Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 100

Search results for: Sumit Sinha

10 Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells Ameliorate Cisplatin-Induced Acute Renal Failure through Autophagy Induction and Inhibition of Apoptosis

Authors: Soniya Nityanand, Ekta Minocha, Manali Jain, Rohit Anthony Sinha, Chandra Prakash Chaturvedi

Abstract:

Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC) have been shown to contribute towards the amelioration of Acute Renal Failure (ARF), but the mechanisms underlying the renoprotective effect are largely unknown. Therefore, the main goal of the current study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of AFSC in a cisplatin-induced rat model of ARF and to investigate the underlying mechanisms responsible for its renoprotective effect. To study the therapeutic efficacy of AFSC, ARF was induced in Wistar rats by an intra-peritoneal injection of cisplatin, and five days after administration, the rats were randomized into two groups and injected with either AFSC or normal saline intravenously. On day 8 and 12 after cisplatin injection, i.e., day 3 and day7 post-therapy respectively, the blood biochemical parameters, histopathological changes, apoptosis and expression of pro-apoptotic, anti-apoptotic and autophagy-related proteins in renal tissues were studied in both groups of rats. Administration of AFSC in ARF rats resulted in improvement of renal function and attenuation of renal damage as reflected by significant decrease in blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine levels, tubular cell apoptosis as assessed by Bax/Bcl2 ratio, and expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins viz. PUMA, Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9 as compared to saline-treated group. Furthermore, in the AFSC-treated group as compared to saline-treated group, there was a significant increase in the activation of autophagy as evident by increased expression of LC3-II, ATG5, ATG7, Beclin1 and phospho-AMPK levels with a concomitant decrease in phospho-p70S6K and p62 expression levels. To further confirm whether the protective effects of AFSC on cisplatin-induced apoptosis were dependent on autophagy, chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor was administered by the intra-peritoneal route. Chloroquine administration led to significant reduction in the anti-apoptotic effects of the AFSC therapy and further deterioration in the renal structure and function caused by cisplatin. Collectively, our results put forth that AFSC ameliorates cisplatin-induced ARF through induction of autophagy and inhibition of apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective effects of AFSC were blunted by chloroquine, highlighting that activation of autophagy is an important mechanism of action for the protective role of AFSC in cisplatin-induced renal injury.

Keywords: autophagy, acute renal failure, cisplatin, amniotic fluid stem cells

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9 Development and Characterization of Topical 5-Fluorouracil Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for the Effective Treatment of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

Authors: Sudhir Kumar, V. R. Sinha

Abstract:

Background: The topical and systemic toxicity associated with present nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) treatment therapy using 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) make it necessary to develop a novel delivery system having lesser toxicity and better control over drug release. Solid lipid nanoparticles offer many advantages like: controlled and localized release of entrapped actives, nontoxicity, and better tolerance. Aim:-To investigate safety and efficacy of 5-FU loaded solid lipid nanoparticles as a topical delivery system for the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Method: Topical solid lipid nanoparticles of 5-FU were prepared using Compritol 888 ATO (Glyceryl behenate) as lipid component and pluronic F68 (Poloxamer 188), Tween 80 (Polysorbate 80), Tyloxapol (4-(1,1,3,3-Tetramethylbutyl) phenol polymer with formaldehyde and oxirane) as surfactants. The SLNs were prepared with emulsification method. Different formulation parameters viz. type and ratio of surfactant, ratio of lipid and ratio of surfactant:lipid were investigated on particle size and drug entrapment efficiency. Results: Characterization of SLNs like–Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Differential Scannig calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Particle size determination, Polydispersity index, Entrapment efficiency, Drug loading, ex vivo skin permeation and skin retention studies, skin irritation and histopathology studies were performed. TEM results showed that shape of SLNs was spherical with size range 200-500nm. Higher encapsulation efficiency was obtained for batches having higher concentration of surfactant and lipid. It was found maximum 64.3% for SLN-6 batch with size of 400.1±9.22 nm and PDI 0.221±0.031. Optimized SLN batches and marketed 5-FU cream were compared for flux across rat skin and skin drug retention. The lesser flux and higher skin retention was obtained for SLN formulation in comparison to topical 5-FU cream, which ensures less systemic toxicity and better control of drug release across skin. Chronic skin irritation studies lacks serious erythema or inflammation and histopathology studies showed no significant change in physiology of epidermal layers of rat skin. So, these studies suggest that the optimized SLN formulation is efficient then marketed cream and safer for long term NMSC treatment regimens. Conclusion: Topical and systemic toxicity associated with long-term use of 5-FU, in the treatment of NMSC, can be minimized with its controlled release with significant drug retention with minimal flux across skin. The study may provide a better alternate for effective NMSC treatment.

Keywords: solid lipid nanoparticles, topical formulation, non melanoma skin cancer

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8 Application of a Submerged Anaerobic Osmotic Membrane Bioreactor Hybrid System for High-Strength Wastewater Treatment and Phosphorus Recovery

Authors: Shiao-Shing Chen, Hung-Te Hsu, Saikat Sinha Ray, Ming-Yeh Lu

Abstract:

Recently, anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) has been widely utilized, which combines anaerobic biological treatment process and membrane filtration, that can be present an attractive option for wastewater treatment and water reuse. Conventional AnMBR is having several advantages, such as improving effluent quality, compact space usage, lower sludge yield, without aeration and production of energy. However, the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus in the AnMBR permeate was negligible which become the biggest disadvantage. In recent years, forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging technology that utilizes osmotic pressure as driving force to extract clean water without additional external pressure. The pore size of FO membrane is kindly mentioned the pore size, so nitrogen or phosphorus could effectively improve removal of nitrogen or phosphorus. Anaerobic bioreactor with FO membrane (AnOMBR) can retain the concentrate organic matters and nutrients. However, phosphorus is a non-renewable resource. Due to the high rejection property of FO membrane, the high amount of phosphorus could be recovered from the combination of AnMBR and FO. In this study, development of novel submerged anaerobic osmotic membrane bioreactor integrated with periodic microfiltration (MF) extraction for simultaneous phosphorus and clean water recovery from wastewater was evaluated. A laboratory-scale AnOMBR utilizes cellulose triacetate (CTA) membranes with effective membrane area of 130 cm² was fully submerged into a 5.5 L bioreactor at 30-35℃. Active layer-facing feed stream orientation was utilized, for minimizing fouling and scaling. Additionally, a peristaltic pump was used to circulate draw solution (DS) at a cross flow velocity of 0.7 cm/s. Magnesium sulphate (MgSO₄) solution was used as DS. Microfiltration membrane periodically extracted about 1 L solution when the TDS reaches to 5 g/L to recover phosphorus and simultaneous control the salt accumulation in the bioreactor. During experiment progressed, the average water flux was achieved around 1.6 LMH. The AnOMBR process show greater than 95% removal of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), nearly 100% of total phosphorous whereas only partial removal of ammonia, and finally average methane production of 0.22 L/g sCOD was obtained. Therefore, AnOMBR system periodically utilizes MF membrane extracted for phosphorus recovery with simultaneous pH adjustment. The overall performance demonstrates that a novel submerged AnOMBR system is having potential for simultaneous wastewater treatment and resource recovery from wastewater, and hence, the new concept of this system can be used to replace for conventional AnMBR in the future.

Keywords: Forward osmosis, Anaerobic Treatment, membrane bioreactor, phosphorus recovery

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7 Deep Convolutional Neural Network for Detection of Microaneurysms in Retinal Fundus Images at Early Stage

Authors: Sandip Sadhukhan, Arpita Sarkar, Debprasad Sinha, G. Sarkar, Goutam Kumar Ghorai, Ashis K. Dhara

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in all countries and continues to increase in numbers significantly. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is damage to the retina that occurs with long-term diabetes. DR is a major cause of blindness in the Indian population. Therefore, its early diagnosis is of utmost importance towards preventing progression towards imminent irreversible loss of vision, particularly in the huge population across rural India. The barriers to eye examination of all diabetic patients are socioeconomic factors, lack of referrals, poor access to the healthcare system, lack of knowledge, insufficient number of ophthalmologists, and lack of networking between physicians, diabetologists and ophthalmologists. A few diabetic patients often visit a healthcare facility for their general checkup, but their eye condition remains largely undetected until the patient is symptomatic. This work aims to focus on the design and development of a fully automated intelligent decision system for screening retinal fundus images towards detection of the pathophysiology caused by microaneurysm in the early stage of the diseases. Automated detection of microaneurysm is a challenging problem due to the variation in color and the variation introduced by the field of view, inhomogeneous illumination, and pathological abnormalities. We have developed aconvolutional neural network for efficient detection of microaneurysm. A loss function is also developed to handle severe class imbalance due to very small size of microaneurysms compared to background. The network is able to locate the salient region containing microaneurysms in case of noisy images captured by non-mydriatic cameras. The ground truth of microaneurysms is created by expert ophthalmologists for MESSIDOR database as well as private database, collected from Indian patients. The network is trained from scratch using the fundus images of MESSIDOR database. The proposed method is evaluated on DIARETDB1 and the private database. The method is successful in detection of microaneurysms for dilated and non-dilated types of fundus images acquired from different medical centres. The proposed algorithm could be used for development of AI based affordable and accessible system, to provide service at grass root-level primary healthcare units spread across the country to cater to the need of the rural people unaware of the severe impact of DR.

Keywords: retinal fundus image, deep convolutional neural network, early detection of microaneurysms, screening of diabetic retinopathy

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6 Re-Entrant Direct Hexagonal Phases in a Lyotropic System Induced by Ionic Liquids

Authors: Saheli Mitra, Ramesh Karri, Praveen K. Mylapalli, Arka. B. Dey, Gourav Bhattacharya, Gouriprasanna Roy, Syed M. Kamil, Surajit Dhara, Sunil K. Sinha, Sajal K. Ghosh

Abstract:

The most well-known structures of lyotropic liquid crystalline systems are the two dimensional hexagonal phase of cylindrical micelles with a positive interfacial curvature and the lamellar phase of flat bilayers with zero interfacial curvature. In aqueous solution of surfactants, the concentration dependent phase transitions have been investigated extensively. However, instead of changing the surfactant concentrations, the local curvature of an aggregate can be altered by tuning the electrostatic interactions among the constituent molecules. Intermediate phases with non-uniform interfacial curvature are still unexplored steps to understand the route of phase transition from hexagonal to lamellar. Understanding such structural evolution in lyotropic liquid crystalline systems is important as it decides the complex rheological behavior of the system, which is one of the main interests of the soft matter industry. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is an anionic surfactant and can be considered as a unique system to tune the electrostatics by cationic additives. In present study, imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) with different number of carbon atoms in their single hydrocarbon chain were used as the additive in the aqueous solution of SDS. At a fixed concentration of total non-aqueous components (SDS and IL), the molar ratio of these components was changed, which effectively altered the electrostatic interactions between the SDS molecules. As a result, the local curvature is observed to modify, and correspondingly, the structure of the hexagonal liquid crystalline phases are transformed into other phases. Polarizing optical microscopy of SDS and imidazole-based-IL systems have exhibited different textures of the liquid crystalline phases as a function of increasing concentration of the ILs. The small angle synchrotron x-ray diffraction (SAXD) study has indicated the hexagonal phase of direct cylindrical micelles to transform to a rectangular phase at the presence of short (two hydrocarbons) chain IL. However, the hexagonal phase is transformed to a lamellar phase at the presence of long (ten hydrocarbons) chain IL. Interestingly, at the presence of a medium (four hydrocarbons) chain IL, the hexagonal phase is transformed to another hexagonal phase of direct cylindrical micelles through the lamellar phase. To the best of our knowledge, such a phase sequence has not been reported earlier. Even though the small angle x-ray diffraction study has revealed the lattice parameters of these phases to be similar to each other, their rheological behavior has been distinctly different. These rheological studies have shed lights on how these phases differ in their viscoelastic behavior. Finally, the packing parameters, calculated for these phases based on the geometry of the aggregates, have explained the formation of the self-assembled aggregates.

Keywords: Rheology, Surfactants, lyotropic liquid crystals, polarizing optical microscopy, small angle x-ray diffraction

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5 Capability of a Single Antigen to Induce Both Protective and Disease Enhancing Antibody: An Obstacle in the Creation of Vaccines and Passive Immunotherapies

Authors: Subrata Sinha, Parul Kulshreshtha, Rakesh Bhatnagar

Abstract:

This study was conducted by taking B. anthracis as a model pathogen. On infecting a host, B. anthracis secretes three proteins, namely, protective antigen (PA, 83kDa), edema factor (EF, 89 kDa) and lethal factor (LF, 90 kDa). These three proteins are the components of two anthrax toxins. PA binds to the cell surface receptors, namely, tumor endothelial marker (TEM) 8 and capillary morphogenesis protein (CMG) 2. TEM8 and CMG2 interact with LDL-receptor related protein (LRP) 6 for endocytosis of EF and LF. On entering the cell, EF acts as a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase that causes a prolonged increase of cytosolic cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). LF is a metalloprotease that cleaves most isoforms of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKK/MEK) close to their N-terminus. By secreting these two toxins, B.anthracis ascertains death of the host. Once the systemic levels of the toxins rise, antibiotics alone cannot save the host. Therefore, toxin-specific inhibitors have to be developed. In this wake, monoclonal antibodies have been developed for the neutralization of toxic effects of anthrax toxins. We created hybridomas by using spleen of mice that were actively immunized with rLFn (recombinant N-terminal domain of lethal factor of B. anthracis) to obtain anti-toxin antibodies. Later on, separate group of mice were immunized with rLFn to obtain a polyclonal control for passive immunization studies of monoclonal antibodies. This led to the identification of one cohort of rLFn-immunized mice that harboured disease-enhancing polyclonal antibodies. At the same time, the monoclonal antibodies from all the hybridomas were being tested. Two hybridomas secreted monoclonal antibodies (H8 and H10) that were cross-reactive with EF (edema factor) and LF (lethal factor), while the other two hybridomas secreted LF-specific antibodies (H7 and H11). The protective efficacy of H7, H8, H10 and H11 was investigated. H7, H8 and H10 were found to be protective. H11 was found to have disease enhancing characteristics in-vitro and in mouse model of challenge with B. anthracis. In this study the disease enhancing character of H11 monoclonal antibody and anti-rLFn polyclonal sera was investigated. Combination of H11 with protective monoclonal antibodies (H8 and H10) reduced its disease enhancing nature both in-vitro and in-vivo. But combination of H11 with LETscFv (an scFv with VH and VL identical to H10 but lacking Fc region) could not abrogate the disease-enhancing character of H11 mAb. Therefore it was concluded that for suppression of disease enhancement, Fc portion was absolutely essential for interaction of H10 with H11. Our study indicates that the protective potential of an antibody depends equally on its idiotype/ antigen specificity and its isotype. A number of monoclonal and engineered antibodies are being explored as immunotherapeutics but it is absolutely essential to characterize each one for their individual and combined protective potential. Although new in the sphere of toxin-based diseases, it is extremely important to characterize the disease-enhancing nature of polyclonal as well as monoclonal antibodies. This is because several anti-viral therapeutics and vaccines have failed in the face of this phenomenon. The passive –immunotherapy thus needs to be well formulated to avoid any contraindications.

Keywords: Immunotherapy, polyclonal, monoclonal, antibody-dependent disease enhancement

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4 Growth Mechanism and Sensing Behaviour of Sn Doped ZnO Nanoprisms Prepared by Thermal Evaporation Technique

Authors: Sudip Kumar Sinha, Saptarshi Ghosh

Abstract:

While there’s a perpetual buzz around zinc oxide (ZnO) superstructures for their unique optical features, the versatile material has been constantly utilized to manifest tailored electronic properties through rendition of distinct morphologies. And yet, the unorthodox approach of implementing the novel 1D nanostructures of ZnO (pristine or doped) for volatile sensing applications has ample scope to accommodate new unconventional morphologies. In the last two decades, solid-state sensors have attracted much curiosity for their relevance in identifying pollutant, toxic and other industrial gases. In particular gas sensors based on metal oxide semiconducting (wide Eg) nanomaterials have recently attracted intensive attention owing to their high sensitivity and fast response and recovery time. These materials when exposed to air, the atmospheric O2 dissociates and get absorb on the surface of the sensors by trapping the outermost shell electrons. Finally a depleted zone on the surface of the sensors is formed, that enhances the potential barrier height at grain boundary . Once a target gas is exposed to the sensor, the chemical interaction between the chemisorbed oxygen and the specific gas liberates the trapped electrons. Therefore altering the amount of adsorbate is a considerable approach to improve the sensitivity of any target gas/vapour molecule. Likewise, this study presents a spontaneous but self catalytic creation of Sn-doped ZnO hexagonal nanoprisms on Si (100) substrates through thermal evaporation-condensation method, and their subsequent deployment for volatile sensing. In particular, the sensors were utilized to detect molecules of ethanol, acetone and ammonia below their permissible exposure limits which returned sensitivities of around 85%, 80% and 50% respectively. The influence of Sn concentration on the growth, microstructural and optical properties of the nanoprisms along with its role in augmenting the sensing parameters has been detailed. The single-crystalline nanostructures have a typical diameter ranging from 300 to 500 nm and a length that extends up to few micrometers. HRTEM images confirmed the hexagonal crystallography for the nanoprisms, while SAED pattern asserted the single crystalline nature. The growth habit is along the low index <0001>directions. It has been seen that the growth mechanism of the as-deposited nanostructures are directly influenced by varying supersaturation ratio, fairly high substrate temperatures, and specified surface defects in certain crystallographic planes, all acting cooperatively decide the final product morphology. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra of this rod like structures exhibits a weak ultraviolet (UV) emission peak at around 380 nm and a broad green emission peak in the 505 nm regime. An estimate of the sensing parameters against dispensed target molecules highlighted the potential for the nanoprisms as an effective volatile sensing material. The Sn-doped ZnO nanostructures with unique prismatic morphology may find important applications in various chemical sensors as well as other potential nanodevices.

Keywords: Ultraviolet, Photoluminescence, Gas Sensor, zinc oxide, HRTEM

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3 Attention Based Fully Convolutional Neural Network for Simultaneous Detection and Segmentation of Optic Disc in Retinal Fundus Images

Authors: Sandip Sadhukhan, Arpita Sarkar, Debprasad Sinha, Goutam Kr. Ghorai, G. Sarkar, Ashis Kr. Dhara

Abstract:

The centre of the optic disc is an important reference for detecting the macula and grading macular pathologies, such as diabetic maculopathy, macular edema, and macular ischemia. Disc size is also an important parameter for determination of the region of interest, where the width of artery and vein need to be computed for diagnosis of hypertensive retinopathy. Automated detection and segmentation of the optic disc is a challenging problem due to the variation in size, shape, color, and the variation introduced by the field of view, inhomogeneous illumination, and pathological abnormalities. This paper aims to focus on the design and development of a fully automated intelligent decision system for automatic detection and segmentation of optic disc in retinal fundus images. The attention modules help increasing the performance of segmentation for natural images. In order to suppress false-positive regions and to highlight informative regions, we have developed attention based fully convolutional network. The spatial attention provides the location of the features, while the channel attention utilises the features that can be found in the available channels. Attention module helps to focus on relevant features to improve the segmentation results. Channel and spatial attention combine both the spatial context as well as the semantic information of optic disc. The purpose of the proposed framework is the development of an attention-based deep network for determining the informative region of fundus image similar to optic disc and selection of informative images for fast and efficient transfer learning. The proposed framework consists of an off-line training step for learning global features and transfer learning step for learning database-specific features. The network is trained from scratch using the fundus images of extended MESSIDOR database, and the trained model is fine-tuned by a few images of a particular database to learn database-specific features. Multi-scale features extracted in off-line training are concatenated with database-specific features for improved segmentation. The false positives are removed based on the geometrical features of salient regions in initial segmentation. The result is evaluated on six public fundus image databases such as DIARETDB0, DIARETDB1, DRIVE, AV-INSPIRE, CHASE DB1 and MESSIDOR. The attention-based fully convolutional network is robust and effective for detection and segmentation of optic disc in the images affected by diabetic retinopathy, and it outperforms existing techniques. The method is successful in optic disc localization and segmentation when tested on both dilated and non-dilated types of fundus images acquired from different medical centres. The performance of this algorithm does not degrade while handling images containing strong distractors like yellowish exudates, which prove the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed process.

Keywords: attention-based fully convolutional network, optic disc detection and segmentation, retinal fundus image, screening of ocular diseases

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2 OpenFOAM Based Simulation of High Reynolds Number Separated Flows Using Bridging Method of Turbulence

Authors: Sawan S. Sinha, Sagar Saroha, Sunil Lakshmipathy

Abstract:

Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model is the popular computational tool for prediction of turbulent flows. Being computationally less expensive as compared to direct numerical simulation (DNS), RANS has received wide acceptance in industry and research community as well. However, for high Reynolds number flows, the traditional RANS approach based on the Boussinesq hypothesis is incapacitated to capture all the essential flow characteristics, and thus, its performance is restricted in high Reynolds number flows of practical interest. RANS performance turns out to be inadequate in regimes like flow over curved surfaces, flows with rapid changes in the mean strain rate, duct flows involving secondary streamlines and three-dimensional separated flows. In the recent decade, partially averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) methodology has gained acceptability among seamless bridging methods of turbulence- placed between DNS and RANS. PANS methodology, being a scale resolving bridging method, is inherently more suitable than RANS for simulating turbulent flows. The superior ability of PANS method has been demonstrated for some cases like swirling flows, high-speed mixing environment, and high Reynolds number turbulent flows. In our work, we intend to evaluate PANS in case of separated turbulent flows past bluff bodies -which is of broad aerodynamic research and industrial application. PANS equations, being derived from base RANS, continue to inherit the inadequacies from the parent RANS model based on linear eddy-viscosity model (LEVM) closure. To enhance PANS’ capabilities for simulating separated flows, the shortcomings of the LEVM closure need to be addressed. Inabilities of the LEVMs have inspired the development of non-linear eddy viscosity models (NLEVM). To explore the potential improvement in PANS performance, in our study we evaluate the PANS behavior in conjugation with NLEVM. Our work can be categorized into three significant steps: (i) Extraction of PANS version of NLEVM from RANS model, (ii) testing the model in the homogeneous turbulence environment and (iii) application and evaluation of the model in the canonical case of separated non-homogeneous flow field (flow past prismatic bodies and bodies of revolution at high Reynolds number). PANS version of NLEVM shall be derived and implemented in OpenFOAM -an open source solver. Homogeneous flows evaluation will comprise the study of the influence of the PANS’ filter-width control parameter on the turbulent stresses; the homogeneous analysis performed over typical velocity fields and asymptotic analysis of Reynolds stress tensor. Non-homogeneous flow case will include the study of mean integrated quantities and various instantaneous flow field features including wake structures. Performance of PANS + NLEVM shall be compared against the LEVM based PANS and LEVM based RANS. This assessment will contribute to significant improvement of the predictive ability of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools in massively separated turbulent flows past bluff bodies.

Keywords: bridging methods of turbulence, high Re-CFD, non-linear PANS, separated turbulent flows

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1 Cognitive Decline in People Living with HIV in India and Correlation with Neurometabolites Using 3T Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS): A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Kartik Gupta, Virendra Kumar, Sanjeev Sinha, N. Jagannathan

Abstract:

Introduction: A significant number of patients having human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection show a neurocognitive decline (NCD) ranging from minor cognitive impairment to severe dementia. The possible causes of NCD in HIV-infected patients include brain injury by HIV before cART, neurotoxic viral proteins and metabolic abnormalities. In the present study, we compared the level of NCD in asymptomatic HIV-infected patients with changes in brain metabolites measured by using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Methods: 43 HIV-positive patients (30 males and 13 females) coming to ART center of the hospital and HIV-seronegative healthy subjects were recruited for the study. All the participants completed MRI and MRS examination, detailed clinical assessments and a battery of neuropsychological tests. All the MR investigations were carried out at 3.0T MRI scanner (Ingenia/Achieva, Philips, Netherlands). MRI examination protocol included the acquisition of T2-weighted imaging in axial, coronal and sagittal planes, T1-weighted, FLAIR, and DWI images in the axial plane. Patients who showed any apparent lesion on MRI were excluded from the study. T2-weighted images in three orthogonal planes were used to localize the voxel in left frontal lobe white matter (FWM) and left basal ganglia (BG) for single voxel MRS. Single voxel MRS spectra were acquired with a point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) localization pulse sequence at an echo time (TE) of 35 ms and a repetition time (TR) of 2000 ms with 64 or 128 scans. Automated preprocessing and determination of absolute concentrations of metabolites were estimated using LCModel by water scaling method and the Cramer-Rao lower bounds for all metabolites analyzed in the study were below 15\%. Levels of total N-acetyl aspartate (tNAA), total choline (tCho), glutamate + glutamine (Glx), total creatine (tCr), were measured. Cognition was tested using a battery of tests validated for Indian population. The cognitive domains tested were the memory, attention-information processing, abstraction-executive, simple and complex perceptual motor skills. Z-scores normalized according to age, sex and education standard were used to calculate dysfunction in these individual domains. The NCD was defined as dysfunction with Z-score ≤ 2 in at least two domains. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the difference in brain metabolites between the patients and healthy subjects. Results: NCD was found in 23 (53%) patients. There was no significant difference in age, CD4 count and viral load between the two groups. Maximum impairment was found in the domains of memory and simple motor skills i.e., 19/43 (44%). The prevalence of deficit in attention-information processing, complex perceptual motor skills and abstraction-executive function was 37%, 35%, 33% respectively. Subjects with NCD had a higher level of Glutamate in the Frontal region (8.03 ± 2.30 v/s. 10.26 ± 5.24, p-value 0.001). Conclusion: Among newly diagnosed, ART-naïve retroviral disease patients from India, cognitive decline was found in 53\% patients using tests validated for this population. Those with neurocognitive decline had a significantly higher level of Glutamate in the left frontal region. There was no significant difference in age, CD4 count and viral load at initiation of ART between the two groups.

Keywords: HIV, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, neurocognitive decline, neurometabolites

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