Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14833

Search results for: Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

14833 The Place of Open Distance Education in Achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Authors: Morakinyo Akintolu, Moeketsi Letseka


In the year 2015, the United Nation member states, through the representative of all heads of states present, adopted the 17 Global goals known as the Sustainable Development Goals in their capacity to bring about social, economic, and cultural development to the world. Therefore, the need to accommodate equitable development one of the major goals is to achieve equitable and quality education for all to bring about international development. In this light, the study investigates the role of open distance learning in achieving sustainable development goals. Open distance learning comes as a second chance to individuals in disseminating educational content to students who missed the opportunity of attending the traditional school setting. Therefore, this study investigates if the SDGs reflect this type of learning (ODL) in creating Education for all according to the 2030 agenda by the United Nations. It further ascertains the role of ODL in achieving SDGs, the challenges encountered as well as the way forward.

Keywords: open distance learning, sustainable development goals, distance education, achieving, 2030 agenda

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14832 A Strategy of Green Sukuk to Promote Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Indonesia

Authors: Amrial, Yuri Oktaviani, Ziyan Muhammad Farhan


On the phase of shifting paradigm into sustainability, Indonesia is involved in Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) project. That act is revealed by creating Medium and Long Term Roadmap for Sustainable Finance in Indonesia which collaborated design by Indonesia Financial Service Board (OJK) and Ministry of Environment and Forestry. One of alternative for that infrastructure financing is sharia-based financing, Green Sukuk (Sukuk specified on sustainable infrastructure project). Green Sukuk for infrastructure financing in Indonesia can be issued by the government in the form of Sukuk Project Financing. Moreover, banks in Indonesia can also participate for the issuance of Green Sukuk. So that the banks can create a financing for people who are concerned about environmental issues. By using qualitative methods and literature review, this paper aims to discuss potential, strategy and planning of Green Sukuk for financing sustainable infrastructure in the purpose of SDGs. This paper will benefit for government to give scientific discussion on the strategy of Green Sukuk in promoting sustainable goals infrastructure project in Indonesia.

Keywords: green sukuk, infrastructure, SDGs, sustainable

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14831 Geographic Information Systems as a Tool to Support the Sustainable Development Goals

Authors: Gulnara N. Nabiyeva, Stephen M. Wheeler


Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a multipurpose computer-based tool that provides a sophisticated ability to map and analyze data on different spatial layers. However, GIS is far more easily applied in some policy areas than others. This paper seeks to determine the areas of sustainable development, including environmental, economic, and social dimensions, where GIS has been used to date to support efforts to implement the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and to discuss potential areas where it might be used more. Based on an extensive analysis of published literature, we ranked the SDGs according to how frequently GIS has been used to study related policy. We found that SDG#15 “Life on Land” is most often addressed with GIS, following by SDG#11 “Sustainable Cities and Communities”, and SDG#13 “Climate Action”. On the other hand, we determined that SDG#2 “Zero Hunger”, SDG#8 “Decent Work and Economic Growth”, and SDG#16 “Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions” are least addressed with GIS. The paper outlines some specific ways that GIS might be applied to the SDGs least linked to this tool currently.

Keywords: GIS, GIS application, sustainable community development, sustainable development goals

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14830 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and Digital Exclusion: Reconsidering Sustainable Development and Digital Poverty in the Post-Pandemic World

Authors: Serena Clark, Katriona O'Sullivan, Kevin Marshall, Mac MacLachlan


This paper explores the United Nation's sustainable development goals (SDGs) alongside digital poverty and proposes that digital poverty should be a new SDG. The SDGs concentrate on 17 key areas, including economic growth, reducing inequalities, climate action, ending poverty, gender equality, and quality education. Many of the plans to fulfill these goals involve the creation and adaptation of new technologies. As we have seen with COVID-19, access to these technologies has determined communities and societies' ability to respond to these challenges in both developed and developing nations. For example, the transition to online education due to the lockdowns had a detrimental effect on children who did not have access to technology to provide continuity in their educational development. Digitalization and emerging technologies, especially information and communication technologies (ICTs), can help address each goal. Digital poverty and exclusion exacerbate the gap between rich and poor within our societies and internationally, and COVID-19 has further highlighted these issues. Closing this gap can support achieving the SDGs. If access to digital technologies measure society's response and resilience in addressing the challenges the SDGs seek to resolve, should reducing digital poverty be an SDG of its own? This paper will explore this question, arguing that digital poverty should be an independent SDG working alongside and supporting the achievement of the other 17 SDGs.

Keywords: digital poverty, digital exclusion, United Nations sustainable development goals, information and communication technologies

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14829 Supply Chain and Performance Measurement: An Alignment With Sustainable Development Goals

Authors: Miriam Corrado, Roberta Ciccola, Maria Serena Chiucchi


SDGs represent the last edge in the sustainability corporate practices, including the supply chain management. Supply chains are becoming more global and complex, can create more inclusive markets and make contribution to the advance of the sustainable development. In corporate practices, the presence of sustainability criteria in supply chain management could offer an opportunity to increase competitiveness and to meet stakeholders’ expectations in terms of sustainability and corporate accountability. The research aims to understand how focal companies can integrate SDGs in their supply chain and how they can measure and assess their impacts on SDGs. The study adopts a multiple case study methodology based on four case studies referred to companies committed in measuring SDGs’ performance in their supply chains. Preliminary findings demonstrate the willingness and the need of companies to commit under a supply-chain perspective for the achievement of SDGs. Companies recognize their role in impacting the SDGs through their procurement choices by defining and implementing an SDGs scoring system. The contribution of the study is twofold: first, given the lack of research and studies addressing the integration of SDGs in the supply chain and in the performance measurement systems, the research provides a contribution to the current academic literature in relation to these emerging gaps; second, the research provides a practical guidance to implement a sustainable supply chain and advance towards the achievement of SDGs.

Keywords: sustainable supply chains, sustainable development goals, performance measurement, performance management

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14828 Sustainable Development Goals: The Effect of a Board Structure on the Sustainability Performance

Authors: V. Naciti, L. Pulejo, F. Cesaroni


This study empirically analyzes whether the composition of the board of directors (BoD) enhances sustainability performance, in order to understand how the BoD contribute to the integration of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in their businesses. Hypotheses are developed based on the agency theory and stakeholder theory. Using a system generalized method of the moment (SGMM) two-step estimator, with data from Sustainalytics and Compustat databases for 362 firms in six regions, we find that firms with more diversity on the board and a separation of chair and CEO roles have higher sustainability performance. Moreover, our findings provide that a higher number of independent directors is negatively associated with sustainability performance. This study contributes to the literature on corporate governance and the firm’s performance by demonstrating that the composition of the board of directors contributes to a better sustainability performance: by the implementation of a particular corporate governance mechanism, it is possible to integrate SDGs in the corporate strategy.

Keywords: sustainable development goals, corporate governance, board of directors, sustainability performance

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14827 Assessment of Drinking Water Quality in Relation to Arsenic Contamination in Drinking Water in Liberia: Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal of Ensuring Clean Water and Sanitation

Authors: Victor Emery David Jr., Jiang Wenchao, Daniel Mmereki, Yasinta John


The fundamentals of public health are access to safe and clean drinking water. The presence of arsenic and other contaminants in drinking water leads to the potential risk to public health and the environment particularly in most developing countries where there’s inadequate access to safe and clean water and adequate sanitation. Liberia has taken steps to improve its drinking water status so as to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) target of ensuring clean water and effective sanitation but there is still a lot to be done. The Sustainable Development Goals are a United Nation initiative also known as transforming our world: The 2030 agenda for sustainable development. It contains seventeen goals with 169 targets to be met by respective countries. Liberia is situated within in the gold belt region where there exist the presence of arsenic and other contaminants in the underground water due to mining and other related activities. While there are limited or no epidemiological studies conducted in Liberia to confirm illness or death as a result of arsenic contamination in Liberia, it remains a public health concern. This paper assesses the drinking water quality, the presence of arsenic in groundwater/drinking water in Liberia, and proposes strategies for mitigating contaminants in drinking water and suggests options for improvement with regards to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals of ensuring clean water and effective sanitation in Liberia by 2030.

Keywords: arsenic, action plan, contaminants, environment, groundwater, sustainable development goals (SDGs), Monrovia, Liberia, public health, drinking water

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14826 Using Customer Satisfaction to Help Achieve Sustainable Development Goals in the Islamic Economy: A Quantitative Case Study from Amman, Jordan

Authors: Sarah A. Tobin


Social justice outcomes, derived from customer satisfaction, serve as a main pathway and conduit for achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) because they prompt democratizing and socially-inclusive effects that are consistent with Islamic economic values. This paper argues that achieving higher levels of social justice and the SGDs is possible only through the realization of Islamic banking and finance customer satisfaction that aligns with Islamic values in the tradition of the Shari`a (or Islamic law). Through this key manifestation of Shari`a in the banks, social justice aims of achieving SDGs become possible. This paper utilizes a case study of a large-scale survey (N=127) comparing customer satisfaction between a conventional and an Islamic bank in Amman, Jordan. Based on a series of linear regressions, the statistically-significant findings suggest that when overall customer satisfaction is high, customers are more likely to become empowered citizens demanding inclusive, quality services and corruption-free management, as well as attribute their experiences to the Islamic nature of the financial endeavors. Social justice interests and expectations increase (and SDGs are more likely met) when a customer has high levels of satisfaction. The paper concludes with policy recommendations for Islamic financial institutions that enhance customer service experiences for better achieving the social justice aims of the Islamic economy and SDGs, including transparency in transactions, exemplary customer service and follow up, and attending to Islamic values in the aesthetics of bank.

Keywords: customer satisfaction, Islamic economy, social justice, sustainable development goals

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14825 An Integrated Approach of Islamic Social Financing for Achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGS) Through Crowdfunding: A Model for Sharing Economy for Community Development in Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Abu Yousuf


Islamic social financing (ISF) refers to the fair distribution of wealth and financial dealings and prevents economic exploitation at all levels. ISF instruments include Islamic institutions Zakat (obligatory charity), Sadaqah (voluntary charity) and Waqf (endowment) based on philanthropy such and Qard-al Hasan (beautiful loan), micro takaful (insurance) and social investments through Sukuk (bonds) based on cooperation. ISF contributes to socio-economic development, end poverty, protects environmental sustainability, promotes education, equality, social justice and above all, establishes social well-being since the birth of Islam. ISF tools are instrumental towards achieving sustainable development goals (SDGs) set by United Nations (UN). The present study will explore the scope of ISF for community development in Bangladesh and examine the challenges in implementing ISF tools and will provide the most practical model of ISF. The study will adopt a mixed-method (MM) design in the process of data collection and analysis. The researcher will consider all issues related to ethics, reliability, validity and feasibility while conducting the study.

Keywords: Islamic social financing, sustainable development goals, poverty eradication, zakat, waqf, sadaqah, Islamic microfinance

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14824 Sustainable Development Goals 2030: A Case of Malaysian Priorities from the Perspectives of Undergraduate Students

Authors: Zurina Mahadi, Hukil Sino


United Nations resolved 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015 to complete what Millennium Development Goals did not achieve. Accommodating 17 goals and 169 targets, Sustainable Development Goals are designated to be achieved over the next 15 years. A survey was conducted in July 2019 among the undergraduate students of a public university in Selangor, Malaysia, to learn their selection over Sustainable Development Goals, which they think is the most critical in the Malaysian scenario. This study adopted a qualitative approach, and data is gathered from a single instruction questionnaire administered to a purposive sample of participants. 13 goals were selected by the participants which are Goal 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 16 and 17 while none has selected Goal 7, 9, 14 and 15 which are ‘Affordable and Clean Energy’; ‘Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure’; ‘Life Below Water’ and ‘Life On Land’ respectively. The selected goals are then ranked according to the number of participants who chose that particular goal. Goal 8 is found to be at the highest position of the ranking while Goal 5, 6, 10, and 13 accommodating the lowest position. Goal 8, which is ‘Decent Work and Economic Growth’ is chosen by 13 participants as the most critical goal in Malaysia while Goal 5,6 10, and 13, which are ‘Gender Equality’; ‘Clean Water and Sanitation’; ‘Reduced Inequalities’ and ‘Climate Action’ respectively, are chosen by only one participant each. Issues highlighted by the participants are themed into 10 themes, which are job availability, cost of living, well-being, corruption, education, environment, gender, development planning, consumption, and partnership. The theme of the cost of living has the highest number of issues, followed by the theme of job availability and the environment. The theme of gender has the least number of issues, followed by the theme of corruption and development planning. In principle, these findings, therefore, conclude that from a public university students’ point of view, the most critical sustainable development goal is decent work and economic growth while the most concerning issue is the cost of living. The implications of these findings are students’ knowledge towards the current issues of development, and their views of future sustainable development are considerably high. This study, therefore, suggests their views be inculcated into local, sustainable development frameworks to increase the inclusiveness of the young generation as they are the future SDGs stakeholders.

Keywords: cost of living, inclusiveness, job availability, sustainable development goals

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14823 Integrating the Principles of Sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): By Engaging the India Inc. With Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Authors: Radhika Ralhan


With the formalization of 2030, Global Agenda for Sustainable Development nations have instantaneously geared up their efforts towards the implementation of a comprehensive list of global goals. The criticality of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is imperative, as it will define the course and pace of development for the next 15 years. This development will entail transformational shifts towards a green and inclusive growth. Leadership, investments and technology will constitute as key ingredients of this transformational shift and governance will emerge as a one of the most significant driver of the global 2030 agenda. Corporate Governance is viewed as one of the key force to accelerate the momentum of SDGs and initiate these transformational shifts. Many senior level leaders have reinstated their conviction that adopting a triple bottom line approach will play an imperative role in transforming the entire industrial sector. In the Indian context, the above occurrence bears an intriguing facet, as the framing of SDGs in the global scenario coincided with the emergence of mandatory Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Rules in India at national level. As one of the leading democracies in the world, India is among few countries to formally mandate companies to spend 2% from their CSR funds under Section 135 of The New Companies Act 2013. The overarching framework of SDGs correlates to the areas of CSR interventions as mentioned in the Schedule VII of Section 135. As one of the legitimate stakeholders, business leaders have expressed their commitments to their respective governments, to reorient the entire fabric of their companies to scale up global priorities. This is explicitly seen in the case of India where leading business entities have converged national government priorities of Clean India, Make in India and Skill India by actively participating in the campaigns and incorporating these programmes within the ambit of their CSR policies. However, the CSR Act has received mixed responses with associated concerns such as the onus of doing what the government has to do, mandatory reporting mechanisms, policy disclosures, personnel handling CSR portfolios etc. The overall objective of the paper, therefore, rests in analyzing the discourse of CSR and the perspectives of Indian Inc. in imbibing the principles of SDGs within their business polices and operations. Through primary and secondary research analysis, the paper attempts to outline the diverse challenges that are being faced by Indian businesses while establishing the business case of sustainable responsibility. Some of the principal questions that paper addresses are: What are the SDG priorities for India Inc. as per their respective industry sectors? How can corporate policies imbibe the SDGs principles? How can the global concerns in form of SDGs align with the national CSR mandate and development issues? What initiatives have been undertaken by the companies to integrate their long term business strategy and sustainability? The paper will also reinstate an approach or a way forward that will enable businesses to proceed beyond compliance and accentuate the principles of responsibility and transparency within their operational framework.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, CSR, India Inc., section 135, new companies act 2013, sustainable development goals, SDGs, sustainability, corporate governance

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14822 Education for Sustainable Development Pedagogies: Examining the Influences of Context on South African Natural Sciences and Technology Teaching and Learning

Authors: A. U. Ugwu


Post-Apartheid South African education system had witnessed waves of curriculum reforms. Accordingly, there have been evidences of responsiveness towards local and global challenges of sustainable development over the past decade. In other words, the curriculum shows sensitivity towards issues of Sustainable Development (SD). Moreover, the paradigm of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) was introduced by the UNESCO in year 2015. The SDGs paradigm is essentially a vision towards actualizing sustainability in all aspects of the global society. Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in retrospect entails teaching and learning to actualize the intended UNESCO 2030 SDGs. This paper explores how teaching and learning of ESD can be improved, by drawing from local context of the South African schooling system. Preservice natural sciences and technology teachers in their 2nd to 4th years of study at a university’s college of education in South Africa were contacted as participants of the study. Using qualitative case study research design, the study drew from the views and experiences of five (5) purposively selected participants from a broader study, aiming to closely understating how ESD is implemented pedagogically in teaching and learning. The inquiry employed questionnaires and a focus group discussion as qualitative data generation tools. A qualitative data analysis of generated data was carried out using content and thematic analysis, underpinned by interpretive paradigm. The result of analyzed data, suggests that ESD pedagogy at the location where this research was conducted is largely influenced by contextual factors. Furthermore, the result of the study shows that there is a critical need to employ/adopt local experiences or occurrences while teaching sustainable development. Certain pedagogical approaches such as the use of videos relative to local context should also be considered in order to achieve a more realistic application. The paper recommends that educational institutions through teaching and learning should implement ESD by drawing on local contexts and problems, thereby foregrounding constructivism, appreciating and fostering students' prior knowledge and lived experiences.

Keywords: context, education for sustainable development, natural sciences and technology preservice teachers, qualitative research, sustainable development goals

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14821 Integrating Sustainable Development Goals in Teaching Mathematics Using Project Based Learning

Authors: S. Goel


In the current scenario, education should be realistic and nature-friendly. The earlier definition of education was restricted to the holistic development of the child which help them to increase their capacity and helps in social upliftment. But such definition gives a more individualistic aim of education. Due to that individualistic aim, we have become disconnected from nature. So, a school should be a place which provides students with an area to explore. They should get practical learning or learning from nature which is also propounded by Rousseau in the mid-eighteenth century. Integrating Sustainable development goals in the school curriculum will make it possible to connect the nature with the lives of the children in the classroom. Then, students will be more aware and sensitive towards their social and natural surroundings. The research attempts to examine the efficiency of project-based learning in mathematics to create awareness around sustainable development goals. The major finding of the research was that students are less aware of sustainable development goals, but when given time and an appropriate learning environment, students can be made aware of these goals. In this research, project-based learning was used to make students aware of sustainable development goals. Students were given pre test and post test which helped in analyzing their performance. After the intervention, post test result showed that mathematics projects can create an awareness of sustainable development goals.

Keywords: holistic development, natural learning, project based learning, sustainable development goals

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14820 Evaluation Synthesis of Private Sector Engagement in International Development

Authors: Valerie Habbel, Magdalena Orth, Johanna Richter, Steffen Schimko


Cooperation between development actors and the private sector is becoming increasingly important, as it is expected to mobilize additional resources to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), among other things. However, whether the goals of cooperation are achieved has so far only been explored in evaluations and studies of individual projects and instruments. The evaluation synthesis attempts to close this gap by systematically analyzing existing evidence (evaluations and academic studies) from national and international development cooperation on private sector engagement. Overall, the evaluations and studies considered report mainly positive effects on investors and donors, intermediaries, partner countries, and target groups. However, various analyses, including on the quality of the evaluations, point to a positive bias in the results. The evaluation synthesis makes recommendations on the definition of indicators, the measurement and evaluation of impacts and additionality, knowledge management, and the consideration of transaction costs in cooperation with private actors.

Keywords: evaluation synthesis, private sector engagement, international development, sustainable development

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14819 Integrating Lessons in Sustainable Development and Sustainability in Undergraduate Education: The CLASIC Way

Authors: Intan Azura Mokhtar, Yaacob Ibrahim


In recent years, learning about sustainable development and sustainability has become an increasingly significant component in universities’ degree programmes and curricula. As the world comes together and races to fulfil the 17 United Nations’ sustainable development goals (SDGs) by the year 2030, our educational curricula and landscapes simultaneously evolve to integrate lessons and opportunities for sustainable development and sustainability to redefine our university education and set the trajectory for our young people to take the lead in co-creating solutions for a better world. In this paper, initiatives and projects that revolved around themes of sustainable development and sustainability in a young university in Singapore are discussed. These initiatives and projects were curated by a new centre in the university that focuses on community leadership, social innovation, and service learning and was led by the university’s academic staff. The university’s undergraduate students were also involved in these initiatives and projects and played an active role in reaching out to and engaging members of different segments of the community – to better understand their needs and concerns and to co-create with them relevant and sustainable solutions that generate positive social impact.

Keywords: singapore, sustainable development, sustainability, undergraduate education

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14818 Evaluating India's Smart Cities against the Sustainable Development Goals

Authors: Suneet Jagdev


17 Sustainable Development Goals were adopted by the world leaders in September 2015 at the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit. These goals were adopted by UN member states to promote prosperity, health and human rights while protecting the planet. Around the same time, the Government of India launched the Smart City Initiative to speed up development of state of the art infrastructure and services in 100 cities with a focus on sustainable and inclusive development. These cities are meant to become role models for other cities in India and promote sustainable regional development. This paper examines goals set under the Smart City Initiative and evaluates them in terms of the Sustainable Development Goals, using case studies of selected Smart Cities in India. The study concludes that most Smart City projects at present actually consist of individual solutions to individual problems identified in a community rather than comprehensive models for complex issues in cities across India. Systematic, logical and comparative analysis of important literature and data has been done, collected from government sources, government papers, research papers by various experts on the topic, and results from some online surveys. Case studies have been used for a graphical analysis highlighting the issues of migration, ecology, economy and social equity in these Smart Cities.

Keywords: housing, migration, smart cities, sustainable development goals, urban infrastructure

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14817 The Role of Zakat on Sustainable Economic Development by Rumah Zakat

Authors: Selamat Muliadi


This study aimed to explain conceptual the role of Zakat on sustainable economic development by Rumah Zakat. Rumah Zakat is a philanthropic institution that manages zakat and other social funds through community empowerment programs. In running the program, including economic empowerment and socio health services are designed for these recipients. Rumah Zakat's connection with the establisment of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which is to help impoverished recipients economically and socially. It’s an important agenda that the government input into national development, even the region. The primary goal of Zakat on sustainable economic development, not only limited to economic variables but based on Islamic principles, has comprehensive characteristics. The characteristics include moral, material, spiritual, and social aspects. In other words, sustainable economic development is closely related to improving people’s living standard (Mustahiq). The findings provide empiricial evidence regarding the positive contribution and effectiveness of zakat targeting in reducing poverty and improve the welfare of people related with the management of zakat. The purpose of this study was to identify the role of Zakat on sustainable economic development, which was applied by Rumah Zakat. This study used descriptive method and qualitative analysis. The data source was secondary data collected from documents and texts related to the research topic, be it books, articles, newspapers, journals, or others. The results showed that the role of zakat on sustainable economic development by Rumah Zakat has been quite good and in accordance with the principle of Islamic economics. Rumah Zakat programs are adapted to support intended development. The contribution of the productive program implementation has been aligned with four goals in the Sustainable Development Goals, i.e., Senyum Juara (Quality Education), Senyum Lestari (Clean Water and Sanitation), Senyum Mandiri (Entrepreneur Program) and Senyum Sehat (Free Maternity Clinic). The performance of zakat in the sustainable economic empowerment community at Rumah Zakat is taking into account dimensions such as input, process, output, and outcome.

Keywords: Zakat, social welfare, sustainable economic development, charity

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14816 Countering Violent Extremism: Challenges and Possibilities for Muslim Ummah

Authors: Altaf Ahmed


Unhindered progress and advancement of life are directly associated with peace and development. Unfortunately, many modern states are prone to the perilous of social challenges; Violent Extremism is the most ubiquitous adversary among all. Islam in its origin fully supports peace and security; the charter of Madina, the treaty of Hudabia and conquer of Mecca are the biggest examples in this reference. The holy Prophet Muhammad ﷺ always gave priority to peace in these cases. Today, the majority of the Muslim World faces VE and terrorism due to multiple reasons ranging from religious interpretations to political, social and economic conditions. This research will try to explore challenges for Muslim Ummah in maintaining peace and what steps have been taken by it to resolve conflicts among states. In this context, Sustainable development goals (SDGs) will be particularly analysed. SDGs were adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015. It is an undeniable fact that these are the best peace-building tools. Although there are 17 SDGs, the paper will mainly focus on quality education, zero hunger, end of poverty (social protection), women empowerment, reduced inequalities and economic growth as the best peace-building approaches for eradication of violent extremism.

Keywords: violent extremism, Muslim Ummah, peace, modern world, education

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14815 Assessing In-Country Public Health Training Needs: Workforce Development to Meet Sustainable Development Goals

Authors: Leena Inamdar, David Allen, Sushma Acquilla, James Gore


Health systems globally are facing increasingly complex challenges. Emerging health threats, changing population demographics and increasing health inequalities, globalisation, economic constraints on government spending are some of the most critical ones. These challenges demand not only innovative funding and cross-sectoral approaches, but also require a multidisciplinary public health workforce equipped with skills and expertise to meet the future challenges of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We aim to outline an approach to assessing the feasibility of establishing a competency-based public health training at a country level. Although the SDGs provide an enabling impetus for change and promote positive developments, public health training and education still lag behind. Large gaps are apparent in both the numbers of trained professionals and the options for high quality training. Public health training in most Low-Middle Income Countries is still largely characterized by a traditional and limited public health focus. There is a pressing need to review and develop core and emerging competences for a well-equipped workforce fit for the future. This includes the important role of national Health and Human Resource Ministries in determining these competences. Public health has long been recognised as a multidisciplinary field, with need for professionals from a wider range of disciplines such as management, health promotion, health economics, law. Leadership and communication skills are also critical to achieve the successes in meeting public health outcomes. Such skills and competences need to be translated into competency-based training and education, to prepare current public health professionals with the skills required in today’s competitive job market. Integration of academic and service based public-health training, flexible accredited programmes to support existing mid-career professionals, continuous professional development need to be explored. In the current global climate of austerity and increasing demands on health systems, the need for stepping up public health training and education is more important than ever. By using a case study, we demonstrate the process of assessing the in-county capacity to establish a competency based public health training programme that will help to develop a stronger, more versatile and much needed public health workforce to meet the SDGs.

Keywords: public health training, competency-based, assessment, SDGs

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14814 Flood Risk Management in Low Income Countries: Balancing Risk and Development

Authors: Gavin Quibell, Martin Kleynhans, Margot Soler


The Sendai Framework notes that disaster risk reduction is essential for sustainable development, and Disaster Risk Reduction is included in 3 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and 4 of the SDG targets. However, apart from promoting better governance and resourcing of disaster management agencies, little guidance is given how low-income nations can balance investments across the SDGs to achieve sustainable development in an increasingly climate vulnerable world with increasing prevalence of flood and drought disasters. As one of the world’s poorest nations, Malawi must balance investments across all the SDGs. This paper explores how Malawi’s National Guidelines for Community-based Flood Risk Management integrate sustainable development and flood management objectives at different administrative levels. While Malawi periodically suffers from large, widespread flooding, the greatest impacts are felt through the smaller annual floods and flash floods. The Guidelines address this through principles that recognize that while the protection of human life is the most important priority for flood risk management, addressing the impacts of floods on the rural poor and the economy requires different approaches. The National Guidelines are therefore underpinned by the following; 1. In the short-term investments in flood risk management must focus on breaking the poverty – vulnerability cycle; 2. In the long-term investments in the other SDGs will have the greatest flood risk management benefits; 3. If measures are in place to prevent loss of life and protect strategic infrastructure, it is better to protect more people against small and medium size floods than fewer people against larger floods; 4. Flood prevention measures should focus on small (1:5 return period) floods; 5. Flood protection measures should focus on small and medium floods (1:20 return period) while minimizing the risk of failure in larger floods; 6. The impacts of larger floods ( > 1:50) must be addressed through improved preparedness; 7. The impacts of climate change on flood frequencies are best addressed by focusing on growth not overdesign; and 8. Manage floods and droughts conjunctively. The National Guidelines weave these principles into Malawi’s approach to flood risk management through recommendations for planning and implementing flood prevention, protection and preparedness measures at district, traditional authority and village levels.

Keywords: flood risk management in low-income countries, sustainable development, investments in prevention, protection and preparedness, community-based flood risk management, Malawi

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14813 Sustainable Project Management Necessarily Implemented in the Chinese Wine Market Due to Climate Variation

Authors: Ruixin Zhang, Joel Carboni, Songchenchen Gong


Since the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) officially became the 17 development goals set by the United Nations in 2015, it has become an inevitable trend in project management development globally. Since Sustainability and glob-alization are the main focus and trends in the 21st century, project management contains system-based optimization, and or-ganizational humanities, environmental protection, and economic development. As a populous country globally, with the advanced development of economy and technology, China becomes one of the biggest markets in the wine industry. However, the develop-ment of society also brings specific environmental issues. Climate changes have already brought severe impacts on the Chinese wine market, including consumer behavior, wine production activities, and organizational humanities. Therefore, the implementation of sustainable project management in Chinese wine market is essential. Surveys based analysis is the primary method to interpret how the climate variation effect the Chinese wine market and the importance of sustainable project management implementation for green market growth in China. This paper proposes the CWW Conceptual model that can be used in the wine industry, the new 7 Drivers Model, and SPM Framework to interpret the main drivers that impact project management implementation in the wine industry and to offer the directions to wine companies in China which would help them to achieve the green growth.

Keywords: project management, sustainability, green growth, climate changes, Chinese wine market

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14812 Achieving Sustainable Tourism in a Country in Transition: The Case of Myanmar

Authors: Patrick Strefford, Michael Davies, Masahiko Iguchi


The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were adopted in 2015 to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure prosperity for all. Sustainable tourism is firmly positioned in these Goals, since tourism has significant potential to contribute to inclusive and sustainable economic growth, as well as to promote sustainable use of natural capital. Recognizing this, the new quasi-democratic government of Myanmar has embraced Sustainable Tourism as a core component of its economic reforms and opening up of the country. However, it is also highly likely that the Democrats within the government also support Sustainable Tourism as a potential contributor to the democratization of the country. This paper outlines how the government of Myanmar has understood the concept of Sustainable Tourism, and how it intends to implement and facilitate Sustainable Tourism. This paper, therefore, focuses primarily on the institutional frameworks that have been put in place, a specific one being the Inlay Lake Destination Management Plan, which is one of the four priority destinations identified by the government. The plan aims to improve local infrastructure, manage the local environment and develop local human resources. Importantly, the Plan also includes the establishment of a Destination Management Organization (DMO) to implement and manage Inlay Lake as a Sustainable Tourism destination. This research aims to investigate, for example, the equality in both input to the DMO and benefits accrued to the various stakeholders. How such equality can be ensured and how this can be reliably quantified will be crucial to ultimately evaluating the success of any such plans to implement Sustainable Tourism in Myanmar in the coming years. However, this research paper concludes that while the establishment of the DMO is a positive development, there are considerable institutional, economic and cultural factors that severely limit the ability of the DMO to function as an agent of sustainable tourism implementation.

Keywords: sustainable tourism, myanmar, country in transition, destination management organizations

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14811 Sustainable Agriculture of Tribal Farmers: An Analysis in Koraput and Malkangiri Districts of Odisha, India

Authors: Amrita Mishra, Tushar Kanti Das


Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of Odisha. Sustainability of agriculture holds the key for the development of Odisha. The Sustainable Development Goals are a framework of 17 goals and 169 targets across social, economical and environmental areas of sustainable development. Among all the seventeen goals the second goal is focusing on the promotion of Sustainable Agriculture. In this research our main aim is also to contribute an understanding of effectiveness of sustainable agriculture as a tool for rural development in the selected tribal district (i.e. Koraput and Malkangiri) of Odisha. These two districts are comes under KBK districts of Odisha which are identified as most backward districts of Odisha. The objectives of our study are to investigate the effect of sustainable agriculture on the lives of tribal farmers, to study whether the farmers are empowered by their participation in sustainable agriculture initiatives to move towards their own vision of development and to study the investment and profit ratio in sustainable agriculture. This research will help in filling the major gaps in sociological studies of sustainable agriculture. This information will helpful for farmers, development organisations, donors and policy makers in formulating the development of effective initiatives and policies to support the development of sustainable agriculture. In this study, we have taken 210 respondents and used various statistical techniques like chi-square test, one-way ANOVA and percentage analysis. This research shows that sustainable agriculture is an effective development strategy that benefits the tribal farmers to move towards their own vision of Good Fortune. The poor farmers who struggle to feed their families and maintain viable livelihoods on shrinking land for them sustainable agriculture are really benefited. The farmers are using homemade pesticides, manure and also getting the seeds from different development organisations and Government. So the investment in Sustainable Agriculture is very less. All farmers said their lives are now better than before. The creation of farmers groups for training and marketing for the produces was shown to be very important for empowerment.

Keywords: sustainable, agriculture, tribal farmers, development, empowerment

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14810 Climate Change Adaptation Interventions in Agriculture and Sustainable Development through South-South Cooperation in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Nuhu Mohammed Gali, Kenichi Matsui


Climate change poses a significant threat to agriculture and food security in Africa. The UNFCC recognized the need to address climate change adaptation in the broader context of sustainable development. African countries have initiated a governance system for adapting and responding to climate change in their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). Despite the implementation limitations, Africa’s adaptation initiatives highlight the need to strengthen and expand adaptation responses. This paper looks at the extent to which South-South cooperation facilitates the implementation of adaptation actions between nations for agriculture and sustainable development. We conducted a literature review and content analysis of reports prepared by international organizations, reflecting the diversity of adaptation activities taking place in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our analysis of the connection between adaptation and nationally determined contributions (NDCs) showed that climate actions are mainstreamed into sustainable development. The NDCs in many countries on climate change adaptation action for agriculture aimed to strengthen the resilience of the poor. We found that climate-smart agriculture is the core of many countries target to end hunger. We revealed that South-South Cooperation, in terms of capacity, technology, and financial support, can help countries to achieve their climate action priorities and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We found that inadequate policy and regulatory frameworks between countries, differences in development priorities and strategies, poor communication, inadequate coordination, and the lack of local engagement and advocacy are some key barriers to South-South Cooperation in Africa. We recommend a multi-dimensional partnership, provisionoffinancialresources, systemic approach for coordination and engagement to promote and achieve the potential of SSC in Africa.

Keywords: climate change, adaptation, food security, sustainable development goals

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14809 Business and Human Rights: An Analysis of the UK Modern Slavery Act 2015

Authors: Prapin Nuchpiam


Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have become a global agenda for all. The role of the business sector is significant in promoting sustainable development, particularly to prevent, address, and remedy human rights abuses committed in business operations. Modern slavery is one of the complex issues of human rights. The paper aims to study the UK Modern Slavery Act (MSA) 2015, whose main purpose is to tackle modern slavery in all its forms: human trafficking, slavery, forced labor, and domestic servitude. The Act has a great significance in its approach to involving businesses in combating modern slavery without imposing stricter regulations on them. In doing so, Section 54 of the MSA requires commercial organizations to disclose a statement confirming the transparency in their corporate supply chains. Even though the statement is required by law, in practice, it is rather similar to the ‘comply or explain’ scheme. In other words, compliance is mainly enforced due to fear of reputational risk, rather than of lawbreaking. Thailand has been reported a number of modern slavery cases, particularly in the production stage of supply chains. With desperate attempts to solve modern slavery, the Thai government tends to seek stricter regulation and stronger punishment as the main approach. The paper will analyze the effective implementation of section 54and conclude whether and to what extent the MSA can be applied to the case of Thailand.

Keywords: human rights, responsible business, SDGs, the UK modern slavery act 2015

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14808 Managing the Blue Economy and Responding to the Environmental Dimensions of a Transnational Governance Challenge

Authors: Ivy Chen XQ


This research places a much-needed focus on the conservation of the Blue Economy (BE) by focusing on the design and development of monitoring systems to track critical indicators on the status of the BE. In this process, local experiences provide an insight into important community issues, as well as the necessity to cooperate and collaborate in order to achieve sustainable options. Researchers worldwide and industry initiatives over the last decade show that the exploitation of marine resources has resulted in a significant decrease in the share of total allowable catch (TAC). The result has been strengthening law enforcement, yet the results have shown that problems were related to poor policies, a lack of understanding of over-exploitation, biological uncertainty and political pressures. This reality and other statistics that show a significant negative impact on the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), warrant an emphasis on the development of national M&E systems, in order to provide evidence-based information, on the nature and scale of especially transnational fisheries crime and under-sea marine resources in the BE. In particular, a need exists to establish a compendium of relevant BE indicators to assess such impact against the SDGs by using selected SDG indicators for this purpose. The research methodology consists of ATLAS.ti qualitative approach and a case study will be developed of Illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU) poaching and Illegal Wildlife Trade (IWT) as component of the BE as it relates to the case of abalone in southern Africa and Far East. This research project will make an original contribution through the analysis and comparative assessment of available indicators, in the design process of M&E systems and developing indicators and monitoring frameworks in order to track critical trends and tendencies on the status of the BE, to ensure specific objectives to be aligned with the indicators of the SDGs framework. The research will provide a set of recommendations to governments and stakeholders involved in such projects on lessons learned, as well as priorities for future research. The research findings will enable scholars, civil society institutions, donors and public servants, to understand the capability of the M&E systems, the importance of showing multi-level governance, in the coordination of information management, together with knowledge management (KM) and M&E at the international, regional, national and local levels. This coordination should focus on a sustainable development management approach, based on addressing socio-economic challenges to the potential and sustainability of BE, with an emphasis on ecosystem resilience, social equity and resource efficiency. This research and study focus are timely as the opportunities of the post-Covid-19 crisis recovery package will be grasped to set the economy on a path to sustainable development in line with the UN 2030 Agenda. The pandemic raises more awareness for the world to eliminate IUU poaching and illegal wildlife trade (IWT).

Keywords: Blue Economy (BE), transnational governance, Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E), Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

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14807 Rediscovering English for Academic Purposes in the Context of the UN’s Sustainable Developmental Goals

Authors: Sally Abu Sabaa, Lindsey Gutt


In an attempt to use education as a way of raising a socially responsible and engaged global citizen, the YU-Bridge program, the largest and fastest pathway program of its kind in North America, has embarked on the journey of integrating general themes from the UN’s sustainable developmental goals (SDGs) in its English for Academic Purposes (EAP) curriculum. The purpose of this initiative was to redefine the general philosophy of education in the middle of a pandemic and align with York University’s University Academic Plan that was released in summer 2020 framed around the SDGs. The YUB program attracts international students from all over the world but mainly from China, and its goal is to enable students to achieve the minimum language requirement to join their undergraduate courses at York University. However, along with measuring outcomes, objectives, and the students’ GPA, instructors and academics are always seeking innovation of the YUB curriculum to adapt to the ever growing challenges of academics in the university context, in order to focus more on subject matter that students will be exposed to in their undergraduate studies. However, with the sudden change that has happened globally with the advance of the COVID-19 pandemic, and other natural disasters like the increase in forest fires and floods, rethinking the philosophy and goal of education was a must. Accordingly, the SDGs became the solid pillars upon which we, academics and administrators of the program, could build a new curriculum and shift our perspective from simply ESL education to education with moral and ethical goals. The preliminary implementation of this initiative was supported by an institutional-wide consultation with EAP instructors who have diverse experiences, disciplines, and interests. Along with brainstorming sessions and mini-pilot projects preceding the integration of the SDGs in the YUB-EAP curriculum, those meetings led to creating a general outline of a curriculum and an assessment framework that has the SDGs at its core with the medium of ESL used for language instruction. Accordingly, a community of knowledge exchange was spontaneously created and facilitated by instructors. This has led to knowledge, resources, and teaching pedagogies being shared and examined further. In addition, experiences and reactions of students are being shared, leading to constructive discussions about opportunities and challenges with the integration of the SDGs. The discussions have branched out to discussions about cultural and political barriers along with a thirst for knowledge and engagement, which has resulted in increased engagement not only on the part of the students but the instructors as well. Later in the program, two surveys will be conducted: one for the students and one for the instructors to measure the level of engagement of each in this initiative as well as to elicit suggestions for further development. This paper will describe this fundamental step into using ESL methodology as a mode of disseminating essential ethical and socially correct knowledge for all learners in the 21st Century, the students’ reactions, and the teachers’ involvement and reflections.

Keywords: EAP, curriculum, education, global citizen

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14806 Higher Education for Sustainable Development and proposed Performance-based Funding model for Universities in Ontario: Tensions and Coherence between Provincial and Federal Policies

Authors: Atiqa Marium


In 2015, all 193 UN Member countries adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which is an ambitious 15- year plan to address some of the most pressing issues the world faces. Goal 4 is about Quality Education which highlights the importance of inclusive and quality education for sustainable development. Sustainable Development Goal 10 focuses on reducing inequalities within and among countries. In June 2019, Federal Government in Canada released “Towards Canada’s 2030 Agenda National Strategy”, which was an important step to move the 2030 Agenda forward. In April 2019, the Ontario government announced the performance-based funding model for publically assisted colleges and universities in Ontario, which is now part of the universities’ budget 2024-2025. The literature review has shown that the funding model has been implemented by different governments to achieve objectives. However, this model has also resulted in conflicting consequences like reducing university autonomy, education quality/ academic standards, and increased equity concerns. The primary focus of this paper will be to analyze the tensions and coherence between the proposed funding model for education for sustainable development goals and targets set by Canada’s 2030 Agenda National Strategy. Considering that the literature review has provided evidence that the performance-based funding model has resulted in reducing quality of education and increased equity issues in other countries, it will be interesting to see how this proposed funding will align with the SDGs of “Quality Education” and “Reduced Inequalities”. This paper will be well-suited for Volume 4, with the theme of re-visioning institutional impact and sustainability. This paper will underscore the importance of policy coherence between federal and provincial policies for higher education institutions in Ontario for better institutional impact and helping universities in the attainment of goals set in 2030 Agenda towards education for sustainable development.

Keywords: performance-based funding model, education for sustainable development, policy coherence, sustainable development gaols

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14805 The New Consumption of Sustainability for Green Capitalism

Authors: Ica Wulansari


Today, globalization encourages the global culture acceleration in the middle of accelerated industrialization that leads to the transformation of consumption pattern. Consumption is not only considered as a need but also lifestyle, moreover, plays a role as an ideology supported by global shopping system. This paper is aimed at analyzing how global society directed to support sustainability consumption, this is line with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that prioritise sustainable program for environmental preservation to cope with economic growth impact. The paper applies qualitative method to analyze through literature studies. As a result, we attempt to discuss the relationship of various concepts among globalization, consumption, and risk society that produce green capitalism. There are three points related with green capitalism: Sustainable agenda, political ecology, and sustainable commodities that show sustainable consumption pattern supported by Capitalism. Sustainability consumption system is an ideal instrument to be implemented, nevertheless, this is not only solely a modernity of ecology politics to hidden Capitalist`s interest.

Keywords: consumption, sustainability, capitalist, environmental

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14804 Analysis of Ecological Footprint of Residents for Urban Spatial Restructuring

Authors: Taehyun Kim, Hyunjoo Park, Taehyun Kim


Since the rapid economic development, Korea has recently entered a period of low growth due to population decline and aging. Due to the urbanization around the metropolitan area and the hollowing of local cities, the ecological capacity of a city is decreasing while ecological footprints are increasing, requiring a compact space plan for maintaining urban functions. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between urban spatial structure and residents' ecological footprints for sustainable spatial planning. To do this, we try to analyze the relationship between intra-urban spatial structure, such as net/gross density and service accessibility, and resident ecological footprints of food, housing, transportation, goods and services through survey and structural equation modeling. The results of the study will be useful in establishing an implementation plan for sustainable development goals (SDGs), especially for sustainable cities and communities (SDG 11) and responsible consumption and production (SDG 12) in the future.

Keywords: ecological footprint, structural equation modeling, survey, sustainability, urban spatial structure

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