Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Tahsin Karabulut

17 A Model Suggestion on Competitiveness and Sustainability of SMEs in Developing Countries

Authors: Ahmet Diken, Tahsin Karabulut


The factor which developing countries are in need is capital. Such countries make an effort to increase their income in order to meet their expenses for employment, infrastructure, superstructure investments, education, health and defense. The sole income of the countries is taxes collected from businesses. The businesses should drive profit and return in order to be able to toll. In a world where competition exists, different strategies may be followed by business in developing countries and they must specify their target markets. İn order to minimize cost and maximize profit, SMEs have to concentrate on target markets and select cost oriented strategy. In this study, a theoretical model is suggested that SME firms have to act as cluster between each other, and also must be optimal provider for large scale firms. SMEs’ policy must be supported by public. This relationship can benefit large scale firms to have brand over the world, and this organization increases value added for developing countries.

Keywords: competitiveness, countries, SMEs developing, sustainability

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16 Groundwater Quality Monitoring in the Shoush Suburbs, Khouzestan Province, Iran

Authors: Mohammad Tahsin Karimi Nezhad, Zaynab Shadbahr, Ali Gholami


In recent years many attempts have been made to assess groundwater contamination by nitrates worldwide. The assessment of spatial and temporal variations of physico-chemical parameters of water is necessary to mange water quality. The objectives of the study were to evaluate spatial variability and temporal changes of hydrochemical factors by water sampling from 24 wells in the Shoush City suburb. The analysis was conducted for the whole area and for different land use and geological classes. In addition, nitrate concentration variability with descriptive parameters such as sampling depth, dissolved oxygen, and on ground nitrogen loadings was also investigated The results showed that nitrate concentrations did not exceed the standard limit (50 mg/l). EC of water samples, ranged from 900 to 1200 µs/cm, TDS from 775 to 830 mg/l and pH from 5.6 to 9.

Keywords: groundwater, GIS, water quality, Iran

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15 Effects of Axial Loads and Soil Density on Pile Group Subjected to Triangular Soil Movement

Authors: Ihsan Al-Abboodi, Tahsin Toma-Sabbagh


Laboratory tests have been carried out to investigate the response of 2x2 pile group subjected to triangular soil movement. The pile group was instrumented with displacement and tilting devices at the pile cap and strain gauges on two piles of the group. In this paper, results from four model tests were presented to study the effects of axial loads and soil density on the lateral behavior of piles. The responses in terms of bending moment, shear force, soil pressure, deflection, and rotation of piles were compared. Test results indicate that increasing the soil strength could increase the measured moment, shear, soil pressure, and pile deformations. Most importantly, adding loads to the pile cap induces additional moment to the head of front-pile row unlike the back-pile row which was influenced insignificantly.

Keywords: pile group, passive piles, lateral soil movement, soil density, axial loads

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14 Analytical Modelling of Surface Roughness during Compacted Graphite Iron Milling Using Ceramic Inserts

Authors: Ş. Karabulut, A. Güllü, A. Güldaş, R. Gürbüz


This study investigates the effects of the lead angle and chip thickness variation on surface roughness during the machining of compacted graphite iron using ceramic cutting tools under dry cutting conditions. Analytical models were developed for predicting the surface roughness values of the specimens after the face milling process. Experimental data was collected and imported to the artificial neural network model. A multilayer perceptron model was used with the back propagation algorithm employing the input parameters of lead angle, cutting speed and feed rate in connection with chip thickness. Furthermore, analysis of variance was employed to determine the effects of the cutting parameters on surface roughness. Artificial neural network and regression analysis were used to predict surface roughness. The values thus predicted were compared with the collected experimental data, and the corresponding percentage error was computed. Analysis results revealed that the lead angle is the dominant factor affecting surface roughness. Experimental results indicated an improvement in the surface roughness value with decreasing lead angle value from 88° to 45°.

Keywords: CGI, milling, surface roughness, ANN, regression, modeling, analysis

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13 Performance of Axially Loaded Single Pile Embedded in Cohesive Soil with Cavities

Authors: Ali A. Al-Jazaairry, Tahsin T. Sabbagh


The stability of a single model pile located adjacent to a continuous cavity was studied. This paper is an attempt to understand the behaviour of axially loaded single pile embedded in clayey soil with the presences of cavities. The performance of piles located in such soils was studied analytically. A verification analysis was carried out on available studies to assess the ability of analytical model to correctly interpret the system behaviour. The study was adopted by finite element program (PLAXIS). The study included many cases; in each case, there is a critical value in which the presence of cavities has shown minimum effect on the pile performance. Figures including the load carrying capacity of pile with the affecting factors are presented. These figures provide beneficial information for pile design constructed close to underground cavities. It was concluded that the load carrying capacity of the pile is reduced by the presence of the cavity within the soil mass. This reduction varies according to the size and location of cavity.

Keywords: axial load, cavity, clay, pile, ultimate capacity

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12 The Investigation of Women Civil Engineers’ Identity Development through the Lens of Recognition Theory

Authors: Hasan Sungur, Evrim Baran, Benjamin Ahn, Aliye Karabulut Ilgu, Chris Rehmann, Cassandra Rutherford


Engineering identity contributes to the professional and educational persistence of women engineers. A crucial factor contributing to the development of the engineering identity is recognition. Those without adequate recognition often do not succeed in positively building their identities. This research draws on Honneth’s recognition theory to identify factors impacting women civil engineers’ feelings of recognition as civil engineers. A survey was composed and distributed to 330 female alumni who graduated from the Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering at Iowa State University in the last ten years. The survey items include demographics, perceptions of the identity of civil engineering, and factors that influence the recognition of civil engineering identities, such as views of society and family. Descriptive analysis of the survey responses revealed that the perceptions of civil engineering varied widely. Participants’ definitions of civil engineering included the terms: construction, design, and infrastructure. Almost half of the participants reported that the major reason to study civil engineering was their interest in the subject matter, and most reported that they were proud to be civil engineers. Many study participants reported that their parents see them as civil engineers. Treatment of institutions and the workplace were also considered as having a significant impact on the recognition of women civil engineers. Almost half of the participants reported that they felt isolated or ignored at work because of their gender. This research emphasizes the importance of recognition for the development of the civil engineering identity of women

Keywords: civil engineering, gender, identity, recognition

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11 Development of Dye Sensitized Solar Window by Physical Parameters Optimization

Authors: Tahsin Shameem, Chowdhury Sadman Jahan, Mohammad Alam


Interest about Net Zero Energy Buildings have gained traction in recent years following the need to sustain energy consumption with generations on site and to reduce dependence on grid supplied energy from large plants using fossil fuel. With this end in view, building integrated photovoltaics are being studied attempting to utilize all exterior facades of a building to generate power. In this paper, we have looked at the physical parameters defining a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and discussed their impact on energy harvest. Following our discussion and experimental data obtained from literature, we have attempted to optimize these physical parameters accordingly so as to allow maximum light absorption for a given active layer thickness. We then modified a planer DSSC design with our optimized properties to allow adequate light transmission which demonstrated a high fill factor and an External Quantum Efficiency (EQE) of greater than 9% by computer aided design and simulation. In conclusion, a DSSC based solar window with such high output values even after such high light transmission through it definitely flags a promising future for this technology and our work elicits the need for further study and practical experimentation.

Keywords: net zero energy building, integrated photovoltaics, dye sensitized solar cell, fill factor, External Quantum Efficiency

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10 Effect of Twin Cavities on the Axially Loaded Pile in Clay

Authors: Ali A. Al-Jazaairry, Tahsin T. Sabbagh


Presence of cavities in soil predictably induces ground deformation and changes in soil stress, which might influence adjacent existing pile foundations, though the effect of twin cavities on a nearby pile needs to be understood. This research is an attempt to identify the behaviour of piles subjected to axial load and embedded in cavitied clayey soil. A series of finite element modelling were conducted to investigate the performance of piled foundation located in such soils. The validity of the numerical simulation was evaluated by comparing it with available field test and alternative analytical model. The study involved many parameters such as twin cavities size, depth, spacing between cavities, and eccentricity of cavities from the pile axis on the pile performance subjected to axial load. The study involved many cases; in each case, a critical value has been found in which cavities’ presence has shown minimum impact on the behaviour of pile. Load-displacement relationships of the affecting parameters on the pile behaviour were presented to provide helpful information for designing piled foundation situated near twin underground cavities. It was concluded that the presence of the cavities within the soil mass reduces the ultimate capacity of pile. This reduction differs according to the size and location of the cavity.

Keywords: axial load, clay, finite element, pile, twin cavities, ultimate capacity

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9 An Experimental Study on Heat and Flow Characteristics of Water Flow in Microtube

Authors: Zeynep Küçükakça, Nezaket Parlak, Mesut Gür, Tahsin Engin, Hasan Küçük


In the current research, the single phase fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are experimentally investigated. The experiments are conducted to cover transition zone for the Reynolds numbers ranging from 100 to 4800 by fused silica and stainless steel microtubes having diameters of 103-180 µm. The applicability of the Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) method is revealed and an experimental method is developed to calculate the heat transfer coefficient. Heat transfer is supplied by a water jacket surrounding the microtubes and heat transfer coefficients are obtained by LMTD method. The results are compared with data obtained by the correlations available in the literature in the study. The experimental results indicate that the Nusselt numbers of microtube flows do not accord with the conventional results when the Reynolds number is lower than 1000. After that, the Nusselt number approaches the conventional theory prediction. Moreover, the scaling effects in micro scale such as axial conduction, viscous heating and entrance effects are discussed. On the aspect of fluid characteristics, the friction factor is well predicted with conventional theory and the conventional friction prediction is valid for water flow through microtube with a relative surface roughness less than about 4 %.

Keywords: microtube, laminar flow, friction factor, heat transfer, LMTD method

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8 Effect of Confinement on the Bearing Capacity and Settlement of Spread Foundations

Authors: Tahsin Toma Sabbagh, Ihsan Al-Abboodi, Ali Al-Jazaairry


Allowable-bearing capacity is the competency of soil to safely carries the pressure from the superstructure without experiencing a shear failure with accompanying excessive settlements. Ensuring a safe bearing pressure with respect to failure does not tolerate settlement of the foundation will be within acceptable limits. Therefore, settlement analysis should always be performed since most structures are settlement sensitive. When visualising the movement of a soil wedge in the bearing capacity criterion, both vertically and horizontally, it becomes clear that by confining the soil surrounding the foundation, both the bearing capacity and settlement values improve. In this study, two sizes of spread foundation were considered; (2×4) m and (3×5) m. These represent two real problem case studies of an existing building. The foundations were analysed in terms of dimension as well as position with respect to a confining wall (i.e., sheet piles on both sides). Assuming B is the least foundation dimension, the study comprised the analyses of three distances; (0.1 B), (0.5 B), and (0.75 B) between the sheet piles and foundations alongside three depths of confinement (0.5 B), (1 B), and (1.5 B). Nonlinear three-dimensional finite element analysis (ANSYS) was adopted to perform an analytical investigation on the behaviour of the two foundations contained by the case study. Results showed that confinement of foundations reduced the overall stresses near the foundation by 65% and reduced the vertical displacement by 90%. Moreover, the most effective distance between the confinement wall and the foundation was found to be 0.5 B.

Keywords: bearing capacity, cohesionless soils, soil confinement, soil modelling, spread footings

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7 Effect of Cavities on the Behaviour of Strip Footing Subjected to Inclined Load

Authors: Ali A. Al-Jazaairry, Tahsin T. Sabbagh


One of the important concerns within the field of geotechnical engineering is the presence of cavities in soils. This present work is an attempt to understand the behaviour of strip footing subjected to inclined load and constructed on cavitied soil. The failure mechanism of strip footing located above such soils was studied analytically. The capability of analytical model to correctly expect the system behaviour is assessed by carrying out verification analysis on available studies. The study was prepared by finite element software (PLAXIS) in which an elastic-perfectly plastic soil model was used. It was indicated, from the results of the study, that the load carrying capacity of foundation constructed on cavity can be analysed well using such analysis. The research covered many foundation cases, and in each foundation case, there occurs a critical depth under which the presence of cavities has shown minimum impact on the foundation performance. When cavities are found above this critical depth, the load carrying capacity of the foundation differs with many influences, such as the location and size of the cavity and footing depth. Figures involving the load carrying capacity with the affecting factors studied are presented. These figures offer information beneficial for the design of strip footings rested on underground cavities. Moreover, the results might be used to design a shallow foundation constructed on cavitied soil, whereas the obtained failure mechanisms may be employed to improve numerical solutions for this kind of problems.

Keywords: axial load, cavity, inclined load, strip footing

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6 Design of a Portable Shielding System for a Newly Installed NaI(Tl) Detector

Authors: Mayesha Tahsin, A.S. Mollah


Recently, a 1.5x1.5 inch NaI(Tl) detector based gamma-ray spectroscopy system has been installed in the laboratory of the Nuclear Science and Engineering Department of the Military Institute of Science and Technology for radioactivity detection purposes. The newly installed NaI(Tl) detector has a circular lead shield of 22 mm width. An important consideration of any gamma-ray spectroscopy is the minimization of natural background radiation not originating from the radioactive sample that is being measured. Natural background gamma-ray radiation comes from naturally occurring or man-made radionuclides in the environment or from cosmic sources. Moreover, the main problem with this system is that it is not suitable for measurements of radioactivity with a large sample container like Petridish or Marinelli beaker geometry. When any laboratory installs a new detector or/and new shield, it “must” first carry out quality and performance tests for the detector and shield. This paper describes a new portable shielding system with lead that can reduce the background radiation. Intensity of gamma radiation after passing the shielding will be calculated using shielding equation I=Ioe-µx where Io is initial intensity of the gamma source, I is intensity after passing through the shield, µ is linear attenuation coefficient of the shielding material, and x is the thickness of the shielding material. The height and width of the shielding will be selected in order to accommodate the large sample container. The detector will be surrounded by a 4π-geometry low activity lead shield. An additional 1.5 mm thick shield of tin and 1 mm thick shield of copper covering the inner part of the lead shielding will be added in order to remove the presence of characteristic X-rays from the lead shield.

Keywords: shield, NaI (Tl) detector, gamma radiation, intensity, linear attenuation coefficient

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5 Sensitivity Analysis of Prestressed Post-Tensioned I-Girder and Deck System

Authors: Tahsin A. H. Nishat, Raquib Ahsan


Sensitivity analysis of design parameters of the optimization procedure can become a significant factor while designing any structural system. The objectives of the study are to analyze the sensitivity of deck slab thickness parameter obtained from both the conventional and optimum design methodology of pre-stressed post-tensioned I-girder and deck system and to compare the relative significance of slab thickness. For analysis on conventional method, the values of 14 design parameters obtained by the conventional iterative method of design of a real-life I-girder bridge project have been considered. On the other side for analysis on optimization method, cost optimization of this system has been done using global optimization methodology 'Evolutionary Operation (EVOP)'. The problem, by which optimum values of 14 design parameters have been obtained, contains 14 explicit constraints and 46 implicit constraints. For both types of design parameters, sensitivity analysis has been conducted on deck slab thickness parameter which can become too sensitive for the obtained optimum solution. Deviations of slab thickness on both the upper and lower side of its optimum value have been considered reflecting its realistic possible ranges of variations during construction. In this procedure, the remaining parameters have been kept unchanged. For small deviations from the optimum value, compliance with the explicit and implicit constraints has been examined. Variations in the cost have also been estimated. It is obtained that without violating any constraint deck slab thickness obtained by the conventional method can be increased up to 25 mm whereas slab thickness obtained by cost optimization can be increased only up to 0.3 mm. The obtained result suggests that slab thickness becomes less sensitive in case of conventional method of design. Therefore, for realistic design purpose sensitivity should be conducted for any of the design procedure of girder and deck system.

Keywords: sensitivity analysis, optimum design, evolutionary operations, PC I-girder, deck system

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4 Benefits of Occupational Therapy for Children with Intellectual Disabilities in the Aspects of Vocational Activities and Instrumental Activities of Daily Life

Authors: Shakhawath Hossain, Tazkia Tahsin


Introduction/Background: Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. Vocational education is a multi-professional approach that is provided to individuals of working age with health-related impairments, limitations, or restrictions with work functioning and whose primary aim is to optimize work participation. Instrumental Activities of Daily Living activities to support daily life within the home and community. Like as community mobility, financial management, meal preparation, and clean-up, shopping. Material and Method: Electronic searches of Medline, PubMed, Google scholar, OT Seeker literature using the key terms of intellectual disability, vocational rehabilitation, instrumental activities of daily living and Occupational Therapy, as well as a thorough manual search for relevant literature. Results: There were 13 articles, all qualitative and quantitative, which are included in this review. All studies were mixed methods in design. To take the Occupational Therapy services, there is a significant improvement in their children's various areas like as sensory issues, cognitive abilities, perceptual skills, visual, motor planning, and group therapy. After taking the vocational and instrumental activities of daily living training children with intellectual disabilities to participate in their daily activities and work as an employee different company or organizations. Conclusion: The persons with intellectual disability are an integral part of our society who deserves social support and opportunities like other human beings. From the result section of the project papers, it is found that the significant benefits of Occupational Therapy services in the aspects of vocational and instrumental activities of daily living.

Keywords: occupational therapy, daily living activities, intellectual disabilities, instrumental ADL

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3 Antimicrobial Activity of CBD to be Used as a Preservative Against Listeria Monocytogenes in Milk & Dairy Products

Authors: Kazi N. Tahsin, David W. Watson, David E. Heinrichs, Paul A. Charpentier


Many plants and their extracts have significant antimicrobial activity, as can be found in folk medicine, essential oils, or isolated compounds. One infamous plant known as Cannabis Sativa has been grown specifically for its medical/recreational use. The constituents of C. Sativa consist of the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD). CBD has drawn extensive interest because of its antimicrobial attributes on many food pathogens. After legalization, food and beverage industries are developing CBD - infused foods and beverages such as CBD ice-cream and Muuna Cannabis cottage cheese. This research focused on studying the antimicrobial properties of CBD against one of the most common pathogens found in milk and dairy produce, Listeria Monocytogenes. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of CBD were measured against Listeria Monocytogenes (strain EGD) using trypticase soy broth (TSB), incubated at 35 °C/24 h and in skim milk and whole milk incubated at 35 °C/24 h and 7 °C/7 days. The effect of fat content on CBD antibacterial activity was investigated in whole and skim milk cultured at 7°C for 7 days by comparing kill curves. The MIC for L. monocytogenes was found to be 0.5 μg/mL, and the MBC was 5 μg/mL measured dilution series in liquid culture and disk diffusion assays in TSB, respectively. Similarly, the MICs in semi-skim milk and whole milk were studied at 35 °C/24 h, and at 7 °C/7 days, respectively. The effect of incubation temperatures on the MBC and MIC of the CBD in skim milk was also studied. Although CBD showed good antimicrobial activity on skim milk, it showed a lack of activity on whole milk. This lowered antibacterial activity of CBD in skim milk is attributed to the associated fat molecules. CBD being a highly unstable compound and soluble in lipids, causes the compound to breakdown when exposed to milk high in fat content by micellarization. This research shows that cannabis can potentially be used as a preservative for dairy products low in fat content in the years to come, not just used as flavoring.

Keywords: CBD, antimicrobial studies, L. monocytogenes, dairy products

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2 Estimation of Forces Applied to Forearm Using EMG Signal Features to Control of Powered Human Arm Prostheses

Authors: Faruk Ortes, Derya Karabulut, Yunus Ziya Arslan


Myoelectric features gathering from musculature environment are considered on a preferential basis to perceive muscle activation and control human arm prostheses according to recent experimental researches. EMG (electromyography) signal based human arm prostheses have shown a promising performance in terms of providing basic functional requirements of motions for the amputated people in recent years. However, these assistive devices for neurorehabilitation still have important limitations in enabling amputated people to perform rather sophisticated or functional movements. Surface electromyogram (EMG) is used as the control signal to command such devices. This kind of control consists of activating a motion in prosthetic arm using muscle activation for the same particular motion. Extraction of clear and certain neural information from EMG signals plays a major role especially in fine control of hand prosthesis movements. Many signal processing methods have been utilized for feature extraction from EMG signals. The specific objective of this study was to compare widely used time domain features of EMG signal including integrated EMG(IEMG), root mean square (RMS) and waveform length(WL) for prediction of externally applied forces to human hands. Obtained features were classified using artificial neural networks (ANN) to predict the forces. EMG signals supplied to process were recorded during only type of muscle contraction which is isometric and isotonic one. Experiments were performed by three healthy subjects who are right-handed and in a range of 25-35 year-old aging. EMG signals were collected from muscles of the proximal part of the upper body consisting of: biceps brachii, triceps brachii, pectorialis major and trapezius. The force prediction results obtained from the ANN were statistically analyzed and merits and pitfalls of the extracted features were discussed with detail. The obtained results are anticipated to contribute classification process of EMG signal and motion control of powered human arm prosthetics control.

Keywords: assistive devices for neurorehabilitation, electromyography, feature extraction, force estimation, human arm prosthesis

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1 Germination and Bulb Formation of Allium tuncelianum L. under in vitro Condition

Authors: Suleyman Kizil, Tahsin Sogut, Khalid M. Khawar


Genus Allium includes 600 to 750 species and most of these including Allium tuncelianum (Kollman) N. Ozhatay, B. Mathew & Siraneci; Syn; A. macrochaetum Boiss. and Hausskn. subsp. tuncelianum Kollman] or Tunceli garlic is endemic to Eastern Turkish Province of Tunceli and Munzur mountains. They are edible, bear attractive white-to-purple flowers and fertile black seeds with deep seed dormancy. This study aimed to break seed dormancy of Tunceli garlic and determine the conditions for induction of bulblets on these seeds and increase their diameter by culturing them on MS medium supplemented different strengths of KNO3. Tunceli garlic seeds were collected from field grown plants. They were germinated on MS medium with or without 20 g/l sucrose followed by their culture on 1 × 1900 mg/l, 2 × 1900 mg/l, 4 ×1900 mg/l and 6 × 1900 mg/l mg/l KNO3 supplemented with 20 g/l sucrose to increase bulb diameter. Improved seeds germination was noted on MS medium with and without sucrose but with variation compared to previous reports. The bulb development percentage on each of the sprouted seeds was not parallel to the percentage of seed germination. The results showed 34% and 28.5% bulb induction was noted on germinated seeds after 150 and 158 days on MS medium containing 20 g l-1 sucrose and no sucrose respectively showing a delay of 8 days on the latter compared to the former. The results emphatically noted role of cold stratification on agar solidified MS medium supplemented with sucrose to improve seed germination. The best increase in bulb diameter was noted on MS medium containing 1 × 1900 mg/l KNO3 after 178 days with bulblet diameter and bulblet weight of 0.54 cm and 0.048 g, respectively. Consequently, the bulbs induced on sucrose containing MS medium could be transferred to pots earlier. Increased (>1 × 1900 mg/l KNO3) strengths of KNO3 induced negative effect on growth and development of Tunceli garlic bulbs. The strategy of seed germination and bulblet induction reported in this study could be positively used for conservation of this endemic plant species.

Keywords: Tunceli garlic, seed, dormancy, bulblets, bulb growth

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