Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 144

Search results for: T. Mrna

114 Impact of Ocean Acidification on Gene Expression Dynamics during Development of the Sea Urchin Species Heliocidaris erythrogramma

Authors: Hannah R. Devens, Phillip L. Davidson, Dione Deaker, Kathryn E. Smith, Gregory A. Wray, Maria Byrne


Marine invertebrate species with calcifying larvae are especially vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA) caused by rising atmospheric CO₂ levels. Acidic conditions can delay development, suppress metabolism, and decrease the availability of carbonate ions in the ocean environment for skeletogenesis. These stresses often result in increased larval mortality, which may lead to significant ecological consequences including alterations to the larval settlement, population distribution, and genetic connectivity. Importantly, many of these physiological and developmental effects are caused by genetic and molecular level changes. Although many studies have examined the effect of near-future oceanic pH levels on gene expression in marine invertebrates, little is known about the impact of OA on gene expression in a developmental context. Here, we performed mRNA-sequencing to investigate the impact of environmental acidity on gene expression across three developmental stages in the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma. We collected RNA from gastrula, early larva, and 1-day post-metamorphic juvenile sea urchins cultured at present-day and predicted future oceanic pH levels (pH 8.1 and 7.7, respectively). We assembled an annotated reference transcriptome encompassing development from egg to ten days post-metamorphosis by combining these data with datasets from two previous developmental transcriptomic studies of H. erythrogramma. Differential gene expression and time course analyses between pH conditions revealed significant alterations to developmental transcription that are potentially associated with pH stress. Consistent with previous investigations, genes involved in biomineralization and ion transport were significantly upregulated under acidic conditions. Differences in gene expression between the two pH conditions became more pronounced post-metamorphosis, suggesting a development-dependent effect of OA on gene expression. Furthermore, many differences in gene expression later in development appeared to be a result of broad downregulation at pH 7.7: of 539 genes differentially expressed at the juvenile stage, 519 of these were lower in the acidic condition. Time course comparisons between pH 8.1 and 7.7 samples also demonstrated over 500 genes were more lowly expressed in pH 7.7 samples throughout development. Of the genes exhibiting stage-dependent expression level changes, over 15% of these diverged from the expected temporal pattern of expression in the acidic condition. Through these analyses, we identify novel candidate genes involved in development, metabolism, and transcriptional regulation that are possibly affected by pH stress. Our results demonstrate that pH stress significantly alters gene expression dynamics throughout development. A large number of genes differentially expressed between pH conditions in juveniles relative to earlier stages may be attributed to the effects of acidity on transcriptional regulation, as a greater proportion of mRNA at this later stage has been nascent transcribed rather than maternally loaded. Also, the overall downregulation of many genes in the acidic condition suggests that OA-induced developmental delay manifests as suppressed mRNA expression, possibly from lower transcription rates or increased mRNA degradation in the acidic environment. Further studies will be necessary to determine in greater detail the extent of OA effects on early developing marine invertebrates.

Keywords: Development, Ocean acidification, Gene expression, RNA-sequencing, sea urchins

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113 Impaired Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4-Mediated Dilation of Mesenteric Arteries in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

Authors: Ammar Boudaka, Maryam Al-Suleimani, Hajar BaOmar, Intisar Al-Lawati, Fahad Zadjali


Background: Hypertension is increasingly becoming a matter of medical and public health importance. The maintenance of normal blood pressure requires a balance between cardiac output and total peripheral resistance. The endothelium, through the release of vasodilating factors, plays an important role in the control of total peripheral resistance and hence blood pressure homeostasis. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4) is a mechanosensitive non-selective cation channel that is expressed on the endothelium and contributes to endothelium-mediated vasodilation. So far, no data are available about the morphological and functional status of this channel in hypertensive cases. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate whether there is any difference in the morphological and functional features of TRPV4 in the mesenteric artery of normotensive and hypertensive rats. Methods: Functional feature of TRPV4 in four experimental animal groups: young and adult Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY-Y and WKY-A), young and adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-Y and SHR-A), was studied by adding 5 µM 4αPDD (TRPV4 agonist) to mesenteric arteries mounted in a four-chamber wire myograph and pre-contracted with 4 µM phenylephrine. The 4αPDD-induced response was investigated in the presence and absence of 1 µM HC067047 (TRPV4 antagonist), 100 µM L-NAME (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), and endothelium. The morphological distribution of TRPV4 in the wall of rat mesenteric arteries was investigated by immunostaining. Real-time PCR was used in order to investigate mRNA expression level of TRPV4 in the mesenteric arteries of the four groups. The collected data were expressed as mean ± S.E.M. with n equal to the number of animals used (one vessel was taken from each rat). To determine the level of significance, statistical comparisons were performed using the student’s t-test and considered to be significantly different at p<0.05. Results: 4αPDD induced a relaxation response in the mesenteric arterial preparations (WKY-Y: 85.98% ± 4.18; n = 5) that was markedly inhibited by HC067047 (18.30% ± 2.86; n= 5; p<0.05), endothelium removal (19.93% ± 1.50; n = 5; p<0.05) and L-NAME (28.18% ± 3.09; n = 5; p<0.05). The 4αPDD-induced relaxation was significantly lower in SHR-Y compared to WKY-Y (SHR-Y: 70.96% ± 3.65; n = 6, WKY-Y: 85.98% ± 4.18; n = 5-6, p<0.05. Moreover, the 4αPDD-induced response was significantly lower in WKY-A than WKY-Y (WKY-A: 75.58 ± 1.30; n = 5, WKY-Y: 85.98% ± 4.18; n = 5, p<0.05). Immunostaining study showed immunofluorescent signal confined to the endothelial layer of the mesenteric arteries. The expression of TRPV4 mRNA in SHR-Y was significantly lower than in WKY-Y (SHR-Y; 0.67RU ± 0.34; n = 4, WKY-Y: 2.34RU ± 0.15; n = 4, p<0.05). Furthermore, TRPV4 mRNA expression in WKY-A was lower than its expression in WKY-Y (WKY-A: 0.62RU ± 0.37; n = 4, WKY-Y: 2.34RU ± 0.15; n = 4, p<0.05). Conclusion: Stimulation of TRPV4, which is expressed on the endothelium of rat mesenteric artery, triggers an endothelium-mediated relaxation response that markedly decreases with hypertension and growing up changes due to downregulation of TRPV4 expression.

Keywords: Hypertension, mesenteric artery, endothelium, TRPV4

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112 Effects of Hydroxysafflor Yellow a (HSYA) on UVA-Induced Damage in HaCaT Keratinocytes

Authors: Szu-Chieh Yu, Pei-Chin Chiand, Chih-Yi Lin, Yi-Wen Chien


UV radiation from sunlight cause numbers of acute and chronic skin damage which can result in inflammation, immune changes, physical changes and DNA damage that facilitates skin aging and the development of skin carcinogenesis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by excessive solar UV radiation, resulting in oxidative damage to cellar components, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Thus, antioxidation plays an important role that protects skin against ROS-induced injury. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is an important Chinese medicine contained abundance flavones and hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) which is main active ingredient. HSYA is part of quinochalcone and has unique structures of hydroxy groups that provided the antioxidant effect. In this study, the aim was to investigate the protective role of HYSA in human keratinocytes (HaCaT) against UVA-induced oxidative damage and the possible mechanism. The HaCaT cells were UVA-irradiated and the effects of HYSA on cell viability, reactive oxygen species generation, DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation were measured. The mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase Ι (MMP Ι), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were determined by RT-PCR. In this study, UVA exposure lead to decrease in cell viability and increase in reactive oxygen species generation in HaCaT cells. HYSA could effectively increase the viability of HaCaT cells after UVA exposure and protect them from UVA-induced oxidative stress. Moreover, HYSA can reduce inflammation through inhibition the mRNA expression of MMP Ι and COX-2. Our results suggest that HSYA can act as a free radical scavenger while keratinocytes were photodamaged. HYSA could be a useful natural medicine for the protection of epidermal cells from UVA-induced damage and will be developed into products for skin care.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, HaCaT keratinocytes, hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), MMP Ι

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111 Clinical Relevance of TMPRSS2-ERG Fusion Marker for Prostate Cancer

Authors: Shalu Jain, Anju Bansal, Anup Kumar, Sunita Saxena


Objectives: The novel TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion is a common somatic event in prostate cancer that in some studies is linked with a more aggressive disease phenotype. Thus, this study aims to determine whether clinical variables are associated with the presence of TMPRSS2:ERG-fusion gene transcript in Indian patients of prostate cancer. Methods: We evaluated the clinical variables with presence and absence of TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion in prostate cancer and BPH association of clinical patients. Patients referred for prostate biopsy because of abnormal DRE or/and elevated sPSA were enrolled for this prospective clinical study. TMPRSS2:ERG mRNA copies in samples were quantified using a Taqman chemistry by real time PCR assay in prostate biopsy samples (N=42). The T2:ERG assay detects the gene fusion mRNA isoform TMPRSS2 exon1 to ERG exon4. Results: Histopathology report has confirmed 25 cases as prostate cancer adenocarcinoma (PCa) and 17 patients as benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Out of 25 PCa cases, 16 (64%) were T2: ERG fusion positive. All 17 BPH controls were fusion negative. The T2:ERG fusion transcript was exclusively specific for prostate cancer as no case of BPH was detected having T2:ERG fusion, showing 100% specificity. The positive predictive value of fusion marker for prostate cancer is thus 100% and the negative predictive value is 65.3%. The T2:ERG fusion marker is significantly associated with clinical variables like no. of positive cores in prostate biopsy, Gleason score, serum PSA, perineural invasion, perivascular invasion and periprostatic fat involvement. Conclusions: Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease that may be defined by molecular subtypes such as the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion. In the present prospective study, the T2:ERG quantitative assay demonstrated high specificity for predicting biopsy outcome; sensitivity was similar to the prevalence of T2:ERG gene fusions in prostate tumors. These data suggest that further improvement in diagnostic accuracy could be achieved using a nomogram that combines T2:ERG with other markers and risk factors for prostate cancer.

Keywords: Prostate Cancer, genetic rearrangement, TMPRSS2:ERG fusion, clinical variables

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110 Enhanced Anti-Obesity Effect of Soybean by Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum P1201 in 3T3-L1 Adipocyte

Authors: Chengliang Xie, Jinhyun Ryu, Hyun Joon Kim, Gyeong Jae Cho, Wan Sung Choi, Sang Soo Kang, Kye Man Cho, Dong Hoon Lee


Obesity has become a global health problem and a source of major metabolic diseases like type-2 diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver and cancer. Synthetic anti-obesity drugs are effective but very costly and with undesirable side effects, so natural products such as soybean are needed as an alternative for obesity treatment. Lactobacillus Plantarum P1201is a probiotic bacterial strain reported to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and increase the ratio of aglycone-isoflavone of soybean, both of which have anti-obesity effect. In this study, the anti-obesity effect of the fermented soybean extract with P1201 (FSE) will be evaluated compared with that of the soybean extract (SE) by 3T3-L1 cells as an in vitro model of adipogenesis. 3T3-L1 cells were treated with SE and FSE during the nine days of the differentiation, lipid accumulation was evaluated by oil-red staining and triglyceride content and the mRNA expression level of adipogenic or lipogenic genes were analyzed by RT-PCR and qPCR. The results showed that formation of lipid droplets in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells was inhibited and triglyceride content was reduced by 23.1% after treated with 1000 μg/mL of FSE compared with control. For SE-treated groups, no delipidating effect was observed. The effect of FSE on adipogenesis inhibition can be attributed to the down-regulation of mRNA expressionof CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP-α), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), adiponectin, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), fatty acid synthesis (FAS) and CoA carboxylase (ACC). Our results demonstrated that the anti-obesity effect of soybean can be improved by fermentation with P1201, and P1201can be used as a potential probiotic bacterial strain to produce natural anti-obesity food.

Keywords: Obesity, Fermentation, soybean, Lactobacillus plantarum P1201

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109 Analysis of NMDA Receptor 2B Subunit Gene (GRIN2B) mRNA Expression in the Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Alzheimer's Disease Patients

Authors: Ali Bayram, Remzi Yiğiter, Semih Dalkilic


N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a subtype of glutamate receptor and plays a pivotal role in learning, memory, neuronal plasticity, neurotoxicity and synaptic mechanisms. Animal experiments were suggested that glutamate-induced excitotoxic injuriy and NMDA receptor blockage lead to amnesia and other neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Aim of this study is to investigate association between NMDA receptor coding gene GRIN2B expression level and Alzheimer disease. The study was approved by the local ethics committees, and it was conducted according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and guidelines for the Good Clinical Practice. Peripheral blood was collected 50 patients who diagnosed AD and 49 healthy control individuals. Total RNA was isolated with RNeasy midi kit (Qiagen) according to manufacturer’s instructions. After checked RNA quality and quantity with spectrophotometer, GRIN2B expression levels were detected by quantitative real time PCR (QRT-PCR). Statistical analyses were performed, variance between two groups were compared with Mann Whitney U test in GraphpadInstat algorithm with 95 % confidence interval and p < 0.05. After statistical analyses, we have determined that GRIN2B expression levels were down regulated in AD patients group with respect to control group. But expression level of this gene in each group was showed high variability. İn this study, we have determined that NMDA receptor coding gene GRIN2B expression level was down regulated in AD patients when compared with healthy control individuals. According to our results, we have speculated that GRIN2B expression level was associated with AD. But it is necessary to validate these results with bigger sample size.

Keywords: alzheimer’s disease, RT-PCR, mRNA expression, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor, NR2B, GRIN2B

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108 The Characteristics of Porcine Immune Synapse via Flow Cytometry and Transmission Electron Microscope

Authors: Ann Ying-An Chen, Yi-Lun Tsai, Hso-Chi Chaung


An understanding of pathogens and the immune system has played an utmost important role in agricultural research for the development of vaccinations. The immunological synapse, cell to cell interaction play a crucial role in triggering the body's immune system, such as activation between antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and different subsets of T-cell. If these interactions are regulated appropriately, the host has the ability to defend itself against a wide spectrum of infectious pathogens. The aim of this study is to establish and to characterize a porcine immune synapse system by co-culturing T cell/APC. In this study, blood samples were collected from specific-pathogen-free piglets, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were separated by using Ficoll-Pague. The PBMC were then stained with CD4 (FITC) and CD25 (PE) antibodies. Different subsets of T cells sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting flow cytometer were co-cultured for 24 hrs with alveolar macrophages, and the profiles of cytokine secretion and mRNA transcription levels of Toll-like receptors were examined after. Results showed that the three stages of immune synapse were clearly visible and identified under both transmission and scanning electron microscope (TEM and SEM). The significant interaction differences in toll-like receptor expressions within the co-cultured cell system were observed. The TLR7 mRNA expressions in CD4+CD25- cells were lower than those in CD4+CD25+ and CD4 -CD25+. Interestingly, the IL-10 production levels in CD4+CD25- cells (7.732 pg/mL) were significantly higher than those of CD4+CD25+ (2.636 pg/mL) and CD4 -CD25+ (2.48 pg/mL). These findings demonstrated that a clear understanding of the porcine immune synapse system can contribute greatly for further investigations on the mechanism of T-cell activation, which can benefit in the discovery of potential adjuvant candidate or effective antigen epitopes in the development of vaccinations with high efficacy.

Keywords: Pig, antigen-presenting cells, immune synapse, T subsets, toll-like receptor

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107 Aire-Dependent Transcripts have Shortened 3’UTRs and Show Greater Stability by Evading Microrna-Mediated Repression

Authors: Clotilde Guyon, Nada Jmari, Yen-Chin Li, Jean Denoyel, Noriyuki Fujikado, Christophe Blanchet, David Root, Matthieu Giraud


Aire induces ectopic expression of a large repertoire of tissue-specific antigen (TSA) genes in thymic medullary epithelial cells (MECs), driving immunological self-tolerance in maturing T cells. Although important mechanisms of Aire-induced transcription have recently been disclosed through the identification and the study of Aire’s partners, the fine transcriptional functions underlied by a number of them and conferred to Aire are still unknown. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) is an essential mRNA processing step regulated by the termination complex consisting of 85 proteins, 10 of them have been related to Aire. We evaluated APA in MECs in vivo by microarray analysis with mRNA-spanning probes and RNA deep sequencing. We uncovered the preference of Aire-dependent transcripts for short-3’UTR isoforms and for proximal poly(A) site selection marked by the increased binding of the cleavage factor Cstf-64. RNA interference of the 10 Aire-related proteins revealed that Clp1, a member of the core termination complex, exerts a profound effect on short 3’UTR isoform preference. Clp1 is also significantly upregulated in the MECs compared to 25 mouse tissues in which we found that TSA expression is associated with longer 3’UTR isoforms. Aire-dependent transcripts escape a global 3’UTR lengthening associated with MEC differentiation, thereby potentiating the repressive effect of microRNAs that are globally upregulated in mature MECs. Consistent with these findings, RNA deep sequencing of actinomycinD-treated MECs revealed the increased stability of short 3’UTR Aire-induced transcripts, resulting in TSA transcripts accumulation and contributing for their enrichment in the MECs.

Keywords: miRNAs, Aire, central tolerance, transcription termination

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106 The Role of Il-6-Mediated NS5ATP9 Expression in Autophagy of Liver Cancer Cells

Authors: Yu Zhang, Hongping Lu, Kelbinur Tursun, Yaru Li, Shunai Liu, Ming Han


Objective: To investigate whether NS5ATP9 is involved in IL-6 mediated autophagy and the relationship between IL-6 and NS5ATP9 in liver cancer cells. Methods: 1. Detect the mRNA and protein levels of Beclin 1 after HepG2 cells were treated with or without recombinant human IL-6 protein. 2. Measure and compare of the changes of autophagy-related genes with their respective control, after IL-6 was silenced or neutralized with monoclonal antibody against human IL-6. 3. HepG2 cells were incubated with 50 ng/ml of IL-6 in the presence or absence of PDTC. The expression of NS5ATP9 was analyzed by Western blot after 48 h. 4. After NS5ATP9-silenced HepG2 cells had been treated with 50 ng/ml recombinant IL-6 protein, we detected the Beclin 1 and LC3B (LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ) expression. 5. HepG2 cells were transfected with pNS5ATP9, si-NS5ATP9, and their respective control. Total RNA was isolated from cells and analyzed for IL-6. 6. Silence or neutralization of IL-6 in HepG2 cells which has been transfected with NS5ATP9. Beclin 1 and LC3 protein levels were analyzed by Western blot. Result: 1. After HepG2 were treated with recombinant human IL-6 protein, the expression of endogenous Beclin 1 was up-regulated at mRNA and protein level, and the conversion of endogenous LC3-I to LC3-II was also increased. These results indicated that IL-6 could induce autophagy. 2. When HepG2 cells were treated with IL-6 siRNA or monoclonal antibody against human IL-6, the expression of autophagy-related genes were decreased. 3. Exogenous human IL-6 recombinant protein up-regulated NS5ATP9 via NF-κB activation. 4. The expression of Beclin 1 and LC3B was down-regulated after IL-6 treated NS5ATP9-silenced HepG2 cells. 5. NS5ATP9 could reverse regulates IL-6 expression in HepG2 cells. 6. Silence or neutralization of IL-6 attenuates NS5ATP9-induced autophagy slightly. Conclusion: Our results implied that in HCC patients, maybe the higher level of IL-6 in the serum promoted the expression of NS5ATP9 and induced autophagy in cancer cells. And the over-expression of NS5ATP9 which induced by IL-6, in turn, increased IL-6 expression, further, promotes the IL-6/NS5ATP9-mediated autophagy and affects the progression of tumor. Therefore, NS5ATP9 silence might be a potential target for HCC therapy.

Keywords: Microenvironment, autophagy, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, IL-6, NS5ATP9

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105 A Systems Approach to Targeting Cyclooxygenase: Genomics, Bioinformatics and Metabolomics Analysis of COX-1 -/- and COX-2-/- Lung Fibroblasts Providing Indication of Sterile Inflammation

Authors: Abul B. M. M. K. Islam, Mandar Dave, Roderick V. Jensen, Ashok R. Amin


A systems approach was applied to characterize differentially expressed transcripts, bioinformatics pathways, and proteins and prostaglandins (PGs) from lung fibroblasts procured from wild-type (WT), COX-1-/- and COX-2-/- mice to understand system level control mechanism. Bioinformatics analysis of COX-2 and COX-1 ablated cells induced COX-1 and COX-2 specific signature respectively, which significantly overlapped with an 'IL-1β induced inflammatory signature'. This defined novel cross-talk signals that orchestrated coordinated activation of pathways of sterile inflammation sensed by cellular stress. The overlapping signals showed significant over-representation of shared pathways for interferon y and immune responses, T cell functions, NOD, and toll-like receptor signaling. Gene Ontology Biological Process (GOBP) and pathway enrichment analysis specifically showed an increase in mRNA expression associated with: (a) organ development and homeostasis in COX-1-/- cells and (b) oxidative stress and response, spliceosomes and proteasomes activity, mTOR and p53 signaling in COX-2-/- cells. COX-1 and COX-2 showed signs of functional pathways committed to cell cycle and DNA replication at the genomics level. As compared to WT, metabolomics analysis revealed a significant increase in COX-1 mRNA and synthesis of basal levels of eicosanoids (PGE2, PGD2, TXB2, LTB4, PGF1α, and PGF2α) in COX-2 ablated cells and increase in synthesis of PGE2, and PGF1α in COX-1 null cells. There was a compensation of PGE2 and PGF1α in COX-1-/- and COX-2-/- cells. Collectively, these results support a broader, differential and collaborative regulation of both COX-1 and COX-2 pathways at the metabolic, signaling, and genomics levels in cellular homeostasis and sterile inflammation induced by cellular stress.

Keywords: Inflammation, cyclooxygenases, lung fibroblasts, systemic

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104 Anticancer and Anti-Apoptotic Potential of Tridham and 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-Galloyl-β-D-Glucose in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell Line

Authors: H. Haseena Banu, D. Karthick, R. Stalin, T. P. Sachidanandam, P. Shanthi


Background: Breast cancer is emerging as one of the leading cause of cancer related deaths and hence there arises the need to look out for drugs which are more targets specific with minimal side effects. In recent times, there is a shift towards alternative medicine due to low cost and less side effects. Siddha system of medicine is one the oldest system of medicine practiced against various ailments. Tridham (TD) is a herbal formulation prepared in our laboratory consisting of Terminalia chebula, Elaeocarpus ganitrus and Prosopis cineraria in a definite ratio (TD) and its anticancer potential is evaluated in terms of induction of apoptosis. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the anti proliferative effect of TD and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-b-D-glucose (PGG), a pure compound isolated from TD on human mammary carcinoma cell line (MCF-7). Materials and Methods: Cell viability was studied using MTT analysis and trypan blue staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was studied using DAPI staining. The protein and mRNA expressions of pro-apoptotic and anti- apoptotic markers namely Bax, Bad, Bcl-2 and caspases were also assessed by Western Blotting and RT PCR. Results: Viability studies of TD and PGG treated MCF-7 cells showed an inhibition in cell growth in time and dose dependent manner. The alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential was restored through treatment with TD and PGG which was confirmed by DAPI staining. The protein and mRNA expression of pro-apoptotic markers was found to be significantly increased in TD and PGG treated cells with a concomitant decrease in anti-apoptotic markers. Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that TD and PGG exhibit their anticancer effect through its membrane stabilizing property and activation of apoptotic cascade in MCF-7 cells.

Keywords: apoptosis, MCF-7, Mammary carcinoma, Tridham, penta galloyl glucose

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103 Application of Host Factors as Biomarker in Early Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Authors: S. K. Sharma, Archana Singh, Ambrish Tiwari, Sudhasini Panda, Kalpana Luthra


Introduction: On the basis of available literature we know that various host factors play a role in outcome of Tuberculosis (TB) infection by modulating innate immunity. One such factor is Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase enzyme (iNOS) which help in the production of Nitric Oxide (NO), an antimicrobial agent. Expression of iNOS is in control of various host factors in which Vitamin D along with its nuclear receptor Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is one of them. Vitamin D along with its receptor also produces cathelicidin (antimicrobicidal agent). With this background, we attempted to investigate the levels of Vitamin D and NO along with their associated molecules in tuberculosis patients and household contacts as compared to healthy controls and assess the implication of these findings in susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB). Study subjects and methods: 100 active TB patients, 75 household contacts, and 70 healthy controls were taken. VDR and iNOS mRNA levels were studied using real-time PCR. Serum VDR, cathelicidin, iNOS levels were measured using ELISA. Serum Vitamin D levels were measured in serum samples using chemiluminescence based immunoassay. NO was measured using colorimetry based kit. Results: VDR and iNOS mRNA levels were found to be lower in active TB group compared to household contacts and healthy controls (P=0.0001 and 0.005 respectively). The serum levels of Vitamin D were also found to be lower in active TB group as compared to healthy controls (P =0.001). Levels of cathelicidin and NO was higher in patient group as compared to other groups (p=0.01 and 0.5 respectively). However, the expression of VDR and iNOS and levels of vitamin D was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in household contacts compared to both active TB and healthy control groups. Inference: Higher levels of Vitamin D along with VDR and iNOS expression in household contacts as compared to patients suggest that vitamin D might have a protective role against TB which prevents activation of the disease. From our data, we can conclude that decreased vitamin D levels could be implicated in disease progression and we can use cathelicidin and NO as a biomarker for early diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.

Keywords: Tuberculosis, vitamin D, VDR, iNOS

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102 Influence of IL-1β on Hamster Blastocyst Hatching via Regulation of Hatching Associated Proteases

Authors: Madhulika Pathak, Polani Seshagiri, Vani Venkatappa


Blastocyst hatching is an indispensable process for successful implantation. One of the major reasons for implantation failure in IVF clinic is poor quality of embryo, which are not development/hatching-competent. Therefore, attempts are required to develop or enhance the culture system with a molecule recapitulating the autocrine/paracrine factors containing the environment of in-vivo endometrial milieu. We have tried to explore the functional molecules involved in the hamster hatching phenomenon. Blastocyst hatching is governed by several molecules that are entwined and regulate this process, among which cytokines are known to be expressed and are still least explored. Two of such cytokines we have used for our study are IL-1β and its natural antagonist IL-1ra to understand the functional dynamics of cytokines involved in the hatching process. Using hamster, an intriguing experimental model for hatching behavior, we have shown the mRNA (qPCR) and protein (ICC) expression of IL-1β, IL-1ra and IL-1 receptor type 1 throughout all the stages of morula, blastocyst and hatched blastocyst. Post-asserting the expression, the functional role is shown by supplementation studies, where IL-1β supplementation showed enhancement in hatching level (IL-1β treated: 84.1 ± 4.2% vs control: 63.7 ± 3.1 %, N=11), further confirmed by the diminishing effect of IL-1ra on hatching rate (IL-1ra treated: 27.5 ± 11.1% vs control: 67.9 ± 3.1%). The exogenous supplementation of IL-1ra decreased the survival rate of embryos and affected the viability in dose-dependent manner, establishing the importance of IL-1β in blastocyst cell survival. Previously, the cathepsin L and B were established as the proteases that were involved in the hamster hatching process. The inducing effect of IL-1β was correlated with enhanced mRNA level, as analyzed by qPCR, for both CAT L (by 1.9 ± 0.5 fold) and CAT B (by 3.5 ± 0.1) fold which was diminished in presence of IL-1ra (Cat L by 88 percent and Cat B by 94 percent. Moreover, using a specific fluorescent substrate-based assay kit, the enzymatic activity of these proteases was found to be increased in presence of IL-1β (Cat L by 2.1 ± 0.1 fold and CAT B by 2.3 ± 0.7 fold) and was curtailed in presence of IL-1ra. These observations provide functional insights with respect to the involvement of cytokines in the hatching process. This has implications in understanding the hatching biology and improving the embryo development quality in IVF clinics.

Keywords: Cytokines, interleukin, hatching, blastocyst

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101 ICAM1 Expression is Enhanced by TNFa through Histone Methylation in Human Brain Microvessel Cells

Authors: Ji-Young Choi, Jungjin Kim, Sang-Sun Yun, Sangmee Ahn Jo


Intracellular adhesion molecule1 (ICAM1) is a mediator of inflammation and involved in adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes to endothelial cells, resulting in enhancement of brain inflammation. We hypothesized that increase of ICAM1 expression in endothelial cells is an early step in the pathogenesis of brain diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Here, we report that ICAM1 expression is regulated by pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFa in human microvascular endothelial cell (HBMVEC). TNFa significantly increased ICAM1 mRNA and protein levels at the concentrations showing no cell toxicity. This increase was also shown in micro vessels of mouse brain 24 hours after treatment with TNFa (8 mg/kg, i.v). We then investigated the epigenetic mechanism involved in the induction of ICAM1 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that TNFa reduced methylation of histone3K9 (H3K9-2me) and histone3K27 (H3K27-3me), well-known modification as gene suppression, with in the ICAM1 promoter region. However, acetylation of H3K9 and H3K14, well-known modification as gene activation, was not changed by TNFa. Treatment of BIX01294, a specific inhibitor of histone methyltransferase G9a responsible for H3K9-2me, dramatically increased in ICAM1 mRNA and protein levels and overexpression of G9a gene suppressed TNFa-induced ICAM1 expression. In contrast, GSK126, an inhibitor of histone methyltransferase EZH2 responsible for H3K27-3me and valproic acid, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) did not affect ICAM1 expression. These results suggested that histone3 methylation is involved in ICAM1 repression. Moreover, TNFa or BIX01294-induced ICAM induction resulted in both enhancements in adhesion and transmigration of leukocyte on endothelial cell. This study demonstrates that TNFa upregulates ICAM1 expression through H3K9-2me and H3K27-3me within the ICAM1 promoter region, in which G9a is likely to play a pivotal role in ICAM1 transcription. Our study provides a novel mechanism for ICAM1 transcription regulation in HBMVEC.

Keywords: ICAM1, TNFa, HBMVEC, H3K9-2me

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100 Q Eqchi Mayan Piper and Cissampelos Species Alter Reporter Genes and Endogenous Genes Expression in Mc-7 Cells

Authors: Sheila M. Wicks, Gail Mahady, Udesh Patel, Joanna Michel, Armando Caceres


Introduction: The genus piperaceae contains approximately 1000 species of herbs scrubs small trees and hanging vines distributed in both hemispheres. During our ethno medical work in Guatemala of the 27 plant families documented for us e by the Qeqchi Maya for reproductive disorders the most prominent were the Piperaceae (15%) and Menispermiaceae. Our Previous work showed that extracts from form Piper and Cissampelos species bound to both and progesterone and the estrogen receptors. In this work active extracts from Piper aeruginosibaccum Trelease, P auritum, P tuerckheimii and Cissampels tropaeolifolia were tested in functionalized cell based assays including a SEAP reporter gene and by qPCR of ER-responsive gene expression in MCF-7cells. In the reporter gene assay P aeruginosibaccum was estrogenic and enhanced E2 EFFECTS IN MCF-7 CELLS. P. tuerckheimi was not estrogenic alone but significantly enhanced the effects of E2 on SEAP reporter gene expression. Both altered mRNA expression of E2 responsive genes in MCF-7. Methods: this is collaborative project between University of Illinois at Chicago and University of San Carlos Guatemala City. 144 spices of plants were collected in Guatemala of which 57 used to treat a variety of women's reproductive health. The Genus Piperaraceae contains approximately 1000 species of herbs scrubs and small trees. Active extracts of the plants were tested in functionalized in cell-based bioassays including SEAP reporter genes. Results demonstrated altered mRNA expression of E2 responsive genes in MC-7 cells plants were collected in Guatemala of which 57 used. Conclusion of the 5 plants tested all were shown to contain components of binding to estrogenic receptor to a greater or lesser degree. These effects support the use of QEqchi Maya women in Guatemala for reproductive.

Keywords: Reproductive Health, reporter genes, MC7, guatemala piperaceae

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99 Predicting Suicidal Behavior by an Accurate Monitoring of RNA Editing Biomarkers in Blood Samples

Authors: Berengere Vire, Nicolas Salvetat, Yoann Lannay, Guillaume Marcellin, Siem Van Der Laan, Franck Molina, Dinah Weissmann


Predicting suicidal behaviors is one of the most complex challenges of daily psychiatric practices. Today, suicide risk prediction using biological tools is not validated and is only based on subjective clinical reports of the at-risk individual. Therefore, there is a great need to identify biomarkers that would allow early identification of individuals at risk of suicide. Alterations of adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing of neurotransmitter receptors and other proteins have been shown to be involved in etiology of different psychiatric disorders and linked to suicidal behavior. RNA editing is a co- or post-transcriptional process leading to a site-specific alteration in RNA sequences. It plays an important role in the epi transcriptomic regulation of RNA metabolism. On postmortem human brain tissue (prefrontal cortex) of depressed suicide victims, Alcediag found specific alterations of RNA editing activity on the mRNA coding for the serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2cR). Additionally, an increase in expression levels of ADARs, the RNA editing enzymes, and modifications of RNA editing profiles of prime targets, such as phosphodiesterase 8A (PDE8A) mRNA, have also been observed. Interestingly, the PDE8A gene is located on chromosome 15q25.3, a genomic region that has recurrently been associated with the early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD). In the current study, we examined whether modifications in RNA editing profile of prime targets allow identifying disease-relevant blood biomarkers and evaluating suicide risk in patients. To address this question, we performed a clinical study to identify an RNA editing signature in blood of depressed patients with and without the history of suicide attempts. Patient’s samples were drawn in PAXgene tubes and analyzed on Alcediag’s proprietary RNA editing platform using next generation sequencing technology. In addition, gene expression analysis by quantitative PCR was performed. We generated a multivariate algorithm comprising various selected biomarkers to detect patients with a high risk to attempt suicide. We evaluated the diagnostic performance using the relative proportion of PDE8A mRNA editing at different sites and/or isoforms as well as the expression of PDE8A and the ADARs. The significance of these biomarkers for suicidality was evaluated using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC). The generated algorithm comprising the biomarkers was found to have strong diagnostic performances with high specificity and sensitivity. In conclusion, we developed tools to measure disease-specific biomarkers in blood samples of patients for identifying individuals at the greatest risk for future suicide attempts. This technology not only fosters patient management but is also suitable to predict the risk of drug-induced psychiatric side effects such as iatrogenic increase of suicidal ideas/behaviors.

Keywords: Suicide, RNA Editing, blood biomarker, next-generation-sequencing

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98 In Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation of Nano Collagen Molecules to Enhance Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiate into Insulin Producing Cells

Authors: Chin-Tsu Ma, Yi-Jhen Wu, Hsia Ying Cheng, Han Hsiang Huang, Shyh Ming Kuo


The use of specific molecules including nutrients and pharmacological agents has been tried in modulation of stem cells differentiation (MSCs) to insulin producing cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of nano collagen molecules (nutrient or scaffold) to enhance the MSCs differentiation into insulin-producing cells in combination with nicotinamide and exendin-4 (pharmacological agents) in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrated that the cells exhibit morphologically islet-like clusters after treatment with nano collagen molecules, nicotinamide and exendin-4. MSCs extra treated with nano collagen molecules showed significant increases in Nkx6.1 and insulin mRNA expression at 14-d and 21-d culture compared with those merely treated with nicotinamide and exendin-4. Early 7-day elevation in PDX-1 mRNA expression was observed. Furthermore, the MSCs exposed to nano collagen molecules produced the highest secretion of insulin (p < 0.05). Type-2 diabetes induced by high-fat diet and low dose of streptozotocin in rat model was built in this study. This rat exhibited higher food intake, water intake, lower glucose tolerance, lower-insulin tolerance, and higher HbA1C (significant increases, p < 0.01) as compared with the normal rat that demonstrated the model of type-2 diabetes was successfully built. Biopsy examinations also showed that obvious destruction of islet. After injection of differentiated MSCs into the destructed pancreas of diabetes rat, more regenerated islet were observed at the rats that treated with nano collagen molecules and exhibited much lower HbA1C as compared with the normal rat and diabetes rat after 4 weeks (significant deceases, p < 0.001). These results indicate that the culturing MSCs with nano collagen molecules, nicotinamide, and exendin-4 are beneficial for MSCs differentiation into islet-like cells. These nano collagen molecules may lead to alternations or up-regulation of gene expression and influence the differentiated outcomes induced by nicotinamide and exendin-4.

Keywords: Diabetes, MSCs, nicotinamide, nano collagen molecules

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97 Down Regulation of Smad-2 Transcription and TGF-B1 Signaling in Nano Sized Titanium Dioxide-Induced Liver Injury in Mice by Potent Antioxidants

Authors: Maha Z. Rizk, Sami A. Fattah, Heba M. Darwish, Sanaa A. Ali, Mai O. Kadry


Although it is known that nano-TiO2 and other nanoparticles can induce liver toxicity, the mechanisms and the molecular pathogenesis are still unclear. The present study investigated some biochemical indices of nano-sized Titanium dioxide (TiO2 NPS) toxicity in mice liver and the ameliorative efficacy of individual and combined doses of idebenone, carnosine and vitamin E. Nano-anatase TiO2 (21 nm) was administered as a total oral dose of 2.2 gm/Kg daily for 2 weeks followed by the afore-mentioned antioxidants daily either individually or in combination for 1month. TiO2-NPS induced a significant elevation in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and hepatic oxidative stress biomarkers [lipid peroxides (LP), and nitric oxide levels (NOX), while it significantly reduced glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase(GPX) levels. Moreover the quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that nano-anatase TiO2 can significantly alter the mRNA and protein expressions of the fibrotic factors TGF-B1, VEGFand Smad-2. Histopathological examination of hepatic tissue reinforced the previous biochemical results. Our results also implied that inflammatory responses and liver injury may be involved in nano-anatase TiO2-induced liver toxicity Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and Interleukin -6 (IL-6) and increased the percent of DNA damage which was assessed by COMET assay in addition to the apoptotic marker Caspase-3. Moreover mRNA gene expression observed by RT-PCR showed a significant overexpression in nuclear factor relation -2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-Kβ) and the apoptotic factor (bax), and a significant down regulation in the antiapoptotic factor (bcl2) level. In conclusion idebenone, carnosine and vitamin E ameliorated the deviated previously mentioned parameters with variable degrees with the most pronounced role in alleviating the hazardous effect of TiO2 NPS toxicity following the combination regimen.

Keywords: Nano-anatase TiO2, TGF-B1, SMAD-2

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96 Let-7 Mirnas Regulate Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Bovine Endometrial Cells after Lipopolysaccharide Challenge by Targeting TNFα

Authors: S. Ibrahim, K. Schellander, D. Salilew-Wondim, M. Hoelker, C. Looft, E. Tholen, C. Grosse-Brinkhaus, C. Neuhoff, D. Tesfaye


Bovine endometrial cells appear to have a key role in innate immune defense of the female genital tract. A better understanding of molecular changes in microRNAs (miRNAs) and their target genes expression may identify reliable prognostic indicators for cows that will resolve inflammation and resume cyclicity. In the current study, we hypothesized that let-7 miRNAs family has a primary role in the innate immune defence of the endometrium tissue against bacterial infection, which is partly achieved via regulating mRNA stability of pro-inflammatory cytokines at the post-transcriptional level. Therefore, we conducted two experiments. In the first experiment, primary bovine endometrial cells were challenged with clinical (3.0 μg/ml) and sub-clinical (0.5 μg/ml) doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24h. In the 2nd experiment, we have investigated the potential role of let-7 miRNAs (let-7a and let-7f) using gain and loss of function approaches. Additionally, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), transforming growth factor beta 1 induced transcript 1 (TGFB1I1) and serum deprivation response (SDPR) genes were validated using reporter assay. Here we addressed for the first time that let-7 miRNAs have a precise role in bovine endometrium, where LPS dysregulated let-7 miRNAs family expression was associated with an increased pro-inflammatory cytokine level by directly/indirectly targeting the TNFα, interleukin 6 (IL6), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB), TGFβ1I1 and SDPR genes. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that TNFα, TGFβ1I1 and SDPR were identified and validated as novel let-7 miRNAs targets and could have a distinct role in inflammatory immune response of LPS challenged bovine endometrial cells. Our data represent a new finding by which uterine homeostasis is maintained through functional regulation of let-7a by down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines expression (TNFα and IL6) at the mRNA and protein levels. These findings suggest that LPS serves as a negative regulator of let-7 miRNAs expression and provides a mechanism for the persistent pro-inflammatory phenotype, which is a hallmark of bovine subclinical endometritis.

Keywords: pro-inflammatory cytokines, lipopolysaccharide, bovine endometrial cells, let-7

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95 A Geometrical Perspective on the Insulin Evolution

Authors: Sorin V. Sabau, Yuhei Kunihiro, Kazuhiro Shibuya


We study the molecular evolution of insulin from the metric geometry point of view. In mathematics, and particularly in geometry, distances and metrics between objects are of fundamental importance. Using a weaker notion than the classical distance, namely the weighted quasi-metrics, one can study the geometry of biological sequences (DNA, mRNA, or proteins) space. We analyze from the geometrical point of view a family of 60 insulin homologous sequences ranging on a large variety of living organisms from human to the nematode C. elegans. We show that the distances between sequences provide important information about the evolution and function of insulin.

Keywords: Evolution, insulin, metric geometry, C. elegans

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94 An Improvement of ComiR Algorithm for MicroRNA Target Prediction by Exploiting Coding Region Sequences of mRNAs

Authors: Giorgio Bertolazzi, Panayiotis Benos, Michele Tumminello, Claudia Coronnello


MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate the expression levels of messenger RNAs. MicroRNA regulation activity depends on the recognition of binding sites located on mRNA molecules. ComiR (Combinatorial miRNA targeting) is a user friendly web tool realized to predict the targets of a set of microRNAs, starting from their expression profile. ComiR incorporates miRNA expression in a thermodynamic binding model, and it associates each gene with the probability of being a target of a set of miRNAs. ComiR algorithms were trained with the information regarding binding sites in the 3’UTR region, by using a reliable dataset containing the targets of endogenously expressed microRNA in D. melanogaster S2 cells. This dataset was obtained by comparing the results from two different experimental approaches, i.e., inhibition, and immunoprecipitation of the AGO1 protein; this protein is a component of the microRNA induced silencing complex. In this work, we tested whether including coding region binding sites in the ComiR algorithm improves the performance of the tool in predicting microRNA targets. We focused the analysis on the D. melanogaster species and updated the ComiR underlying database with the currently available releases of mRNA and microRNA sequences. As a result, we find that the ComiR algorithm trained with the information related to the coding regions is more efficient in predicting the microRNA targets, with respect to the algorithm trained with 3’utr information. On the other hand, we show that 3’utr based predictions can be seen as complementary to the coding region based predictions, which suggests that both predictions, from 3'UTR and coding regions, should be considered in a comprehensive analysis. Furthermore, we observed that the lists of targets obtained by analyzing data from one experimental approach only, that is, inhibition or immunoprecipitation of AGO1, are not reliable enough to test the performance of our microRNA target prediction algorithm. Further analysis will be conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the tool with data from other species, provided that validated datasets, as obtained from the comparison of RISC proteins inhibition and immunoprecipitation experiments, will be available for the same samples. Finally, we propose to upgrade the existing ComiR web-tool by including the coding region based trained model, available together with the 3’UTR based one.

Keywords: coding region, Drosophila melanogaster, AGO1, microRNA target prediction

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93 [Keynote Talk]: Bioactive Cyclic Dipeptides of Microbial Origin in Discovery of Cytokine Inhibitors

Authors: Sajeli A. Begum, Ameer Basha, Kirti Hira, Rukaiyya Khan


Cyclic dipeptides are simple diketopiperazine derivatives being investigated by several scientists for their biological effects which include anticancer, antimicrobial, haematological, anticonvulsant, immunomodulatory effect, etc. They are potentially active microbial metabolites having been synthesized too, for developing into drug candidates. Cultures of Pseudomonas species have earlier been reported to produce cyclic dipeptides, helping in quorum sensing signals and bacterial–host colonization phenomena during infections, causing cell anti-proliferation and immunosuppression. Fluorescing Pseudomonas species have been identified to secrete lipid derivatives, peptides, pyrroles, phenazines, indoles, aminoacids, pterines, pseudomonic acids and some antibiotics. In the present work, results of investigation on the cyclic dipeptide metabolites secreted by the culture broth of Pseudomonas species as potent pro-inflammatory cytokine inhibitors are discussed. The bacterial strain was isolated from the rhizospheric soil of groundnut crop and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa by 16S rDNA sequence (GenBank Accession No. KT625586). Culture broth of this strain was prepared by inoculating into King’s B broth and incubating at 30 ºC for 7 days. The ethyl acetate extract of culture broth was prepared and lyophilized to get a dry residue (EEPA). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ELISA assay proved the inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) secretion in culture supernatant of RAW 264.7 cells by EEPA (IC50 38.8 μg/mL). The effect of oral administration of EEPA on plasma TNF-α level in rats was tested by ELISA kit. The LPS mediated plasma TNF-α level was reduced to 45% with 125 mg/kg dose of EEPA. Isolation of the chemical constituents of EEPA through column chromatography yielded ten cyclic dipeptides, which were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopic techniques. These cyclic dipeptides are biosynthesized in microorganisms by multifunctional assembly of non-ribosomal peptide synthases and cyclic dipeptide synthase. Cyclo (Gly-L-Pro) was found to be more potentially (IC50 value 4.5 μg/mL) inhibiting TNF-α production followed by cyclo (trans-4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Phe) (IC50 value 14.2 μg/mL) and the effect was equal to that of standard immunosuppressant drug, prednisolone. Further, the effect was analyzed by determining mRNA expression of TNF-α in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. EEPA and isolated cyclic dipeptides demonstrated diminution of TNF-α mRNA expression levels in a dose-dependent manner under the tested conditions. Also, they were found to control the expression of other pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-1β and IL-6, when tested through their mRNA expression levels in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages under LPS-stimulated conditions. In addition, significant inhibition effect was found on Nitric oxide production. Further all the compounds exhibited weak toxicity to LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Thus the outcome of the study disclosed the effectiveness of EEPA and the isolated cyclic dipeptides in down-regulating key cytokines involved in pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases.In another study led by the investigators, microbial cyclic dipeptides were found to exhibit excellent antimicrobial effect against Fusarium moniliforme which is an important causative agent of Sorghum grain mold disease. Thus, cyclic dipeptides are emerging small molecular drug candidates for various autoimmune diseases.

Keywords: Cytokines, Pseudomonas, TNF-Alpha, cyclic dipeptides, Fusarium moniliforme

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92 Transcriptomic and Translational Regulation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors after Different Feedings in Salmon

Authors: Mahsa Jalili, Signe Dille Lovmo, Rolf Erik Olsen, Essa Ehsan Khan, Augustine Akruwe, Egil Lien, Trygve Sigholt, Atle Magnus Bones


Data from the Norwegian Directorate of Fisheries reported that >1.2 million tons of Atlantic salmon were produced in Norway aquaculture industry in 2016. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are one of the key transcription factor families that respond to nutritional ligands. Recent studies have shown the connection between PPARs with lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in aquaculture. To our knowledge, there is no published data about the effects of krill meal, soybean meal, Bactocell ® and butyrate feedings compared to control group on PPARs gene and protein expressions in Atlantic salmon. Fish, 1year +postsmolt, average weight 250 gram were cultured for 12 weeks after acclimatization by control commercial feeding in 2 weeks after hatchery. Water oxygen rate, salinity, and temperature were monitored every second day. At the end of the trial, fish were taken from tanks randomly, and four replicates per group were collected and stored in -80 freezers until analysis. Total RNA extracted from posterior part of dorsal fin muscle tissues and Nanodrop and Bioanalyzer was used to check the quality of RNA. Gene expression of PPAR α, β and γ were determined by RT-PCR. The expression of genes of interest was measured relative to control group after normalization to three reference genes. Total protein concentration was calculated by Bradford method, and protein expression was determined with primary PPARγ antibody by western blot. All data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Benjamini-Hochberg and Bonferroni tests. Probability values <0.05 considered significant. Bactocell® and butyrate groups showed significantly lower PPARα expression. PPARβ and γ were not significantly different among groups. PPARγ mRNA expression was approximately consistent with protein expression pattern, except than butyrate group showed lower mRNA level. The order of PPARγ expression was Bactocell® > soy meal > butyrate > krill meal > control respectively. PPARβ gene expression decreased more in soy meal > butyrate > krill meal > Bactocell® > control groups respectively. In conclusion, the increased expression of PPARγ and α is proposed to represent a reduction tendency of lipid storage in fish fed by Bactocell®, butyrate, soy and krill meal.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Probiotics, Gene expression, Prebiotics, Krill protein extract, Salmo salar, blotting western

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91 Classification of Impact Damages with Respect of Damage Tolerance Design Approach and Airworthiness Requirements

Authors: R. Doubrava, T. Mrna


This paper describes airworthiness requirements with respect damage tolerance. Damage tolerance determines the amount and magnitude of damage on parts of the airplane. Airworthiness requirements determine the amount of damage that can still be in flight capable of the condition. Component damage can be defined as barely visible impact damage, visible impact damage or clear visible impact damage. Damage is also distributed it according to the velocity. It is divided into low or high velocity impact damage. The severity of damage to the part of airplane divides the airworthiness requirements into several categories according to severity. Airworthiness requirements are determined by type airplane. All types of airplane do not have the same conditions for airworthiness requirements. This knowledge is important for designing and operating an airplane.

Keywords: Composite, Damage Tolerance, airworthiness requirements, low and high velocity impact

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90 Role of Interleukin-36 in Response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection

Authors: Muslim Idan Mohsin, Mohammed Jasim Al-Shamarti, Rusul Idan Mohsin, Ali A. Majeed


One of the causative agents of the lower respiratory tract (LRT) is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which can lead to severe infection associated with a lung infection. There are many cytokines that are secreted in response to bacterial infection, in particular interleukin IL-36 cytokine in response to P. aeruginosa infection. The involvement of IL-36 in the P. aeruginosa infection could be a clue to find a specific way for treatments of different inflammatory and degenerative lung diseases. IL36 promotes primary immune response via binding to the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R). Indeed, an overactivity of IL-36 might be an initiating factor for many immunopathologic sceneries in pneumonia. Here we demonstrate if the IL-36 cytokine increases in response P. aeruginosa infection that is isolated from lower respiratory tract infection (LRT). We demonstrated that IL-36 expression significantly unregulated in human lung epithelial (A549) cells after infected by P. aeruginosa at mRNA level.

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, IL36, LRT infection, A549 cells

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89 Promotion of Lipid Syntheses of Microalgae by Microfluidic-Assisted Membrane Distortion

Authors: Gwang Heum Yoon, Hwa Sung Shin, Seul Ki Min, Jung Hyun Joo


Cellular membrane distortion is known as a factor to change intracellular signaling. However, progress of relevant studies is difficult because there are no facilities that can control membrane distortion finely. In this study, we developed microfluidic device which can inflict mechanical stress on cell membrane of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using regular height of the channels. And cellular physiological changes were analyzed from cells cultured in the device. Excessive calcium ion influx through into cytoplasm was induced from mechanical stress. The results revealed that compressed cells had up-regulated Mat3 mRNA which regulates cell size and cell cycle from a prolonged G1 phase. Additionally, TAG used for the production of biodiesel was raised rapidly from 4 h after compression. Taken together, membrane distortion can be considered as an attractive inducer for biofuel production.

Keywords: Cell Cycle, mechanical stress, Lipid Metabolism, membrane distortion, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, deflagellation

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88 Regulation of Desaturation of Fatty Acid and Triglyceride Synthesis by Myostatin through Swine-Specific MEF2C/miR222/SCD5 Pathway

Authors: Yanzhen Bi, Wei Xiao, Gangzhi Cai, Xingliang Qin, Hongyan Ren, Zaidong Hua, Zhe Zhu, Hongwei Xiao, Ximin Zheng, Jie Yao


Myostatin (MSTN) is the master regulator of double muscling phenotype with overgrown muscle and decreased fatness in animals, but its action mode to regulate fat deposition remains to be elucidated. In this study a swin-specific pathway through which MSTN acts to regulate the fat deposition was deciphered. Deep sequenincing of the mRNA and miRNA of fat tissues of MSTN knockout (KO) and wildtype (WT) pigs discovered the positive correlation of myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) and fat-inhibiting miR222 expression, and the inverse correlation of miR222 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 5 (SCD5) expression. SCD5 is rodent-absent and expressed only in pig, sheep and cattle. Fatty acid spectrum of fat tissues revealed a lower percentage of oleoyl-CoA (18:1) and palmitoleyl CoA (16:1) in MSTN KO pigs, which are the catalyzing products of SCD5-mediated desaturation of steroyl CoA (18:0) and palmitoyl CoA (16:0). Blood metrics demonstrated a 45% decline of triglyceride (TG) content in MSTN KO pigs. In light of these observations we hypothesized that MSTN might act through MEF2C/miR222/SCD5 pathway to regulate desaturation of fatty acid as well as triglyceride synthesis in pigs. To this end, real-time PCR and Western blotting were carried out to detect the expression of the three genes stated above. These experiments showed that MEF2C expression was up-regulated by nearly 2-fold, miR222 up-regulated by nearly 3-fold and SCD5 down-regulated by nearly 50% in MSTN KO pigs. These data were consistent with the expression change in deep sequencing analysis. Dual luciferase reporter was then used to confirm the regulation of MEF2C upon the promoter of miR222. Ecotopic expression of MEF2C in preadipocyte cells enhanced miR222 expression by 3.48-fold. CHIP-PCR identified a putative binding site of MEF2C on -2077 to -2066 region of miR222 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) demonstrated the interaction of MEF2C and miR222 promoter in vitro. These data indicated that MEF2C transcriptionally regulates the expression of miR222. Next, the regulation of miR222 on SCD5 mRNA as well as its physiological consequences were examined. Dual luciferase reporter testing revealed the translational inhibition of miR222 upon the 3´ UTR (untranslated region) of SCD5 in preadipocyte cells. Transfection of miR222 mimics and inhibitors resulted in the down-regulation and up-regulation of SCD5 in preadipocyte cells respectively, consistent with the results from reporter testing. RNA interference of SCD5 in preadipocyte cells caused 26.2% reduction of TG, in agreement with the results of TG content in MSTN KO pigs. In summary, the results above supported the existence of a molecular pathway that MSTN signals through MEF2C/miR222/SCD5 to regulate the fat deposition in pigs. This swine-specific pathway offers potential molecular markers for the development and breeding of a new pig line with optimised fatty acid composition. This would benefit human health by decreasing the takeup of saturated fatty acid.

Keywords: Pig, myostatin, fat deposition, MEF2C, miR222, SCD5

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87 miR-200c as a Biomarker for 5-FU Chemosensitivity in Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Rezvan Najafi, Korosh Heydari, Massoud Saidijam


5-FU is a chemotherapeutic agent that has been used in colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. However, it is usually associated with the acquired resistance, which decreases the therapeutic effects of 5-FU. miR-200c is involved in chemotherapeutic drug resistance, but its mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, the effect of inhibition of miR-200c in sensitivity of HCT-116 CRC cells to 5-FU was evaluated. HCT-116 cells were transfected with LNA-anti- miR-200c for 48 h. mRNA expression of miR-200c was evaluated using quantitative real- time PCR. The protein expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and E-cadherin were analyzed by western blotting. Annexin V and propidium iodide staining assay were applied for apoptosis detection. The caspase-3 activation was evaluated by an enzymatic assay. The results showed LNA-anti-miR-200c inhibited the expression of PTEN and E-cadherin protein, apoptosis and activation of caspase 3 compared with control cells. In conclusion, these results suggest that miR-200c as a prognostic marker can overcome to 5-FU chemoresistance in CRC.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, miR-200c, E-cadherin, PTEN

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86 Modulation of Lipopolysaccharide Induced Interleukin-17F and Cyclooxygenase-2 Gene Expression by Echinacea purpurea in Broiler Chickens

Authors: Ali Asghar Saki, Sayed Ali Hosseini Siyar, Abbass Ashoori


This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Echinacea purpurea on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-17F (IL-17F) in seven-day-old broiler chickens. Four groups were fed with concentration of 0 g/kg, 5 g/kg, 10 g/kg and 20 g/kg from the root of E. purpurea in the basal diet and two other groups were only fed with the basal diet for 21 days. At the 28th day, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2 mg/kg diet) was injected in four groups and the basal diet group was injected by saline as control. The chickens’ spleen RNA expression was measured for the COX-2 and IL-17F genes by Real-Time PCR. The results have shown that chickens which were fed E. purpurea had a lower COX-2 and IL-17F mRNA expression. The chickens who have received LPS only, lymphocyte was lower than other treatments. Vital organ weights were not significantly different, but body weight loss was recovered by dietary herbs inclusion. The results of this study have shown the positive effect of an anti-inflammatory herb to prevent the undesirable effect of inflammation.

Keywords: Gene expression, broiler chickens, lipopolysaccharide, Echinacea purporea

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85 Oncogenic Role of MicroRNA-346 in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Regulation of XPC/ERK/Snail/E-Cadherin Pathway

Authors: Cheng-Cao Sun, Shu-Jun Li, De-Jia Li


Determinants of growth and metastasis in cancer remain of great interest to define. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have frequently emerged as tumor metastatic regulator by acting on multiple signaling pathways. Here, we report the definition of miR-346 as an oncogenic microRNA that facilitates non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell growth and metastasis. XPC, an important DNA damage recognition factor in nucleotide excision repair was defined as a target for down-regulation by miR-346, functioning through direct interaction with the 3'-UTR of XPC mRNA. Blocking miR-346 by an antagomiR was sufficient to inhibit NSCLC cell growth and metastasis, an effect that could be phenol-copied by RNAi-mediated silencing of XPC. In vivo studies established that miR-346 overexpression was sufficient to promote tumor growth by A549 cells in xenografts mice, relative to control cells. Overall, our results defined miR-346 as an oncogenic miRNA in NSCLC, the levels of which contributed to tumor growth and invasive aggressiveness.

Keywords: Oncogenesis, non-small cell lung cancer, microRNA-346, miR-346, XPC

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