Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 44

Search results for: Tania Ali Soomro

44 Methodology of Preliminary Design and Performance of a Axial-Flow Fan through CFD

Authors: Ramiro Gustavo Ramirez Camacho, Waldir De Oliveira, Eraldo Cruz Dos Santos, Edna Raimunda Da Silva, Tania Marie Arispe Angulo, Carlos Eduardo Alves Da Costa, Tânia Cristina Alves Dos Reis

Abstract:

It presents a preliminary design methodology of an axial fan based on the lift wing theory and the potential vortex hypothesis. The literature considers a study of acoustic and engineering expertise to model a fan with low noise. Axial fans with inadequate intake geometry, often suffer poor condition of the flow at the entrance, varying from velocity profiles spatially asymmetric to swirl floating with respect to time, this produces random forces acting on the blades. This produces broadband gust noise which in most cases triggers the tonal noise. The analysis of the axial flow fan will be conducted for the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations and models of turbulence in steady and transitory (RANS - URANS) 3-D, in order to find an efficient aerodynamic design, with low noise and suitable for industrial installation. Therefore, the process will require the use of computational optimization methods, aerodynamic design methodologies, and numerical methods as CFD- Computational Fluid Dynamics. The objective is the development of the methodology of the construction axial fan, provide of design the geometry of the blade, and evaluate aerodynamic performance

Keywords: Axial fan design, CFD, Preliminary Design, Optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
43 State of Conservation of the British Colonial Architectural Heritage of Karachi: Case Study of Damage Mapping of Empress Market Building

Authors: Tania Ali Soomro

Abstract:

In 1839, the British, after the annexation of the port city of Karachi, established a new urban centre consisting of various quarters and introduced new settlements there. These quarters were out of the boundaries of fortified native old area and now contain much of the oldest parts of the city and signify the colonial history of Karachi, in particular the Saddar Bazaar and the neighboring areas of Kharadar and Mithadar. These quarters bestow a mix of functional typology built in a hybrid form of construction - an adaptation of the western architectural attributes to regional requirements and characteristics. This approach is referred to as the Anglo Vernacular, Colonial or the Domestic Gothic architectural form. This research paper investigates the historical and architectural value of one such property: the Empress Market designed by then Municipal Architect, Ar. James Strachan in 1889 as a commemorative monument for the jubilee of Her Majesty the Queen Victoria; Empress of British India, at that time. This paper presents information on the present conservation status of the market building and highlights its role as a catalyst to the community interconnection. This building has survived to present day and functioned well, despite undergoing numerous transformations. A detailed analysis of the bio-degradation (Natural-Chemical dissolution of material) and the bio-deterioration (Manmade-Negative state change of the material) of the building, based on the examination of the prevailing causes of these bio-alterations is carried out, and is presented in form of a damage atlas containing both the categories of bio-alteration/ changes occurred to the building over the time. The research methodology followed in this paper starts with the available archival analysis, physical observation, photographic documentation, the statistics review and the interviews with the direct and indirect stakeholders. The results and findings of this research portray that these bio-alterations and changes are the essential part of the life cycle of Empress Market building which illustrate the historic development of the premise and therefore ought to be given due importance (depending upon their condition) while developing the conservation plan for the building.

Keywords: British colonial architecture, bio-alteration, bio-degradation, bio-deterioration, domestic gothic architectural form

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
42 An Embedded System for Early Detection of Gas Leakage in Hospitals and Industries

Authors: Sehreen Moorat, Hiba, Maham Mahnoor, Faryal Soomro

Abstract:

Leakage of gases in a system makes infrastructures and users vulnerable; it can occur due to its environmental conditions or old groundwork. In hospitals and industries, it is very important to detect any small level of gas leakage because of their sensitivity. In this research, a portable detection system for the small leakage of gases has been developed, gas sensor (MQ-2) is used to find leakage when it’s at its initial phase. The sensor and transmitting module senses the change in level of gas by using a sensing circuit. When a concentration of gas reach at a specified threshold level, it will activate an alarm and send the alarming situation notification to receiver through GSM module. The proposed system works well in hospitals, home, and industries.

Keywords: gases, detection, Arduino, MQ-2, alarm

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
41 Cricket Injury Surveillence by Mobile Application Technology on Smartphones

Authors: Najeebullah Soomro, Habib Noorbhai, Mariam Soomro, Ross Sanders

Abstract:

The demands on cricketers are increasing with more matches being played in a shorter period of time with a greater intensity. A ten year report on injury incidence for Australian elite cricketers between the 2000- 2011 seasons revealed an injury incidence rate of 17.4%.1. In the 2009–10 season, 24 % of Australian fast bowlers missed matches through injury. 1 Injury rates are even higher in junior cricketers with an injury incidence of 25% or 2.9 injuries per 100 player hours reported. 2 Traditionally, injury surveillance has relied on the use of paper based forms or complex computer software. 3,4 This makes injury reporting laborious for the staff involved. The purpose of this presentation is to describe a smartphone based mobile application as a means of improving injury surveillance in cricket. Methods: The researchers developed CricPredict mobile App for the Android platforms, the world’s most widely used smartphone platform. It uses Qt SDK (Software Development Kit) as IDE (Integrated Development Environment). C++ was used as the programming language with the Qt framework, which provides us with cross-platform abilities that will allow this app to be ported to other operating systems (iOS, Mac, Windows) in the future. The wireframes (graphic user interface) were developed using Justinmind Prototyper Pro Edition Version (Ver. 6.1.0). CricPredict enables recording of injury and training status conveniently and immediately. When an injury is reported automated follow-up questions include site of injury, nature of injury, mechanism of injury, initial treatment, referral and action taken after injury. Direct communication with the player then enables assessment of severity and diagnosis. CricPredict also allows the coach to maintain and track each player’s attendance at matches and training session. Workload data can also be recorded by either the player or coach by recording the number of balls bowled or played in a day. This is helpful in formulating injury rates and time lost due to injuries. All the data are stored at a secured password protected data server. Outcomes and Significance: Use of CricPredit offers a simple, user friendly tool for the coaching or medical staff associated with teams to predict, record and report injuries. This system will assist teams to capture injury data with ease thus allowing better understanding of injuries associated with cricket and potentially optimize the performance of such cricketers.

Keywords: injury, cricket, surveillance, smartphones, mobile

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
40 Sustainable tourism and tourism product development conference – Praga

Authors: Ana Rita Conde, Pilar Mota, Tânia Botelho, Carlos Rodrigues, Osvaldo Silva, Áurea Sousa, Suzana Caldeira, Isabel Rego, Jéssica Pacheco

Abstract:

Families with children with ASD are interested in traveling but end up not traveling due to the obstacles they face and not finding inclusive traveling offers. This study will identify the needs of families with children with ASD, to develop the products targeted to their tourist needs. 137 families from different countries answered a questionnaire about their travel experiences, needs and preferences. Based on the results, guidelines are presented for the development of products specially aimed for this market niche.

Keywords: inclusive tourism, sustainability, autism spectrum disorder, children, families

Procedia PDF Downloads 12
39 Implementation and Validation of Therapeutic Tourism Products for Families With Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder in Azores Islands: “Azores All in Blue” Project

Authors: Ana Rita Conde, Pilar Mota, Tânia Botelho, Suzana Caldeira, Isabel Rego, Jessica Pacheco, Osvaldo Silva, Áurea Sousa

Abstract:

Tourism promotes well-being and health to children with ASD and their families. Literature indicates the need to provide tourist activities that integrate the therapeutic component, to promote the development and well-being of children with ASD. The study aims to implement tourist offers in Azores that integrate the therapeutic feature, assess their suitability and impact on the well-being and health of the child and caregivers. Using a mixed methodology, the study integrates families that experience and evaluate the impact of tourism products developed specifically for them.

Keywords: austism spectrum disorder, children, therapeutic tourism activities, well-being, health, inclusive tourism

Procedia PDF Downloads 12
38 Treatment-Bed of Coal Fly Ash for Dyes and Pigments Industry

Authors: Mir Shahnawaz Jagirani, Aziza Aftab, Noorullah Soomro, Syed Farman Ali Shah, Kambiz Vafai

Abstract:

Utilization of indigenous adsorbent bed of power plant waste ash briquettes, a porous medium was used first time in Pakistan for low cost treatment facility for the toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant effectively and economically. This could replace costly treatment facilities, such as reverse osmosis (RO) and the beds, containing imported and commercial grade expensive Granulated Activated Carbon (GAC).This bed was coupled with coagulants (Ferrous Sulphate and Lime) and found more effective. The coal fired ash (CFA) was collected from coal fired boilers of Lakhra Power Generation Company, Jamshoro, Pakistan. The use of this bed resolved the disposal and environmental issues and treated waste water of chemicals, dyes and pigment manufacturing plant. The bed reduced COD, color, turbidity and TSS remarkably. An adsorptive capacity and chemical behavior of fly ash bed was also studied. In coagulation treatment alone, elimination of COD by 32%, color by 48%, and turbidity by 50% and TSS by 51% respectively. When the bed was coupled with coagulants, it resulted an excessive removal of Color 88%, TSS 92%, COD 67% and Turbidity 89%. Its regeneration was also inexpensive and simple.

Keywords: coal fly ash, spheres, dyes, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
37 Energy Efficiency Analysis of Electrical Submersible Pump on Mature Oil Field Offshore Java Sea

Authors: Marda Vidrianto, Tania Surya Utami

Abstract:

Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP) is an artificial lift of choice to produce oil on Offshore Java Sea. It is selected based on the production rate capacity and running life expectation. ESP performance in a mature field is highly affected by oil well conditions. The presence of sand, scale, gas, and low influx will create unstable ESP operation hence lowering the run life expectation and system efficiency. This paper reviews the current energy usage and efficiency on every part of the ESP system. The hydraulic and electrical losses, as well as system efficiency for each well, are calculated to identify energy losses and the possibility for improvement. It is shown that high back pressure on the system and low-efficiency pump are the major contributors to energy losses. It was found that optimized production rate and the use of advanced technology on pump and motor unit could improve energy efficiency.

Keywords: advance technology, energy efficiency, ESP, mature field, production rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
36 Design, Modelling, and Fabrication of Bioinspired Frog Robot for Synchronous and Asynchronous Swimming

Authors: Afaque Manzoor Soomro, Faheem Ahmed, Fida Hussain Memon, Kyung Hyun Choi

Abstract:

This paper proposes the bioinspired soft frog robot. All printing technology was used for the fabrication of the robot. Polyjet printing was used to print the front and back limbs, while ultrathin filament was used to print the body of the robot, which makes it a complete soft swimming robot. The dual thrust generation approach has been proposed by embedding the main muscle and antagonistic muscle in all the limbs, which enables it to attain high speed (18 mm/s), and significant control of swimming in dual modes (synchronous and asynchronous modes). To achieve the swimming motion of the frog, the design, motivated by the rigorous modelling and real frog dynamics analysis, enabled the as-developed frog robot (FROBOT) to swim at a significant level of consistency with the real frog. The FROBOT (weighing 65 g) can swim at different controllable frequencies (0.5–2Hz) and can turn in any direction by following custom-made LabVIEW software’s commands which enables it to swim at speed up to 18 mm/s on the surface of deep water (100 cm) with excellent weight balance.

Keywords: soft robotics, soft actuator, frog robot, 3D printing

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
35 Modified Newton's Iterative Method for Solving System of Nonlinear Equations in Two Variables

Authors: Sara Mahesar, Saleem M. Chandio, Hira Soomro

Abstract:

Nonlinear system of equations in two variables is a system which contains variables of degree greater or equal to two or that comprises of the transcendental functions. Mathematical modeling of numerous physical problems occurs as a system of nonlinear equations. In applied and pure mathematics it is the main dispute to solve a system of nonlinear equations. Numerical techniques mainly used for finding the solution to problems where analytical methods are failed, which leads to the inexact solutions. To find the exact roots or solutions in case of the system of non-linear equations there does not exist any analytical technique. Various methods have been proposed to solve such systems with an improved rate of convergence and accuracy. In this paper, a new scheme is developed for solving system of non-linear equation in two variables. The iterative scheme proposed here is modified form of the conventional Newton’s Method (CN) whose order of convergence is two whereas the order of convergence of the devised technique is three. Furthermore, the detailed error and convergence analysis of the proposed method is also examined. Additionally, various numerical test problems are compared with the results of its counterpart conventional Newton’s Method (CN) which confirms the theoretic consequences of the proposed method.

Keywords: conventional Newton’s method, modified Newton’s method, order of convergence, system of nonlinear equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
34 Synthesis, Characterization and Coating of the Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Cotton Fabric by Mechanical Thermo-Fixation Techniques to Impart Antimicrobial Activity

Authors: Imana Shahrin Tania, Mohammad Ali

Abstract:

The present study reports the synthesis, characterization and application of nano-sized zinc-oxide (ZnO) particles on a cotton fabric surface. The aim of the investigations is to impart the antimicrobial activity on textile cloth. Nanoparticle is synthesized by wet chemical method from zinc sulphate and sodium hydroxide. SEM (scanning electron micrograph) images are taken to demonstrate the surface morphology of nanoparticles. XRD analysis is done to determine the crystal size of the nanoparticle. With the conformation of nanoformation, the cotton woven fabric is treated with ZnO nanoparticle by mechanical thermo-fixation (pad-dry-cure) technique. To increase the wash durability of nano treated fabric, an acrylic binder is used as a fixing agent. The treated fabric shows up to 90% bacterial reduction for S. aureus (Staphylococcus aureus) and 87% for E. coli (Escherichia coli) which is appreciable for bacteria protective clothing.

Keywords: nanoparticle, zinc oxide, cotton fabric, antibacterial activity, binder

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
33 Image Segmentation Using Active Contours Based on Anisotropic Diffusion

Authors: Shafiullah Soomro

Abstract:

Active contour is one of the image segmentation techniques and its goal is to capture required object boundaries within an image. In this paper, we propose a novel image segmentation method by using an active contour method based on anisotropic diffusion feature enhancement technique. The traditional active contour methods use only pixel information to perform segmentation, which produces inaccurate results when an image has some noise or complex background. We use Perona and Malik diffusion scheme for feature enhancement, which sharpens the object boundaries and blurs the background variations. Our main contribution is the formulation of a new SPF (signed pressure force) function, which uses global intensity information across the regions. By minimizing an energy function using partial differential framework the proposed method captures semantically meaningful boundaries instead of catching uninterested regions. Finally, we use a Gaussian kernel which eliminates the problem of reinitialization in level set function. We use several synthetic and real images from different modalities to validate the performance of the proposed method. In the experimental section, we have found the proposed method performance is better qualitatively and quantitatively and yield results with higher accuracy compared to other state-of-the-art methods.

Keywords: active contours, anisotropic diffusion, level-set, partial differential equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
32 Effect of Linear Thermal Gradient on Steady-State Creep Behavior of Isotropic Rotating Disc

Authors: Minto Rattan, Tania Bose, Neeraj Chamoli

Abstract:

The present paper investigates the effect of linear thermal gradient on the steady-state creep behavior of rotating isotropic disc using threshold stress based Sherby’s creep law. The composite discs made of aluminum matrix reinforced with silicon carbide particulate has been taken for analysis. The stress and strain rate distributions have been calculated for discs rotating at linear thermal gradation using von Mises’ yield criterion. The material parameters have been estimated by regression fit of the available experimental data. The results are displayed and compared graphically in designer friendly format for the above said temperature profile with the disc operating under uniform temperature profile. It is observed that radial and tangential stresses show minor variation and the strain rates vary significantly in the presence of thermal gradation as compared to disc having uniform temperature.

Keywords: creep, isotropic, steady-state, thermal gradient

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
31 Effect of Internal Heat Generation on Free Convective Power Law Variable Temperature Past Vertical Plate Considering Exponential Variable Viscosity and Thermal Diffusivity

Authors: Tania Sharmin Khaleque, Mohammad Ferdows

Abstract:

The flow and heat transfer characteristics of a convection with temperature-dependent viscosity and thermal diffusivity along a vertical plate with internal heat generation effect have been studied. The plate temperature is assumed to follow a power law of the distance from the leading edge. The resulting governing two-dimensional equations are transformed using suitable transformations and then solved numerically by using fifth order Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg scheme with a modified version of the Newton-Raphson shooting method. The effects of the various parameters such as variable viscosity parameter β_1, the thermal diffusivity parameter β_2, heat generation parameter c and the Prandtl number Pr on the velocity and temperature profiles, as well as the local skin- friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are presented in tabular form. Our results suggested that the presence of internal heat generation leads to increase flow than that of without exponentially decaying heat generation term.

Keywords: free convection, heat generation, thermal diffusivity, variable viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
30 Social Impact Evaluation in the Housing Sector

Authors: Edgard Barki, Tânia Modesto Veludo-de-Oliveira, Felipe Zambaldi

Abstract:

The social enterprise sector can be characterized as organizations that aim to solve social problems with financial sustainability and using market mechanisms. This sector has shown an increasing interest worldwide. Despite the growth and relevance of the sector, there is still a gap regarding the assessment of the social impact resulting from the initiatives of the organizations in this field. A number of metrics have been designed worldwide to evaluate the impact of social enterprises (e.g., IRIS, GIIRS, BACO), as well as some ad hoc studies that have been carried out, mainly in the microcredit sector, but there is still a gap to be filled in the development of research in social impact evaluation. Therefore, this research seeks to evaluate the social impact of two social enterprises (Terra Nova and Vivenda) in the area of housing in Brazil. To evaluate these impacts and their dimensions, we conducted an exploratory research, through three focus groups, thirty in-depth interviews and a survey with beneficiaries of both organizations. The results allowed us to evaluate how the two organizations were able to create a deep social impact in the populations served. Terra Nova has a more collective perspective, with a clear benefit of social inclusion and improvement of the community’s infrastructure, while Vivenda has a more individualized perspective, improving self-esteem, sociability and family coexistence.

Keywords: Brazil, housing, social enterprise, social impact evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
29 Digital Activism and the Individual: A Utilitarian Perspective

Authors: Tania Mitra

Abstract:

Digital Activism or Cyber Activism uses digital media as a means to disseminate information and mobilize masses towards a specific goal. When digital activism was first born in the early 1990s, it was primarily used by groups of organized political activists. However, with the advent of social media, online activism has filtered down to the individual- one who does not necessarily belong to or identify with an agenda, group, or political party. A large part of digital activism today stems from the individual’s notion of what is right and wrong. This gives rise to a discourse around descriptive ethics and the implications of the independent digital activist. Although digital activism has paved the way for and bolstered support for causes like the MeToo Movement and Black Lives Matter, the lack of a unified, organized body has led to counterintuitive progressions and suspicions regarding the movements. The paper introduces the ideas of 'clout' culture, click baits, and clicktivism (the phenomenon where activism is reduced to a blind following of the online trends), to discuss the impacts of exclusive digital activism. By using Jeremy Bentham's utilitarian approach to ethics, that places emphasis on the best possible outcome for a society, the paper will show how individual online activism reaching for a larger, more common end can sometimes lead to an undermining of that end, not only in the online space but also how it manifests in the real world.

Keywords: digital activism, ethics, independent digital activist, utilitarianism

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
28 Characterization and Comparative Analysis of North Bengal Sand

Authors: Marzia Hoque Tania, Oishy Roy, ASW Kurny, Fahmida Gulshan

Abstract:

This paper presents results of the investigation on the characterization of silica sand of northern region of Bangladesh on the basis of material composition, particle shape, and size, density, transportation, crystallinity, etc. before and after upgradation. The raw sand samples collected from Nilphamari and Lalmonirhat district were studied and compared for the prospect silica as a high valued commodity rather than heavy minerals. The raw sand particles were colorful in appearance with varying particle size distribution. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed uniformity in grain size and mineralogical composition. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis indicated the silica content of the as-received sample to be 75%. Thermogravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) did not detect the presence of any organic material. These tests revealed the sample to be alpha-quartz. Samples were washed with organic and inorganic acid with a combination of varying rotation speed, concentration, solid-liquid ratio. Experiments showed the silica content could be enhanced to more than 85% by washing with 15% sulphuric acid in room temperature. Beneficiation can be improved in further work considering the effect of varying temperature or advanced technology.

Keywords: beneficiation, characterization, commercial grade sand, glass sand, silica, upgradation

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
27 Effect of Saline Ground Water on Economics of Bitter-Gourd (Momordica charantia L.) Cultivation and Soil Characteristics in Semi Arid Region

Authors: Kamran Baksh Soomro, Amin Talei, Sina Alaghmand

Abstract:

Due to the declining freshwater availability to agriculture in many areas, the utilization of saline irrigation requires more consideration. For this purpose, the effects of saline irrigation on the economics of crop yield and soil salinity should be understood. A two-year field experiment was carried out during 2017-18 with three replications to investigate the effect of saline groundwater on the economics of bitter gourd production and soil salinity status after harvesting the crop. Two irrigation treatments, i.e., fresh quality irrigation water (IT₁ EC 0.56 dS.m⁻¹ (control) and other is saline groundwater ( IT₂ EC 2.56 dS.m⁻¹) were used under drip system of irrigation. Cost-benefit analysis is often used to assess adaptation approaches. In this study, it has been observed that the salts under IT₁ (fresh quality water) and IT₂ (saline groundwater) did not accumulate in the wetted zone. However, the salts were observed deposited at wetted periphery under both the treatments after the crop end at all the three sampling depths under drip system of irrigation. Moreover, the costs and benefits associated with different irrigation treatments for two consecutive seasons for bitter-gourd cultivation were also investigated, and it was found that the average gross returns per hectare in season 1 were USD 5008.22 and 4454.78 under irrigation treatment IT₁ and IT₂ respectively. Whereas in season 2 the average gross returns per hectare were 3713.47 and 3140.51 under IT₁ and IT₂ respectively.

Keywords: ground-water, soil salinity, drip irrigation, wetted zone, wetted periphery, cost benefit analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
26 Effects of Saline Groundwater on Crop Yield of Bitter-Gourd (Momordica charantia L.) under Drip System of Irrigation

Authors: Kamran Baksh Soomro, Amin Talei, Sina Alaghmand

Abstract:

Water scarcity has exacerbated in the last couple of decades; it is incumbent on agriculture to maximize the use of water of all qualities. The drip irrigation system practice has shown a vast increase in profit and research interests in the last two decades. However, the application of this system is still limited. The two years field experiment was conducted with three replications at Malir, Karachi (a semi-arid region) in Pakistan. The aim was to evaluate the effects of two qualities of irrigation water IT1 (EC 0.56 dS.m⁻¹) and IT2 (EC 2.89 dS.m⁻¹) on water use efficiency. To achieve the aim, bitter gourd was grown under the drip irrigation system in 2016-17. The uniformity co-efficient (UC) ranged from 93 to 96%. Water use efficiency, of 1.60 and 1.21 kg.m⁻³ under IT1 was recorded higher in season 1 and 2. Using t-test at 5% significance level, the crop yield was higher in both seasons under IT1 compared to IT2. Using pairwise t-test at 5% significance level, the parameters related with the quality of fruit, like length, weight, and diameter, were higher in IT1 than IT2 in all plants; and in both seasons. A correlational study was also conducted to observe the trends in the variables associated with both irrigation treatments for the two seasons. Results showed that most of the parameters exhibited a similar linear trend in both the seasons. The study concluded that bitter gourd crop could be grown successfully in sandy loam using drip irrigation system, supplying saline ground-water. The sustainable use of saline irrigation water should be utilized for vegetable cultivation to meet the food demand in the rural areas of Pakistan.

Keywords: uniformity co-efficient, water use efficiency, drip irrigation, ground-water, t-test, correlation

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
25 Modeling the Effect of Thermal Gradation on Steady-State Creep Behavior of Isotropic Rotating Disc Made of Functionally Graded Material

Authors: Tania Bose, Minto Rattan, Neeraj Chamoli

Abstract:

In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the effect of thermal gradation on the steady-state creep behavior of rotating isotropic disc made of functionally graded material using threshold stress based Sherby’s creep law. The composite discs made of aluminum matrix reinforced with silicon carbide particulate have been taken for analysis. The stress and strain rate distributions have been calculated for the discs rotating at elevated temperatures having thermal gradation. The material parameters of creep vary radially and have been estimated by regression fit of the available experimental data. Investigations for discs made up of linearly increasing particle content operating under linearly decreasing temperature from inner to outer radii have been done using von Mises’ yield criterion. The results are displayed and compared graphically in designer friendly format for the above said disc profile with the disc made of particle reinforced composite operating under uniform temperature profile. It is observed that radial and tangential stresses show minor variation and the strain rates vary significantly in the presence of thermal gradation as compared to disc having uniform temperature.

Keywords: creep, isotropic, steady-state, thermal gradation

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
24 Lightweight and Seamless Distributed Scheme for the Smart Home

Authors: Muhammad Mehran Arshad Khan, Chengliang Wang, Zou Minhui, Danyal Badar Soomro

Abstract:

Security of the smart home in terms of behavior activity pattern recognition is a totally dissimilar and unique issue as compared to the security issues of other scenarios. Sensor devices (low capacity and high capacity) interact and negotiate each other by detecting the daily behavior activity of individuals to execute common tasks. Once a device (e.g., surveillance camera, smart phone and light detection sensor etc.) is compromised, an adversary can then get access to a specific device and can damage daily behavior activity by altering the data and commands. In this scenario, a group of common instruction processes may get involved to generate deadlock. Therefore, an effective suitable security solution is required for smart home architecture. This paper proposes seamless distributed Scheme which fortifies low computational wireless devices for secure communication. Proposed scheme is based on lightweight key-session process to upheld cryptic-link for trajectory by recognizing of individual’s behavior activities pattern. Every device and service provider unit (low capacity sensors (LCS) and high capacity sensors (HCS)) uses an authentication token and originates a secure trajectory connection in network. Analysis of experiments is revealed that proposed scheme strengthens the devices against device seizure attack by recognizing daily behavior activities, minimum utilization memory space of LCS and avoids network from deadlock. Additionally, the results of a comparison with other schemes indicate that scheme manages efficiency in term of computation and communication.

Keywords: authentication, key-session, security, wireless sensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
23 Single Tuned Shunt Passive Filter Based Current Harmonic Elimination of Three Phase AC-DC Converters

Authors: Mansoor Soomro

Abstract:

The evolution of power electronic equipment has been pivotal in making industrial processes productive, efficient and safe. Despite its attractive features, it has been due to nonlinear loads which make it vulnerable to power quality conditions. Harmonics is one of the power quality problem in which the harmonic frequency is integral multiple of supply frequency. Therefore, the supply voltage and supply frequency do not last within their tolerable limits. As a result, distorted current and voltage waveform may appear. Attributes of low power quality confirm that an electrical device or equipment is likely to malfunction, fail promptly or unable to operate under all applied conditions. The electrical power system is designed for delivering power reliably, namely maximizing power availability to customers. However, power quality events are largely untracked, and as a result, can take out a process as many as 20 to 30 times a year, costing utilities, customers and suppliers of load equipment, a loss of millions of dollars. The ill effects of current harmonics reduce system efficiency, cause overheating of connected equipment, result increase in electrical power and air conditioning costs. With the passage of time and the rapid growth of power electronic converters has highlighted the damages of current harmonics in the electrical power system. Therefore, it has become essential to address the bad influence of current harmonics while planning any suitable changes in the electrical installations. In this paper, an effort has been made to mitigate the effects of dominant 3rd order current harmonics. Passive filtering technique with six pulse multiplication converter has been employed to mitigate them. Since, the standards of power quality are to maintain the supply voltage and supply current within certain prescribed standard limits. For this purpose, the obtained results are validated as per specifications of IEEE 519-1992 and IEEE 519-2014 performance standards.

Keywords: current harmonics, power quality, passive filters, power electronic converters

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
22 Mapping a Data Governance Framework to the Continuum of Care in the Active Assisted Living Context

Authors: Gaya Bin Noon, Thoko Hanjahanja-Phiri, Laura Xavier Fadrique, Plinio Pelegrini Morita, Hélène Vaillancourt, Jennifer Teague, Tania Donovska

Abstract:

Active Assisted Living (AAL) refers to systems designed to improve the quality of life, aid in independence, and create healthier lifestyles for care recipients. As the population ages, there is a pressing need for non-intrusive, continuous, adaptable, and reliable health monitoring tools to support aging in place. AAL has great potential to support these efforts with the wide variety of solutions currently available, but insufficient efforts have been made to address concerns arising from the integration of AAL into care. The purpose of this research was to (1) explore the integration of AAL technologies and data into the clinical pathway, and (2) map data access and governance for AAL technology in order to develop standards for use by policy-makers, technology manufacturers, and developers of smart communities for seniors. This was done through four successive research phases: (1) literature search to explore existing work in this area and identify lessons learned; (2) modeling of the continuum of care; (3) adapting a framework for data governance into the AAL context; and (4) interviews with stakeholders to explore the applicability of previous work. Opportunities for standards found in these research phases included a need for greater consistency in language and technology requirements, better role definition regarding who can access and who is responsible for taking action based on the gathered data, and understanding of the privacy-utility tradeoff inherent in using AAL technologies in care settings.

Keywords: active assisted living, aging in place, internet of things, standards

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
21 Creating Systems Change: Implementing Cross-Sector Initiatives within the Justice System to Support Ontarians with Mental Health and Addictions Needs

Authors: Tania Breton, Dorina Simeonov, Shauna MacEachern

Abstract:

Ontario’s 10 Year Mental Health and Addictions Strategy has included the establishment of 18 Service Collaborative across the province; cross-sector tables in a specific region coming together to explore mental health and addiction system needs and adopting an intervention to address that need. The process is community led and supported by implementation teams from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), using the framework of implementation science (IS) to enable evidence-based and sustained change. These justice initiatives are focused on the intersection of the justice system and the mental health and addiction systems. In this presentation, we will share the learnings, achievements and challenges of implementing innovative practices to the mental health and addictions needs of Ontarians within the justice system. Specifically, we will focus on the key points across the justice system - from early intervention and trauma-informed, culturally appropriate services to post-sentence support and community reintegration. Our approach to this work involves external implementation support from the CAMH team including coaching, knowledge exchange, evaluation, Aboriginal engagement and health equity expertise. Agencies supported the implementation of tools and processes which changed practice at the local level. These practices are being scaled up across Ontario and community agencies have come together in an unprecedented collaboration and there is a shared vision of the issues overlapping between the mental health, addictions and justice systems. Working with ministry partners has allowed space for innovation and created an environment where better approaches can be nurtured and spread.

Keywords: implementation, innovation, early identification, mental health and addictions, prevention, systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
20 An Evaluation of a Sustainable Business Plan in Mexico City: Urban Gardens

Authors: Tania Vazquez, Aida Huerta

Abstract:

Way to get our food has changed over the time, and it is a daily necessity. Nowadays we found a lot of problems involved with the economy, environment, and society, which affect the agrifood system. Some problems as construction of big cities and growing population have been increasing demand food directly. Due to the countryside are far away from the city, another alternative systems have come from, such as Urban Agriculture (UA). UA system offers food production into the cities, products with characteristics as quality, healthy and good prices, close to the customers, recycling culture and the promote environmental education. Last years in Mexico City urban gardens have taken strongly in various politic delegations. There are establishment’s public and private initiatives. Moreover, these places have had different issues like low income, many activities, few workers, low production, lack of training and advice, devaluation of your work and low sales, all these shortcomings generate the devaluation of their work. The aim of this paper is to evaluate a business plan in Mexico City´s urban gardens that contribute to ensuring economic, environmental and social sustainability; to adjust business plan for this places so that they reach viability over time. As a part of soft systems methodology developed of Peter Checkland, we interviewed owners of urban gardens and we found that recurring problem was lack planning manager activities and a master plan about their business. We evaluate the business plan based on “Ten principles in sustainable food value chain development” proposed for Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). With this study was possible measure, understand and improve performance of business plan in the three pillars of the sustainability in addition to this it allowed us to fit in with the needs of urban gardens.

Keywords: business plan, Mexico City, urban agriculture, urban gardens

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
19 Comfort Needs and Energy Practices in Low-Income, Tropical Housing from a Socio-Technical Perspective

Authors: Tania Sharmin

Abstract:

Energy use, overheating and thermal discomfort in low-income tropical housing remains an under-researched area. This research attempts to explore these aspects in the Loving Community, a housing colony created for former leprosy patients and their families in Ahmedabad in India. The living conditions in these households and working practices of the inhabitants in terms of how the building and its internal and external spaces are used, will be explored through interviews and monitoring which will be based on a household survey and a focus group discussion (FGD). The findings from the study will provide a unique and in-depth account of how the relocation of the affected households to the new, flood-resistant and architecturally-designed buildings may have affected the dwellers’ household routines (health and well-being, comfort, satisfaction and working practices) and overall living conditions compared to those living in poorly-designed, existing low-income housings. The new houses were built under an innovative building project supported by De Montfort University Leicester (DMU)’s Square Mile India project. A comparison of newly-built and existing building typologies will reveal how building design can affect people’s use of space and energy use. The findings will be helpful to design healthier, energy efficient and socially acceptable low-income housing in future, thus addressing United Nation’s sustainable development goals on three aspects: 3 (health and well-being), 7 (energy) and 11 (safe, resilient and sustainable human settlements). This will further facilitate knowledge exchange between policy makers, developers, designers and occupants focused on strategies to increase stakeholders’ participation in the design process.

Keywords: thermal comfort, energy use, low-income housing, tropical climate

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
18 Using Baculovirus Expression Vector System to Express Envelop Proteins of Chikungunya Virus in Insect Cells and Mammalian Cells

Authors: Tania Tzong, Chao-Yi Teng, Tzong-Yuan Wu

Abstract:

Currently, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes has distributed from Africa to Southeast Asia, South America, and South Europe. However, little is known about the antigenic targets for immunity, and there are no licensed vaccines or specific antiviral treatments for the disease caused by CHIKV. Baculovirus has been recognized as a novel vaccine vector with attractive characteristic features of an optional vaccine delivery vehicle. This approach provides the safety and efficacy of CHIKV vaccine. In this study, bi-cistronic recombinant baculoviruses vAc-CMV-CHIKV26S-Rhir-EGFP and vAc-CMV-pH-CHIKV26S-Lir-EGFP were produced. Both recombinant baculovirus can express EGFP reporter gene in insect cells to facilitate the recombinant virus isolation and purification. Examination of vAc-CMV-CHIKV26S-Rhir-EGFP and vAc-CMV-pH-CHIKV26S-Lir-EGFP showed that this recombinant baculovirus could induce syncytium formation in insect cells. Unexpectedly, the immunofluorescence assay revealed the expression of E1 and E2 of CHIKV structural proteins in insect cells infected by vAc-CMV-CHIKV26S-Rhir-EGFP. This result may imply that the CMV promoter can induce the transcription of CHIKV26S in insect cells. There are also E1 and E2 expression in mammalian cells transduced by vAc-CMV-CHIKV26S-Rhir-EGFP and vAc-CMV-pH-CHIKV26S-Lir-EGFP. The expression of E1 and E2 proteins of insect and mammalian cells was validated again by Western blot analysis. The vector construction with dual tandem promoters, which is polyhedrin and CMV promoter, has higher expression of the E1 and E2 of CHIKV structural proteins than the vector construction with CMV promoter only. Most of the E1 and E2 proteins expressed in mammalian cells were glycosylated. In the future, the expression of structural proteins of CHIKV in mammalian cells is expected can form virus-like particle, so it could be used as a vaccine for chikungunya virus.

Keywords: chikungunya virus, virus-like particle, vaccines, baculovirus expression vector system

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
17 Effect of Anion and Amino Functional Group on Resin for Lipase Immobilization with Adsorption-Cross Linking Method

Authors: Heri Hermansyah, Annisa Kurnia, A. Vania Anisya, Adi Surjosatyo, Yopi Sunarya, Rita Arbianti, Tania Surya Utami

Abstract:

Lipase is one of biocatalyst which is applied commercially for the process in industries, such as bioenergy, food, and pharmaceutical industry. Nowadays, biocatalysts are preferred in industries because they work in mild condition, high specificity, and reduce energy consumption (high pressure and temperature). But, the usage of lipase for industry scale is limited by economic reason due to the high price of lipase and difficulty of the separation system. Immobilization of lipase is one of the solutions to maintain the activity of lipase and reduce separation system in the process. Therefore, we conduct a study about lipase immobilization with the adsorption-cross linking method using glutaraldehyde because this method produces high enzyme loading and stability. Lipase is immobilized on different kind of resin with the various functional group. Highest enzyme loading (76.69%) was achieved by lipase immobilized on anion macroporous which have anion functional group (OH). However, highest activity (24,69 U/g support) through olive oil emulsion method was achieved by lipase immobilized on anion macroporous-chitosan which have amino (NH2) and anion (OH-) functional group. In addition, it also success to produce biodiesel until reach yield 50,6% through interesterification reaction and after 4 cycles stable 63.9% relative with initial yield. While for Aspergillus, niger lipase immobilized on anion macroporous-kitosan have unit activity 22,84 U/g resin and yield biodiesel higher than commercial lipase (69,1%) and after 4 cycles stable reach 70.6% relative from initial yield. This shows that optimum functional group on support for immobilization with adsorption-cross linking is the support that contains amino (NH2) and anion (OH-) functional group because they can react with glutaraldehyde and binding with enzyme prevent desorption of lipase from support through binding lipase with a functional group on support.

Keywords: adsorption-cross linking, immobilization, lipase, resin

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
16 The Pathology of Bovine Rotavirus Infection in Calves That Confirmed by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction and Real-Time RT-PCR

Authors: Shama Ranjan Barua, Tofazzal M. Rakib, Mohammad Alamgir Hossain, Tania Ferdushy, Sharmin Chowdhury

Abstract:

Rotavirus is one of the main etiologies of neonatal diarrhea in bovine calves that causes significant economic loss in Bangladesh. The present study was carried out to investigate the pathology of neonatal enteritis in calves due to bovine rotavirus infection in south-eastern part of Bangladesh. Rotavirus was identified by using ELISA, RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction), real-time RT-PCR. We examined 12 dead calves with history of diarrhea during necropsy. Among 12 dead calves, in gross examination, 6 were found with pathological changes in intestine, 5 calves had congestion of small intestine and rest one had no distinct pathological changes. Intestinal contents and/or faecal samples of all dead calves were collected and examined to confirm the presence of bovine rotavirus A using Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Out 12 samples, 5 (42%) samples revealed presence of bovine rotavirus A in three diagnostic tests. The histopathological changes were found almost exclusively limited in the small intestine. The lesions of rotaviral enteritis ranged from slight to moderate shortening (atrophy) of villi in the jejunum and ileum with necrotic crypts. The villi were blunt and covered by immature epithelial cells. Infected cells, stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin staining method, showed characteristic syncytia and eosinophilc intracytoplasmic inclusion body. The presence of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in enterocytes is the indication of viral etiology. The presence of rotavirus in the affected tissues and/or lesions was confirmed by three different immunological and molecular tests. The findings of histopathological changes will be helpful in future diagnosis of rotaviral infection in dead calves.

Keywords: calves, diarrhea, pathology, rotavirus

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
15 3D Microscopy, Image Processing, and Analysis of Lymphangiogenesis in Biological Models

Authors: Thomas Louis, Irina Primac, Florent Morfoisse, Tania Durre, Silvia Blacher, Agnes Noel

Abstract:

In vitro and in vivo lymphangiogenesis assays are essential for the identification of potential lymphangiogenic agents and the screening of pharmacological inhibitors. In the present study, we analyse three biological models: in vitro lymphatic endothelial cell spheroids, in vivo ear sponge assay, and in vivo lymph node colonisation by tumour cells. These assays provide suitable 3D models to test pro- and anti-lymphangiogenic factors or drugs. 3D images were acquired by confocal laser scanning and light sheet fluorescence microscopy. Virtual scan microscopy followed by 3D reconstruction by image aligning methods was also used to obtain 3D images of whole large sponge and ganglion samples. 3D reconstruction, image segmentation, skeletonisation, and other image processing algorithms are described. Fixed and time-lapse imaging techniques are used to analyse lymphatic endothelial cell spheroids behaviour. The study of cell spatial distribution in spheroid models enables to detect interactions between cells and to identify invasion hierarchy and guidance patterns. Global measurements such as volume, length, and density of lymphatic vessels are measured in both in vivo models. Branching density and tortuosity evaluation are also proposed to determine structure complexity. Those properties combined with vessel spatial distribution are evaluated in order to determine lymphangiogenesis extent. Lymphatic endothelial cell invasion and lymphangiogenesis were evaluated under various experimental conditions. The comparison of these conditions enables to identify lymphangiogenic agents and to better comprehend their roles in the lymphangiogenesis process. The proposed methodology is validated by its application on the three presented models.

Keywords: 3D image segmentation, 3D image skeletonisation, cell invasion, confocal microscopy, ear sponges, light sheet microscopy, lymph nodes, lymphangiogenesis, spheroids

Procedia PDF Downloads 247