Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 164

Search results for: Stephen Cahoon

164 An Empirical Analysis of the Freight Forwarders’ Buying Behaviour: Implications for the Ocean Container Carriers

Authors: Peter Dzakah Fanam, Hong O. Nguyen, Stephen Cahoon

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to explore the buying behavior of the freight forwarders and to evaluate how their buying decision affects the ocean container carriers’ market share. This study analysed the buying decisions of the freight forwarders and validated the process of stages that the freight forwarders’ pass through before choosing an ocean container carrier. Factor analysis was applied to data collected from 105 freight forwarding companies to unveil the influential factors the freight forwarders’ consider important when selecting an ocean container carrier. This study did not only analysed the buying behaviour of the freight forwarders but also unveiled the influential factors affecting the competitiveness of the ocean container carriers in their market share maximisation. Furthermore, the study have made a methodological contribution that helps in better understanding of the critical factors influencing the selection of the ocean container carriers from the freight forwarders’ perspective. The implications of the freight forwarders’ buying behaviour is important to the ocean container carriers because it have severe effect on the market share of the ocean container carriers and the percentage of customers they control within the liner shipping sector. The findings of this study will help the ocean container carriers to formulate relevant marketing strategies in attracting the freight forwarders in purchasing the liner shipping service.

Keywords: ocean carrier, freight forwarder, buying behaviour, influential factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
163 Design of a Controlled BHJ Solar Cell Using Modified Organic Vapor Spray Deposition Technique

Authors: F. Stephen Joe, V. Sathya Narayanan, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

A comprehensive review of the literature on photovoltaic cells has been carried out for exploring the better options for cost efficient technologies for future solar cell applications. Literature review reveals that the Bulk Heterojunction (BHJ) Polymer Solar cells offer special opportunities as renewable energy resources. It is evident from the previous studies that the device fabricated with TiOx layer shows better power conversion efficiency than that of the device without TiOx layer. In this paper, authors designed a controlled BHJ solar cell using a modified organic vapor spray deposition technique facilitated with a vertical-moving gun named as 'Stephen Joe Technique' for getting a desirable surface pattern over the substrate to improving its efficiency over the years for industrial applications. We comprehended that the efficient processing and the interface engineering of these solar cells could increase the efficiency up to 5-10 %.

Keywords: BHJ polymer solar cell, photovoltaic cell, solar cell, Stephen Joe technique

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162 The Effects of Fungicide and Genetics on Fungal Diseases on Wheat in Nebraska With Emphasis on Stem Rust

Authors: Javed Sidiqi, Stephen Baezinger, Stephen Wegulo

Abstract:

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production continues to be challenged by foliar fungal diseases although significant improvement has been made to manage the diseases through developing resistant varieties and the fungicide use to ensure sufficient wheat is produced to meet the growing population’s need. Significant crop losses have been recorded in the history of grain production and yield losses due to fungal diseases, and the trend continues to threat food security in the world and particularly in the less developed countries. The impact of individual fungal diseases on grain yield has been studied extensively to determine crop losses. However, there is limited research available to find out the combined effects of fungal diseases on grain yield and the ways to effectively manage the diseases. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to study the effect of fungal pathogens on grain yield of pre-released winter wheat genotypes in fungicide treated and untreated plots, and to determine whether S7b gene was present in ‘Gage’ wheat as previously hypothesized. Sixty winter wheat genotypes in fungicide treated and untreated plots were studied across four environments. There was a significant effect of fungicide on grain yield consistently across four environments in three years. Fungicide treated wheat lines demonstrated (4,496 kg/ ha-1) grain yield compared to (3,147 kg/ ha-1) grain yield in untreated wheat lines indicating 43% increased grain yield due to severity of foliar fungal diseases. Furthermore, fungicide application also caused an increase in protein concentration from 153 (g kg-1) to 164 (g kg-1) in treated plots in along with test weight from 73 to 77 (kg hL-1) respectively. Gage wheat variety and ISr7b-Ra were crossed to determine presence of Sr7b in Gage. The F2 and F2:3 segregating families were screened and evaluated for stem rust resistance. The segregation of families fell within 15:1 ratio for two separate resistance genes suggesting that Sr7b segregates independently from an unknown resistance gene in Gage that needs to be characterized for its use in the future wheat breeding program to develop resistant wheat varieties.

Keywords: funicide, genetics, foliar diseases, grain

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161 Complimentary Allusions: Shawl Scenes in Rossellini, Lean, Fellini, Kubrick, and Bertolucci Films

Authors: Misha Nedeljkovich

Abstract:

In the film’s famous scene (Roma città aperta-1945), Pina (Anna Magnani) collapses in the street when machined-gunned by a German soldier. Her son Marcello (Vito Annchiarico) tries to revive her. Her death is signaling not closure, but the cycle of life; Marcello saves Francesco with the shawl taken from his mother’s corpse. One pivotal scene in Brief Encounter (1945) occurs in the apartment of Alec’s (Trevor Howard) friend Stephen (Valentine Dyall), when Stephen returns to catch Alec and Laura (Celia Johnson) together alone. David Lean directs this scene using her shawl as a sign of in flagrante delicto. In La Strada (1954), Gelsomina (Giulietta Masina) was waving good bye when her mother sensing impending doom changed her mind and desperately tried to stop her waving back with her shawl: Don’t go my daughter! Your shawl! Your shawl! Gelsomina refuses to return, waving back: It’s time to go! Stanley Kubrick’s tale of a boxer who crosses a mobster to win the heart of a lady, Killer’s Kiss (1955), reminds us that Times Square used to contain sweaty boxing gyms and dance halls. The film’s longest Times Square interlude is its oddest: the boxer Davie Gordon played by Jamie Smith has his shawl stolen by two playful men in Shriners’ hats who are silent except for one who blows a harmonica, faintly heard over honking cabs and overheard conversations. This long sequence appears to be joining in on directors’ shawl conversations with Kubrick’s own twist. Principle characters will never know why all this happened to them that evening. Love, death, happiness and everlasting misery all of that is caused by Dave’s shawl. Finally, the decade of cinematic shawl conversations conclude in Betolucci’s Before the Revolution (Prima della rivoluzione–1964). One of his character’s lifts up a shawl asking if this was a Rossellini’s shawl. I argue that exploring complimentary allusions in a film where directors are acknowledging their own great debt to another film or filmmaker will further our knowledge of film history adding both depth and resonance to the great works in cinema.

Keywords: allusions, Bertolucci, Fellini, homage, Kubrick, lean, Rossellini

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160 WebGIS Development Framework With Prioritized Usability Elements

Authors: Ezekiel Mwangi, Stephen Kimani, Agnes Mindila

Abstract:

Usability is one of the key factors that determine the success or failure of any WebGIS (technology normally applied on the internet to analyze and present spatial data on the Internet). However, not all the usability attributes have the same impact on usability. It is, therefore, necessary to prioritize WebGIS usability elements and determine the ones that are more crucial to the success of the WebGIS. This research aims to identify the main elements of WebGIS usability, investigate the order of importance and priority of the usability elements of WebGIS, and propose a WebGIS development framework that incorporates the prioritization of the usability elements. This will be achieved through a literature review. The outcome of this research will help usability specialists and WebGIS developers in determining specific usability elements that should be accorded more emphasis during the design and development of WebGIS.

Keywords: framework, prioritization, usability, WebGIS

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159 Increased Circularity in Metals Production Using the Ausmelt TSL Process

Authors: Jacob Wood, David Wilson, Stephen Hughes

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The Ausmelt Top Submerged Lance (TSL) Process has been widely applied for the processing of both primary and secondary copper, nickel, lead, tin, and zinc-bearing feed materials. Continual development and evolution of the technology over more than 30 years has resulted in a more intense smelting process with higher energy efficiency, improved metal recoveries, lower operating costs, and reduced fossil fuel consumption. This paper covers a number of recent advances to the technology, highlighting their positive impacts on smelter operating costs, environmental performance, and contribution towards increased circularity in metals production.

Keywords: ausmelt TSL, smelting, circular economy, energy efficiency

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158 Sequential Data Assimilation with High-Frequency (HF) Radar Surface Current

Authors: Lei Ren, Michael Hartnett, Stephen Nash

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The abundant measured surface current from HF radar system in coastal area is assimilated into model to improve the modeling forecasting ability. A simple sequential data assimilation scheme, Direct Insertion (DI), is applied to update model forecast states. The influence of Direct Insertion data assimilation over time is analyzed at one reference point. Vector maps of surface current from models are compared with HF radar measurements. Root-Mean-Squared-Error (RMSE) between modeling results and HF radar measurements is calculated during the last four days with no data assimilation.

Keywords: data assimilation, CODAR, HF radar, surface current, direct insertion

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157 Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized Using Sugar Cane as a Percursor

Authors: Vanessa Romanovicz, Beatriz A. Berns, Stephen D. Carpenter, Deyse Carpenter

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This article deals with the carbon nanotubes (CNT) synthesized from a novel precursor, sugar cane and Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO). The objective was to produce CNTs to be used as catalyst supports for Proton Exchange Membranes. The influence of temperature, inert gas flow rate and concentration of the precursor is presented. The CNTs prepared were characterized using TEM, XRD, Raman Spectroscopy, and the surface area determined by BET. The results show that it is possible to form CNT from sugar cane by pyrolysis and the CNTs are the type multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The MWCNTs are short and closed at the two ends with very small surface area of SBET = 3.691m,/g.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, sugar cane, fuel cell, catalyst support

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156 Microwave Production of Geopolymers Using Fluidized Bed Combustion Bottom Ash

Authors: Osholana Tobi Stephen, Rotimi Emmanuel Sadiku, Bilainu Oboirien.o

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Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is a clean coal technology used in the combustion of low-grade coals for power generation. The production of large solid wastes such as bottom ashes from this process is a problem. The bottom ash contains some toxic elements which can leach out soils and contaminate surface and ground water; for this reason, they can neither be disposed in landfills nor lagoons anymore. The production of geopolymers from bottom ash for structural and concrete applications is an option for their disposal. In this study, the waste bottom ash obtained from the combustion of three low grade South African coals in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor was used to produce geopolymers. The geopolymers were cured in a household microwave. The results showed that the microwave curing enhanced the reactivity and strength of the geopolymers.

Keywords: bottom ash, coal, fluidized bed combustion (FBC) geopolymer, compressive strength

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155 The Learning Impact of a 4-Dimensional Digital Construction Learning Environment

Authors: Chris Landorf, Stephen Ward

Abstract:

This paper addresses a virtual environment approach to work integrated learning for students in construction-related disciplines. The virtual approach provides a safe and pedagogically rigorous environment where students can apply theoretical knowledge in a simulated real-world context. The paper describes the development of a 4-dimensional digital construction environment and associated learning activities funded by the Australian Office for Learning and Teaching. The environment was trialled with over 1,300 students and evaluated through questionnaires, observational studies and coursework analysis. Results demonstrate a positive impact on students’ technical learning and collaboration skills, but there is need for further research in relation to critical thinking skills and work-readiness.

Keywords: architectural education, construction industry, digital learning environments, immersive learning

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154 Information and Communication Technology in Architectural Education: The Challenges

Authors: Oluropo Stephen Ilesanmi, Oluwole Ayodele Alejo

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Architectural education, beyond training the students to become architects, impacts in them the appreciation of the responsibilities relating to public health, safety, and welfare. Architecture is no longer a personal philosophical or aesthetic pursuit by individuals, rather, it has to consider everyday needs of the people and use technology to give a liveable environment. In the present age, architectural education must have to grapple with the recent integration of technology, in particular, facilities offered by information and communication technology. Electronic technologies have moved architecture from the drawing board to cyberspace. The world is now a global village in which new information and methods are easily and quickly available to people at different poles of the globe. It is the position of this paper that in order to remain relevant in the ever-competing forces within the building industry, architectural education must show the impetus to continue to draw from technological advancements associated with the use of computers.

Keywords: architecture, education, communication, information, technology

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153 A Paradigm Shift in Energy Policy and Use: Exergy and Hybrid Renewable Energy Technologies

Authors: Adavbiele Airewe Stephen

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Sustainable energy use is exploiting energy resources within acceptable levels of global resource depletion without destroying the ecological balance of an area. In the context of sustainability, the rush to quell the energy crisis of the fossil fuels of the 1970's by embarking on nuclear energy technology has now been seen as a disaster. In the circumstance, action (policy) suggested in this study to avoid future occurrence is exergy maximization/entropy generation minimization and the use is renewable energy technologies that are hybrid based. Thirty-two (32) selected hybrid renewable energy technologies were assessed with respect to their energetic efficiencies and entropy generation. The results indicated that determining which of the hybrid technologies is the most efficient process and sustainable is a matter of defining efficiency and knowing which of them possesses the minimum entropy generation.

Keywords: entropy, exergy, hybrid renewable energy technologies, sustainability

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152 An Example of University Research Driving University-Industry Collaboration

Authors: Stephen E. Cross, Donald P. McConnell

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In the past decade, market pressures and decreasing U.S. federal budgets for science and technology have led to a fundamental change in expectations for corporate investments in innovation. The trend to significant, sustained corporate research collaboration with major academic centres has called for rethinking the balance between academic and corporate roles in these relationships. The Georgia Institute of Technology has developed a system-focused strategy for transformational research focused on grand challenges in areas of importance both to faculty and to industry collaborators. A model of an innovation ecosystem is used to guide both research and university-industry collaboration. The paper describes the strategy, the model, and the results to date including the benefits both to university research and industry collaboration. Key lessons learned are presented based on this experience.

Keywords: ecosystem, industry collaboration, innovation, research strategy

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151 Overcoming the Problems Affecting Drip Irrigation System through the Design of an Efficient Filtration and Flushing System

Authors: Stephen A. Akinlabi, Esther T. Akinlabi

Abstract:

The drip irrigation system is one of the important areas that affect the livelihood of farmers directly. The use of drip irrigation system has been the most efficient system compared to the other types of irrigations systems because the drip irrigation helps to save water and increase the productivity of crops. But like any other system, it can be considered inefficient when the filters and the emitters get clogged while in operation. The efficiency of the entire system is reduced when the emitters are clogged and blocked. This consequently impact and affect the farm operations which may result in scarcity of farm products and increase the demand. This design work focuses on how to overcome some of the challenges affecting drip irrigation system through the design of an efficient filtration and flushing system.

Keywords: drip irrigation system, filters, soil texture, mechanical engineering design, analysis

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150 An Overview of Nano-Particles Effect on Mechanical Properties of Composites

Authors: Ganiyu I. Lawal, Olatunde I. Sekunowo, Stephen I. Durowaye

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Composites depending on the nature of their constituents and mode of production are regarded as one of the advanced materials that drive today’s technology. This paper attempts a short review of the subject matter with a general aim of pushing to the next level the frontier of knowledge as it impacts the technology of nano-particles manufacturing. The objectives entail an effort to; aggregate recent research efforts in this field, analyse research findings and observations, streamline research efforts and support industry in taking decision on areas of fund deployment. It is envisaged that this work will serve as a quick hand-on compendium material for researchers in this field and a guide to relevant government departments wishing to fund a research whose outcomes have the potential of improving the nation’s GDP.

Keywords: advanced materials, composites, mechanical properties, nano-particles

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149 The Boundary Element Method in Excel for Teaching Vector Calculus and Simulation

Authors: Stephen Kirkup

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This paper discusses the implementation of the boundary element method (BEM) on an Excel spreadsheet and how it can be used in teaching vector calculus and simulation. There are two separate spreadheets, within which Laplace equation is solved by the BEM in two dimensions (LIBEM2) and axisymmetric three dimensions (LBEMA). The main algorithms are implemented in the associated programming language within Excel, Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The BEM only requires a boundary mesh and hence it is a relatively accessible method. The BEM in the open spreadsheet environment is demonstrated as being useful as an aid to teaching and learning. The application of the BEM implemented on a spreadsheet for educational purposes in introductory vector calculus and simulation is explored. The development of assignment work is discussed, and sample results from student work are given. The spreadsheets were found to be useful tools in developing the students’ understanding of vector calculus and in simulating heat conduction.

Keywords: boundary element method, Laplace’s equation, vector calculus, simulation, education

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148 Towards a Competitive South African Tooling Industry

Authors: Mncedisi Trinity Dewa, Andre Francois Van Der Merwe, Stephen Matope

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Tool, Die and Mould-making (TDM) firms have been known to play a pivotal role in the growth and development of the manufacturing sectors in most economies. Their output contributes significantly to the quality, cost and delivery speed of final manufactured parts. Unfortunately, the South African Tool, Die and Mould-making manufacturers have not been competing on the local or global market in a significant way. This reality has hampered the productivity and growth of the sector thus attracting intervention. The paper explores the shortcomings South African toolmakers have to overcome to restore their competitive position globally. Results from a global benchmarking survey on the tooling sector are used to establish a roadmap of what South African toolmakers can do to become a productive, World Class force on the global market.

Keywords: competitive performance objectives, toolmakers, world-class manufacturing, lead times

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147 Multi-Band, Polarization Insensitive, Wide Angle Receptive Metamaterial Absorber for Microwave Applications

Authors: Lincy Stephen, N. Yogesh, G. Vasantharajan, V. Subramanian

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This paper presents the design and simulation of a five band metamaterial absorber at microwave frequencies. The absorber unit cell consists of squares and strips arranged as the top layer and a metallic ground plane as the bottom layer on a dielectric substrate. Simulation results show five near perfect absorption bands at 3.15 GHz, 7.15 GHz, 11.12 GHz, 13.87 GHz, and 16.85 GHz with absorption magnitudes 99.68%, 99.05%, 96.98%, 98.36% and 99.44% respectively. Further, the proposed absorber exhibits polarization insensitivity and wide angle receptivity. The surface current analysis is presented to explain the mechanism of absorption in the structure. With these preferable features, the proposed absorber can be excellent choice for potential applications such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, radar cross section reduction.

Keywords: electromagnetic absorber, metamaterial, multi- band, polarization insensitive, wide angle receptive

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146 Experimental Study on Stabilisation of a Soft Soil by Alkaline Activation of Industrial By-Products

Authors: Mohammadjavad Yaghoubi, Arul Arulrajah, Mahdi M. Disfani, Suksun Horpibulsuk, Myint W. Bo, Stephen P. Darmawan

Abstract:

Utilising waste materials, such as fly ash (FA) and slag (S) stockpiled in landfills, has drawn the attention of researchers and engineers in the recent years. There is a great potential for usage of these wastes in ground improvement projects, especially where deep deposits of soft compressible soils exist. This paper investigates the changes in the strength development of a high water content soft soil stabilised with alkaline activated FA and S, termed as geopolymer binder, to use in deep soil mixing technology. The strength improvement and the changes in the microstructure of the mixtures have been studied. The results show that using FA and S-based geopolymers can increases the strength significantly. Furthermore, utilising FA and S in ground improvement projects, where large amounts of binders are required, can be a solution to the disposal of these wastes.

Keywords: alkaline activation, fly ash, geopolymer, slag, strength development

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145 The Use of Degradation Measures to Design Reliability Test Plans

Authors: Stephen V. Crowder, Jonathan W. Lane

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With short production development times, there is an increased need to demonstrate product reliability relatively quickly with minimal testing. In such cases there may be few if any observed failures. Thus it may be difficult to assess reliability using the traditional reliability test plans that measure only time (or cycles) to failure. For many components, degradation measures will contain important information about performance and reliability. These measures can be used to design a minimal test plan, in terms of number of units placed on test and duration of the test, necessary to demonstrate a reliability goal. In this work we present a case study involving an electronic component subject to degradation. The data, consisting of 42 degradation paths of cycles to failure, are first used to estimate a reliability function. Bootstrapping techniques are then used to perform power studies and develop a minimal reliability test plan for future production of this component.

Keywords: degradation measure, time to failure distribution, bootstrap, computational science

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144 A Comparative Assessment of Industrial Composites Using Thermography and Ultrasound

Authors: Mosab Alrashed, Wei Xu, Stephen Abineri, Yifan Zhao, Jörn Mehnen

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Thermographic inspection is a relatively new technique for Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) which has been gathering increasing interest due to its relatively low cost hardware and extremely fast data acquisition properties. This technique is especially promising in the area of rapid automated damage detection and quantification. In collaboration with a major industry partner from the aerospace sector advanced thermography-based NDT software for impact damaged composites is introduced. The software is based on correlation analysis of time-temperature profiles in combination with an image enhancement process. The prototype software is aiming to a) better visualise the damages in a relatively easy-to-use way and b) automatically and quantitatively measure the properties of the degradation. Knowing that degradation properties play an important role in the identification of degradation types, tests and results on specimens which were artificially damaged have been performed and analyzed.

Keywords: NDT, correlation analysis, image processing, damage, inspection

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143 Gamification of a Business Intelligence Tool

Authors: Stephen Miller

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The act of applying game mechanics and dynamics (which have been traditionally used in video games) into business applications is being widely trialed in an effort to make conventional business software a bit more participative, fun and engaging. This new trend, named ‘gamification’ has its believers and of course, its critics who still need convincing that the concept is an effective and beneficial business tool worthy of investment. The literature reveals that user engagement of business intelligence (BI) tools is much lower than expected and investors are failing to get a good return on their investment (ROI). So, a software prototype will be designed and developed to add gamification to a BI tool to determine its effect upon the user engagement levels of test participants. The experimental study will be evaluated using the comprehensive User Engagement Scale (UES) to see if there are improvements in areas such as; aesthetics, perceived usability, endurability, novelty, felt involvement and focused attention. The results of this unique study should demonstrate whether or not ‘gamifying’ a BI tool has the potential to increase an individual’s motivation to use BI software more often.

Keywords: business intelligence, gamification, human computer interaction, user engagement

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142 Characterising the Effects of Heat Treatment on 3CR12 and AISI 316 Stainless Steels

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Stephen A. Akinlabi

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This paper reports on the effects of heat treatment on 3CR12 and AISI 316 stainless steel grades. Heat treatment was conducted on the steel grades and cooled using two different media; air and water in order to study the effect of each medium on the evolving properties of the samples. The heat treated samples were characterized through the evolving microstructure and hardness. It was found that there was a significant grain size reduction in both the heat treated stainless steel specimens compared to the parent materials. The finer grain sizes were achieved as a result of impediment to growth of one phase by the other. The Vickers micro-hardness values of the heat treated samples were higher compared to the parent materials due to the fact that each of the steel grades had a proportion of martensitic structures in their microstructures.

Keywords: austenite, ferrite, grain size, hardness, martensite, microstructure and stainless steel

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141 Spirituality in Adults with Developmental Disabilities in the Practice of Pastoral Care Ministry

Authors: Olutayo Stephen Shodipo

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This paper explores how individuals with disabilities understand and express their spirituality like everyone else can help provide church ministers and religious leaders with new knowledge of human experience and change the way pastoral care ministry is being practiced with this population. Disability literature has revealed studies on various aspects of disability. However, on the spirituality of people with disabilities, there is a gap. This paper offers a brief overview of what has been studied on the spiritual needs of adults with developmental disabilities (ADDs) and the church and the gap that still exists. Along with explaining this gap, it considers the reality of ADDs’ spiritual needs and why the church needs to validate their spirituality and religious expressions and create an inclusive environment where their spiritual experience and expressions can be enhanced and supported. This paper, then, aims to explore the diverse spiritual experiences of ADDs in faith communities, and their theological, moral, and social implications for Pastoral care ministry practices.

Keywords: spirituality, inclusive ministry, pastoral theology, developmental disability, pastoral care

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140 The Potential for Recycling Household Wastes Generated from the Residential Areas of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife

Authors: Asaolu Olugbenga Stephen, Afolabi Olusegun Temitope

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Lack of proper solid waste management is one of the main causes of environmental pollution and degradation in many cities, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the quantity of waste generated per capita per day, determine the composition and identify the potentials for recycling of waste generated. Characterization of wastes from selected households in the residential areas was done for over a 7 day period. The weight of each sorted category of waste was recorded in a structured database that calculated the proportion of each waste component. The results indicated that 85.4% of the sampled waste characterized was found to be recyclable; with an estimated average waste generated of 1.82kg/capita/day. The various solid waste fractions were organic (64.6%), plastics (15.6%), metals (9.2%), glass materials (1.6%) and unclassified (8.9%). It was concluded from this study that a large proportion of the waste generated from OAU campus residential area was recyclable and that there is a need to enact policy on waste recycling within the university campus.

Keywords: recycling, household wastes, residential, solid waste management

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139 Food Waste Management in the Restaurant Industry

Authors: Vijayakumar Karunamoothei, Stephen Wylie, Andy Shaw, Al Shamma'A Ahmed

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The main aim of this research is to investigate, analyse and provide solutions for the reduction of food waste in the restaurant industry. The amount of food waste that is sent to landfill by UK restaurants and food chains is considerably high, and also acts as an additional cost to the restaurants, as well as being a significant environmental issue. Food waste, for the most part, is disposed in landfill, but due to rising costs associated with waste disposal, it increases public concerns about the environmental issue. This makes conversion of food waste to energy an economic solution. The relevant properties, such as water content and calorific value, will vary considerably, depending on the particular type of food. This work, therefore, includes the collection and analysis of real data from restaurants on weekly basis. It will also investigate how the waste destined for landfill can be instead reused to produce fuels such as syngas or ethanol, or alternatively as fertilizer. The potential for syngas production will be tested using a microwave plasma reactor.

Keywords: fertilizer, microwave, plasma reactor, syngas

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138 Co-Integration Model for Predicting Inflation Movement in Nigeria

Authors: Salako Rotimi, Oshungade Stephen, Ojewoye Opeyemi

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The maintenance of price stability is one of the macroeconomic challenges facing Nigeria as a nation. This paper attempts to build a co-integration multivariate time series model for inflation movement in Nigeria using data extracted from the abstract of statistics of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) from 2008 to 2017. The Johansen cointegration test suggests at least one co-integration vector describing the long run relationship between Consumer Price Index (CPI), Food Price Index (FPI) and Non-Food Price Index (NFPI). All three series show increasing pattern, which indicates a sign of non-stationary in each of the series. Furthermore, model predictability was established with root-mean-square-error, mean absolute error, mean average percentage error, and Theil’s unbiased statistics for n-step forecasting. The result depicts that the long run coefficient of a consumer price index (CPI) has a positive long-run relationship with the food price index (FPI) and non-food price index (NFPI).

Keywords: economic, inflation, model, series

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
137 A Comparison of Double Sided Friction Stir Welding in Air and Underwater for 6mm S275 Steel Plate

Authors: Philip Baillie, Stuart W. Campbell, Alexander M. Galloway, Stephen R. Cater, Norman A. McPherson

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This study compared the mechanical and microstructural properties produced during friction stir welding(FSW) of S275 structural steel in air and underwater. Post weld tests assessed the tensile strength, micro-hardness, distortion, Charpy impact toughness and fatigue performance in each case. The study showed that there was no significant difference in the strength, hardness or fatigue life of the air and underwater specimens. However, Charpy impact toughness was shown to decrease for the underwater specimens and was attributed to a lower degree of recrystallization caused by the higher rate of heat loss experienced when welding underwater. Reduced angular and longitudinal distortion was observed in the underwater welded plate compared to the plate welded in air.

Keywords: Charpy impact toughness, distortion, fatigue, friction stir welding(FSW), micro-hardness, underwater

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136 Electrochemical Biosensor for Rutin Detection with Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes and Cerium Dioxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Stephen Rathinaraj Benjamin, Flavio Colmati Junior, Maria Izabel Florindo Guedes, Rosa Amalia Fireman Dutra

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A new enzymatic electrochemical biosensor based on multiwall carbon nanotubes and cerium oxide nanoparticles for the detection of rutin has been developed. The cerium oxide nanoparticles /HRP/ multiwall carbon nanotubes/ carbon paste electrode (HRP/ CeO2/MWCNTs/CPE) was prepared by ensuing addition of MWCNTs and HRP on the CPE, followed by the mixing with cerium oxide nanoparticles. Surface physical characteristics of the modified electrode and the electrochemical properties of the composite were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cylic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The HRP/ CeO2/MWCNTs/CPE showed good selectivity, stability and reproducibility, which was further applied to detect rutin tablet and capsule samples with satisfactory results.

Keywords: cerium dioxide nanoparticles, horseradish peroxidase, multiwall carbon nanotubes, rutin

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135 Demand for Domestic Marine and Coastal Tourism and Day Trips on an Island Nation

Authors: John Deely, Stephen Hynes, Mary Cawley, Sarah Hogan

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Domestic marine and coastal tourism have increased in importance over the last number of years due to the impacts of international travel, environmental concerns, associated health benefits and COVID-19 related travel restrictions. Consequently, this paper conceptualizes domestic marine and coastal tourism within an economic framework. Two logit models examine the factors that influence participation in the coastal day trips and overnight stays markets, respectively. Two truncated travel cost models are employed to explore trip duration, one analyzing the number of day trips taken and the other examining the number of nights spent in marine and coastal areas. Although a range of variables predicts participation, no one variable had a significant and consistent effect on every model. A division in access to domestic marine and coastal tourism is also observed based on variation in household income. The results also indicate a vibrant day trip market and large consumer surpluses.

Keywords: domestic marine and coastal tourism, day tripper, participation models, truncated travel cost model

Procedia PDF Downloads 44