Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: Thierry Van Elslander

24 Selecting the Best Risk Exposure to Assess Collision Risks in Container Terminals

Authors: Mohammad Ali Hasanzadeh, Thierry Van Elslander, Eddy Van De Voorde

Abstract:

About 90 percent of world merchandise trade by volume being carried by sea. Maritime transport remains as back bone behind the international trade and globalization meanwhile all seaborne goods need using at least two ports as origin and destination. Amid seaborne traded cargos, container traffic is a prosperous market with about 16% in terms of volume. Albeit containerized cargos are less in terms of tonnage but, containers carry the highest value cargos amongst all. That is why efficient handling of containers in ports is very important. Accidents are the foremost causes that lead to port inefficiency and a surge in total transport cost. Having different port safety management systems (PSMS) in place, statistics on port accidents show that numerous accidents occur in ports. Some of them claim peoples’ life; others damage goods, vessels, port equipment and/or the environment. Several accident investigation illustrate that the most common accidents take place throughout transport operation, it sometimes accounts for 68.6% of all events, therefore providing a safer workplace depends on reducing collision risk. In order to quantify risks at the port area different variables can be used as exposure measurement. One of the main motives for defining and using exposure in studies related to infrastructure is to account for the differences in intensity of use, so as to make comparisons meaningful. In various researches related to handling containers in ports and intermodal terminals, different risk exposures and also the likelihood of each event have been selected. Vehicle collision within the port area (10-7 per kilometer of vehicle distance travelled) and dropping containers from cranes, forklift trucks, or rail mounted gantries (1 x 10-5 per lift) are some examples. According to the objective of the current research, three categories of accidents selected for collision risk assessment; fall of container during ship to shore operation, dropping container during transfer operation and collision between vehicles and objects within terminal area. Later on various consequences, exposure and probability identified for each accident. Hence, reducing collision risks profoundly rely on picking the right risk exposures and probability of selected accidents, to prevent collision accidents in container terminals and in the framework of risk calculations, such risk exposures and probabilities can be useful in assessing the effectiveness of safety programs in ports.

Keywords: container terminal, collision, seaborne trade, risk exposure, risk probability

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23 Introducing the Digital Backpack: Looking at Ivory Coast

Authors: Eunice H. Li

Abstract:

This e-Poster presents how the ‘digital backpack’ was introduced to primary school children in Ivory Coast. The idea of a ‘digital backpack’ was initiated by Mr. Thierry N’Doufou in 2012, who later designed and presented to the rest of the world in September 2014. The motivation behind the backpack was to relieve children of the heavy-weight they carry in their school backpacks. Another motivation was to promote Ivory Coast as a country where all children are brought into the digital era. Thierry N’Doufou regards education as the means by which his nation and the entire African Continent can be developed as a prosperous territory. The ‘digital backpack’ contains the entire curriculum for each class and favours a constructivist approach to learning. The children’s notes and exercises are also included in the pack. Additionally, teachers and parents are able to monitor remotely children’s activities while they are working with the ‘backpack’. Teachers are also able to issue homework, assess student’s progress and manage the student’s coursework. This means that teachers should always think the most appropriate pedagogies that can be used to help children to learn. Furthermore, teachers, parents and fellow students are able to have conversations and discussions by using web portals. It is also possible to access more apps if children would like to have additional learning activities. From the presentation in the e-Poster, it seems reasonable to conclude that the ‘digital backpack’ has potential to reach other-level of education. In this way, all will be able to benefit from this new invention.

Keywords: pedagogy, curriculum, constructivism, social constructivism, distance learning environment, ubiquitous learning environment

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22 Coupling of Reticular and Fuzzy Set Modelling in the Analysis of the Action Chains from Socio-Ecosystem, Case of the Renewable Natural Resources Management in Madagascar

Authors: Thierry Ganomanana, Dominique Hervé, Solo Randriamahaleo

Abstract:

Management of Malagasy renewable natural re-sources allows, in the case of forest, the mobilization of several actors with norms and/or territory. The interaction in this socio-ecosystem is represented by a graph of two different relationships in which most of action chains, from individual activities under the continuous of forest dynamic and discrete interventions by institutional, are also studied. The fuzzy set theory is adapted to graduate the elements of the set Illegal Activities in the space of sanction’s institution by his severity and in the space of degradation of forest by his extent.

Keywords: fuzzy set, graph, institution, renewable resource, system

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21 Key Roles of the N-Type Oxide Layer in Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells

Authors: Thierry Pauporté

Abstract:

Wide bandgap n-type oxide layers (TiO2, SnO2, ZnO etc.) play key roles in perovskite solar cells. They act as electron transport layers, and they permit the charge separation. They are also the substrate for the preparation of perovskite in the direct architecture. Therefore, they have a strong influence on the perovskite loading, its crystallinity and they can induce a degradation phenomenon upon annealing. The interface between the oxide and the perovskite is important, and the quality of this heterointerface must be optimized to limit the recombination of charges phenomena and performance losses. One can also play on the oxide and use two oxide contact layers for improving the device stability and durability. These aspects will be developed and illustrated on the basis of recent results obtained at Chimie-ParisTech.

Keywords: oxide, hybrid perovskite, solar cells, impedance

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20 Experimental Investigation and Numerical Simulations of the Cylindrical Machining of a Ti-6Al-4V Tree

Authors: Mohamed Sahli, David Bassir, Thierry Barriere, Xavier Roizard

Abstract:

Predicting the behaviour of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy during the turning operation was very important in the choice of suitable cutting tools and also in the machining strategies. In this study, a 3D model with thermo-mechanical coupling has been proposed to study the influence of cutting parameters and also lubrication on the performance of cutting tools. The constants of the constitutive Johnson-Cook model of Ti-6Al-4V alloy were identified using inverse analysis based on the parameters of the orthogonal cutting process. Then, numerical simulations of the finishing machining operation were developed and experimentally validated for the cylindrical stock removal stage with the finishing cutting tool.

Keywords: titanium turning, cutting tools, FE simulation, chip

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19 Cognition of Driving Context for Driving Assistance

Authors: Manolo Dulva Hina, Clement Thierry, Assia Soukane, Amar Ramdane-Cherif

Abstract:

In this paper, we presented our innovative way of determining the driving context for a driving assistance system. We invoke the fusion of all parameters that describe the context of the environment, the vehicle and the driver to obtain the driving context. We created a training set that stores driving situation patterns and from which the system consults to determine the driving situation. A machine-learning algorithm predicts the driving situation. The driving situation is an input to the fission process that yields the action that must be implemented when the driver needs to be informed or assisted from the given the driving situation. The action may be directed towards the driver, the vehicle or both. This is an ongoing work whose goal is to offer an alternative driving assistance system for safe driving, green driving and comfortable driving. Here, ontologies are used for knowledge representation.

Keywords: cognitive driving, intelligent transportation system, multimodal system, ontology, machine learning

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18 Design Parameters Optimization of a Gas Turbine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation: An Energy and Exergy Approach

Authors: Joe Hachem, Marianne Cuif-Sjostrand, Thierry Schuhler, Dominique Orhon, Assaad Zoughaib

Abstract:

The exhaust gas recirculation, EGR, implementation on gas turbines is increasingly gaining the attention of many researchers. This emerging technology presents many advantages, such as lowering the NOx emissions and facilitating post-combustion carbon capture as the carbon dioxide concentration in the cycle increases. As interesting as this technology may seem, the gas turbine, or its thermodynamic equivalent, the Brayton cycle, shows an intrinsic efficiency decrease with increasing EGR rate. In this paper, a thermodynamic model is presented to show the cycle efficiency decrease with EGR, alternative values of design parameters of both the pressure ratio (PR) and the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) are then proposed to optimize the cycle efficiency with different EGR rates. Results show that depending on the given EGR rate, both the design PR & TIT should be increased to compensate for the deficit in efficiency.

Keywords: gas turbines, exhaust gas recirculation, design parameters optimization, thermodynamic approach

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17 Wave Interaction with Defects in Pressurized Composite Structures

Authors: R. K. Apalowo, D. Chronopoulos, V. Thierry

Abstract:

A wave finite element (WFE) and finite element (FE) based computational method is presented by which the dispersion properties as well as the wave interaction coefficients for one-dimensional structural system can be predicted. The structural system is discretized as a system comprising a number of waveguides connected by a coupling joint. Uniform nodes are ensured at the interfaces of the coupling element with each waveguide. Then, equilibrium and continuity conditions are enforced at the interfaces. Wave propagation properties of each waveguide are calculated using the WFE method and the coupling element is modelled using the FE method. The scattering of waves through the coupling element, on which damage is modelled, is determined by coupling the FE and WFE models. Furthermore, the central aim is to evaluate the effect of pressurization on the wave dispersion and scattering characteristics of the prestressed structural system compared to that which is not prestressed. Numerical case studies are exhibited for two waveguides coupled through a coupling joint.

Keywords: Finite Element, Prestressed Structures, Wave Finite Element, Wave Propagation Properties, Wave Scattering Coefficients.

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16 Electrodeposition of NiO Films from Organic Solvent-Based Electrolytic Solutions for Solar Cell Application

Authors: Thierry Pauporté, Sana Koussi, Fabrice Odobel

Abstract:

The preparation of semiconductor oxide layers and structures by soft techniques is an important field of research. Higher performances are expected from the optimizing of the oxide films and then use of new methods of preparation for a better control of their chemical, morphological, electrical and optical properties. We present the preparation of NiO by electrodeposition from pure polar aprotic medium and mixtures with water. The effect of the solvent, of the electrochemical deposition parameters and post-deposition annealing treatment on the structural, morphological and optical properties of the films is investigated. We remarkably show that the solvent is inserted in the deposited layer and act as a blowing agent, giving rise to mesoporous films after elimination by thermal annealing. These layers of p-type oxide have been successfully used, after sensitization by a dye, in p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. The effects of the solvent on the layer properties and the application of these layers in p-type dye-sensitized solar cells are described.

Keywords: NiO, layer, p-type sensitized solar cells, electrodeposition

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15 Polarization of Glass with Positive and Negative Charge Carriers

Authors: Valentina V. Zhurikhina, Mihail I. Petrov, Alexandra A. Rtischeva, Mark Dussauze, Thierry Cardinal, Andrey A. Lipovskii

Abstract:

Polarization of glass, often referred to as thermal poling, is a well-known method to modify the glass physical and chemical properties, that manifest themselves in loosing central symmetry of the medium, glass structure and refractive index modification. The usage of the poling for second optical harmonic generation, fabrication of optical waveguides and electrooptic modulators was also reported. Nevertheless, the detailed description of the poling of glasses, containing multiple charge carriers is still under discussion. In particular, the role of possible migration of electrons in the space charge formation usually remains out of the question. In this work, we performed the numerical simulation of thermal poling of a silicate glass, containing Na, K, Mg, and Ca. We took into consideration the contribution of electrons in the polarization process. The possible explanation of migration of electrons can be the break of non-bridging oxygen bonds. It was found, that the modeled depth of the space charge region is about 10 times higher if the migration of the negative charges is taken under consideration. The simulated profiles of cations, participating in the polarization process, are in a good agreement with the experimental data, obtained by glow discharge spectroscopy.

Keywords: glass poling, charge transport, modeling, concentration profiles

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14 Calculating Collision Risk Exposures and Risk Probabilities at Container Terminals

Authors: Mohammad Ali Hasanzadeh, Thierry Vanelslander, Eddy Van De Voorde

Abstract:

Nowadays maritime transport is a key element in international trade and global supply chain. Economies of scale in transporting goods are one of the most attractive elements of using ships. Without maritime transport, almost no globalization of economics can be imagined. Within maritime transport, ports are the interface between lands and see. Even though using ships help cargo owners to have a competitive margin but an accident in port during loading or unloading or even moving cargoes within the terminal can diminish such margin. Statistics shows that due to the high-speed notion of activities within ports, collision accidents are the most common type of accidents. To mitigate such accidents, the appropriate risk exposures have to be defined and calculate, later on risk probabilities can be determined for each type of accident, i.e. fatal, severe, moderate and minor ones. Having such risk probabilities help managers to define the effectiveness of each collision risk control option. This research defined travelled distance as main collision risk exposure in container terminals, taking all the related items into consideration, it was calculated for Shahid Rajae container terminals. Following this finding, collision risk probabilities were computed.

Keywords: collision accident, container terminal, maritime transport, risk exposure

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13 Thermal Effect on Wave Interaction in Composite Structures

Authors: R. K. Apalowo, D. Chronopoulos, V. Thierry

Abstract:

There exist a wide range of failure modes in composite structures due to the increased usage of the structures especially in aerospace industry. Moreover, temperature dependent wave response of composite and layered structures have been continuously studied, though still limited, in the last decade mainly due to the broad operating temperature range of aerospace structures. A wave finite element (WFE) and finite element (FE) based computational method is presented by which the temperature dependent wave dispersion characteristics and interaction phenomenon in composite structures can be predicted. Initially, the temperature dependent mechanical properties of the panel in the range of -100 ◦C to 150 ◦C are measured experimentally using the Thermal Mechanical Analysis (TMA). Temperature dependent wave dispersion characteristics of each waveguide of the structural system, which is discretized as a system of a number of waveguides coupled by a coupling element, is calculated using the WFE approach. The wave scattering properties, as a function of temperature, is determined by coupling the WFE wave characteristics models of the waveguides with the full FE modelling of the coupling element on which defect is included. Numerical case studies are exhibited for two waveguides coupled through a coupling element.

Keywords: finite element, temperature dependency, wave dispersion characteristics, wave finite element, wave scattering properties

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12 Nonreciprocal Optical Effects in Plasmonic Nanoparticle Aggregates

Authors: Ward Brullot, Thierry Verbiest

Abstract:

Nonreciprocal optical effects, such as Faraday rotation or magnetic circular dichroism, are very useful both for fundamental studies as for applications such as magnetic field sensors or optical isolators. In this study, we developed layer-by-layer deposited 20nm thick plasmonic nanoparticle aggregates consisting of gold, silver and magnetite nanoparticles that show broadband nonreciprocal asymmetric transmission. As such, the optical transmittance, or absorbance, depends on the direction of light propagation in the material, which means that looking from one direction or the other, more or less light passes through the sample. Theoretical analysis showed that strong electric quadrupole fields, which are electric field gradients, occur in the aggregates and that these quadrupole fields are responsible for the observed asymmetric transmission and the nonreciprocity of the effect. Apart from nonreciprocal asymmetric transmission, also other effects such as, but not limited to, optical rotation, circular dichroism or nonlinear optical responses were measured in the plasmonic nanoparticle aggregates and the influences of the intense electric quadrupole fields determined. In conclusion, the presence of strong electric quadrupole fields make the developed plasmonic nanoparticle aggregates ideal candidates for the study and application of various nonreciprocal optical effects.

Keywords: asymmetric transmission, electric quadrupoles, nanoparticle aggregates, nonreciprocity

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11 Synchronous Courses Attendance in Distance Higher Education: Case Study of a Computer Science Department

Authors: Thierry Eude

Abstract:

The use of videoconferencing platforms adapted to teaching offers students the opportunity to take distance education courses in much the same way as traditional in-class training. The sessions can be recorded and they allow students the option of following the courses synchronously or asynchronously. Three typical profiles can then be distinguished: students who choose to follow the courses synchronously, students who could attend the course in synchronous mode but choose to follow the session off-line, and students who follow the course asynchronously as they cannot attend the course when it is offered because of professional or personal constraints. Our study consists of observing attendance at all distance education courses offered in the synchronous mode by the Computer Science and Software Engineering Department at Laval University during 10 consecutive semesters. The aim is to identify factors that influence students in their choice of attending the distance courses in synchronous mode. It was found that participation tends to be relatively stable over the years for any one semester (fall, winter summer) and is similar from one course to another, although students may be increasingly familiar with the synchronous distance education courses. Average participation is around 28%. There may be deviations, but they concern only a few courses during certain semesters, suggesting that these deviations would only have occurred because of the composition of particular promotions during specific semesters. Furthermore, course schedules have a great influence on the attendance rate. The highest rates are all for courses which are scheduled outside office hours.

Keywords: attendance, distance undergraduate education in computer science, student behavior, synchronous e-learning

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10 Design of an Ensemble Learning Behavior Anomaly Detection Framework

Authors: Abdoulaye Diop, Nahid Emad, Thierry Winter, Mohamed Hilia

Abstract:

Data assets protection is a crucial issue in the cybersecurity field. Companies use logical access control tools to vault their information assets and protect them against external threats, but they lack solutions to counter insider threats. Nowadays, insider threats are the most significant concern of security analysts. They are mainly individuals with legitimate access to companies information systems, which use their rights with malicious intents. In several fields, behavior anomaly detection is the method used by cyber specialists to counter the threats of user malicious activities effectively. In this paper, we present the step toward the construction of a user and entity behavior analysis framework by proposing a behavior anomaly detection model. This model combines machine learning classification techniques and graph-based methods, relying on linear algebra and parallel computing techniques. We show the utility of an ensemble learning approach in this context. We present some detection methods tests results on an representative access control dataset. The use of some explored classifiers gives results up to 99% of accuracy.

Keywords: cybersecurity, data protection, access control, insider threat, user behavior analysis, ensemble learning, high performance computing

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9 Enhancement of Dune Sand from the Western Erg (Algeria) in the Formulation of New Concrete

Authors: Ahmed Tafraoui, Gilles Escadeillas, Thierry Vidal

Abstract:

The southern Algeria is known for its huge sand dunes that cover part of its territory (Sahara). This sand has features that allow a glimpse of a recovery in the construction field in the form of Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC). This type of concrete using a large amount of silica fume, ultra fine addition that gives very high performance but is also relatively rare and expensive. Replacing it with another addition to equivalent properties, such as metakaolin, can also be considered. The objective of this study is to both enhance the sand dunes of Erg south west western Algeria but also reduce manufacturing costs of Ultra High Performance Concrete to incorporating metakaolin to instead of silica fume. Performances to determine mechanical performance are instantaneous, compression and bending. Initially, we characterized the Algerian sand dune. Then, we have to find a formulation of UHPC, adequate in terms of implementation and to replace silica fume by metakaolin. Finally, we studied the actual value of the sand dune. Concrete obtained have very high mechanical performance, up to a compressive strength of 250 MPa, a tensile strength of 45 MPa by bending with the method of heat treatment. This study shows that the enhancement of dune sand studied is quite possible in UHPC, and in particular UHPC bundles and the replacement of silica fume by metakaolin do not alter the properties of these concretes.

Keywords: Ultra High Performance Concrete, sand dune, formulations, silica fume, metakaolin, strength

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8 Nutritive Value of Three-Stage Olive Cake (Olea europaea L.) for Growing Rabbit

Authors: Zahia Dorbane, Si Ammar Kadi, Dalila Boudouma, Thierry Gidenne

Abstract:

In rabbits feeding, minimum fibre intake is essential to avoid digestive disorders. However, this concentration of fibre is not easy to obtain when formulating feeds, without reduction of nutritional value. Three stage olive cake, the residual material after oil extraction by centrifugation, including pulp and stones, can be used as a fibre source in rabbit diet. The incorporation of olive cake can allow a better balance between different fibre fractions and reduce health disorder. However, for practical use of any raw material, it is necessary to know its chemical and nutritive value. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritive value of three-stage olive cake (TSOC) for growing rabbits. Thus, 36 rabbits weaned at 35 days (702.8 ± 28.5) were divided into three groups of 12 receiving one of the following diets: control with 0% of TSOC, TSOC10 (10% of TSOC) and TSOC20 (20% TSOC). The rabbits were individually housed in digestibility cages and received ad libitum one of the three diets, fresh and clean water was provided ad libitum. After an adaptation period of 7d, feces were collected for 4d. Collected feces were frozen and stored for further analysis. The chemical composition of TSOC shows that it is a rich fiber raw material since it contains (%DM): 6% of CP; 7.4% of EE; 78.7% of NDF; 55.4% of ADF and 24.3% of ADL. The inclusion of TSOC at 20% of basal diet reduced the digestibility coefficient of organic matter, crude protein and NDF from 67.8 to 55.3%, 80.4 to 75.3% and from 31.5 to 18.4% (p < 0.001) respectively. The digestible energy and digestible protein content of the three-stage olive cake estimated by regression was 2.94 ± 0.52MJ DE/kg DM and 22.4 ± 6 g DP/kg DM respectively. In conclusion, based on the results of the present experiment, the three-stage olive cake can be used as a fibre source for rabbit.

Keywords: digestibility, nutritive value, olive cake, rabbit

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7 Borassus aethiopum Mart Mature Fruits Macro-Composition, Drying Temperature Effect on Its Pulp Protein, Fat, Sugars, Metabolizable Energy, and Fatty Acids Profile

Authors: Tagouelbe Tiho, Amissa Augustin Adima, Yao Casimir Brou, Nabayo Traore, Gouha Firmin Kouassi, Thierry Roland Kouame, Maryline Kouba

Abstract:

The work aimed to study Borassus aethiopum Mart (B.a) dried pulp nutritional value for its incorporation in human and poultry diets. Firstly, the mature fruit macro-composition was assessed. Secondly, the pulp was dried at 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80ᵒC. Thereafter, the analysis was performed for fat, protein, total sugars, Ca, P, Mg, and fatty acid profile monitoring. As a result, the fruits weighed 1,591.35, delivered 516.73, and 677.82 grams of pulp and seeds, respectively. Mainly, increasing heat adversely affected the outputs. Consequently, the fat results were 14.12, 12.97, 8.93, 8.89ᶜ, and 5.56%; protein contents were 11.64, 10.15, 8.97, 8.84, and 8.42%; total sugar deliveries were 6.28, 6.05, 5.26, 5.02, and 4.76% (P < 0.01). Thereafter, the metabolizable energies were 3,785.22; 3,834.28; 3,616.62; 3,667.03; and 3,608.33 kcal/kg (DM). Additionally, Calcium (Ca) contents were 0.51, 0.55, 0.69, 0.77, and 0.81%, while phosphorus (P) mean was 0.17%, and the differences were not significant (P < 0.01). So, the Ca/P ratios were 2.79, 3.04, 4.10, 4.71, and 4.95. Finally, fatty acids (FA) assessments revealed 22.33 saturated (SFA), 77.67 unsaturated (UFA), within which 67.59% were monounsaturated (MUFA). Interestingly, the rising heat depressed n-6/n-3 ratios that were 1.1, 1.1, 0.45 and 0.38, respectively at 40, 50, 70 and 80ᵒC. In short, drying did not only enhance the product shelf life but it also improved the nutritional value. Thus, B.a mature fruit pulps dried at 70ᵒC are good functional foods, with more than 66% MUFA, and energy source for human and poultry nutrition.

Keywords: Borassus aethiopum Mart, fatty acids, metabolizable energy, minerals, protein

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6 MAGE-A3 and PRAME Gene Expression and EGFR Mutation Status in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

Authors: Renata Checiches, Thierry Coche, Nicolas F. Delahaye, Albert Linder, Fernando Ulloa Montoya, Olivier Gruselle, Karen Langfeld, An de Creus, Bart Spiessens, Vincent G. Brichard, Jamila Louahed, Frédéric F. Lehmann

Abstract:

Background: The RNA-expression levels of cancer-testis antigens MAGE A3 and PRAME were determined in resected tissue from patients with primary non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and related to clinical outcome. EGFR, KRAS and BRAF mutation status was determined in a subset to investigate associations with MAGE A3 and PRAME expression. Methods: We conducted a single-centre, uncontrolled, retrospective study of 1260 tissue-bank samples from stage IA-III resected NSCLC. The prognostic value of antigen expression (qRT-PCR) was determined by hazard-ratio and Kaplan-Meier curves. Results: Thirty-seven percent (314/844) of tumours expressed MAGE-A3, 66% (723/1092) expressed PRAME and 31% (239/839) expressed both. Respective frequencies in squamous-cell tumours and adenocarcinomas were 43%/30% for MAGE A3 and 80%/44% for PRAME. No correlation with stage, tumour size or patient age was found. Overall, no prognostic value was identified for either antigen. A trend to poorer overall survival was associated with MAGE-A3 in stage IIIB and with PRAME in stage IB. EGFR and KRAS mutations were found in 10.1% (28/311) and 33.8% (97/311) of tumours, respectively. EGFR (but not KRAS) mutation status was negatively associated with PRAME expression. Conclusion: No clear prognostic value for either PRAME or MAGE A3 was observed in the overall population, although some observed trends may warrant further investigation.

Keywords: MAGE A3, PRAME, cancer-testis gene, NSCLC, survival, EGFR

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5 Lignin Pyrolysis to Value-Added Chemicals: A Mechanistic Approach

Authors: Binod Shrestha, Sandrine Hoppe, Thierry Ghislain, Phillipe Marchal, Nicolas Brosse, Anthony Dufour

Abstract:

The thermochemical conversion of lignin has received an increasing interest in the frame of different biorefinery concepts for the production of chemicals or energy. It is needed to better understand the physical and chemical conversion of lignin for feeder and reactor designs. In-situ rheology reveals the viscoelastic behaviour of lignin upon thermal conversion. The softening, re-solidification (char formation), swelling and shrinking behaviours are quantified during pyrolysis in real-time [1]. The in-situ rheology of an alkali lignin (Protobind 1000) was conducted in high torque controlled strain rheometer from 35°C to 400°C with a heating rate of 5°C.min-1. The swelling, through glass phase transition overlapped with depolymerization, and solidification (crosslinking and “char” formation) are two main phenomena observed during lignin pyrolysis. The onset of temperatures for softening and solidification for this lignin has been found to be 141°C and 248°C respectively. An ex-situ characterization of lignin/char residues obtained at different temperatures after quenching in the rheometer gives a clear understanding of the pathway of lignin degradation. The lignin residues were sampled from the mid-point temperatures of the softening range and solidification range to study the chemical transformations undergoing. Elemental analysis, FTIR and solid state NMR were conducted after quenching the solid residues (lignin/char). The quenched solid was also extracted by suitable solvent and followed by acetylation and GPC-UV analysis. The combination of 13C NMR and GPC-UV reveals the depolymerization followed by crosslinking of lignin/char. NMR and FTIR provide the evolution of functional moieties upon temperature. Physical and chemical mechanisms occurring during lignin pyrolysis are accounted in this study. Thanks to all these complementary methods.

Keywords: pyrolysis, bio-chemicals, valorization, mechanism, softening, solidification, cross linking, rheology, spectroscopic methods

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4 The Dressing Field Method of Gauge Symmetries Reduction: Presentation and Examples

Authors: Jeremy Attard, Jordan François, Serge Lazzarini, Thierry Masson

Abstract:

Gauge theories are the natural background for describing geometrically fundamental interactions using principal and associated fiber bundles as dynamical entities. The central notion of these theories is their local gauge symmetry implemented by the local action of a Lie group H. There exist several methods used to reduce the symmetry of a gauge theory, like gauge fixing, bundle reduction theorem or spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanism (SSBM). This paper is a presentation of another method of gauge symmetry reduction, distinct from those three. Given a symmetry group H acting on a fiber bundle and its naturally associated fields (Ehresmann (or Cartan) connection, curvature, matter fields, etc.) there sometimes exists a way to erase (in whole or in part) the H-action by just reconfiguring these fields, i.e. by making a mere change of field variables in order to get new (‘composite‘) fields on which H (in whole or in part) does not act anymore. Two examples: the re-interpretation of the BEHGHK (Higgs) mechanism, on the one hand, and the top-down construction of Tractor and Penrose's Twistor spaces and connections in the framework of conformal Cartan geometry, one the other, will be discussed. They have, of course, nothing to do with each other but the dressing field method can be applied on both to get a new insight. In the first example, it turns out, indeed, that generation of masses in the Standard Model can be separated from the symmetry breaking, the latter being a mere change of field variables, i.e. a dressing. This offers an interpretation in opposition with the one usually found in textbooks. In the second case, the dressing field method applied to the conformal Cartan geometry offer a way of understanding the deep geometric nature of the so-called Tractors and Twistors. The dressing field method, distinct from a gauge transformation (even if it can have apparently the same form), is a systematic way of finding and erasing artificial symmetries of a theory, by a mere change of field variables which redistributes the degrees of freedom of the theories.

Keywords: BEHGHK (Higgs) mechanism, conformal gravity, gauge theory, spontaneous symmetry breaking, symmetry reduction, twistors and tractors

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3 Innovation Management in State-Owned-Enterprises in the Digital Transformation: An Empirical Case Study of Swiss Post

Authors: Jiayun Shen, Lorenz Wyss, Thierry Golliard, Matthias Finger

Abstract:

Innovation is widely recognized as the key for private enterprises to win the market competition. The state-owned-enterprises need to be innovative to compete in the market after the privatization as well. However, it is a lack of research to study how state-owned-enterprises manage innovation to create new products and services. Swiss Post, a Swiss state-owned-enterprises, has established a department to transform the corporate culture and foster innovation to achieve digital transformation. This paper describes the innovation management process at the Swiss Post and analyzes the impacts of the instruments, the organizational structure, and explores the barriers of innovation. This study used qualitative methods based on a review of the literature on innovation management and semi-structured interviews. Being established for over five years, the Swiss Post’s innovation management department has established a software-assisted modularized platform with systematic instruments to help the internal employees with the different innovation processes. It guides the innovators from idea creation to piloting in markets and supports with a separate financing source, with knowledge inputs and coaching, as well as with connections to external partners through the open innovation and venturing team. The platform also adapts to different business units within the corporate with a customized tailor for the various operational business units. The separate financing instruments enabled the creation and further development of new ideas; the coaching services contribute greatly to the transformation of teams’ innovation culture by providing new knowledge, thinking methods, and use cases for inspiration. It also facilitates organizational learning to help the whole corporate with the digital transformation. However, it is also confronted with a big challenge in twofold. Internally, the disruptive projects often hardly overcome the obstacles of long-established operational processes in the traditional business units; externally, the expectations of the public and restrictions from the federal government have become high hurdles for the company to stay and compete in the innovation track.

Keywords: empirical case study, innovation management, state-owned-enterprise, Swiss Post

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2 Syntheses in Polyol Medium of Inorganic Oxides with Various Smart Optical Properties

Authors: Shian Guan, Marie Bourdin, Isabelle Trenque, Younes Messaddeq, Thierry Cardinal, Nicolas Penin, Issam Mjejri, Aline Rougier, Etienne Duguet, Stephane Mornet, Manuel Gaudon

Abstract:

At the interface of the studies performed by 3 Ph.D. students: Shian Guan (2017-2020), Marie Bourdin (2016-2019) and Isabelle Trenque (2012-2015), a single synthesis route: polyol-mediated process, was used with success for the preparation of different inorganic oxides. Both of these inorganic oxides were elaborated for their potential application as smart optical compounds. This synthesis route has allowed us to develop nanoparticles of zinc oxide, vanadium oxide or tungsten oxide. This route is with easy implementation, inexpensive and with large-scale production potentialities and leads to materials of high purity. The obtaining by this route of nanometric particles, however perfectly crystalline, has notably led to the possibility of doping these matrix materials with high doping ion concentrations (high solubility limits). Thus, Al3+ or Ga3+ doped-ZnO powder, with high doping rate in comparison with the literature, exhibits remarkable infrared absorption properties thanks to their high free carrier density. Note also that due to the narrow particle size distribution of the as-prepared nanometric doped-ZnO powder, the original correlation between crystallite size and unit-cell parameters have been established. Also, depending on the annealing atmosphere use to treat vanadium precursors, VO2, V2O3 or V2O5 oxides with thermochromic or electrochromic properties can be obtained without any impurity, despite the versatility of the oxidation state of vanadium. This is of more particular interest on vanadium dioxide, a relatively difficult-to-prepare oxide, whose first-order metal-insulator phase transition is widely explored in the literature for its thermochromic behavior (in smart windows with optimal thermal insulation). Finally, the reducing nature of the polyol solvents ensures the production of oxygen-deficient tungsten oxide, thus conferring to the nano-powders exotic colorimetric properties, as well as optimized photochromic and electrochromic behaviors.

Keywords: inorganic oxides, electrochromic, photochromic, thermochromic

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1 An Adaptive Decomposition for the Variability Analysis of Observation Time Series in Geophysics

Authors: Olivier Delage, Thierry Portafaix, Hassan Bencherif, Guillaume Guimbretiere

Abstract:

Most observation data sequences in geophysics can be interpreted as resulting from the interaction of several physical processes at several time and space scales. As a consequence, measurements time series in geophysics have often characteristics of non-linearity and non-stationarity and thereby exhibit strong fluctuations at all time-scales and require a time-frequency representation to analyze their variability. Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) is a relatively new technic as part of a more general signal processing method called the Hilbert-Huang transform. This analysis method turns out to be particularly suitable for non-linear and non-stationary signals and consists in decomposing a signal in an auto adaptive way into a sum of oscillating components named IMFs (Intrinsic Mode Functions), and thereby acts as a bank of bandpass filters. The advantages of the EMD technic are to be entirely data driven and to provide the principal variability modes of the dynamics represented by the original time series. However, the main limiting factor is the frequency resolution that may give rise to the mode mixing phenomenon where the spectral contents of some IMFs overlap each other. To overcome this problem, J. Gilles proposed an alternative entitled “Empirical Wavelet Transform” (EWT) which consists in building from the segmentation of the original signal Fourier spectrum, a bank of filters. The method used is based on the idea utilized in the construction of both Littlewood-Paley and Meyer’s wavelets. The heart of the method lies in the segmentation of the Fourier spectrum based on the local maxima detection in order to obtain a set of non-overlapping segments. Because linked to the Fourier spectrum, the frequency resolution provided by EWT is higher than that provided by EMD and therefore allows to overcome the mode-mixing problem. On the other hand, if the EWT technique is able to detect the frequencies involved in the original time series fluctuations, EWT does not allow to associate the detected frequencies to a specific mode of variability as in the EMD technic. Because EMD is closer to the observation of physical phenomena than EWT, we propose here a new technic called EAWD (Empirical Adaptive Wavelet Decomposition) based on the coupling of the EMD and EWT technics by using the IMFs density spectral content to optimize the segmentation of the Fourier spectrum required by EWT. In this study, EMD and EWT technics are described, then EAWD technic is presented. Comparison of results obtained respectively by EMD, EWT and EAWD technics on time series of ozone total columns recorded at Reunion island over [1978-2019] period is discussed. This study was carried out as part of the SOLSTYCE project dedicated to the characterization and modeling of the underlying dynamics of time series issued from complex systems in atmospheric sciences

Keywords: adaptive filtering, empirical mode decomposition, empirical wavelet transform, filter banks, mode-mixing, non-linear and non-stationary time series, wavelet

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