Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Thole Schneider

31 Shopping Cart System: Load Balancing and Fault Tolerance in the OSGi Service Platform

Authors: Irina Astrova, Arne Koschel, Thole Schneider, Johannes Westhuis, Jürgen Westerkamp


The main purpose of this paper was to find a simple solution for load balancing and fault tolerance in OSGi. The challenge was to implement a highly available web application such as a shopping cart system with load balancing and fault tolerance, without having to change the core of OSGi.

Keywords: fault tolerance, load balancing, OSGi, shopping cart system

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30 Propagation of Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider by Stem Cuttings

Authors: Ahmed M. Eed, Adam H. Burgoyne


Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider), is a desert shrub which tolerates saline, alkyle soils and drought. The seeds contain a characteristic liquid wax of economic importance in industry as a machine lubricant and cosmetics. A major problem in seed propagation is that jojoba is a dioecious plant whose sex is not easily determined prior to flowering (3-4 years from germination). To overcome this phenomenon, asexual propagation using vegetative methods such as cutting can be used. This research was conducted to find out the effect of different Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs) and rooting media on Jojoba rhizogenesis. An experiment was carried out in a Factorial Completely Randomized Design (FCRD) with three replications, each with sixty cuttings per replication in fiberglass house of Natural Jojoba Corporation at Yemen. The different rooting media used were peat moss + perlite + vermiculite (1:1:1), peat moss + perlite (1:1) and peat moss + sand (1:1). Plant materials used were semi-hard wood cuttings of jojoba plants with length of 15 cm. The cuttings were collected in the month of June during 2012 and 2013 from the sub-terminal growth of the mother plants of Amman farm and introduced to Yemen. They were wounded, treated with Indole butyric acid (IBA), α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) or Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) all @ 4000 ppm (part per million) and cultured on different rooting media under intermittent mist propagation conditions. IBA gave significantly higher percentage of rooting (66.23%) compared to NAA and IAA in all media used. However, the lowest percentage of rooting (5.33%) was recorded with IAA in the medium consisting of peat moss and sand (1:1). No significant difference was observed at all types of PGRs used with rooting media in respect of root length. Maximum number of roots was noticed in medium consisting of peat moss, perlite and vermiculite (1:1:1); peat moss and perlite (1:1) and peat moss and sand (1:1) using IBA, NAA and IBA, respectively. The interaction among rooting media was statistically significant with respect to rooting percentage character. Similarly, the interactions among PGRs were significant in terms of rooting percentage and also root length characters. The results demonstrated suitability of propagation of jojoba plants by semi-hard wood cuttings.

Keywords: cutting, IBA, Jojoba, propagation, rhizogenesis

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29 Empirical Analysis of Velocity Behavior for Collaborative Robots in Transient Contact Cases

Authors: C. Schneider, M. M. Seizmeir, T. Suchanek, M. Hutter-Mironovova, M. Bdiwi, M. Putz


In this paper, a suitable measurement setup is presented to conduct force and pressure measurements for transient contact cases at the example of lathe machine tending. Empirical measurements were executed on a selected collaborative robot’s behavior regarding allowable operating speeds under consideration of sensor- and workpiece-specific factors. Comparisons between the theoretic calculations proposed in ISO/TS 15066 and the practical measurement results reveal a basis for future research. With the created database, preliminary risk assessment and economic assessment procedures of collaborative machine tending cells can be facilitated.

Keywords: biomechanical thresholds, collaborative robots, force and pressure measurements, machine tending, transient contact

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28 Development of the Academic Model to Predict Student Success at VUT-FSASEC Using Decision Trees

Authors: Langa Hendrick Musawenkosi, Twala Bhekisipho


The success or failure of students is a concern for every academic institution, college, university, governments and students themselves. Several approaches have been researched to address this concern. In this paper, a view is held that when a student enters a university or college or an academic institution, he or she enters an academic environment. The academic environment is unique concept used to develop the solution for making predictions effectively. This paper presents a model to determine the propensity of a student to succeed or fail in the French South African Schneider Electric Education Center (FSASEC) at the Vaal University of Technology (VUT). The Decision Tree algorithm is used to implement the model at FSASEC.

Keywords: FSASEC, academic environment model, decision trees, k-nearest neighbor, machine learning, popularity index, support vector machine

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27 Synchrotron X-Ray Based Investigation of As and Fe Bonding Environment in Collard Green Tissue Samples at Different Growth Stages

Authors: Sunil Dehipawala, Aregama Sirisumana, stephan Smith, P. Schneider, G. Tremberger Jr, D. Lieberman, Todd Holden, T. Cheung


The arsenic and iron environments in different growth stages have been studied with EXAFS and XANES using Brookhaven Synchrotron Light Source. Collard Greens plants were grown and tissue samples were harvested. The project studied the EXAFS and XANES of tissue samples using As and Fe K-edges. The Fe absorption and the Fourier transform bond length information were used as a control comparison. The Fourier transform of the XAFS data revealed the coexistence of As (III) and As (V) in the As bonding environment inside the studied plant tissue samples, although the soil only had As (III). The data suggests that Collard Greens has a novel pathway to handle arsenic absorption in soil.

Keywords: EXAFS, fourier transform, metalloproteins, XANES

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26 Transesterification of Jojoba Oil Wax Using Microwave Technique

Authors: Moataz Elsawy, Hala F. Naguib, Hilda A. Aziz, Eid A. Ismail, Labiba I. Hussein, Maher Z. Elsabee


Jojoba oil-wax is extracted from the seeds of the jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis Link Schneider), a perennial shrub that grows in semi-desert areas in Egypt and in some parts of the world. The main uses of jojoba oil wax are in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry, but new uses could arise related to the search of new energetic crops. This paper summarizes a process to convert the jojoba oil wax to biodiesel by transesterification with ethanol and a series of aliphatic alcohols using a more economic and energy saving method in a domestic microwave. The effect of time and power of the microwave on the extent of the transesterification using ethanol and other aliphatic alcohols has been studied. The separation of the alkyl esters from the fatty alcohols rich fraction has been done in a single crystallization step at low temperature (−18°C) from low boiling point petroleum ether. Gas chromatography has been used to follow up the transesterification process. All products have been characterized by spectral analysis.

Keywords: jojoba oil, transesterification, microwave, gas chromatography jojoba esters, jojoba alcohol

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25 Basic One-Dimensional Modelica®-Model for Simulation of Gas-Phase Adsorber Dynamics

Authors: Adrian Rettig, Silvan Schneider, Reto Tamburini, Mirko Kleingries, Ulf Christian Muller


Industrial adsorption processes are, mainly due to si-multaneous heat and mass transfer, characterized by a high level of complexity. The conception of such processes often does not take place systematically; instead scale-up/down respectively number-up/down methods based on existing systems are used. This paper shows how Modelica® can be used to develop a transient model enabling a more systematic design of such ad- and desorption components and processes. The core of this model is a lumped-element submodel of a single adsorbent grain, where the thermodynamic equilibria and the kinetics of the ad- and desorption processes are implemented and solved on the basis of mass-, momentum and energy balances. For validation of this submodel, a fixed bed adsorber, whose characteristics are described in detail in the literature, was modeled and simulated. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results from the literature. Therefore, the model development will be continued, and the extended model will be applied to further adsorber types like rotor adsorbers and moving bed adsorbers.

Keywords: adsorption, desorption, linear driving force, dynamic model, Modelica®, integral equation approach

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24 Length Weight Relationship and Relative Condition Factor of Atropus atropos (Bloch and Schneider, 1801) from Mangalore Coast, India

Authors: D. P. Rajesh, H. N. Anjanayappa, P. Nayana, S. Benakappa


The present study deals with length-weight relationship of Atropus atropos for which no information is available on this aspect from Mangalore coast. Therefore the present investigation was undertaken. Fish samples were collected from fish landing center (Mangalore) and fish market. The regression co-efficient of male was found to be lower than female. From this observation it may be opined that female gained more weight with increase in length compared to male. Data on seasonal variation in condition factor (Kn) showed that Kn values were more or less similar in both the sexes, indicating almost identical metabolic activity. Gonadal development and high feeding intensity are the factors which influenced the condition factor. The seasonal fluctuations in the relative condition factor of both the sexes could be attributed to the sexual cycle, food intake and environmental factors. From the present study, it can be inferred that the variation in the condition of Atropus atropos was due to feeding activity and gonadal maturity.

Keywords: Atropus atropos, length-weight relationship, Mangalore coast, relative condition factor, Kn

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23 Investigation of Medicinal Applications of Maclura Pomifera Extract

Authors: Mahdi Asghari Ozma


Background and Objective:Maclurapomifera (Rafin.) Schneider, known as osage orange, is a north american native plant which has multiple applications in herbal medicine. The extract of this plant has many therapeutic effects, including antimicrobial, anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, etc., that discussed in this study. Materials and Methods: For this study, the keywords "Maclurapomifera", "osage orange, ""herbal medicine ", and "plant extract" in the databases PubMed and Google Scholar between 2002 and 2021 were searched, and 20 articles were chosen, studied and analyzed. Results: Due to the increased resistance of microbes to antibiotics, the need for antimicrobial plants is increasing. Maclurapomifera is one of the plants with antimicrobial properties that can affect all microbes, especially Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi. This plant also has anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-aging, antiviral, anti-fungal, anti-ulcerogenic, anti-diabetic, and anti-nociceptive effects, which can be used as a substance with many amazing therapeutic applications. Conclusion: These results suggest that the extract of Maclurapomifera can be used in clinical medicine as a remedial agent, which can be substituted for chemical drugs or help them in the treatment of diseases.

Keywords: maclura pomifera, osage orange, herbal medicine, plant extract

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22 Validating Condition-Based Maintenance Algorithms through Simulation

Authors: Marcel Chevalier, Léo Dupont, Sylvain Marié, Frédérique Roffet, Elena Stolyarova, William Templier, Costin Vasile


Industrial end-users are currently facing an increasing need to reduce the risk of unexpected failures and optimize their maintenance. This calls for both short-term analysis and long-term ageing anticipation. At Schneider Electric, we tackle those two issues using both machine learning and first principles models. Machine learning models are incrementally trained from normal data to predict expected values and detect statistically significant short-term deviations. Ageing models are constructed by breaking down physical systems into sub-assemblies, then determining relevant degradation modes and associating each one to the right kinetic law. Validating such anomaly detection and maintenance models is challenging, both because actual incident and ageing data are rare and distorted by human interventions, and incremental learning depends on human feedback. To overcome these difficulties, we propose to simulate physics, systems, and humans -including asset maintenance operations- in order to validate the overall approaches in accelerated time and possibly choose between algorithmic alternatives.

Keywords: degradation models, ageing, anomaly detection, soft sensor, incremental learning

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21 Smart-Textile Containers for Urban Mobility

Authors: René Vieroth, Christian Dils, M. V. Krshiwoblozki, Christine Kallmayer, Martin Schneider-Ramelow, Klaus-Dieter Lang


Green urban mobility in commercial and private contexts is one of the great challenges for the continuously growing cities all over the world. Bicycle based solutions are already and since a long time the key to success. Modern developments like e-bikes and high-end cargo-bikes complement the portfolio. Weight, aerodynamic drag, and security for the transported goods are the key factors for working solutions. Recent achievements in the field of smart-textiles allowed the creation of a totally new generation of intelligent textile cargo containers, which fulfill those demands. The fusion of technical textiles, design and electrical engineering made it possible to create an ecological solution which is very near to become a product. This paper shows all the details of this solution that includes an especially developed sensor textile for cut detection, a protective textile layer for intrusion prevention, an universal-charging-unit for energy harvesting from diverse sources and a low-energy alarm system with GSM/GPRS connection, GPS location and RFID interface.

Keywords: cargo-bike, cut-detection, e-bike, energy-harvesting, green urban mobility, logistics, smart-textiles, textile-integrity sensor

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20 Perspectives on Sustainable Bioeconomy in the Baltic Sea Region

Authors: Susanna Vanhamäki, Gabor Schneider, Kati Manskinen


‘Bioeconomy’ is a complex concept that cuts across many sectors and covers several policy areas. To achieve an overall understanding and support a successful bioeconomy, a cross-sectorial approach is necessary. In practice, due to the concept’s wide scope and varying international approaches, fully understanding bioeconomy is challenging on policy level. This paper provides a background of the topic through an analysis of bioeconomy strategies in the Baltic Sea region. Expert interviews and a small survey were conducted to discover the current and intended focuses of these countries’ bioeconomy sectors. The research shows that supporting sustainability is one of the keys in developing the future bioeconomy. The results highlighted that the bioeconomy has to be sustainable and based on circular economy principles. Currently, traditional bioeconomy sectors like food, wood, fish & waters as well as fuel & energy, which are in the core of national bioeconomy strategies, are best known and are considered more relevant than other bioeconomy industries. However, there is increasing potential for novel sectors, such as textiles and pharmaceuticals. The present research indicates that the opportunities presented by these bioeconomy sectors should be recognised and promoted. Education, research and innovation can play key roles in developing transformative and sustainable improvements in primary production and renewable resources. Furthermore, cooperation between businesses and educators is important.

Keywords: bioeconomy, circular economy, policy, strategy

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19 Railway Accidents: Using the Global Railway Accident Database and Evaluation for Risk Analysis

Authors: Mathias Linden, André Schneider, Harald F. O. von Korflesch


The risk of train accidents is an ongoing concern for railway organizations, governments, insurance companies and other depended sectors. Safety technologies are installed to reduce and to prevent potential damages of train accidents. Since the budgetary for the safety of railway organizations is limited, it is necessary not only to achieve a high availability and high safety standard but also to be cost effective. Therefore, an economic assessment of safety technologies is fundamental to create an accurate risk analysis. In order to conduct an economical assessment of a railway safety technology and a quantification of the costs of the accident causes, the Global Railway Accident Database & Evaluation (GRADE) has been developed. The aim of this paper is to describe the structure of this accident database and to show how it can be used for risk analyses. A number of risk analysis methods, such as the probabilistic safety assessment method (PSA), was used to demonstrate this accident database’s different possibilities of risk analysis. In conclusion, it can be noted that these analyses would not be as accurate without GRADE. The information gathered in the accident database was not available in this way before. Our findings are relevant for railway operators, safety technology suppliers, assurances, governments and other concerned railway organizations.

Keywords: accident causes, accident costs, accident database, global railway accident database & evaluation, GRADE, probabilistic safety assessment, PSA, railway accidents, risk analysis

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18 Influence of Annealing on the Mechanical αc-Relaxation of Isotactic-Polypropylene: A Study from the Intermediate Phase Perspective

Authors: Baobao Chang, Konrad Schneider, Vogel Roland, Gert Heinrich


In this work, the influence of annealing on the mechanical αc-relaxation behavior of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) was investigated. The results suggest that the mechanical αc-relaxation behavior depends strongly on the confinement force on the polymer chains in the intermediate phase and the thickness of the intermediate phase. After quenching at 10°C, abundant crystallites with a wide size distribution are formed. The polymer chains in the intermediate phase are constrained by the crystallites, giving rise to one broad αc-relaxation peak. With an annealing temperature between 60°C~105°C, imperfect lamellae melting releases part of the constraint force, which reduces the conformational ordering of the polymer chains neighboring the amorphous phase. Consequently, two separate αc-relaxation peaks could be observed which are labeled as αc1-relaxation and αc2-relaxation. αc1-relaxation and αc2-relaxation describe the relaxation behavior of polymer chains in the region close to the amorphous phase and the crystalline phase, respectively. Both relaxation peaks shift to a higher temperature as annealing temperature increases. With an annealing temperature higher than 105°C, the new crystalline phase is formed in the intermediate phase, which enhances the constraint force on the polymer chains. αc1-relaxation peak is broadened obviously and its position shifts to a higher temperature as annealing temperature increases. Moreover, αc2-relaxation is undetectable because that the polymer chains in the region between the initial crystalline phase and the newly formed crystalline phase are strongly confined.

Keywords: annealing, αc-relaxation, isotactic-polypropylene, intermediate phase

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17 Drug-Drug Plasma Protein Binding Interactions of Ivacaftor

Authors: Elena K. Schneider, Johnny X. Huang, Vincenzo Carbone, Mark Baker, Mohammad A. K. Azad, Matthew A. Cooper, Jian Li, Tony Velkov


Ivacaftor is a novel CF trans-membrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiator that improves the pulmonary function for cystic fibrosis patients bearing a G551D CFTR-protein mutation. Because ivacaftor is highly bound (>97%) to plasma proteins, there is the strong possibility that co-administered CF drugs that compete for the same plasma protein binding sites and impact the free drug concentration. This in turn could lead to drastic changes in the in vivo efficacy of ivacaftor and therapeutic outcomes. This study compares the binding affinity of ivacaftor and co-administered CF drugs for human serum albumin (HSA) and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) using surface plasmon resonance and fluorimetric binding assays that measure the displacement of site selective probes. Due to their high plasma protein binding affinities, drug-drug interactions between ivacaftor are to be expected with ducosate, montelukast, ibuprofen, dicloxacillin, omeprazole and loratadine. The significance of these drug-drug interactions is interpreted in terms of the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic parameters and molecular docking simulations. The translational outcomes of the data are presented as recommendations for a staggered treatment regimen for future clinical trials which aims to maximize the effective free drug concentration and clinical efficacy of ivacaftor.

Keywords: human α-1-acid glycoprotein, binding affinity, human serum albumin, ivacaftor, cystic fibrosis

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16 Simulation of Glass Breakage Using Voronoi Random Field Tessellations

Authors: Michael A. Kraus, Navid Pourmoghaddam, Martin Botz, Jens Schneider, Geralt Siebert


Fragmentation analysis of tempered glass gives insight into the quality of the tempering process and defines a certain degree of safety as well. Different standard such as the European EN 12150-1 or the American ASTM C 1048/CPSC 16 CFR 1201 define a minimum number of fragments required for soda-lime safety glass on the basis of fragmentation test results for classification. This work presents an approach for the glass breakage pattern prediction using a Voronoi Tesselation over Random Fields. The random Voronoi tessellation is trained with and validated against data from several breakage patterns. The fragments in observation areas of 50 mm x 50 mm were used for training and validation. All glass specimen used in this study were commercially available soda-lime glasses at three different thicknesses levels of 4 mm, 8 mm and 12 mm. The results of this work form a Bayesian framework for the training and prediction of breakage patterns of tempered soda-lime glass using a Voronoi Random Field Tesselation. Uncertainties occurring in this process can be well quantified, and several statistical measures of the pattern can be preservation with this method. Within this work it was found, that different Random Fields as basis for the Voronoi Tesselation lead to differently well fitted statistical properties of the glass breakage patterns. As the methodology is derived and kept general, the framework could be also applied to other random tesselations and crack pattern modelling purposes.

Keywords: glass breakage predicition, Voronoi Random Field Tessellation, fragmentation analysis, Bayesian parameter identification

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15 A Bayesian Parameter Identification Method for Thermorheological Complex Materials

Authors: Michael Anton Kraus, Miriam Schuster, Geralt Siebert, Jens Schneider


Polymers increasingly gained interest in construction materials over the last years in civil engineering applications. As polymeric materials typically show time- and temperature dependent material behavior, which is accounted for in the context of the theory of linear viscoelasticity. Within the context of this paper, the authors show, that some polymeric interlayers for laminated glass can not be considered as thermorheologically simple as they do not follow a simple TTSP, thus a methodology of identifying the thermorheologically complex constitutive bahavioir is needed. ‘Dynamical-Mechanical-Thermal-Analysis’ (DMTA) in tensile and shear mode as well as ‘Differential Scanning Caliometry’ (DSC) tests are carried out on the interlayer material ‘Ethylene-vinyl acetate’ (EVA). A navoel Bayesian framework for the Master Curving Process as well as the detection and parameter identification of the TTSPs along with their associated Prony-series is derived and applied to the EVA material data. To our best knowledge, this is the first time, an uncertainty quantification of the Prony-series in a Bayesian context is shown. Within this paper, we could successfully apply the derived Bayesian methodology to the EVA material data to gather meaningful Master Curves and TTSPs. Uncertainties occurring in this process can be well quantified. We found, that EVA needs two TTSPs with two associated Generalized Maxwell Models. As the methodology is kept general, the derived framework could be also applied to other thermorheologically complex polymers for parameter identification purposes.

Keywords: bayesian parameter identification, generalized Maxwell model, linear viscoelasticity, thermorheological complex

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14 INCIPIT-CRIS : A Research Information System Combining Linked Data Ontologies and Persistent Identifiers

Authors: David Nogueiras Blanco, Amir Alwash, Arnaud Gaudinat, René Schneider


At a time when the access to and the sharing of information are crucial in the world of research, the use of technologies such as persistent identifiers (PIDs), Current Research Information Systems (CRIS), and ontologies may create platforms for information sharing if they respond to the need of disambiguation of their data by assuring interoperability inside and between other systems. INCIPIT-CRIS is a continuation of the former INCIPIT project, whose goal was to set up an infrastructure for a low-cost attribution of PIDs with high granularity based on Archival Resource Keys (ARKs). INCIPIT-CRIS can be interpreted as a logical consequence and propose a research information management system developed from scratch. The system has been created on and around the ontology with a further articulation of the use of ARKs. It is thus built upon the infrastructure previously implemented (i.e., INCIPIT) in order to enhance the persistence of URIs. As a consequence, INCIPIT-CRIS aims to be the hinge between previously separated aspects such as CRIS, ontologies and PIDs in order to produce a powerful system allowing the resolution of disambiguation problems using a combination of an ontology such as and unique persistent identifiers such as ARK, allowing the sharing of information through a dedicated platform, but also the interoperability of the system by representing the entirety of the data as RDF triplets. This paper aims to present the implemented solution as well as its simulation in real life. We will describe the underlying ideas and inspirations while going through the logic and the different functionalities implemented and their links with ARKs and Finally, we will discuss the tests performed with our project partner, the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), by the use of large and real-world data sets.

Keywords: current research information systems, linked data, ontologies, persistent identifier,, semantic web

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13 Persisting Gender Gap in the Field of Academic Entrepreneurship: The Case of Switzerland

Authors: Noemi Schneider, Richard Blaese, Pietro Morandi, Brigitte Liebig


While women are increasingly frequent among the founders of innovative companies and advanced researchers in many university research institutes today, they are still an exception among initiators of research-based spin-offs. This also applies to countries such as Switzerland, which does have a leading position in international innovation rankings. Starting from a gender-sensitive neo-institutionalist perspective, this paper examines formal and non-formal institutional framework conditions for academic spin-offs at Swiss universities of applied sciences. This field, which stresses vocational education and practice-oriented research, seems to conserve the gender gap in the area of establishing research-based spin-offs spin-off rates strongly. The analysis starts from a survey conducted in 2017 and 2018 at all seven public universities of applied sciences in Switzerland as well as on an evaluation of expert interviews performed with heads of start-up centers, where also spin-offs from universities of applied sciences get support. The results show the mechanisms, which contribute to gender gaps in academic entrepreneurship in higher education. University's female employees have hardly been discovered as target groups. Thus, only 10.5% of universities of applied sciences offer specific support measures for women in academia. And only 1 out of 7 universities of applied sciences offer mentoring programs for female entrepreneurs while in addition there are no financial resources available to support female founders in academia. Moreover, the awareness of the gender gap in academic entrepreneurship is low among founding commissioners. A consistent transfer strategy might be key for bringing in line the formal and non-formal preconditions relevant for the formation of research-based spin-offs and for providing an effective incentive structure to promote women.

Keywords: gender, science-based spin-off, universities of applied sciences, knowledge transfer strategy

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12 Transboundary Pollution after Natural Disasters: Scenario Analyses for Uranium at Kyrgyzstan-Uzbekistan Border

Authors: Fengqing Li, Petra Schneider


Failure of tailings management facilities (TMF) of radioactive residues is an enormous challenge worldwide and can result in major catastrophes. Particularly in transboundary regions, such failure is most likely to lead to international conflict. This risk occurs in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan, where the current major challenge is the quantification of impacts due to pollution from uranium legacy sites and especially the impact on river basins after natural hazards (i.e., landslides). By means of GoldSim, a probabilistic simulation model, the amount of tailing material that flows into the river networks of Mailuu Suu in Kyrgyzstan after pond failure was simulated for three scenarios, namely 10%, 20%, and 30% of material inputs. Based on Muskingum-Cunge flood routing procedure, the peak value of uranium flood wave along the river network was simulated. Among the 23 TMF, 19 ponds are close to the river networks. The spatiotemporal distributions of uranium along the river networks were then simulated for all the 19 ponds under three scenarios. Taking the TP7 which is 30 km far from the Kyrgyzstan-Uzbekistan border as one example, the uranium concentration decreased continuously along the longitudinal gradient of the river network, the concentration of uranium was observed at the border after 45 min of the pond failure and the highest value was detected after 69 min. The highest concentration of uranium at the border were 16.5, 33, and 47.5 mg/L under scenarios of 10%, 20%, and 30% of material inputs, respectively. In comparison to the guideline value of uranium in drinking water (i.e., 30 µg/L) provided by the World Health Organization, the observed concentrations of uranium at the border were 550‒1583 times higher. In order to mitigate the transboundary impact of a radioactive pollutant release, an integrated framework consisting of three major strategies were proposed. Among, the short-term strategy can be used in case of emergency event, the medium-term strategy allows both countries handling the TMF efficiently based on the benefit-sharing concept, and the long-term strategy intends to rehabilitate the site through the relocation of all TMF.

Keywords: Central Asia, contaminant transport modelling, radioactive residue, transboundary conflict

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11 Monetary Evaluation of Dispatching Decisions in Consideration of Choice of Transport

Authors: Marcel Schneider, Nils Nießen


Microscopic simulation programs enable the description of the two processes of railway operation and the previous timetabling. Occupation conflicts are often solved based on defined train priorities on both process levels. These conflict resolutions produce knock-on delays for the involved trains. The sum of knock-on delays is commonly used to evaluate the quality of railway operations. It is either compared to an acceptable level-of-service or the delays are evaluated economically by linearly monetary functions. It is impossible to properly evaluate dispatching decisions without a well-founded objective function. This paper presents a new approach for evaluation of dispatching decisions. It uses models of choice of transport and considers the behaviour of the end-costumers. These models evaluate the knock-on delays in more detail than linearly monetary functions and consider other competing modes of transport. The new approach pursues the coupling of a microscopic model of railway operation with the macroscopic model of choice of transport. First it will be implemented for the railway operations process, but it can also be used for timetabling. The evaluation considers the possibility to change over to other transport modes by the end-costumers. The new approach first looks at the rail-mounted and road transport, but it can also be extended to air transport. The split of the end-costumers is described by the modal-split. The reactions by the end-costumers have an effect on the revenues of the railway undertakings. Various travel purposes has different pavement reserves and tolerances towards delays. Longer journey times affect besides revenue changes also additional costs. The costs depend either on time or track and arise from circulation of workers and vehicles. Only the variable values are summarised in the contribution margin, which is the base for the monetary evaluation of the delays. The contribution margin is calculated for different resolution decisions of the same conflict. The conflict resolution is improved until the monetary loss becomes minimised. The iterative process therefore determines an optimum conflict resolution by observing the change of the contribution margin. Furthermore, a monetary value of each dispatching decision can also be determined.

Keywords: choice of transport, knock-on delays, monetary evaluation, railway operations

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10 Institutional Quality and Tax Compliance: A Cross-Country Regression Evidence

Authors: Debi Konukcu Onal, Tarkan Cavusoglu


In modern societies, the costs of public goods and services are shared through taxes paid by citizens. However, taxation has always been a frictional issue, as tax obligations are perceived to be a financial burden for taxpayers rather than being merit that fulfills the redistribution, regulation and stabilization functions of the welfare state. The tax compliance literature evolves into discussing why people still pay taxes in systems with low costs of legal enforcement. Related empirical and theoretical works show that a wide range of socially oriented behavioral factors can stimulate voluntary compliance and subversive effects as well. These behavioral motivations are argued to be driven by self-enforcing rules of informal institutions, either independently or through interactions with legal orders set by formal institutions. The main focus of this study is to investigate empirically whether institutional particularities have a significant role in explaining the cross-country differences in the tax noncompliance levels. A part of the controversy about the driving forces behind tax noncompliance may be attributed to the lack of empirical evidence. Thus, this study aims to fill this gap through regression estimates, which help to trace the link between institutional quality and noncompliance on a cross-country basis. Tax evasion estimates of Buehn and Schneider is used as the proxy measure for the tax noncompliance levels. Institutional quality is quantified by three different indicators (percentile ranks of Worldwide Governance Indicators, ratings of the International Country Risk Guide, and the country ratings of the Freedom in the World). Robust Least Squares and Threshold Regression estimates based on the sample of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries imply that tax compliance increases with institutional quality. Moreover, a threshold-based asymmetry is detected in the effect of institutional quality on tax noncompliance. That is, the negative effects of tax burdens on compliance are found to be more pronounced in countries with institutional quality below a certain threshold. These findings are robust to all alternative indicators of institutional quality, supporting the significant interaction of societal values with the individual taxpayer decisions.

Keywords: institutional quality, OECD economies, tax compliance, tax evasion

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9 Mobile and Hot Spot Measurement with Optical Particle Counting Based Dust Monitor EDM264

Authors: V. Ziegler, F. Schneider, M. Pesch


With the EDM264, GRIMM offers a solution for mobile short- and long-term measurements in outdoor areas and at production sites. For research as well as permanent areal observations on a near reference quality base. The model EDM264 features a powerful and robust measuring cell based on optical particle counting (OPC) principle with all the advantages that users of GRIMM's portable aerosol spectrometers are used to. The system is embedded in a compact weather-protection housing with all-weather sampling, heated inlet system, data logger, and meteorological sensor. With TSP, PM10, PM4, PM2.5, PM1, and PMcoarse, the EDM264 provides all fine dust fractions real-time, valid for outdoor applications and calculated with the proven GRIMM enviro-algorithm, as well as six additional dust mass fractions pm10, pm2.5, pm1, inhalable, thoracic and respirable for IAQ and workplace measurements. This highly versatile instrument performs real-time monitoring of particle number, particle size and provides information on particle surface distribution as well as dust mass distribution. GRIMM's EDM264 has 31 equidistant size channels, which are PSL traceable. A high-end data logger enables data acquisition and wireless communication via LTE, WLAN, or wired via Ethernet. Backup copies of the measurement data are stored in the device directly. The rinsing air function, which protects the laser and detector in the optical cell, further increases the reliability and long term stability of the EDM264 under different environmental and climatic conditions. The entire sample volume flow of 1.2 L/min is analyzed by 100% in the optical cell, which assures excellent counting efficiency at low and high concentrations and complies with the ISO 21501-1standard for OPCs. With all these features, the EDM264 is a world-leading dust monitor for precise monitoring of particulate matter and particle number concentration. This highly reliable instrument is an indispensable tool for many users who need to measure aerosol levels and air quality outdoors, on construction sites, or at production facilities.

Keywords: aerosol research, aerial observation, fence line monitoring, wild fire detection

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8 Contribution of PALB2 and BLM Mutations to Familial Breast Cancer Risk in BRCA1/2 Negative South African Breast Cancer Patients Detected Using High-Resolution Melting Analysis

Authors: N. C. van der Merwe, J. Oosthuizen, M. F. Makhetha, J. Adams, B. K. Dajee, S-R. Schneider


Women representing high-risk breast cancer families, who tested negative for pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, are four times more likely to develop breast cancer compared to women in the general population. Sequencing of genes involved in genomic stability and DNA repair led to the identification of novel contributors to familial breast cancer risk. These include BLM and PALB2. Bloom's syndrome is a rare homozygous autosomal recessive chromosomal instability disorder with a high incidence of various types of neoplasia and is associated with breast cancer when in a heterozygous state. PALB2, on the other hand, binds to BRCA2 and together, they partake actively in DNA damage repair. Archived DNA samples of 66 BRCA1/2 negative high-risk breast cancer patients were retrospectively selected based on the presence of an extensive family history of the disease ( > 3 affecteds per family). All coding regions and splice-site boundaries of both genes were screened using High-Resolution Melting Analysis. Samples exhibiting variation were bi-directionally automated Sanger sequenced. The clinical significance of each variant was assessed using various in silico and splice site prediction algorithms. Comprehensive screening identified a total of 11 BLM and 26 PALB2 variants. The variants detected ranged from global to rare and included three novel mutations. Three BLM and two PALB2 likely pathogenic mutations were identified that could account for the disease in these extensive breast cancer families in the absence of BRCA mutations (BLM c.11T > A, p.V4D; BLM c.2603C > T, p.P868L; BLM c.3961G > A, p.V1321I; PALB2 c.421C > T, p.Gln141Ter; PALB2 c.508A > T, p.Arg170Ter). Conclusion: The study confirmed the contribution of pathogenic mutations in BLM and PALB2 to the familial breast cancer burden in South Africa. It explained the presence of the disease in 7.5% of the BRCA1/2 negative families with an extensive family history of breast cancer. Segregation analysis will be performed to confirm the clinical impact of these mutations for each of these families. These results justify the inclusion of both these genes in a comprehensive breast and ovarian next generation sequencing cancer panel and should be screened simultaneously with BRCA1 and BRCA2 as it might explain a significant percentage of familial breast and ovarian cancer in South Africa.

Keywords: Bloom Syndrome, familial breast cancer, PALB2, South Africa

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7 Achieving Product Robustness through Variation Simulation: An Industrial Case Study

Authors: Narendra Akhadkar, Philippe Delcambre


In power protection and control products, assembly process variations due to the individual parts manufactured from single or multi-cavity tooling is a major problem. The dimensional and geometrical variations on the individual parts, in the form of manufacturing tolerances and assembly tolerances, are sources of clearance in the kinematic joints, polarization effect in the joints, and tolerance stack-up. All these variations adversely affect the quality of product, functionality, cost, and time-to-market. Variation simulation analysis may be used in the early product design stage to predict such uncertainties. Usually, variations exist in both manufacturing processes and materials. In the tolerance analysis, the effect of the dimensional and geometrical variations of the individual parts on the functional characteristics (conditions) of the final assembled products are studied. A functional characteristic of the product may be affected by a set of interrelated dimensions (functional parameters) that usually form a geometrical closure in a 3D chain. In power protection and control products, the prerequisite is: when a fault occurs in the electrical network, the product must respond quickly to react and break the circuit to clear the fault. Usually, the response time is in milliseconds. Any failure in clearing the fault may result in severe damage to the equipment or network, and human safety is at stake. In this article, we have investigated two important functional characteristics that are associated with the robust performance of the product. It is demonstrated that the experimental data obtained at the Schneider Electric Laboratory prove the very good prediction capabilities of the variation simulation performed using CETOL (tolerance analysis software) in an industrial context. Especially, this study allows design engineers to better understand the critical parts in the product that needs to be manufactured with good, capable tolerances. On the contrary, some parts are not critical for the functional characteristics (conditions) of the product and may lead to some reduction of the manufacturing cost, ensuring robust performance. The capable tolerancing is one of the most important aspects in product and manufacturing process design. In the case of miniature circuit breaker (MCB), the product's quality and its robustness are mainly impacted by two aspects: (1) allocation of design tolerances between the components of a mechanical assembly and (2) manufacturing tolerances in the intermediate machining steps of component fabrication.

Keywords: geometrical variation, product robustness, tolerance analysis, variation simulation

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6 Cycle-Oriented Building Components and Constructions Made from Paper Materials

Authors: Rebecca Bach, Evgenia Kanli, Nihat Kiziltoprak, Linda Hildebrand, Ulrich Knaack, Jens Schneider


The building industry has a high demand for resources and at the same time is responsible for a significant amount of waste created worldwide. Today's building components need to contribute to the protection of natural resources without creating waste. This is defined in the product development phase and impacts the product’s degree of being cycle-oriented. Paper-based materials show advantage due to their renewable origin and their ability to incorporate different functions. Besides the ecological aspects like renewable origin and recyclability the main advantages of paper materials are its light-weight but stiff structure, the optimized production processes and good insulation values. The main deficits from building technology’s perspective are the material's vulnerability to humidity and water as well as inflammability. On material level, those problems can be solved by coatings or through material modification. On construction level intelligent setup and layering of a building component can improve and also solve these issues. The target of the present work is to provide an overview of developed building components and construction typologies mainly made from paper materials. The research is structured in four parts: (1) functions and requirements, (2) preselection of paper-based materials, (3) development of building components and (4) evaluation. As part of the research methodology at first the needs of the building sector are analyzed with the aim to define the main areas of application and consequently the requirements. Various paper materials are tested in order to identify to what extent the requirements are satisfied and determine potential optimizations or modifications, also in combination with other construction materials. By making use of the material’s potentials and solving the deficits on material and on construction level, building components and construction typologies are developed. The evaluation and the calculation of the structural mechanics and structural principals will show that different construction typologies can be derived. Profiles like paper tubes can be used at best for skeleton constructions. Massive structures on the other hand can be formed by plate-shaped elements like solid board or honeycomb. For insulation purposes corrugated cardboard or cellulose flakes have the best properties, while layered solid board can be applied to prevent inner condensation. Enhancing these properties by material combinations for instance with mineral coatings functional constructions mainly out of paper materials were developed. In summary paper materials offer a huge variety of possible applications in the building sector. By these studies a general base of knowledge about how to build with paper was developed and is to be reinforced by further research.

Keywords: construction typologies, cycle-oriented construction, innovative building material, paper materials, renewable resources

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5 Goal-Setting in a Peer Leader HIV Prevention Intervention to Improve Preexposure Prophylaxis Access among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men

Authors: Tim J. Walsh, Lindsay E. Young, John A. Schneider


Background: The disproportionate rate of HIV infection among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in the United States suggest the importance of Preexposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) interventions for this population. As such, there is an urgent need for innovative outreach strategies that extend beyond the traditional patient-provider relationship to reach at-risk populations. Training members of the BMSM community as peer change agents (PCAs) is one such strategy. An important piece of this training is goal-setting. Goal-setting not only encourages PCAs to define the parameters of the intervention according to their lived experience, it also helps them plan courses of action. Therefore, the aims of this mixed methods study are: (1) Characterize the goals that BMSM set at the end of their PrEP training and (2) Assess the relationship between goal types and PCA engagement. Methods: Between March 2016 and July 2016, preliminary data were collected from 68 BMSM, ages 18-33, in Chicago as part of an ongoing PrEP intervention. Once enrolled, PCAs participate in a half-day training in which they learn about PrEP, practice initiating conversations about PrEP, and identify strategies for supporting at-risk peers through the PrEP adoption process. Training culminates with a goal-setting exercise, whereby participants establish a goal related to their role as a PCA. Goals were coded for features that either emerged from the data itself or existed in extant goal-setting literature. The main outcomes were (1) number of PrEP conversations PCAs self-report during booster conversations two weeks following the intervention and (2) number of peers PCAs recruit into the study that completed the PrEP workshop. Results: PCA goals (N=68) were characterized in terms of four features: Specificity, target population, personalization, and purpose defined. To date, PCAs report a collective 52 PrEP conversations. 56, 25, and 6% of PrEP conversations occurred with friends, family, and sexual partners, respectively. PCAs with specific goals had more PrEP conversations with at-risk peers compared to those with vague goals (58% vs. 42%); PCAs with personalized goals had more PrEP conversations compared to those with de-personalized goals (60% vs. 53%); and PCAs with goals that defined a purpose had more PrEP conversations compared to those who did not define a purpose (75% vs. 52%). 100% of PCAs with goals that defined a purpose recruited peers into the study compared to 45 percent of PCAs with goals that did not define a purpose. Conclusion: Our preliminary analysis demonstrates that BMSM are motivated to set and work toward a diverse set of goals to support peers in PrEP adoption. PCAs with goals involving a clearly defined purpose had more PrEP conversations and greater peer recruitment than those with goals lacking a defined purpose. This may indicate that PCAs who define their purpose at the outset of their participation will be more engaged in the study than those who do not. Goal-setting may be considered as a component of future HIV prevention interventions to advance intervention goals and as an indicator of PCAs understanding of the intervention.

Keywords: HIV prevention, MSM, peer change agent, preexposure prophylaxis

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4 Solids and Nutrient Loads Exported by Preserved and Impacted Low-Order Streams: A Comparison among Water Bodies in Different Latitudes in Brazil

Authors: Nicolas R. Finkler, Wesley A. Saltarelli, Taison A. Bortolin, Vania E. Schneider, Davi G. F. Cunha


Estimating the relative contribution of nonpoint or point sources of pollution in low-orders streams is an important tool for the water resources management. The location of headwaters in areas with anthropogenic impacts from urbanization and agriculture is a common scenario in developing countries. This condition can lead to conflicts among different water users and compromise ecosystem services. Water pollution also contributes to exporting organic loads to downstream areas, including higher order rivers. The purpose of this research is to preliminarily assess nutrients and solids loads exported by water bodies located in watersheds with different types of land uses in São Carlos - SP (Latitude. -22.0087; Longitude. -47.8909) and Caxias do Sul - RS (Latitude. -29.1634, Longitude. -51.1796), Brazil, using regression analysis. The variables analyzed in this study were Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), Nitrate (NO3-), Total Phosphorus (TP) and Total Suspended Solids (TSS). Data were obtained in October and December 2015 for São Carlos (SC) and in November 2012 and March 2013 for Caxias do Sul (CXS). Such periods had similar weather patterns regarding precipitation and temperature. Altogether, 11 sites were divided into two groups, some classified as more pristine (SC1, SC4, SC5, SC6 and CXS2), with predominance of native forest; and others considered as impacted (SC2, SC3, CXS1, CXS3, CXS4 and CXS5), presenting larger urban and/or agricultural areas. Previous linear regression was applied for data on flow and drainage area of each site (R² = 0.9741), suggesting that the loads to be assessed had a significant relationship with the drainage areas. Thereafter, regression analysis was conducted between the drainage areas and the total loads for the two land use groups. The R² values were 0.070, 0.830, 0.752 e 0.455 respectively for SST, TKN, NO3- and TP loads in the more preserved areas, suggesting that the loads generated by runoff are significant in these locations. However, the respective R² values for sites located in impacted areas were respectively 0.488, 0.054, 0.519 e 0.059 for SST, TKN, NO3- and P loads, indicating a less important relationship between total loads and runoff as compared to the previous scenario. This study suggests three possible conclusions that will be further explored in the full-text article, with more sampling sites and periods: a) In preserved areas, nonpoint sources of pollution are more significant in determining water quality in relation to the studied variables; b) The nutrient (TKN and P) loads in impacted areas may be associated with point sources such as domestic wastewater discharges with inadequate treatment levels; and c) The presence of NO3- in impacted areas can be associated to the runoff, particularly in agricultural areas, where the application of fertilizers is common at certain times of the year.

Keywords: land use, linear regression, point and non-point pollution sources, streams, water resources management

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3 Modeling Taxane-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy Ex Vivo Using Patient-Derived Neurons

Authors: G. Cunningham, E. Cantor, X. Wu, F. Shen, G. Jiang, S. Philips, C. Bales, Y. Xiao, T. R. Cummins, J. C. Fehrenbacher, B. P. Schneider


Background: Taxane-induced peripheral neuropathy (TIPN) is the most devastating survivorship issue for patients receiving therapy. Dose reductions due to TIPN in the curative setting lead to inferior outcomes for African American patients, as prior research has shown that this group is more susceptible to developing severe neuropathy. The mechanistic underpinnings of TIPN, however, have not been entirely elucidated. While it would be appealing to use primary tissue to study the development of TIPN, procuring nerves from patients is not realistically feasible, as nerve biopsies are painful and may result in permanent damage. Therefore, our laboratory has investigated paclitaxel-induced neuronal morphological and molecular changes using an ex vivo model of human-induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons. Methods: iPSCs are undifferentiated and endlessly dividing cells that can be generated from a patient’s somatic cells, such as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We successfully reprogrammed PBMCs into iPSCs using the Erythroid Progenitor Reprograming Kit (STEMCell Technologiesᵀᴹ); pluripotency was verified by flow cytometry analysis. iPSCs were then induced into neurons using a differentiation protocol that bypasses the neural progenitor stage and uses selected small-molecule modulators of key signaling pathways (SMAD, Notch, FGFR1 inhibition, and Wnt activation). Results: Flow cytometry analysis revealed expression of core pluripotency transcription factors Nanog, Oct3/4 and Sox2 in iPSCs overlaps with commercially purchased pluripotent cell line UCSD064i-20-2. Trilineage differentiation of iPSCs was confirmed with immunofluorescent imaging with germ-layer-specific markers; Sox17 and ExoA2 for ectoderm, Nestin, and Pax6 for mesoderm, and Ncam and Brachyury for endoderm. Sensory neuron markers, β-III tubulin, and Peripherin were applied to stain the cells for the maturity of iPSC-derived neurons. Patch-clamp electrophysiology and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release data supported the functionality of the induced neurons and provided insight into the timing for which downstream assays could be performed (week 4 post-induction). We have also performed a cell viability assay and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) using four cell-surface markers (CD184, CD44, CD15, and CD24) to select a neuronal population. At least 70% of the cells were viable in the isolated neuron population. Conclusion: We have found that these iPSC-derived neurons recapitulate mature neuronal phenotypes and demonstrate functionality. Thus, this represents a patient-derived ex vivo neuronal model to investigate the molecular mechanisms of clinical TIPN.

Keywords: chemotherapy, iPSC-derived neurons, peripheral neuropathy, taxane, paclitaxel

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2 A Nutrient Formulation Affects Brain Myelination in Infants: An Investigative Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: N. Schneider, M. Bruchhage, M. Hartweg, G. Mutungi, J. O Regan, S. Deoni


Observational neuroimaging studies suggest differences between breast-fed and formula-fed infants in developmental myelination, a key brain process for learning and cognitive development. However, the possible effects of a nutrient formulation on myelin development in healthy term infants in an intervention study have not been investigated. Objective was, therefore, to investigate the efficacy of a nutrient formulation with higher levels of myelin-relevant nutrients as compared to a control formulation with lower levels of the same nutrients on brain myelination and cognitive development in the first 6 months of life. The study is an ongoing randomized, controlled, double-blind, two-center, parallel-group clinical trial with a nonrandomized, non-blinded arm of exclusively breastfed infants. The current findings result from a staged statistical analysis at 6 months; the recruitment and intervention period has been completed for all participants. Follow-up visits at 12, 18 and 24 months are still ongoing. N= 81 enrolled full term, neurotypical infants of both sexes were randomized into either the investigational (N= 42) or the control group (N= 39), and N= 108 children in the breast-fed arm served as a natural reference group. The effect of a blend of docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, iron, vitamin B12, folic acid as well as sphingomyelin from a uniquely proceed whey protein concentrate enriched in alpha-lactalbumin and phospholipids in an infant nutrition product matrix was investigated. The main outcomes for the staged statistical analyses at 6 months included brain myelination measures derived from MRI. Additional outcomes were brain volume, cognitive development and safety. The full analyses set at 6 months comprised N= 66 infants. Higher levels of myelin-relevant nutrients compared to lower levels resulted in significant differences in myelin structure, volume, and rate of myelination as early as 3 and 6 months of life. The cross-sectional change of means between groups for whole-brain myelin volume was 8.4% for investigational versus control formulation (3.5% versus the breastfeeding reference) group at 3 months and increased to 36.4% for investigational versus control formulation (14.1% versus breastfeeding reference) at 6 months. No statistically significant differences were detected for early cognition scores. Safety findings were largely similar across groups. This is the first pediatric nutritional neuroimaging study demonstrating the efficacy of a myelin nutrient blend on developmental myelination in well-nourished term infants. Myelination is a critical process in learning and development. The effects were demonstrated across the brain, particularly in temporal and parietal regions, known to be functionally involved in sensory, motor and language skills. These first results add to the field of nutritional neuroscience by demonstrating early life nutrition benefits for brain architecture which may be foundational for later cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Identifier: NCT03111927 (Infant Nutrition and Brain Development - Full-Text View -

Keywords: brain development, infant nutrition, MRI, myelination

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