacier, snowline altitude, tibetan plateau

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117 Climate Changes and Ecological Response on the Tibetan Plateau

Authors: Weishou Shen, Changxin Zou, Dong Liu

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High-mountain environments are experiencing more rapid warming than lowlands. The Tibetan (Qinghai-Xizang, TP) Plateau, known as the “Third Pole” of the Earth and the “Water Tower of Asia,” is the highest plateau in the world, however, ecological response to climate change has been hardly documented in high altitude regions. In this paper, we investigated climate warming induced ecological changes on the Tibetan Plateau over the past 50 years through combining remote sensing data with a large amount of in situ field observation. The results showed that climate warming up to 0.41 °C/10 a has greatly improved the heat conditions on the TP. Lake and river areas exhibit increased trend whereas swamp area decreased in the recent 35 years. The expansion in the area of the lake is directly related to the increase of precipitation as well as the climate warming up that makes the glacier shrink, the ice and snow melting water increase and the underground frozen soil melting water increase. Climate warming induced heat condition growth and reduced annual range of temperature, which will have a positive influence on vegetation, agriculture production and decreased freeze–thaw erosion on the TP. Terrestrial net primary production and farmland area on the TP have increased by 0.002 Pg C a⁻¹ and 46,000 ha, respectively. We also found that seasonal frozen soil depth decreased as the consequence of climate warming. In the long term, accelerated snow melting and thinned seasonal frozen soil induced by climate warming possibly will have a negative effect on alpine ecosystem stability and soil preservation.

Keywords: global warming, alpine ecosystem, ecological response, remote sensing

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116 Grassland Phenology in Different Eco-Geographic Regions over the Tibetan Plateau

Authors: Jiahua Zhang, Qing Chang, Fengmei Yao

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Studying on the response of vegetation phenology to climate change at different temporal and spatial scales is important for understanding and predicting future terrestrial ecosystem dynamics andthe adaptation of ecosystems to global change. In this study, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dataset and climate data were used to analyze the dynamics of grassland phenology as well as their correlation with climatic factors in different eco-geographic regions and elevation units across the Tibetan Plateau. The results showed that during 2003–2012, the start of the grassland greening season (SOS) appeared later while the end of the growing season (EOS) appeared earlier following the plateau’s precipitation and heat gradients from southeast to northwest. The multi-year mean value of SOS showed differences between various eco-geographic regions and was significantly impacted by average elevation and regional average precipitation during spring. Regional mean differences for EOS were mainly regulated by mean temperature during autumn. Changes in trends of SOS in the central and eastern eco-geographic regions were coupled to the mean temperature during spring, advancing by about 7d/°C. However, in the two southwestern eco-geographic regions, SOS was delayed significantly due to the impact of spring precipitation. The results also showed that the SOS occurred later with increasing elevation, as expected, with a delay rate of 0.66 d/100m. For 2003–2012, SOS showed an advancing trend in low-elevation areas, but a delayed trend in high-elevation areas, while EOS was delayed in low-elevation areas, but advanced in high-elevation areas. Grassland SOS and EOS changes may be influenced by a variety of other environmental factors in each eco-geographic region.

Keywords: grassland, phenology, MODIS, eco-geographic regions, elevation, climatic factors, Tibetan Plateau

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115 Lake Water Surface Variations and Its Influencing Factors in Tibetan Plateau in Recent 10 Years

Authors: Shanlong Lu, Jiming Jin, Xiaochun Wang

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The Tibetan Plateau has the largest number of inland lakes with the highest elevation on the planet. These massive and large lakes are mostly in natural state and are less affected by human activities. Their shrinking or expansion can truly reflect regional climate and environmental changes and are sensitive indicators of global climate change. However, due to the sparsely populated nature of the plateau and the poor natural conditions, it is difficult to effectively obtain the change data of the lake, which has affected people's understanding of the temporal and spatial processes of lake water changes and their influencing factors. By using the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) MOD09Q1 surface reflectance images as basic data, this study produced the 8-day lake water surface data set of the Tibetan Plateau from 2000 to 2012 at 250 m spatial resolution, with a lake water surface extraction method of combined with lake water surface boundary buffer analyzing and lake by lake segmentation threshold determining. Then based on the dataset, the lake water surface variations and their influencing factors were analyzed, by using 4 typical natural geographical zones of Eastern Qinghai and Qilian, Southern Qinghai, Qiangtang, and Southern Tibet, and the watersheds of the top 10 lakes of Qinghai, Siling Co, Namco, Zhari NamCo, Tangra Yumco, Ngoring, UlanUla, Yamdrok Tso, Har and Gyaring as the analysis units. The accuracy analysis indicate that compared with water surface data of the 134 sample lakes extracted from the 30 m Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper ) images, the average overall accuracy of the lake water surface data set is 91.81% with average commission and omission error of 3.26% and 5.38%; the results also show strong linear (R2=0.9991) correlation with the global MODIS water mask dataset with overall accuracy of 86.30%; and the lake area difference between the Second National Lake Survey and this study is only 4.74%, respectively. This study provides reliable dataset for the lake change research of the plateau in the recent decade. The change trends and influencing factors analysis indicate that the total water surface area of lakes in the plateau showed overall increases, but only lakes with areas larger than 10 km2 had statistically significant increases. Furthermore, lakes with area larger than 100 km2 experienced an abrupt change in 2005. In addition, the annual average precipitation of Southern Tibet and Southern Qinghai experienced significant increasing and decreasing trends, and corresponding abrupt changes in 2004 and 2006, respectively. The annual average temperature of Southern Tibet and Qiangtang showed a significant increasing trend with an abrupt change in 2004. The major reason for the lake water surface variation in Eastern Qinghai and Qilian, Southern Qinghai and Southern Tibet is the changes of precipitation, and that for Qiangtang is the temperature variations.

Keywords: lake water surface variation, MODIS MOD09Q1, remote sensing, Tibetan Plateau

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114 Spatiotemporal Variability of Snow Cover and Snow Water Equivalent over Eurasia

Authors: Yinsheng Zhang

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Changes in the extent and amount of snow cover in Eurasia are of great interest because of their vital impacts on the global climate system and regional water resource management. This study investigated the spatial and temporal variability of the snow cover extent (SCE) and snow water equivalent (SWE) of continental Eurasia using the Northern Hemisphere Equal-Area Scalable Earth Grid (EASE-Grid) Weekly SCE data for 1972–2006 and the Global Monthly EASE-Grid SWE data for 1979–2004. The results indicated that, in general, the spatial extent of snow cover significantly decreased during spring and summer, but varied little during autumn and winter over Eurasia in the study period. The date at which snow cover began to disappear in spring has significantly advanced, whereas the timing of snow cover onset in autumn did not vary significantly during 1972–2006. The snow cover persistence period declined significantly in the western Tibetan Plateau as well as the partial area of Central Asia and northwestern Russia but varied little in other parts of Eurasia. ‘Snow-free breaks’ (SFBs) with intermittent snow cover in the cold season were mainly observed in the Tibetan Plateau and Central Asia, causing a low sensitivity of snow cover persistence period to the timings of snow cover onset and disappearance over the areas with shallow snow. The averaged SFBs were 1–14 weeks in the Tibetan Plateau during 1972–2006 and the maximum intermittence could reach 25 weeks in some extreme years. At a seasonal scale, the SWE usually peaked in February or March but fell gradually since April across Eurasia. Both annual mean and annual maximum SWE decreased significantly during 1979–2004 in most parts of Eurasia except for eastern Siberia as well as northwestern and northeastern China.

Keywords: Eurasia, snow cover extent, snow cover persistence period, snow-free breaks, onset and disappearance timings, snow water equivalent

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113 Using India’s Traditional Knowledge Digital Library on Traditional Tibetan Medicine

Authors: Chimey Lhamo, Ngawang Tsering

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Traditional Tibetan medicine, known as Sowa Rigpa (Science of healing) that, originated more than 2500 years ago with an insightful background, and it has been growing significant attention in many Asian countries like China, India, Bhutan, and Nepal. Particularly, the Indian government has targeted Traditional Tibetan medicine as its major Indian medical system, including Ayurveda. Although Traditional Tibetan medicine has been growing interest and has a long history, it is not easily recognized worldwide because it is existing only in Tibetan language, and it is neither accessible nor understood by patent examiners at international patent office, data about Traditional Tibetan medicine is not yet broadly exist in the Internet. There has also been exploitation of traditional Tibetan medicine increasing. The Traditional Knowledge Digital Library is a database aiming to prevent the patenting and misappropriation of India’s Traditional medicine Knowledge. By using India’s Traditional knowledge Digital Library on Sowa Rigpa in order to prevent its exploitation at international patent with the help of information technology tools and an innovative classification systems-Traditional knowledge Resource Classification (TKRC). As on date, more than 3000 Sowa Rigpa formulations have been transcribed into a Traditional Knowledge Digital Library database. In this paper, we are presenting India's Traditional Knowledge Digital Library for Traditional Tibetan medicine, and this database system helps to preserve, and prevent the exploitation of Sowa Rigpa. Gradually it will be approved and accepted globally.

Keywords: traditional tibetan medicine, India’s traditional knowledge digital library, traditional knowledge resources classification, international patent classification

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112 Nutrition Strategy Using Traditional Tibetan Medicine in the Preventive Measurement

Authors: Ngawang Tsering

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Traditional Tibetan medicine is primarily focused on promoting health and keeping away the diseases from it’s unique in prescribing specific diet and lifestyle. The prevalence of chronic diseases has been rising day by day and kills a number of people due to the lack of proper nutritional design in modern time. According to Traditional Tibetan medicine, chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, and arthritis are heavily associated with an unwholesome diet and inappropriate lifestyles. Diet and lifestyles are the two main conditions of diseases and healthy life. The prevalence of the chronic disease is one of the challenges, massive economic impact, and expensive health issues. Though the chronic diseases are challenges, it has a solution in the preventive measurements with using proper nutrition design based on Traditional Tibetan medicine. Until today, it is hard to evaluate whether Traditional Tibetan medicine nutrition strategy could play a major role in the preventive measurement as of the lack of current research evidence. However, compared with modern nutrition, it has an exclusive valuable concept, such as a holistic way and diet or nutrition recommendation based on different aspects. Traditional Tibetan medicine is one of the oldest ancient existing medical systems known as Sowa Rigpa (Science of Healing) highlights different aspects of dietetic and nutrition, namely geographical, seasonal, ages, personality, emotional, food combination, the process of individual metabolism, potency and amount of food. This article offers a critical perspective on the preventive measurement against chronic diseases through nutrition design using Traditional Tibetan medicine and also needs attention for the deeper understanding with Traditional Tibetan medicine in the modern world.

Keywords: traditional Tibetan medicine, nutrition, chronic diseases, preventive measurement, holistic approach, integrative

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111 Sedimentological and Geochemical Characteristics of Aeolian Sediments and Their Implication for Sand Origin in the Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, Southern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

Authors: Na Zhou, Chun-Lai Zhang, Qing Li, Bingqi Zhu, Xun-Ming Wang

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The understanding of the dynamics of aeolian sand in the Yarlung Zangbo River Valley(YLZBV), southernQinghai-Tibetan Plateau, including its origins, transportation, and deposition, remains preliminary. In this study, we investigated the extensive originof aeolian sediments in the YLZBV by analyzing the distribution and composition of sediment’s grain size and geochemical composition in dune sediments collected from the wide river terraces. The major purpose is to characterize the sedimentological and geochemical compositions of these aeolian sediments, trace them back to their sources, and understand their influencing factors. As a result, the grain size and geochemistry variations, which showed a significant correlation between grain sizes distribution and element abundances, give a strong evidence that the important part of the aeolian sediments in the downstream areas were firstly derived from the upper reaches by intense fluvial processes. However, the sediments experienced a significant mixing process with local inputs and were reconstructed by regional wind transportation. The diverse compositions and tight associations in the major and trace element geochemistry between the up- and down-stream aeolian sediments and the local detrital rocks, which were collected from the surrounding mountains, suggest that the upstream aeolian sediments had originated from the various close-range rock types, and experienced intensive mixing processesviaaeolian- fluvial dynamics. Sand mass transported by water and wind were roughly estimated to qualify the interplay between the aeolian and fluvial processes controlling the sediment transport, yield, and ultimately shaping the aeolian landforms in the mainstream of the YLZBV.

Keywords: grain size distribution, geochemistry, wind and water load ;, sand source, yarlung zangbo river vally

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110 A Technique to Plan Application of Buttress Plate in the Medial Tibial Plateau Using the Preoperative CT Scan

Authors: P. Panwalkar, K. Veravalli , R. Gwynn, M. Tofighi, R. Clement, A. Mofidi

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When operating on tibial plateau fracture especially medial tibial plateau, it has regularly been said, “where do I put my thumb to reduce the fracture”. This refers to the ideal placement of the buttress device to hold the fracture till union. The aim of this study was to see if one can identify this sweet spot using a CT scan. Methods: Forty-fivetibial plateau fractures with medial plateau involvement were identified and included in the study. The preoperative CT scans were analysed, and the medial plateau involvement pattern was classified based on modified radiological classification by Yukata et-al of stress fracture of medial tibial plateau fracture. The involvement of part of plateau was compared with the position of buttress plate position, which was classified as medial posteromedial or both. Presence and position of the buttress was compared with ability to achieve and hold the reduction of the fracture till union. Results: Thirteen fractures were type-1 fracture, 18 fractures were type-2 fracture, and 11 fractures were type-3 fracture. Sixteen fractures were buttressed correctly according to the potential deformity, and twenty-six fractures were not buttressed, and three fractures were partly buttressed correctly. No fracture was over butressed! When the fracture was buttressed correctly, the rate of the malunion was 0%. When fracture was partly buttressed, 33% were anatomically united, and 66% were united in the plane of buttress. When buttress was not used, 14 were malunited, one malunited in one of the two planes of deformity, and twelve anatomically healed (of which 9 were non displaced!). Buttressing resulted in statistically significant lower mal-union rate (2=7.8 p=0.0052) Conclusion: The classification based on the involvement of medial condyle can identify the placement of buttress plate in the tibial plateau. The correct placement of the buttress plate results in predictablysatisfactory union. There may be a correlation between the injury shape of the tibial plateau and the fracture type.

Keywords: knee, tibial plateau, trauma, CT scan, surgery

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109 The Effect That the Data Assimilation of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Has on a Precipitation Forecast

Authors: Ruixia Liu

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Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has an important influence on the precipitation of its lower reaches. Data from remote sensing has itself advantage and numerical prediction model which assimilates RS data will be better than other. We got the assimilation data of MHS and terrestrial and sounding from GSI, and introduced the result into WRF, then got the result of RH and precipitation forecast. We found that assimilating MHS and terrestrial and sounding made the forecast on precipitation, area and the center of the precipitation more accurate by comparing the result of 1h,6h,12h, and 24h. Analyzing the difference of the initial field, we knew that the data assimilating about Qinghai-Tibet Plateau influence its lower reaches forecast by affecting on initial temperature and RH.

Keywords: Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, precipitation, data assimilation, GSI

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108 The Role of 'Hindu Tantrism' in Conceptualization of the Divine Manifestations in Vajrayana Tradition of Tibetan Buddhism

Authors: Mohammed T. Shabeer

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Hoary moorlands of Tibet bear bundle of religious traditions. Vajrayana tradition of Tibetan Buddhism is one of the deep rooted religious orders of the area. It demands the homage to a variety of gods and diverse worships, especially to manifestations like the Dalai Lamas. This divine diversity has been conceptualized by remoteness of the area and transcontinental intrusion of Asiatic philosophies like Indian Buddhism, Mongolian Shamanism and Hindu Tantrism. This study reveals the role of Hindu Tantrism in conceptualizing the manifestations in Vajrayana Tradition of Tibetan Buddhism in a comparative way. Nowadays, the academic explorations and researches in the field of ‘Tibetology’ are widely tolerable in east and west alike. International community concerns such studies supportive of the restless campaigns for ‘free Tibet’. Moreover, the scientific sources on the topic are rarest and precious in the field of comparative religion. This study reveals a clear account of god concept of Vajrayana tradition and insists that the god concept of the tradition is conceptualized from the amalgamation of Indian Hindu Tantrism, Mongolian Shamanism, and Indian Buddhism. Primly, it sheds the light upon the mysterious similarities between Indian and Tibetan concepts of manifestation of gods. The scientific examination of this problem lasts in the conclusion that the transcontinental transmission of Hindu Tantrism in the special occasion of Buddhist Diaspora of 12th century in consequence of the invasion of Muslim Ghorid Sultanate had paved a vital role in shaping the Vajrayana tradition especially conceptualizing the manifestation of Tibetan gods.

Keywords: Buddhist diaspora, Hindu tantrism, manifestation of god, Vajrayana tradition of Tibetan Buddhism

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107 Self Immolation and the Deactivation of State Necropower

Authors: Kate L. Yusi

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This paper is an attempt to theoretically reframe the act of self-immolation beyond violence/non-violence discourse, to differentiate it from other paradigmatic examples of necropolitical activism like suicide bombing, in order to highlight its particular ontopolitical statement in relation to life and death and to re-energize its deactivating power. In this paper, the writer seeks to focus on self-immolation by Tibetan monks and other activists against Chinese imperialism, its continuing ethnic cleansing of the Tibetan people, forced assimilation, and territorial occupation. Here, the main driving force is this question: what does self-immolation mean to a people who are forced to live in deathspace? In other words, if one is reduced to nothingness that their deaths (as is their lives) become insignificant, in what ways does the reclamation of death/dying become a “way out” of this state-imposed enclave of death? To answer these questions, the writer engages with and put in conversation the works of Achille Mbembe, Elias Cannetti, and Giorgio Agamben.

Keywords: necropolitics, self immolation, tibetan people, chinese imperialism

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106 A Combined CFD Simulation of Plateau Borders including Films and Transitional Areas of Liquid Foams

Authors: Abdolhamid Anazadehsayed, Jamal Naser

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An integrated computational fluid dynamics model is developed for a combined simulation of Plateau borders, films, and transitional areas between the film and the Plateau borders to reduce the simplifications and shortcomings of available models for foam drainage in micro-scale. Additionally, the counter-flow related to the Marangoni effect in the transitional area is investigated. The results of this combined model show the contribution of the films, the exterior Plateau borders, and Marangoni flow in the drainage process more accurately since the inter-influence of foam's elements is included in this study. The exterior Plateau borders flow rate can be four times larger than the interior ones. The exterior bubbles can be more prominent in the drainage process in cases where the number of the exterior Plateau borders increases due to the geometry of container. The ratio of the Marangoni counter-flow to the Plateau border flow increases drastically with an increase in the mobility of air-liquid interface. However, the exterior bubbles follow the same trend with much less intensity since typically, the flow is less dependent on the interface of air-liquid in the exterior bubbles. Moreover, the Marangoni counter-flow in a near-wall transition area is less important than an internal one. The influence of air-liquid interface mobility on the average velocity of interior foams is attained with more accuracy with more realistic boundary condition. Then it has been compared with other numerical and analytical results. The contribution of films in the drainage is significant for the mobile foams as the velocity of flow in the film has the same order of magnitude as the velocity in the Plateau border. Nevertheless, for foams with rigid interfaces, film's contribution in foam drainage is insignificant, particularly for the films near the wall of the container.

Keywords: foam, plateau border, film, Marangoni, CFD, bubble

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105 Investigation of Regional Differences in Strong Ground Motions for the Iranian Plateau

Authors: Farhad Sedaghati, Shahram Pezeshk

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Regional variations in strong ground motions for the Iranian Plateau have been investigated by using a simple statistical method called Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). In this respect, a large database consisting of 1157 records occurring within the Iranian Plateau with moment magnitudes of greater than or equal to 5 and Joyner-Boore distances up to 200 km has been considered. Geometric averages of horizontal peak ground accelerations (PGA) as well as 5% damped linear elastic response spectral accelerations (SA) at periods of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 sec are used as strong motion parameters. The initial database is divided into two different datasets, for Northern Iran (NI) and Central and Southern Iran (CSI). The comparison between strong ground motions of these two regions reveals that there is no evidence for significant differences; therefore, data from these two regions may be combined to estimate the unknown coefficients of attenuation relationships.

Keywords: ANOVA, attenuation relationships, Iranian Plateau, PGA, regional variation, SA, strong ground motion

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104 Tibial Plateau Fractures During Covid-19 In A Trauma Unit. Impact of Lockdown and The Pressures on the Healthcare Provider

Authors: R. Gwynn, P. Panwalkar, K. Veravalli , M. Tofighi, R. Clement, A. Mofidi

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The aim of this study was to access the impact of Covid-19 and lockdown on the incidence, injury pattern, and treatment of tibial plateau fractures in a combined rural and urban population in wales. Methods: Retrospective study was performed to identify tibial plateau fractures in 15-month period of Covid-19 lockdown 15-month period immediately before lockdown. Patient demographics, injury mechanism, injury severity (based on Schatzker classification), and associated injuries, treatment methods, and outcome of fractures in the Covid-19 period was studied. Results: The incidence oftibial plateau fracture was 9 per 100000 during Covid-19, and 8.5 per 100000, and both were similar to previous studies. The average age was 52, and female to male ratio was 1:1 in both control and study group. High energy injury was seen in only 20% of the patients and 35% in the control groups (2=12, p<0025). 14% of the covid-19 population sustained other injuries as opposed 16% in the control group(2=0.09, p>0.95). Lower severity isolated lateral condyle fracturesinjury (Schatzker 1-3) were seen in 40% of fractures this was 60% in the control populations. Higher bicondylar and shaft fractures (Schatzker 5-6) were seen in 60% of the Covid-19 group and 35% in the control groups(2=7.8, p<0.02). Treatment mode was not impacted by Covid-19. The complication rate was low in spite of higher number of complex fractures and the impact of covid-19 pandemic. Conclusion: The associated injuries were similar in spite of a significantly lower mechanism of injury. There were unexpectedly worst tibial plateau fracture based Schatzker classification in the Covid-19 period as compared to the control groups. This was especially relevant for medial condyle and shaft fractures. This was postulated to be caused by reduction in bone density caused by lack of vitamin D and reduction in activity. The treatment mode and outcome was not impacted by the impact of Covid-19 on care for tibial plateau fractures.

Keywords: Covid-19, knee, tibial plateau fracture, trauma

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103 Assessment of the Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Pteridium aquilinum (Bracken Fern) Invasion on the Grassland Plateau in Nyika National Park

Authors: Andrew Kanzunguze, Lusayo Mwabumba, Jason K. Gilbertson, Dominic B. Gondwe, George Z. Nxumayo

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Knowledge about the spatio-temporal distribution of invasive plants in protected areas provides a base from which hypotheses explaining proliferation of plant invasions can be made alongside development of relevant invasive plant monitoring programs. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal distribution of bracken fern on the grassland plateau of Nyika National Park over the past 30 years (1986-2016) as well as to determine the current extent of the invasion. Remote sensing, machine learning, and statistical modelling techniques (object-based image analysis, image classification and linear regression analysis) in geographical information systems were used to determine both the spatial and temporal distribution of bracken fern in the study area. Results have revealed that bracken fern has been increasing coverage on the Nyika plateau at an estimated annual rate of 87.3 hectares since 1986. This translates to an estimated net increase of 2,573.1 hectares, which was recorded from 1,788.1 hectares (1986) to 4,361.9 hectares (2016). As of 2017 bracken fern covered 20,940.7 hectares, approximately 14.3% of the entire grassland plateau. Additionally, it was observed that the fern was distributed most densely around Chelinda camp (on the central plateau) as well as in forest verges and roadsides across the plateau. Based on these results it is recommended that Ecological Niche Modelling approaches be employed to (i) isolate the most important factors influencing bracken fern proliferation as well as (ii) identify and prioritize areas requiring immediate control interventions so as to minimize bracken fern proliferation in Nyika National Park.

Keywords: bracken fern, image classification, Landsat-8, Nyika National Park, spatio-temporal distribution

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102 Object-Based Image Analysis for Gully-Affected Area Detection in the Hilly Loess Plateau Region of China Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Hu Ding, Kai Liu, Guoan Tang

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The Chinese Loess Plateau suffers from serious gully erosion induced by natural and human causes. Gully features detection including gully-affected area and its two dimension parameters (length, width, area et al.), is a significant task not only for researchers but also for policy-makers. This study aims at gully-affected area detection in three catchments of Chinese Loess Plateau, which were selected in Changwu, Ansai, and Suide by using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The methodology includes a sequence of UAV data generation, image segmentation, feature calculation and selection, and random forest classification. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the influences of segmentation strategy and feature selection. Results showed that vertical and horizontal root-mean-square errors were below 0.5 and 0.2 m, respectively, which were ideal for the Loess Plateau region. The segmentation strategy adopted in this paper, which considers the topographic information, and optimal parameter combination can improve the segmentation results. Besides, the overall extraction accuracy in Changwu, Ansai, and Suide achieved was 84.62%, 86.46%, and 93.06%, respectively, which indicated that the proposed method for detecting gully-affected area is more objective and effective than traditional methods. This study demonstrated that UAV can bridge the gap between field measurement and satellite-based remote sensing, obtaining a balance in resolution and efficiency for catchment-scale gully erosion research.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), object-analysis image analysis, gully erosion, gully-affected area, Loess Plateau, random forest

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101 Status of Alien Invasive Trees on the Grassland Plateau in Nyika National Park

Authors: Andrew Kanzunguze, Sopani Sichinga, Paston Simkoko, George Nxumayo, Cosmas, V. B. Dambo

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Early detection of plant invasions is a necessary prerequisite for effective invasive plant management in protected areas. This study was conducted to determine the distribution and abundance of alien invasive trees in Nyika National Park (NNP). Data on species' presence and abundance were collected from belt transects (n=31) in a 100 square kilometer area on the central plateau. The data were tested for normality using the Shapiro-Wilk test; Mann-Whitney test was carried out to compare frequencies and abundances between the species, and geographical information systems were used for spatial analyses. Results revealed that Black Wattle (Acacia mearnsii), Mexican Pine (Pinus patula) and Himalayan Raspberry (Rubus ellipticus) were the main alien invasive trees on the plateau. A. mearnsii was localized in the areas where it was first introduced, whereas P. patula and R. ellipticus were spread out beyond original points of introduction. R. ellipticus occurred as dense, extensive (up to 50 meters) thickets on the margins of forest patches and pine stands, whilst P. patula trees were frequent in the valleys, occurring most densely (up to 39 stems per 100 square meters) south-west of Chelinda camp on the central plateau with high variation in tree heights. Additionally, there were no significant differences in abundance between R. ellipticus (48) and P. patula (48) in the study area (p > 0.05) It was concluded that R. ellipticus and P. patula require more attention as compared to A. mearnsii. Howbeit, further studies into the invasion ecology of both P. patula and R. ellipticus on the Nyika plateau are highly recommended so as to assess the threat posed by the species on biodiversity, and recommend appropriate conservation measures in the national park.

Keywords: alien-invasive trees, Himalayan raspberry, Nyika National Park, Mexican pine

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100 Music Reading Expertise Facilitates Implicit Statistical Learning of Sentence Structures in a Novel Language: Evidence from Eye Movement Behavior

Authors: Sara T. K. Li, Belinda H. J. Chung, Jeffery C. N. Yip, Janet H. Hsiao

Abstract:

Music notation and text reading both involve statistical learning of music or linguistic structures. However, it remains unclear how music reading expertise influences text reading behavior. The present study examined this issue through an eye-tracking study. Chinese-English bilingual musicians and non-musicians read English sentences, Chinese sentences, musical phrases, and sentences in Tibetan, a language novel to the participants, with their eye movement recorded. Each set of stimuli consisted of two conditions in terms of structural regularity: syntactically correct and syntactically incorrect musical phrases/sentences. They then completed a sentence comprehension (for syntactically correct sentences) or a musical segment/word recognition task afterwards to test their comprehension/recognition abilities. The results showed that in reading musical phrases, as compared with non-musicians, musicians had a higher accuracy in the recognition task, and had shorter reading time, fewer fixations, and shorter fixation duration when reading syntactically correct (i.e., in diatonic key) than incorrect (i.e., in non-diatonic key/atonal) musical phrases. This result reflects their expertise in music reading. Interestingly, in reading Tibetan sentences, which was novel to both participant groups, while non-musicians did not show any behavior differences between reading syntactically correct or incorrect Tibetan sentences, musicians showed a shorter reading time and had marginally fewer fixations when reading syntactically correct sentences than syntactically incorrect ones. However, none of the musicians reported discovering any structural regularities in the Tibetan stimuli after the experiment when being asked explicitly, suggesting that they may have implicitly acquired the structural regularities in Tibetan sentences. This group difference was not observed when they read English or Chinese sentences. This result suggests that music reading expertise facilities reading texts in a novel language (i.e., Tibetan), but not in languages that the readers are already familiar with (i.e., English and Chinese). This phenomenon may be due to the similarities between reading music notations and reading texts in a novel language, as in both cases the stimuli follow particular statistical structures but do not involve semantic or lexical processing. Thus, musicians may transfer their statistical learning skills stemmed from music notation reading experience to implicitly discover structures of sentences in a novel language. This speculation is consistent with a recent finding showing that music reading expertise modulates the processing of English nonwords (i.e., words that do not follow morphological or orthographic rules) but not pseudo- or real words. These results suggest that the modulation of music reading expertise on language processing depends on the similarities in the cognitive processes involved. It also has important implications for the benefits of music education on language and cognitive development.

Keywords: eye movement behavior, eye-tracking, music reading expertise, sentence reading, structural regularity, visual processing

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99 The Expansion of Buddhism from India to Nepal Himalaya and Beyond

Authors: Umesh Regmi

Abstract:

This paper explores the expansion of Buddhism from India geographically to the Himalayan region of Nepal, Tibet, India, and Bhutan in chronological historical sequence. The Buddhism practiced in Tibet is the spread of the Mahayana-Vajrayana form appropriately designed by Indian Mahasiddhas, who were the practitioners of the highest form of tantra and meditation. Vajrayana Buddhism roots in the esoteric practices incorporating the teachings of Buddha, mantras, dharanis, rituals, and sadhana for attaining enlightenment. This form of Buddhism spread from India to Nepal after the 5th Century AD and Tibet after the 7th century AD and made a return journey to the Himalayan region of Nepal, India, and Bhutan after the 8th century. The first diffusion of this form of Buddhism from India to Nepal and Tibet is partially proven through Buddhist texts and the archaeological existence of monasteries historically and at times relied on mythological traditions. The second diffusion of Buddhism in Tibet was institutionalized through the textual translations and interpretations of Indian Buddhist masters and their Tibetan disciples and the establishment of different monasteries in various parts of Tibet, later resulting in different schools and their traditions: Nyingma, Kagyu, Sakya, Gelug, and their sub-schools. The first return journey of Buddhism from Tibet to the Himalayan region of Nepal, India, and Bhutan in the 8th century is mythologically recorded in local legends of the arrival of Padmasambhava, and the second journey in the 11th century and afterward flourished by many Indian masters who practiced continuously till date. This return journey of Tibetan Buddhism has been intensified after 1959 with the Chinese occupation of Tibet, resulting in the Tibetan Buddhist masters living in exile in major locations like Kathmandu, Dharmasala, Dehradun, Sikkim, Kalimpong, and beyond. The historic-cultural-critical methodology for the recognition of the qualities of cultural expressions analysis presents the Buddhist practices of the Himalayan region, explaining the concepts of Ri (mountain as spiritual symbols), yul-lha (village deities), dhar-lha (spiritual concept of mountain passes), dharchhog-lungdhar (prayer flags), rig-sum gonpo (small stupas), Chenresig, asura (demi gods), etc. Tibetan Buddhist history has preserved important textual and practical aspects of Vajrayana from Buddhism historically in the form of arrival, advent, and development, including rising and fall. Currently, Tibetan Buddhism has influenced a great deal in the contemporary Buddhist practices of the world. The exploratory findings conducted over seven years of field visits and research in the Himalayan regions of Nepal, India, and Bhutan have demonstrated the fact that Buddhism in the Himalayan region is a return journey from Tibet and lately been popularized globally after 1959 by major monasteries and their Buddhist masters, lamas, nuns and other professionals, who have contributed in different periods of time.

Keywords: Buddhism, expansion, Himalayan region, India, Nepal, Bhutan, return, Tibet, Vajrayana Buddhism

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98 Experimental Investigation on Effect of Different Heat Treatments on Phase Transformation and Superelasticity of NiTi Alloy

Authors: Erfan Asghari Fesaghandis, Reza Ghaffari Adli, Abbas Kianvash, Hossein Aghajani, Homa Homaie

Abstract:

NiTi alloys possess magnificent superelastic, shape memory, high strength and biocompatible properties. For improving mechanical properties, foremost, superelasticity behavior, heat treatment process is carried out. In this paper, two different heat treatment methods were undertaken: (1) solid solution, and (2) aging. The effect of each treatment in a constant time is investigated. Five samples were prepared to study the structure and optimize mechanical properties under different time and temperature. For measuring the upper plateau stress, lower plateau stress and residual strain, tensile test is carried out. The samples were aged at two different temperatures to see difference between aging temperatures. The sample aged at 500 °C has a bigger crystallite size and lower amount of Ni which causes the mentioned sample to possess poor pseudo elasticity behaviour than the other aged sample. The sample aged at 460 °C has shown remarkable superelastic properties. The mentioned sample’s higher plateau is 580 MPa with the lowest residual strain (0.17%) while other samples have possessed higher residual strains. X-ray diffraction was used to investigate the produced phases.

Keywords: heat treatment, phase transformation, superelasticity, NiTi alloy

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97 A Comparative Study of European Terrazzo and Tibetan Arga Floor Making Techniques

Authors: Hubert Feiglstorfer

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The technique of making terrazzo has been known since ancient times. During the Roman Empire, known as opus signinum, at the time of the Renaissance, known as composto terrazzo marmorino or at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, the use of terrazzo experienced a common use in Europe. In Asia, especially in the Himalayas and the Tibetan highlands, a particular floor and roof manufacturing technique is commonly used for about 1500 years, known as arga. The research question in this contribution asks for technical and cultural-historical synergies of these floor-making techniques. The making process of an arga floor shows constructive parallels to the European terrazzo. Surface processing by grinding, burnishing and sealing, in particular, reveals technological similarities. The floor structure itself, on the other hand, shows differences, for example in the use of hydraulic aggregate in the terrazzo, while the arga floor is used without hydraulic material, but the result of both techniques is a tight, water-repellent and shiny surface. As part of this comparative study, the materials, processing techniques and quality features of the two techniques are compared and parallels and differences are analysed. In addition to text and archive research, the methods used are results of material analyses and ethnographic research such as participant observation. Major findings of the study are the investigation of the mineralogical composition of arga floors and its comparison with terrazzo floors. The study of the cultural-historical context in which both techniques are embedded will give insight into technical developments in Europe and Asia, parallels and differences. Synergies from this comparison let possible technological developments in the production, conservation and renovation of European terrazzo floors appear in a new light. By making arga floors without cement-based aggregates, the renovation of historical floors from purely natural products and without using energy by means of a burning process can be considered.

Keywords: European and Asian crafts, material culture, floor making technology, terrazzo, arga, Tibetan building traditions

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96 The Impact of Climate Change on Cropland Ecosystem in Tibet Plateau

Authors: Weishou Shen, Chunyan Yang, Zhongliang Li

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The crop climate productivity and the distribution of cropland reflect long-term adaption of agriculture to climate. In order to fully understand the impact of climate change on cropland ecosystem in Tibet, the spatiotemporal changes of crop climate productivity and cropland distribution were analyzed with the help of GIS and RS software. Results indicated that the climate change to the direction of wet and warm in Tibet in the recent 30 years, with a rate of 0.79℃/10 yr and 23.28 mm/10yr respectively. Correspondingly, the climate productivity increased gradually, with a rate of 346.3kg/(hm2•10a), of which, the fastest-growing rate of the crop climate productivity is in Southern Tibet Mountain- plain-valley. During the study period, the total cropland area increased from 32.54 million ha to 37.13 million ha, and cropland has expanded to higher altitude area and northward. Overall, increased cropland area and crop climate productivity due to climate change plays a positive role for agriculture in Tibet.

Keywords: climate change, productivity, cropland area, Tibet plateau

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95 Study on the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Its Psycho-Social-Genetic Risk Factors among Tibetan Alolescents in Heavily-Hit Area Three Years after Yushu Earthquake in Qinghai Province, China

Authors: Xiaolian Jiang, Dongling Liu, Kun Liu

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Aims: To examine the prevalence of POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD) symptoms among Tibetan adolescents in heavily-hit disaster area three years after Yushu earthquake, and to explore the interactions of the psycho-social-genetic risk factors. Methods: This was a three-stage study. Firstly, demographic variables,PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C),the Internality、Powerful other、Chance Scale,(IPC),Coping Style Scale(CSS),and the Social Support Appraisal(SSA)were used to explore the psychosocial factors of PTSD symptoms among adolescent survivors. PCL-C was used to examine the PTSD symptoms among 4072 Tibetan adolescents,and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders(SCID)was used by psychiatrists to make the diagnosis precisely. Secondly,a case-control trial was used to explore the relationship between PTSD and gene polymorphisms. 287adolescents diagnosed with PTSD were recruited in study group, and 280 adolescents without PTSD in control group. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technology(PCR-RFLP)was used to test gene polymorphisms. Thirdly,SPSS 22.0 was used to explore the interactions of the psycho-social-genetic risk factors of PTSD on the basis of the above results. Results and conclusions: 1.The prevalence of PTSD was 9.70%. 2.The predictive psychosocial factors of PTSD included earthquake exposure, support from others, imagine, abreact, tolerant, powerful others and family support. 3.Synergistic interactions between A1 gene of DRD2 TaqIA and the external locus of control, negative coping style, severe earthquake exposure were found. Antagonism interactions between A1 gene of DRD2 TaqIA and poor social support was found. Synergistic interactions between A1/A1 genotype and the external locus of control, negative coping style were found. Synergistic interactions between 12 gene of 5-HTTVNTR and the external locus of control, negative coping style, severe earthquake exposure were found. Synergistic interactions between 12/12 genotype and the external locus of control, negative coping style, severe earthquake exposure were also found.

Keywords: adolescents, earthquake, PTSD, risk factors

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94 Land Degradation Assessment through Spatial Data Integration in Eastern Chotanagpur Plateau, India

Authors: Avijit Mahala

Abstract:

Present study is primarily concerned with the physical processes and status of land degradation in a tropical plateau fringe. Chotanagpur plateau is one of the most water erosion related degraded areas of India. The granite gneiss geological formation, low to medium developed soil cover, undulating lateritic uplands, high drainage density, low to medium rainfall (100-140cm), dry tropical deciduous forest cover makes the Silabati River basin a truly representative of the tropical environment. The different physical factors have been taken for land degradation study includes- physiographic formations, hydrologic characteristics, and vegetation cover. Water erosion, vegetal degradation, soil quality decline are the major processes of land degradation in study area. Granite-gneiss geological formation is responsible for developing undulating landforms. Less developed soil profile, low organic matter, poor structure of soil causes high soil erosion. High relief and sloppy areas cause unstable environment. The dissected highland causes topographic hindrance in productivity. High drainage density and frequency in rugged upland and intense erosion in sloppy areas causes high soil erosion of the basin. Decreasing rainfall and increasing aridity (low P/PET) threats water stress condition. Green biomass cover area is also continuously declining. Through overlaying the different physical factors (geological formation, soil characteristics, geomorphological characteristics, etc.) of considerable importance in GIS environment the varying intensities of land degradation areas has been identified. Middle reaches of Silabati basin with highly eroded laterite soil cover areas are more prone to land degradation.

Keywords: land degradation, tropical environment, lateritic upland, undulating landform, aridity, GIS environment

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93 An Assessment of the Effects of Social Conflicts on Tourism in Plateau State, Nigeria: Case Study of Jos Crisis on Hill Station Hotel

Authors: Audu Aly Fada, Adejoh Apeh Matthew

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This research assesses the effects of social conflicts on tourism products in Plateau State. It was specifically set out to find out the major causes of social conflicts in Jos, evaluate the effects of social conflicts on the influx of tourists to Hill station hotel Jos, and the impact on revenue generation of the hotel. To achieve these objectives research questions were formulated and a sample of 30 hotel staff was selected as the respondents. Data collected were organized and analyzed using tables, percentages and mean statistics. It was found that the hospitality and tourism industry was adversely affected. The crisis brought about a decline in the number of tourist arrivals, increase in cancelled bookings, a decrease in the average length of stay of tourists and the average room occupancy. Peace is the best friend of travel and tourism, while war and insecurity are among its worst enemies. It is recommended that all stakeholders involved in tourism administration should device safer environment that supports continued patronage by providing modern security apparatus. In the same spirit, government as the main stake-holder in security provision should do more than paying lip service to guarantee security and safety of lives and properties.

Keywords: social conflict, crisis, security, tourism development

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92 Properties of Magnesium-Based Hydrogen Storage Alloy Added with Palladium and Titanium Hydride

Authors: Jun Ying Lin, Tzu Hsiang Yen, Cha'o Kuang Chen

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Nowadays, the great majority believe that there is great potentiality in hydrogen storage alloy storing hydrogen by physical and chemical absorption. However, the hydrogen storage alloy is limited by high operation temperature. Scientists find that adding transition elements can improve the properties of hydrogen storage alloy. In this research, outstanding improvements of kinetic and thermal properties are given by the addition of Palladium and Titanium hydride to Magnesium-based hydrogen storage alloy. Magnesium-based alloy is the main material, into which TiH2 / Pd are added separately. Following that, materials are milled by a Planetary Ball Miller at 650 rpm. TGA/DSC and PCT measure the capacity, spending time and temperature of abs/des-orption. Additionally, SEM and XRD analyze the structures and components of material. It is clearly shown that Pd is beneficial to kinetic properties. 2MgH2-0.1Pd has the highest capacity of all the alloys listed, approximately 5.5 wt%. Secondly, there are not any new Ti-related compounds found from XRD analysis. Thus, TiH2, considered as the catalyst, leads to the condition of 2MgH2-TiH2 and 2MgH2-TiH2-0.1Pd efficiently absorbing hydrogen in low temperature. 2MgH2-TiH2 can reach roughly 3.0 wt% in 82.4 minutes at 50°C and 8 minutes at 100°C, while2MgH2-TiH2-0.1Pd can reach 2.0 wt% in 400 minutes at 50°C and in 48 minutes at 100°C. The lowest temperature of 2MgH2-0.1Pd and 2MgH2-TiH2 is similar (320°C), otherwise the lowest temperature of 2MgH2-TiH2-0.1Pd decrease by 20°C. From XRD, it can be observed that PdTi2 and Pd3Ti are produced by mechanical alloying when adding Pd as well as TiH2 into MgH2. Due to the synergistic effects between Pd and TiH2, 2MgH2-TiH2-0.1Pd owns the lowest dehydrogenation temperature. Furthermore, the Pressure-Composition-Temperature (PCT) curve of 2MgH2-TiH2-0.1Pd is measured at different temperature, 370°C, 350°C, 320°C and 300°C separately. The plateau pressure is given form the PCT curves above. In accordance to different plateau pressures, enthalpy and entropy in the Van’t Hoff equation can be solved. In 2MgH2-TiH2-0.1Pd, the enthalpy is 74.9 KJ/mol and the entropy is 122.9 J/mol. Activation means that hydrogen storage alloy undergoes repeat abs/des-orpting processes. It plays an important role in the abs/des-orption. Activation shortens the abs/des-orption time because of the increase in surface area. From SEM, it is clear that the grain size and surface become smaller and rougher

Keywords: hydrogen storage materials, magnesium hydride, abs-/des-orption performance, Plateau pressure

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91 Effect of Garlic Powder Extract on Fungi Isolated from Diseased Irish Potato in Bokkos, Plateau State Nigeria

Authors: Musa Filibus Gugu

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An investigation was carried out on the effect of garlic powder extract on fungi associated with Irish potato rot in Bokkos, Plateau State, Nigeria. Diseased Irish potatoes were randomly collected from three markets in the study location and fungal species isolated. Isolated fungal species were Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium oxysporum, and Pytophthora infestans. Frequency of occurrence for Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium oxysporum, and Pytophthora infestans was 10%, 34%, and 56%, respectively, using sabauraud dextrose agar, after incubation for 4-7 days. Treatment of Pytophthora infestans with garlic powder extract at concentrations of 0.5g/ml, 0.4g/ml, 0.3gml, 0.2g/ml and 0.1g/ml showed 100%, 92%, 68%, 32% and 10% inhibition zones, respectively. Fusarium culmorum showed 100%, 90%, 40%, 9% and 0% inhibition zones when treated with garlic powder extract at concentrations of 0.5g/ml, 0.4g/ml, 0.3gml, 0.2g/ml and 0.1g/ml, respectively. Garlic powder extract concentrations of 0.5g/ml, 0.4g/ml, 0.3gml, 0.2g/ml and 0.1g/ml showed 100%, 98%, 55%, 30%, 0% inhibition zones, respectively on Fusarium oxysporum. Hence, Restriction of the radial growth of the fungal colonies suggests a good antifungal effect of garlic extract. This can be integrated into the treatment of fungal diseases of Irish potato in Bokkos, Nigeria, as this will help to reduce the indiscriminate use of fungicides, especially in an environment with a struggling economy.

Keywords: fungal rot, garlic extract, inhibition zone, Irish potato

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90 Application of 2D Electrical Resistivity Tomographic Imaging Technique to Study Climate Induced Landslide and Slope Stability through the Analysis of Factor of Safety: A Case Study in Ooty Area, Tamil Nadu, India

Authors: S. Maniruzzaman, N. Ramanujam, Qazi Akhter Rasool, Swapan Kumar Biswas, P. Prasad, Chandrakanta Ojha

Abstract:

Landslide is one of the major natural disasters in South Asian countries. Applying 2D Electrical Resistivity Tomographic Imaging estimation of geometry, thickness, and depth of failure zone of the landslide can be made. Landslide is a pertinent problem in Nilgris plateau next to Himalaya. Nilgris range consists of hard Archean metamorphic rocks. Intense weathering prevailed during the Pre-Cambrian time had deformed the rocks up to 45m depth. The landslides are dominant in the southern and eastern part of plateau of is comparatively smaller than the northern drainage basins, as it has low density of drainage; coarse texture permitted the more of infiltration of rainwater, whereas in the northern part of the plateau entombed with high density of drainage pattern and fine texture with less infiltration than run off, and low to the susceptible to landslide. To get comprehensive information about the landslide zone 2D Electrical Resistivity Tomographic imaging study with CRM 500 Resistivity meter are used in Coonoor– Mettupalyam sector of Nilgiris plateau. To calculate Factor of Safety the infinite slope model of Brunsden and Prior is used. Factor of Safety can be expressed (FS) as the ratio of resisting forces to disturbing forces. If FS < 1 disturbing forces are larger than resisting forces and failure may occur. The geotechnical parameters of soil samples are calculated on the basis upon the apparent resistivity values for litho units of measured from 2D ERT image of the landslide zone. Relationship between friction angles for various soil properties is established by simple regression analysis from apparent resistivity data. Increase of water content in slide zone reduces the effectiveness of the shearing resistance and increase the sliding movement. Time-lapse resistivity changes to slope failure is determined through geophysical Factor of Safety which depends on resistivity and site topography. This ERT technique infers soil property at variable depths in wider areas. This approach to retrieve the soil property and overcomes the limit of the point of information provided by rain gauges and porous probes. Monitoring of slope stability without altering soil structure through the ERT technique is non-invasive with low cost. In landslide prone area an automated Electrical Resistivity Tomographic Imaging system should be installed permanently with electrode networks to monitor the hydraulic precursors to monitor landslide movement.

Keywords: 2D ERT, landslide, safety factor, slope stability

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89 Quasistationary States and Mean Field Model

Authors: Sergio Curilef, Boris Atenas

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Systems with long-range interactions are very common in nature. They are observed from the atomic scale to the astronomical scale and exhibit anomalies, such as inequivalence of ensembles, negative heat capacity, ergodicity breaking, nonequilibrium phase transitions, quasistationary states, and anomalous diffusion. These anomalies are exacerbated when special initial conditions are imposed; in particular, we use the so-called water bag initial conditions that stand for a uniform distribution. Several theoretical and practical implications are discussed here. A potential energy inspired by dipole-dipole interactions is proposed to build the dipole-type Hamiltonian mean-field model. As expected, the dynamics is novel and general to the behavior of systems with long-range interactions, which is obtained through molecular dynamics technique. Two plateaus sequentially emerge before arriving at equilibrium, which are corresponding to two different quasistationary states. The first plateau is a type of quasistationary state the lifetime of which depends on a power law of N and the second plateau seems to be a true quasistationary state as reported in the literature. The general behavior of the model according to its dynamics and thermodynamics is described. Using numerical simulation we characterize the mean kinetic energy, caloric curve, and the diffusion law through the mean square of displacement. The present challenge is to characterize the distributions in phase space. Certainly, the equilibrium state is well characterized by the Gaussian distribution, but quasistationary states in general depart from any Gaussian function.

Keywords: dipole-type interactions, dynamics and thermodynamics, mean field model, quasistationary states

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