Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Stephan Bongard

31 A Randomized Controlled Intervention Study of the Effect of Music Training on Mathematical and Working Memory Performances

Authors: Ingo Roden, Stefana Lupu, Mara Krone, Jasmin Chantah, Gunter Kreutz, Stephan Bongard, Dietmar Grube


The present experimental study examined the effects of music and math training on mathematical skills and visuospatial working memory capacity in kindergarten children. For this purpose, N = 54 children (mean age: 5.46 years; SD = .29) were randomly assigned to three groups. Children in the music group (n = 18) received weekly sessions of 60 min music training over a period of eight weeks, whereas children in the math group (n = 18) received the same amount of training focusing on mathematical basic skills, such as numeracy skills, quantity comparison, and counting objectives. The third group of children (n = 18) served as waiting controls. The groups were matched for sex, age, IQ and previous music experiences at baseline. Pre-Post intervention measurements revealed a significant interaction effect of group x time, showing that children in both music and math groups significantly improved their early numeracy skills, whereas children in the control group did not. No significant differences between groups were observed for the visuospatial working memory performances. These results confirm and extend previous findings on transfer effects of music training on mathematical abilities and visuospatial working memory capacity. They show that music and math interventions are similarly effective to enhance children’s mathematical skills. More research is necessary to establish, whether cognitive transfer effects arising from music interventions might facilitate children’s transition from kindergarten to first-grade.

Keywords: music training, mathematical skills, working memory, transfer

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30 Effects of Music Training on Social-Emotional Development and Basic Musical Skills: Findings from a Longitudinal Study with German and Migrant Children

Authors: Stefana Francisca Lupu, Jasmin Chantah, Mara Krone, Ingo Roden, Stephan Bongard, Gunter Kreutz


Long-term music interventions could enhance both musical and nonmusical skills. The present study was designed to explore cognitive, socio-emotional, and musical development in a longitudinal setting. Third-graders (N = 184: 87 male, 97 female; mean age = 8.61 years; 115 native German and 69 migrant children) were randomly assigned to two intervention groups (music and maths) and a control group over a period of one school-year. At baseline, children in these groups were similar in basic cognitive skills, with a trend of advantage in the control group. Dependent measures included the culture fair intelligence test CFT 20-R; the questionnaire of emotional and social school experience for grade 3 and 4 (FEESS 3-4), the test of resources in childhood and adolescence (FRKJ 8-16), the test of language proficiency for German native and non-native primary school children (SFD 3), the reading comprehension test (ELFE 1-6), the German math test (DEMAT 3+) and the intermediate measures of music audiation (IMMA). Data were collected two times at the beginning (T1) and at the end of the school year (T2). A third measurement (T3) followed after a six months retention period. Data from baseline and post-intervention measurements are currently being analyzed. Preliminary results of all three measurements will be presented at the conference.

Keywords: musical training, primary-school German and migrant children, socio-emotional skills, transfer

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29 Heat and Mass Transfer Study of Supercooled Large Droplet Icing

Authors: Du Yanxia, Stephan E. Bansmer, Gui Yewei, Xiao Guangming, Yang Xiaofeng


The heat and mass transfer characteristics of icing coupled with film flow is studied and the coupled model of the thermal behavior with the flow simulation by single-step method is developed. The behavior of ice and water was analyzed. The results show that under supercooled large droplet (SLD) icing conditions, the film flow is an important phonomena in icing accretion process. The pressure gradient, gravity and shear stress are the main factors affecting the film flow on icing surface, which has important influence on the shape and rate of icing. To predict SLD ice accretion accurately, the heat and mass transfer of ice and film flow should be taken into account.

Keywords: SLD, aircraft, icing, heat and mass transfer

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28 Synchrotron X-Ray Based Investigation of As and Fe Bonding Environment in Collard Green Tissue Samples at Different Growth Stages

Authors: Sunil Dehipawala, Aregama Sirisumana, stephan Smith, P. Schneider, G. Tremberger Jr, D. Lieberman, Todd Holden, T. Cheung


The arsenic and iron environments in different growth stages have been studied with EXAFS and XANES using Brookhaven Synchrotron Light Source. Collard Greens plants were grown and tissue samples were harvested. The project studied the EXAFS and XANES of tissue samples using As and Fe K-edges. The Fe absorption and the Fourier transform bond length information were used as a control comparison. The Fourier transform of the XAFS data revealed the coexistence of As (III) and As (V) in the As bonding environment inside the studied plant tissue samples, although the soil only had As (III). The data suggests that Collard Greens has a novel pathway to handle arsenic absorption in soil.

Keywords: EXAFS, fourier transform, metalloproteins, XANES

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27 Assessment of the High-Speed Ice Friction of Bob Skeleton Runners

Authors: Agata Tomaszewska, Timothy Kamps, Stephan R. Turnock, Nicola Symonds


Bob skeleton is a highly competitive sport in which an athlete reaches speeds up to 40 m/s sliding, head first, down an ice track. It is believed that the friction between the runners and ice significantly contributes to the amount of the total energy loss during a bob skeleton descent. There is only limited available experimental data regarding the friction of bob skeleton runners or indeed steel on the ice at high sliding speeds ( > 20 m/s). Testing methods used to investigate the friction of steel on ice in winter sports have been outlined, and their accuracy and repeatability discussed. A system thinking approach was used to investigate the runner-ice interaction during sliding and create concept designs of three ice tribometers. The operational envelope of the bob skeleton system has been defined through mathematical modelling. Designs of a drum, linear and inertia pin-on-disk tribometers were developed specifically for bob skeleton runner testing with the requirement of reaching up to 40 m/s speed and facilitate fresh ice sliding. The design constraints have been outline and the proposed solutions compared based on the ease of operation, accuracy and the development cost.

Keywords: bob skeleton, ice friction, high-speed tribometers, sliding friction

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26 The SOCI Strategy as a Method to Meet the Innovation Challenges of COVID-19

Authors: Victoria Wolf, Renata Dobrucka, Robert Prezkop, Stephan Haubold


The COVID-19 causes a worldwide crisis and has an impact in every dimension of the economy. Organizations with the ability to adapt to new developments and which innovate solutions for the disrupted world during and after the Corona crises have the opportunity to not only survive the crisis but rather to use new trends to implement new business models and gain advantage. In this context, startups seem to have better opportunities to manage the Corona crisis through their innovation-based nature. The main result of this paper is the understanding that by applying a startup orientated innovation (SOCI) strategy, established companies can be motivated to meet the challenge of COVID-19 in a similar way like startups. This result can be achieved by describing the role of innovation and a SOCI strategy as helpful methods for organizations to meet the coming challenges during and after the COVID-19 epidemics. In addition to this, this paper presents a practical application of SOCI through the PANDA approach of the Fresenius University of Applied Sciences in Germany and discuss it in the context of COVID-19 as an exemplary successful real-world implementation of SOCI strategy.

Keywords: Covid-19, innovation, open innovation, startup, soci framework

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25 One-Dimension Model for Positive Displacement Pump with Cavitation Algorithm

Authors: Francesco Rizzuto, Matthew Stickland, Stephan Hannot


The simulation of a positive displacement pump system with commercial software for Computer Fluid Dynamics (CFD), will result in an enormous computational effort due to the complexity of the pump system. This drawback restricts the use of it to a specific part of the pump in one simulation. This research focuses on developing an algorithm that provides a suitable result in agreement with experiment data, without that computational effort. The compressible equations are solved with an explicit algorithm. A comparison is presented between the FV method with Monotonic Upwind scheme for Conservative Laws (MUSCL) with slope limiter and experimental results. The source term for cavitation and friction is introduced into the algorithm with a slipping strategy and solved with a 4th order Runge-Kutta scheme (RK4). Different pumps are modeled and analyzed to evaluate the flexibility of the code. The simulation required minimal computation time and resources without compromising the accuracy of the simulation results. Therefore, this algorithm highlights the feasibility of pressure pulsation simulation as a design tool for an industrial purpose.

Keywords: cavitation, diaphragm, DVCM, finite volume, MUSCL, positive displacement pump

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24 Effect of Whole-Body Vibration Training on Self-Reported Physical Disability in Employees with Chronic Low-Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Tobias Stephan Kaeding, Rebecca Schwarz, Momme Kück, Lothar Stein


Introduction: The goal of this randomized and controlled study is to examine whether whole-body vibration (WBV) training is able to reduce self-reported physical disability in office employees with chronic low-back pain. Materials and methods: 41 subjects (68.3% female/mean age 45.5 ± 9.1 years/mean BMI 26.6 ± 5.2) were randomly allocated to an intervention group (INT (n= 21)) or a control group (CON (n=20). The INT participated in WBV training 2.5 times per week for 3 months. The primary outcome was the change in the Roland and Morris disability questionnaire (RMQ) score over the study period. In addition, secondary outcomes included changes in the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Results: The compliance with the intervention in the INT reached a mean of 81.1% ± 31.2% with no long-lasting unwanted side effects. We found significant positive effects of 3 months of WBV training in the INT compared to the CON regarding the RMQ (p=0.027) and the ODI (p=0.002). Conclusions: WBV training seems to be an effective, safe and suitable intervention for the reduction of the self-reported physical disability in seated working employees with chronic low-back pain.

Keywords: back pain, exercise, occupational health management, vibration training

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23 Nanocharacterization of PIII Treated 7075 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: Bruno Bacci Fernandes, Stephan Mändl, Ataíde Ribeiro da Silva Junior, José Osvaldo Rossi, Mário Ueda


Nitrogen implantation in aluminum and its alloys is acquainted for the difficulties in obtaining modified layers deeper than 200 nm. The present work addresses a new method to overcome such a problem; although, the coating with nitrogen and oxygen obtained by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) into a 7075 aluminum alloy surface was too shallow. This alloy is commonly used for structural parts in aerospace applications. Such a layer was characterized by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and nanoindentation experiments reciprocating wear tests. From the results, one can assume that the wear of this aluminum alloy starts presenting severe abrasive wear followed by an additional adhesive mechanism. PIII produced a slight difference, as shown in all characterizations carried out in this work. The results shown here can be used as the scientific basis for further nitrogen PIII experiments in aluminum alloys which have the goal to produce thicker modified layers or to improve their surface properties.

Keywords: aluminum alloys, plasma immersion ion implantation, tribological properties, hardness, nanofatigue

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22 Prediction of Fracture Aperture in Fragmented Rocks

Authors: Hossein Agheshlui, Stephan Matthai


In fractured rock masses open fractures tend to act as the main pathways of fluid flow. The permeability of a rock fracture depends on its aperture. The change of aperture with stress can cause a many-orders-of-magnitude change in the hydraulic conductivity at moderate compressive stress levels. In this study, the change of aperture in fragmented rocks is investigated using finite element analysis. A full 3D mechanical model of a simplified version of an outcrop analog is created and studied. A constant initial aperture value is applied to all fractures. Different far field stresses are applied and the change of aperture is monitored considering the block to block interaction. The fragmented rock layer is assumed to be sandwiched between softer layers. Frictional contact forces are defined at the layer boundaries as well as among contacting rock blocks. For a given in situ stress, the blocks slide and contact each other, resulting in new aperture distributions. A map of changed aperture is produced after applying the in situ stress and compared to the initial apertures. Subsequently, the permeability of the system before and after the stress application is compared.

Keywords: fractured rocks, mechanical model, aperture change due to stress, frictional interface

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21 Operational Excellence Performance in Pharmaceutical Quality Control Labs: An Empirical Investigation of the Effectiveness and Efficiency Relation

Authors: Stephan Koehler, Thomas Friedli


Performance measurement has evolved over time from a unidimensional short-term efficiency focused approach into a balanced multidimensional approach. Today, integrated performance measurement frameworks are often used to avoid local optimization and to encourage continuous improvement of an organization. In literature, the multidimensional characteristic of performance measurement is often described by competitive priorities. At the same time, on the highest abstraction level an effectiveness and efficiency dimension of performance measurement can be distinguished. This paper aims at a better understanding of the composition of effectiveness and efficiency and their relation in pharmaceutical quality control labs. The research comprises a lab-specific operationalization of effectiveness and efficiency and examines how the two dimensions are interlinked. The basis for the analysis represents a database of the University of St. Gallen including a divers set of 40 different pharmaceutical quality control labs. The research provides empirical evidence that labs with a high effectiveness also accompany a high efficiency. Lab effectiveness explains 29.5 % of the variance in lab efficiency. In addition, labs with an above median operational excellence performance have a statistically significantly higher lab effectiveness and lab efficiency compared to the below median performing labs.

Keywords: empirical study, operational excellence, performance measurement, pharmaceutical quality control lab

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20 The Dynamics of a 3D Vibrating and Rotating Disc Gyroscope

Authors: Getachew T. Sedebo, Stephan V. Joubert, Michael Y. Shatalov


Conventional configuration of the vibratory disc gyroscope is based on in-plane non-axisymmetric vibrations of the disc with a prescribed circumferential wave number. Due to the Bryan's effect, the vibrating pattern of the disc becomes sensitive to the axial component of inertial rotation of the disc. Rotation of the vibrating pattern relative to the disc is proportional to the inertial angular rate and is measured by sensors. In the present paper, the authors investigate a possibility of making a 3D sensor on the basis of both in-plane and bending vibrations of the disc resonator. We derive equations of motion for the disc vibratory gyroscope, where both in-plane and bending vibrations are considered. Hamiltonian variational principle is used in setting up equations of motion and the corresponding boundary conditions. The theory of thin shells with the linear elasticity principles is used in formulating the problem and also the disc is assumed to be isotropic and obeys Hooke's Law. The governing equation for a specific mode is converted to an ODE to determine the eigenfunction. The resulting ODE has exact solution as a linear combination of Bessel and Neumann functions. We demonstrate how to obtain an explicit solution and hence the eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions for annular disc with fixed inner boundary and free outer boundary. Finally, the characteristics equations are obtained and the corresponding eigenvalues are calculated. The eigenvalues are used for the calculation of tuning conditions of the 3D disc vibratory gyroscope.

Keywords: Bryan’s effect, bending vibrations, disc gyroscope, eigenfunctions, eigenvalues, tuning conditions

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19 Contemporary Army Prints for Women’s Wear Kurti

Authors: Shaleni Bajpai, Nancy Stephan


Various designs of women’s kurtis with different styles, motifs and prints were available in market but none of the kurtis was found in army print. Mostly army prints are used for men’s wear like jackets, trousers, caps, bags. The main colours available in military prints were beige, parrot green, red, dark blue, light blue, orange, bottle green, pink and the original military green colour. As the original camouflage is banned in civil wears so the different variety and colours were used in this study to popularize army prints in women’s wear. The aim of this project was to construct different styles of women kurti’s with various colours of different military prints. Mood board, inspiration and colour board was prepared to design the kurtis. The fabric used for construction was army printed poplin and crepe. The designing and construction of kurti’s were divided into two categories such as - casual and party wear. Casual wear had simple silhouette like a-line, high-low and waist coat style whereas party wear included princess line, panelled and bandhani style. Structured questionnaire was prepared to assess the acceptance of newly designed kurtis with respect to colour combination, overall appearance and cost. Purposively sampling method was adopted for selection of respondents. Opinion was taken from 100 women of various age groups. The result and analysis was presented through graph and percentage. Kurtis in army print of both the categories were appreciated by the respondents.

Keywords: army, kurti, casual wear, party wear

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18 Synthetic Access to Complex Metal Carbonates and Hydroxycarbonates via Sol-Gel Chemistry

Authors: Schirin Hanf, Carlos Lizandara-Pueyo, Timmo P. Emmert, Ivana Jevtovikj, Roger Gläser, Stephan A. Schunk


Metal alkoxides are very versatile precursors for a broad array of complex functional materials. However, metal alkoxides, especially transition metal alkoxides, tend to form oligomeric structures due to the very strong M–O–M binding motif. This fact hinders their facile application in sol-gel-processes and complicates access to complex carbonate or oxidic compounds after hydrolysis of the precursors. Therefore, the development of a synthetic alternative with the aim to grant access to carbonates and hydroxycarbonates from simple metal alkoxide precursors via hydrolysis is key to this project. Our approach involves the reaction of metal alkoxides with unsaturated isoelectronic molecules, such as carbon dioxide. Subsequently, a stoichiometric insertion of the CO₂ into the alkoxide M–O bond takes place and leads to the formation of soluble metal alkyl carbonates. This strategy is a very elegant approach to solubilize metal alkoxide precursors to make them accessible for sol-gel chemistry. After hydrolysis of the metal alkyl carbonates, crystalline metal carbonates, and hydroxycarbonates can be obtained, which were then utilized for the synthesis of Cu/Zn based bulk catalysts for methanol synthesis. Using these catalysts, a comparable catalytic activity to commercially available MeOH catalysts could be reached. Based on these results, a complement for traditional precipitation techniques, which are usually utilized for the synthesis of bulk methanol catalysts, have been found based on an alternative solubilization strategy.

Keywords: metal alkoxides, metal carbonates, metal hydroxycarbonates, CO₂ insertion, solubilization

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17 Towards the Modeling of Lost Core Viability in High-Pressure Die Casting: A Fluid-Structure Interaction Model with 2-Phase Flow Fluid Model

Authors: Sebastian Kohlstädt, Michael Vynnycky, Stephan Goeke, Jan Jäckel, Andreas Gebauer-Teichmann


This paper summarizes the progress in the latest computational fluid dynamics research towards the modeling in of lost core viability in high-pressure die casting. High-pressure die casting is a process that is widely employed in the automotive and neighboring industries due to its advantages in casting quality and cost efficiency. The degrees of freedom are however somewhat limited as it has been so far difficult to use lost cores in the process. This is right now changing and the deployment of lost cores is considered a future growth potential for high-pressure die casting companies. The use of this technology itself is difficult though. The strength of the core material, as chiefly salt is used, is limited and experiments have shown that the cores will not hold under all circumstances and process designs. For this purpose, the publicly available CFD library foam-extend (OpenFOAM) is used, and two additional fluid models for incompressible and compressible two-phase flow are implemented as fluid solver models into the FSI library. For this purpose, the volume-of-fluid (VOF) methodology is used. The necessity for the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) approach is shown by a simple CFD model geometry. The model is benchmarked against analytical models and experimental data. Sufficient agreement is found with the analytical models and good agreement with the experimental data. An outlook on future developments concludes the paper.

Keywords: CFD, fluid-structure interaction, high-pressure die casting, multiphase flow

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16 Reorientation of Anisotropic Particles in Free Liquid Microjets

Authors: Mathias Schlenk, Susanne Seibt, Sabine Rosenfeldt, Josef Breu, Stephan Foerster


Thin liquid jets on micrometer scale play an important role in processing such as in fiber fabrication, inkjet printing, but also for sample delivery in modern synchrotron X-ray devices. In all these cases the liquid jets contain solvents and dissolved materials such as polymers, nanoparticles, fibers pigments or proteins. As liquid flow in liquid jets differs significantly from flow in capillaries and microchannels, particle localization and orientation will also be different. This is of critical importance for applications, which depend on well-defined homogeneous particle and fiber distribution and orientation in liquid jets. Investigations of particle orientation in liquid microjets of diluted solutions have been rare, despite their importance. With the arise of micro-focused X-ray beams it has become possible to scan across samples with micrometer resolution to locally analyse structure and orientation of the samples. In the present work, we used this method to scan across liquid microjets to determine the local distribution and orientation of anisotropic particles. The compromise wormlike block copolymer micelles as an example of long flexible fibrous structures, hectorite materials as a model of extended nanosheet structures, and gold nanorods as an illustration of short stiff cylinders to comprise all relevant anisotropic geometries. We find that due to the different velocity profile in the liquid jet, which resembles plug flow, the orientation of the particles which was generated in the capillary is lost or changed into non-oriented or bi-axially orientations depending on the geometrical shape of the particle.

Keywords: anisotropic particles, liquid microjets, reorientation, SAXS

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15 Long Term Examination of the Profitability Estimation Focused on Benefits

Authors: Stephan Printz, Kristina Lahl, René Vossen, Sabina Jeschke


Strategic investment decisions are characterized by high innovation potential and long-term effects on the competitiveness of enterprises. Due to the uncertainty and risks involved in this complex decision making process, the need arises for well-structured support activities. A method that considers cost and the long-term added value is the cost-benefit effectiveness estimation. One of those methods is the “profitability estimation focused on benefits – PEFB”-method developed at the Institute of Management Cybernetics at RWTH Aachen University. The method copes with the challenges associated with strategic investment decisions by integrating long-term non-monetary aspects whilst also mapping the chronological sequence of an investment within the organization’s target system. Thus, this method is characterized as a holistic approach for the evaluation of costs and benefits of an investment. This participation-oriented method was applied to business environments in many workshops. The results of the workshops are a library of more than 96 cost aspects, as well as 122 benefit aspects. These aspects are preprocessed and comparatively analyzed with regards to their alignment to a series of risk levels. For the first time, an accumulation and a distribution of cost and benefit aspects regarding their impact and probability of occurrence are given. The results give evidence that the PEFB-method combines precise measures of financial accounting with the incorporation of benefits. Finally, the results constitute the basics for using information technology and data science for decision support when applying within the PEFB-method.

Keywords: cost-benefit analysis, multi-criteria decision, profitability estimation focused on benefits, risk and uncertainty analysis

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14 A Comparative Study on Primary Productivity in Fish Cage Culture Unit and Fish Pond in Relation to Different Level of Water Depth

Authors: Pawan Kumar Sharma, J. Stephan Sampath Kumar, D. Manikandavelu, V. Senthil Kumar


The total amount of productivity in the system is the gross primary productivity. The present study was carried out to understand the relationship between productivity in the cages and water depth. The experiment was conducted in the fish cages installed in the pond at the Directorate of Sustainable Aquaculture, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu Dr. J. Jayalalithaa Fisheries University, Tamil Nadu (10° 47' 13.1964'' N; 79° 8' 16.1700''E). Primary productivity was estimated by light and dark bottle method. The measurement of primary productivity was done at different depths viz., 20 cm, 40 cm, and 60 cm. Six Biological Oxygen Demand bottles of 300 ml capacity were collected and tagged. The productivity was obtained in mg O2/l/hr. The maximum dissolved oxygen level at 20 cm depth was observed 5.62 ± 0.22 mg/l/hr in the light bottle in pond water while the minimum dissolved oxygen level at 20 cm depth in a cage was observed 3.62 ± 0.18 mg/l/hr in dark bottle. In the same way, the maximum and minimum value of dissolved oxygen was observed at 40, and 60 cm depth and results were compared. A slight change in pH was observed in the cage and pond. The maximum gross primary productivity observed was 1.97 mg/l/hr in pond at 20 cm depth while minimum gross primary productivity observed was 0.82±0.16 mg/l/hr in a cage at 60 cm depth. The community respiration was also variable with the depth in both cage and pond. Maximum community respiration was found 1.50±0.19 mg/l/hr in pond at 20 cm depth. A strong positive linear relationship was observed between primary productivity and fish yields in ponds. The pond primary productivity can contribute substantially to the nutrition of farm-raised aquaculture species, including shrimp. The growth of phytoplankton’s is dependent on the sun light, availability of primary nutrients (N, P, and K) in the water body and transparency, so to increase the primary productivity fertilization through organic manure may be done that will clean to the pond environment also.

Keywords: cage aquaculture, water depth, net primary productivity, gross primary productivity, community respiration

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13 Biogas from Cover Crops and Field Residues: Effects on Soil, Water, Climate and Ecological Footprint

Authors: Manfred Szerencsits, Christine Weinberger, Maximilian Kuderna, Franz Feichtinger, Eva Erhart, Stephan Maier


Cover or catch crops have beneficial effects for soil, water, erosion, etc. If harvested, they also provide feedstock for biogas without competition for arable land in regions, where only one main crop can be produced per year. On average gross energy yields of approx. 1300 m³ methane (CH4) ha-1 can be expected from 4.5 tonnes (t) of cover crop dry matter (DM) in Austria. Considering the total energy invested from cultivation to compression for biofuel use a net energy yield of about 1000 m³ CH4 ha-1 is remaining. With the straw of grain maize or Corn Cob Mix (CCM) similar energy yields can be achieved. In comparison to catch crops remaining on the field as green manure or to complete fallow between main crops the effects on soil, water and climate can be improved if cover crops are harvested without soil compaction and digestate is returned to the field in an amount equivalent to cover crop removal. In this way, the risk of nitrate leaching can be reduced approx. by 25% in comparison to full fallow. The risk of nitrous oxide emissions may be reduced up to 50% by contrast with cover crops serving as green manure. The effects on humus content and erosion are similar or better than those of cover crops used as green manure when the same amount of biomass was produced. With higher biomass production the positive effects increase even if cover crops are harvested and the only digestate is brought back to the fields. The ecological footprint of arable farming can be reduced by approx. 50% considering the substitution of natural gas with CH4 produced from cover crops.

Keywords: biogas, cover crops, catch crops, land use competition, sustainable agriculture

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12 An Energy Transfer Fluorescent Probe System for Glucose Sensor at Biomimetic Membrane Surface

Authors: Hoa Thi Hoang, Stephan Sass, Michael U. Kumke


Concanavalin A (conA) is a protein has been widely used in sensor system based on its specific binding to α-D-Glucose or α-D-Manose. For glucose sensor using conA, either fluoresence based techniques with intensity based or lifetime based are used. In this research, liposomes made from phospholipids were used as a biomimetic membrane system. In a first step, novel building blocks containing perylene labeled glucose units were added to the system and used to decorate the surface of the liposomes. Upon the binding between rhodamine labeled con A to the glucose units at the biomimetic membrane surface, a Förster resonance energy transfer system can be formed which combines unique fluorescence properties of perylene (e.g., high fluorescence quantum yield, no triplet formation) and its high hydrophobicity for efficient anchoring in membranes to form a novel probe for the investigation of sugar-driven binding reactions at biomimetic surfaces. Two glucose-labeled perylene derivatives were synthesized with different spacer length between the perylene and glucose unit in order to probe the binding of conA. The binding interaction was fully characterized by using high-end fluorescence techniques. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques (e.g., fluorescence depolarization) in combination with single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy techniques (fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, FCS) were used to monitor the interaction with conA. Base on the fluorescence depolarization, the rotational correlation times and the alteration in the diffusion coefficient (determined by FCS) the binding of the conA to the liposomes carrying the probe was studied. Moreover, single pair FRET experiments using pulsed interleaved excitation are used to characterize in detail the binding of conA to the liposome on a single molecule level avoiding averaging out effects.

Keywords: concanavalin A, FRET, sensor, biomimetic membrane

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11 Demand-Oriented Supplier Integration in Agile New Product Development Projects

Authors: Guenther Schuh, Stephan Schroeder, Marcel Faulhaber


Companies are facing an increasing pressure to innovate faster, cheaper and more radical in last years, due to shrinking product lifecycles and higher volatility of markets and customer demands. Especially established companies struggle meeting those demands. Thus, many producing companies are adapting their development processes to address this increasing pressure. One approach taken by many companies is the use of agile, highly iterative development processes to reduce development times and costs as well as to increase the fulfilled customer requirements and the realized level of innovation. At the same time decreasing depths of added value and increasing focus on core competencies as well as a growing product complexity result in a high dependency on suppliers and external development partners during the product development. Thus, a successful introduction of agile development methods into the development of physical products requires also a successful integration of the necessary external partners and suppliers into the new processes and procedures and an adaption of the organizational interfaces to external partners according to the new circumstances and requirements of agile development processes. For an effective and efficient product development, the design of customer-supplier-relationships should be demand-oriented. A significant influence on the required design has the characteristics of the procurement object. Examples therefore are the complexity of technical interfaces between supply object and final product or the importance of the supplied component for the major product functionalities. Thus, this paper presents an approach to derive general requirements on the design of supplier integration according to the characteristics of supply objects. First, therefore the most relevant evaluation criteria and characteristics have been identified based on a thorough literature review. Subsequently the resulting requirements on the design of the supplier integration were derived depending on the different possible values of these criteria.

Keywords: iterative development processes, agile new product development, procurement, supplier integration

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10 Defence Industry in the Political Economy of State and Business Relations

Authors: Hatice Idil Gorgen


Turkey has been investing in its national defence industrial base since the 1980s. State’s role in defence industry showed differences in Turkey. Parallel with this, ruling group’s attitude toward companies in defence sector varied. These changes in policies and behaviors of the state have occurred throughout such milestones as political and economic turmoil in domestic and international level. Hence, it is argued that state’s role, relations with private companies in defense sector and its policies towards the defense industry has shown differences due to the international system, political institutions, ideas and political coalitions in Turkey since the 1980s. Therefore, in order to see changes in the role of the state in defence sector, this paper aims to indicate first, history of state’s role in production and defence industry in the post-1980s era. Secondly, to comprehend the changes in the state’s role in defence industry, Stephan Haggard’s sources of policy change will be provided in the theoretical ground. Thirdly, state cooperated, and joint venture defence firms, state’s actions toward them will be observed. The remaining part will explore the underlying reasons for the changes in the role of the state in defence industry, and it implicitly or explicitly impacts on state business relations. Major findings illustrate that targeted idea of self-sufficient or autarky Turkey to attract domestic audience and to raise the prestige through defence system; ruling elites can regard defence industry and involved business groups as a mean for their ends. State dominant value, sensitive perception which has been ever since Ottoman Empire, prioritizes business groups in defence industry compared to others and push the ruling elites to pursue hard power in defence sectors. Through the globally structural transformation in defence industry, integration of Turkey to liberal bloc deepened and widened interdependence among states. Although it is a qualitative study, it involves the numerated data and descriptive statistics. Data will be collected by searching secondary sources from the literature, examining official documents of ministry of defence, and other appropriate ministries.

Keywords: defense industry, state and business relations, public private relations, arm industry

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9 Cost Effective and Efficient Feeding: A Way Forward for Sustainable and Profitable Aquaculture

Authors: Pawan Kumar Sharma, J. Stephan Sampath Kumar, S. Anand, Chandana B. L.


Protein is the major component for the success in culture of shrimp and fishes. Apparently, excess dietary protein is undesirable, as it not only enhances the production cost but also leads to water quality deterioration. A field survey was conducted with aqua farmers of Kerala, India, a leading state in coastal aquaculture, to assess the role of protein component in feed that can be efficiently and effectively managed for sustainable aquaculture. The study showed an average feed amount of 13.55 ± 2.16 tonnes per hectare was being used by the farmers of Kerala. The average feed cost percentage of Rs. 57.76 ± 13.46 /kg was invested for an average protein level of 36.26 % ± 0.082 in the feed and Rs.78.95 ± 3.086 per kilogram of feed was being paid by the farmers. Study revealed that replacement of fish meal and fish oil within shrimp aquafeeds with alternative protein, and lipid sources can only be achieved if changes are made in the basic shrimp culturing practices, such as closed farming system through water recycling or zero-water exchange, and by maximizing in-situ, floc and natural food production within the culture system. The upshot of such production systems is that imports of high-quality feed ingredients and aqua feeds can eventually be eliminated, and the utilization of locally available feed ingredients from agricultural by-products can be greatly improved and maximized. The promotion of closed shrimp production systems would also greatly reduce water use and increase shrimp production per unit area but would necessitate the continuous provision of electricity for aeration during production. Alternative energy sources such as solar power might be used, and resource poor farming communities should also explore wind energy for use. The study concluded that farm made feed and closed farming systems are essential for the sustainability and profitability of the aquaculture industry.

Keywords: aqua feeds, floc, fish meal, protein, zero-water exchange

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8 Modeling Biomass and Biodiversity across Environmental and Management Gradients in Temperate Grasslands with Deep Learning and Sentinel-1 and -2

Authors: Javier Muro, Anja Linstadter, Florian Manner, Lisa Schwarz, Stephan Wollauer, Paul Magdon, Gohar Ghazaryan, Olena Dubovyk


Monitoring the trade-off between biomass production and biodiversity in grasslands is critical to evaluate the effects of management practices across environmental gradients. New generations of remote sensing sensors and machine learning approaches can model grasslands’ characteristics with varying accuracies. However, studies often fail to cover a sufficiently broad range of environmental conditions, and evidence suggests that prediction models might be case specific. In this study, biomass production and biodiversity indices (species richness and Fishers’ α) are modeled in 150 grassland plots for three sites across Germany. These sites represent a North-South gradient and are characterized by distinct soil types, topographic properties, climatic conditions, and management intensities. Predictors used are derived from Sentinel-1 & 2 and a set of topoedaphic variables. The transferability of the models is tested by training and validating at different sites. The performance of feed-forward deep neural networks (DNN) is compared to a random forest algorithm. While biomass predictions across gradients and sites were acceptable (r2 0.5), predictions of biodiversity indices were poor (r2 0.14). DNN showed higher generalization capacity than random forest when predicting biomass across gradients and sites (relative root mean squared error of 0.5 for DNN vs. 0.85 for random forest). DNN also achieved high performance when using the Sentinel-2 surface reflectance data rather than different combinations of spectral indices, Sentinel-1 data, or topoedaphic variables, simplifying dimensionality. This study demonstrates the necessity of training biomass and biodiversity models using a broad range of environmental conditions and ensuring spatial independence to have realistic and transferable models where plot level information can be upscaled to landscape scale.

Keywords: ecosystem services, grassland management, machine learning, remote sensing

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7 A Metric to Evaluate Conventional and Electrified Vehicles in Terms of Customer-Oriented Driving Dynamics

Authors: Stephan Schiffer, Andreas Kain, Philipp Wilde, Maximilian Helbing, Bernard Bäker


Automobile manufacturers progressively focus on a downsizing strategy to meet the EU's CO2 requirements concerning type-approval consumption cycles. The reduction in naturally aspirated engine power is compensated by increased levels of turbocharging. By downsizing conventional engines, CO2 emissions are reduced. However, it also implicates major challenges regarding longitudinal dynamic characteristics. An example of this circumstance is the delayed turbocharger-induced torque reaction which leads to a partially poor response behavior of the vehicle during acceleration operations. That is why it is important to focus conventional drive train design on real customer driving again. The currently considered dynamic maneuvers like the acceleration time 0-100 km/h discussed by journals and car manufacturers describe longitudinal dynamics experienced by a driver inadequately. For that reason we present the realization and evaluation of a comprehensive proband study. Subjects are provided with different vehicle concepts (electrified vehicles, vehicles with naturally aspired engines and vehicles with different concepts of turbochargers etc.) in order to find out which dynamic criteria are decisive for a subjectively strong acceleration and response behavior of a vehicle. Subsequently, realistic acceleration criteria are derived. By weighing the criteria an evaluation metric is developed to objectify customer-oriented transient dynamics. Fully-electrified vehicles are the benchmark in terms of customer-oriented longitudinal dynamics. The electric machine provides the desired torque almost without delay. This advantage compared to combustion engines is especially noticeable at low engine speeds. In conclusion, we will show the degree to which extent customer-relevant longitudinal dynamics of conventional vehicles can be approximated to electrified vehicle concepts. Therefore, various technical measures (turbocharger concepts, 48V electrical chargers etc.) and drive train designs (e.g. varying the final drive) are presented and evaluated in order to strengthen the vehicle’s customer-relevant transient dynamics. As a rating size the newly developed evaluation metric will be used.

Keywords: 48V, customer-oriented driving dynamics, electric charger, electrified vehicles, vehicle concepts

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6 In situ Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Study of Permalloy Thin Film Growth on Nanorippled Si

Authors: Sarathlal Koyiloth Vayalil, Stephan V. Roth, Gonzalo Santoro, Peng Zhang, Matthias Schwartzkopf, Bjoern Beyersdorff


Nanostructured magnetic thin films have gained significant relevance due to its applications in magnetic storage and recording media. Self-organized arrays of nanoparticles and nanowires can be produced by depositing metal thin films on nano-rippled substrates. The substrate topography strongly affects the film growth giving rise to anisotropic properties (optical, magnetic, electronic transport). Ion-beam erosion (IBE) method can provide large-area patterned substrates with the valuable possibility to widely modify pattern length scale by simply acting on ion beam parameters (i.e. energy, ions, geometry, etc.). In this work, investigation of the growth mechanism of Permalloy thin films on such nano-rippled Si (100) substrates using in situ grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering measurements (GISAXS) have been done. In situ GISAXS measurements during the deposition of thin films have been carried out at the P03/MiNaXS beam line of PETRA III storage ring of DESY, Hamburg. Nanorippled Si substrates prepared by low energy ion beam sputtering with an average wavelength of 33 nm and 1 nm have been used as templates. It has been found that the film replicates the morphology up to larger thickness regimes and also the growth is highly anisotropic along and normal to the ripple wave vectors. Various growth regimes have been observed. Further, magnetic measurements have been done using magneto-optical Kerr effect by rotating the sample in the azimuthal direction. Strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy with its easy axis in a direction normal to the ripple wave vector has been observed. The strength of the magnetic anisotropy is found to be decreasing with increasing thin film thickness values. The mechanism of the observed strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and its depends on the thickness of the film has been explained by correlating it with the GISAXS results. In conclusion, we have done a detailed growth analysis of Permalloy thin films deposited on nanorippled Si templates and tried to explain the correlation between structure, morphology to the observed magnetic properties.

Keywords: grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering, magnetic thin films, magnetic anisotropy, nanoripples

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5 Argos System: Improvements and Future of the Constellation

Authors: Sophie Baudel, Aline Duplaa, Jean Muller, Stephan Lauriol, Yann Bernard


Argos is the main satellite telemetry system used by the wildlife research community, since its creation in 1978, for animal tracking and scientific data collection all around the world, to analyze and understand animal migrations and behavior. The marine mammals' biology is one of the major disciplines which had benefited from Argos telemetry, and conversely, marine mammals biologists’ community has contributed a lot to the growth and development of Argos use cases. The Argos constellation with 6 satellites in orbit in 2017 (Argos 2 payload on NOAA 15, NOAA 18, Argos 3 payload on NOAA 19, SARAL, METOP A and METOP B) is being extended in the following years with Argos 3 payload on METOP C (launch in October 2018), and Argos 4 payloads on Oceansat 3 (launch in 2019), CDARS in December 2021 (to be confirmed), METOP SG B1 in December 2022, and METOP-SG-B2 in 2029. Argos 4 will allow more frequency bands (600 kHz for Argos4NG, instead of 110 kHz for Argos 3), new modulation dedicated to animal (sea turtle) tracking allowing very low transmission power transmitters (50 to 100mW), with very low data rates (124 bps), enhancement of high data rates (1200-4800 bps), and downlink performance, at the whole contribution to enhance the system capacity (50,000 active beacons per month instead of 20,000 today). In parallel of this ‘institutional Argos’ constellation, in the context of a miniaturization trend in the spatial industry in order to reduce the costs and multiply the satellites to serve more and more societal needs, the French Space Agency CNES, which designs the Argos payloads, is innovating and launching the Argos ANGELS project (Argos NEO Generic Economic Light Satellites). ANGELS will lead to a nanosatellite prototype with an Argos NEO instrument (30 cm x 30 cm x 20cm) that will be launched in 2019. In the meantime, the design of the renewal of the Argos constellation, called Argos For Next Generations (Argos4NG), is on track and will be operational in 2022. Based on Argos 4 and benefitting of the feedback from ANGELS project, this constellation will allow revisiting time of fewer than 20 minutes in average between two satellite passes, and will also bring more frequency bands to improve the overall capacity of the system. The presentation will then be an overview of the Argos system, present and future and new capacities coming with it. On top of that, use cases of two Argos hardware modules will be presented: the goniometer pathfinder allowing recovering Argos beacons at sea or on the ground in a 100 km radius horizon-free circle around the beacon location and the new Argos 4 chipset called ‘Artic’, already available and tested by several manufacturers.

Keywords: Argos satellite telemetry, marine protected areas, oceanography, maritime services

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4 Gender Gap in Returns to Social Entrepreneurship

Authors: Saul Estrin, Ute Stephan, Suncica Vujic


Background and research question: Gender differences in pay are present at all organisational levels, including at the very top. One possible way for women to circumvent organizational norms and discrimination is to engage in entrepreneurship because, as CEOs of their own organizations, entrepreneurs largely determine their own pay. While commercial entrepreneurship plays an important role in job creation and economic growth, social entrepreneurship has come to prominence because of its promise of addressing societal challenges such as poverty, social exclusion, or environmental degradation through market-based rather than state-sponsored activities. This opens the research question whether social entrepreneurship might be a form of entrepreneurship in which the pay of men and women is the same, or at least more similar; that is to say there is little or no gender pay gap. If the gender gap in pay persists also at the top of social enterprises, what are the factors, which might explain these differences? Methodology: The Oaxaca-Blinder Decomposition (OBD) is the standard approach of decomposing the gender pay gap based on the linear regression model. The OBD divides the gender pay gap into the ‘explained’ part due to differences in labour market characteristics (education, work experience, tenure, etc.), and the ‘unexplained’ part due to differences in the returns to those characteristics. The latter part is often interpreted as ‘discrimination’. There are two issues with this approach. (i) In many countries there is a notable convergence in labour market characteristics across genders; hence the OBD method is no longer revealing, since the largest portion of the gap remains ‘unexplained’. (ii) Adding covariates to a base model sequentially either to test a particular coefficient’s ‘robustness’ or to account for the ‘effects’ on this coefficient of adding covariates might be problematic, due to sequence-sensitivity when added covariates are correlated. Gelbach’s decomposition (GD) addresses latter by using the omitted variables bias formula, which constructs a conditional decomposition thus accounting for sequence-sensitivity when added covariates are correlated. We use GD to decompose the differences in gaps of pay (annual and hourly salary), size of the organisation (revenues), effort (weekly hours of work), and sources of finances (fees and sales, grants and donations, microfinance and loans, and investors’ capital) between men and women leading social enterprises. Database: Our empirical work is made possible by our collection of a unique dataset using respondent driven sampling (RDS) methods to address the problem that there is as yet no information on the underlying population of social entrepreneurs. The countries that we focus on are the United Kingdom, Spain, Romania and Hungary. Findings and recommendations: We confirm the existence of a gender pay gap between men and women leading social enterprises. This gap can be explained by differences in the accumulation of human capital, psychological and social factors, as well as cross-country differences. The results of this study contribute to a more rounded perspective, highlighting that although social entrepreneurship may be a highly satisfying occupation, it also perpetuates gender pay inequalities.

Keywords: Gelbach’s decomposition, gender gap, returns to social entrepreneurship, values and preferences

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3 Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) as Multiplex Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Sensing Platforms

Authors: Pola Goldberg Oppenheimer, Stephan Hofmann, Sumeet Mahajan


Owing to its fingerprint molecular specificity and high sensitivity, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is an established analytical tool for chemical and biological sensing capable of single-molecule detection. A strong Raman signal can be generated from SERS-active platforms given the analyte is within the enhanced plasmon field generated near a noble-metal nanostructured substrate. The key requirement for generating strong plasmon resonances to provide this electromagnetic enhancement is an appropriate metal surface roughness. Controlling nanoscale features for generating these regions of high electromagnetic enhancement, the so-called SERS ‘hot-spots’, is still a challenge. Significant advances have been made in SERS research, with wide-ranging techniques to generate substrates with tunable size and shape of the nanoscale roughness features. Nevertheless, the development and application of SERS has been inhibited by the irreproducibility and complexity of fabrication routes. The ability to generate straightforward, cost-effective, multiplex-able and addressable SERS substrates with high enhancements is of profound interest for miniaturised sensing devices. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been concurrently, a topic of extensive research however, their applications for plasmonics has been only recently beginning to gain interest. CNTs can provide low-cost, large-active-area patternable substrates which, coupled with appropriate functionalization capable to provide advanced SERS-platforms. Herein, advanced methods to generate CNT-based SERS active detection platforms will be discussed. First, a novel electrohydrodynamic (EHD) lithographic technique will be introduced for patterning CNT-polymer composites, providing a straightforward, single-step approach for generating high-fidelity sub-micron-sized nanocomposite structures within which anisotropic CNTs are vertically aligned. The created structures are readily fine-tuned, which is an important requirement for optimizing SERS to obtain the highest enhancements with each of the EHD-CNTs individual structural units functioning as an isolated sensor. Further, gold-functionalized VACNTFs are fabricated as SERS micro-platforms. The dependence on the VACNTs’ diameters and density play an important role in the Raman signal strength, thus highlighting the importance of structural parameters, previously overlooked in designing and fabricating optimized CNTs-based SERS nanoprobes. VACNTs forests patterned into predesigned pillar structures are further utilized for multiplex detection of bio-analytes. Since CNTs exhibit electrical conductivity and unique adsorption properties, these are further harnessed in the development of novel chemical and bio-sensing platforms.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes (CNTs), EHD patterning, SERS, vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests (VACNTF)

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2 Chatbots vs. Websites: A Comparative Analysis Measuring User Experience and Emotions in Mobile Commerce

Authors: Stephan Boehm, Julia Engel, Judith Eisser


During the last decade communication in the Internet transformed from a broadcast to a conversational model by supporting more interactive features, enabling user generated content and introducing social media networks. Another important trend with a significant impact on electronic commerce is a massive usage shift from desktop to mobile devices. However, a presentation of product- or service-related information accumulated on websites, micro pages or portals often remains the pivot and focal point of a customer journey. A more recent change of user behavior –especially in younger user groups and in Asia– is going along with the increasing adoption of messaging applications supporting almost real-time but asynchronous communication on mobile devices. Mobile apps of this type cannot only provide an alternative for traditional one-to-one communication on mobile devices like voice calls or short messaging service. Moreover, they can be used in mobile commerce as a new marketing and sales channel, e.g., for product promotions and direct marketing activities. This requires a new way of customer interaction compared to traditional mobile commerce activities and functionalities provided based on mobile web-sites. One option better aligned to the customer interaction in mes-saging apps are so-called chatbots. Chatbots are conversational programs or dialog systems simulating a text or voice based human interaction. They can be introduced in mobile messaging and social media apps by using rule- or artificial intelligence-based imple-mentations. In this context, a comparative analysis is conducted to examine the impact of using traditional websites or chatbots for promoting a product in an impulse purchase situation. The aim of this study is to measure the impact on the customers’ user experi-ence and emotions. The study is based on a random sample of about 60 smartphone users in the group of 20 to 30-year-olds. Participants are randomly assigned into two groups and participate in a traditional website or innovative chatbot based mobile com-merce scenario. The chatbot-based scenario is implemented by using a Wizard-of-Oz experimental approach for reasons of sim-plicity and to allow for more flexibility when simulating simple rule-based and more advanced artificial intelligence-based chatbot setups. A specific set of metrics is defined to measure and com-pare the user experience in both scenarios. It can be assumed, that users get more emotionally involved when interacting with a system simulating human communication behavior instead of browsing a mobile commerce website. For this reason, innovative face-tracking and analysis technology is used to derive feedback on the emotional status of the study participants while interacting with the website or the chatbot. This study is a work in progress. The results will provide first insights on the effects of chatbot usage on user experiences and emotions in mobile commerce environments. Based on the study findings basic requirements for a user-centered design and implementation of chatbot solutions for mobile com-merce can be derived. Moreover, first indications on situations where chatbots might be favorable in comparison to the usage of traditional website based mobile commerce can be identified.

Keywords: chatbots, emotions, mobile commerce, user experience, Wizard-of-Oz prototyping

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