Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: Stefaan J. Soenen

5 Exploring Nanoformulations for Therapeutic Induction of Necroptosis

Authors: Tianjiao Chu, Carla Rios Luci, Christy Maksoudian, Ara Sargsian, Bella B. Manshian, Stefaan J. Soenen

Abstract:

Nanomaterials have gained high interest in their use as potent anticancer agents. Apart from delivering chemotherapeutic agents in order to reduce off-target effects, molecular agents have also been widely explored. The advances in our understanding of cell biology and cell death mechanisms1 has generated a broad library of potential therapeutic targets by siRNA, mRNA, or pDNA complexes. In the present study, we explore the ability of pDNA-polyplexes to induce tumor-specific necroptosis. This results in a cascade of effects, where immunogenic cell death potentiates anti-tumor immune responses and results in an influx of dendritic cells and cytotoxic T cells, rendering the tumor more amenable to immune checkpoint inhibition. This study aims to explore whether the induction of necroptosis in a subpopulation of tumor cells can be used to potentiate immune checkpoint inhibition studies.

Keywords: nanoparticle, MLKL, necroptosis, immunotherapy

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4 Development of a Model for Predicting Radiological Risks in Interventional Cardiology

Authors: Stefaan Carpentier, Aya Al Masri, Fabrice Leroy, Thibault Julien, Safoin Aktaou, Malorie Martin, Fouad Maaloul

Abstract:

Introduction: During an 'Interventional Radiology (IR)' procedure, the patient's skin-dose may become very high for a burn, necrosis, and ulceration to appear. In order to prevent these deterministic effects, a prediction of the peak skin-dose for the patient is important in order to improve the post-operative care to be given to the patient. The objective of this study is to estimate, before the intervention, the patient dose for ‘Chronic Total Occlusion (CTO)’ procedures by selecting relevant clinical indicators. Materials and methods: 103 procedures were performed in the ‘Interventional Cardiology (IC)’ department using a Siemens Artis Zee image intensifier that provides the Air Kerma of each IC exam. Peak Skin Dose (PSD) was measured for each procedure using radiochromic films. Patient parameters such as sex, age, weight, and height were recorded. The complexity index J-CTO score, specific to each intervention, was determined by the cardiologist. A correlation method applied to these indicators allowed to specify their influence on the dose. A predictive model of the dose was created using multiple linear regressions. Results: Out of 103 patients involved in the study, 5 were excluded for clinical reasons and 2 for placement of radiochromic films outside the exposure field. 96 2D-dose maps were finally used. The influencing factors having the highest correlation with the PSD are the patient's diameter and the J-CTO score. The predictive model is based on these parameters. The comparison between estimated and measured skin doses shows an average difference of 0.85 ± 0.55 Gy for doses of less than 6 Gy. The mean difference between air-Kerma and PSD is 1.66 Gy ± 1.16 Gy. Conclusion: Using our developed method, a first estimate of the dose to the skin of the patient is available before the start of the procedure, which helps the cardiologist in carrying out its intervention. This estimation is more accurate than that provided by the Air-Kerma.

Keywords: chronic total occlusion procedures, clinical experimentation, interventional radiology, patient's peak skin dose

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3 Skin-Dose Mapping for Patients Undergoing Interventional Radiology Procedures: Clinical Experimentations versus a Mathematical Model

Authors: Aya Al Masri, Stefaan Carpentier, Fabrice Leroy, Thibault Julien, Safoin Aktaou, Malorie Martin, Fouad Maaloul

Abstract:

Introduction: During an 'Interventional Radiology (IR)' procedure, the patient's skin-dose may become very high for a burn, necrosis and ulceration to appear. In order to prevent these deterministic effects, an accurate calculation of the patient skin-dose mapping is essential. For most machines, the 'Dose Area Product (DAP)' and fluoroscopy time are the only information available for the operator. These two parameters are a very poor indicator of the peak skin dose. We developed a mathematical model that reconstructs the magnitude (delivered dose), shape, and localization of each irradiation field on the patient skin. In case of critical dose exceeding, the system generates warning alerts. We present the results of its comparison with clinical studies. Materials and methods: Two series of comparison of the skin-dose mapping of our mathematical model with clinical studies were performed: 1. At a first time, clinical tests were performed on patient phantoms. Gafchromic films were placed on the table of the IR machine under of PMMA plates (thickness = 20 cm) that simulate the patient. After irradiation, the film darkening is proportional to the radiation dose received by the patient's back and reflects the shape of the X-ray field. After film scanning and analysis, the exact dose value can be obtained at each point of the mapping. Four experimentation were performed, constituting a total of 34 acquisition incidences including all possible exposure configurations. 2. At a second time, clinical trials were launched on real patients during real 'Chronic Total Occlusion (CTO)' procedures for a total of 80 cases. Gafchromic films were placed at the back of patients. We performed comparisons on the dose values, as well as the distribution, and the shape of irradiation fields between the skin dose mapping of our mathematical model and Gafchromic films. Results: The comparison between the dose values shows a difference less than 15%. Moreover, our model shows a very good geometric accuracy: all fields have the same shape, size and location (uncertainty < 5%). Conclusion: This study shows that our model is a reliable tool to warn physicians when a high radiation dose is reached. Thus, deterministic effects can be avoided.

Keywords: clinical experimentation, interventional radiology, mathematical model, patient's skin-dose mapping.

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2 Development and Validation of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire for Use in Urban and Rural Communities of Rwanda

Authors: Phenias Nsabimana, Jérôme W. Some, Hilda Vasanthakaalam, Stefaan De Henauw, Souheila Abbeddou

Abstract:

Tools for the dietary assessment in adults are limited in low- and middle-income settings. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) against the multiple pass-24 h recall tool for use in urban and rural Rwanda. A total of 212 adults (154 females and 58 males), 18-49 aged, including 105 urban and 107 rural residents, from the four regions of Rwanda, were recruited in the present study. A multiple-pass 24- H recall technique was used to collect dietary data in both urban and rural areas in four different rounds, on different days (one weekday and one weekend day), separated by a period of three months, from November 2020 to October 2021. The details of all the foods and beverages consumed over the 24h period of the day prior to the interview day were collected during face-to-face interviews. A list of foods, beverages, and commonly consumed recipes was developed by the study researchers and ten research assistants from the different regions of Rwanda. Non-standard recipes were collected when the information was available. A single semi-quantitative FFQ was also developed in the same group discussion prior to the beginning of the data collection. The FFQ was collected at the beginning and the end of the data collection period. Data were collected digitally. The amount of energy and macro-nutrients contributed by each food, recipe, and beverage will be computed based on nutrient composition reported in food composition tables and weight consumed. Median energy and nutrient contents of different food intakes from FFQ and 24-hour recalls and median differences (24-hour recall –FFQ) will be calculated. Kappa, Spearman, Wilcoxon, and Bland-Altman plot statistics will be conducted to evaluate the correlation between estimated nutrient and energy intake found by the two methods. Differences will be tested for their significance and all analyses will be done with STATA 11. Data collection was completed in November 2021. Data cleaning is ongoing and the data analysis is expected to be completed by July 2022. A developed and validated semi-quantitative FFQ will be available for use in dietary assessment. The developed FFQ will help researchers to collect reliable data that will support policy makers to plan for proper dietary change intervention in Rwanda.

Keywords: food frequency questionnaire, reproducibility, 24-H recall questionnaire, validation

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1 Isosorbide Bis-Methyl Carbonate: Opportunities for an Industrial Model Based on Biomass

Authors: Olga Gomez De Miranda, Jose R. Ochoa-Gomez, Stefaan De Wildeman, Luciano Monsegue, Soraya Prieto, Leire Lorenzo, Cristina Dineiro

Abstract:

The chemical industry is facing a new revolution. As long as processes based on the exploitation of fossil resources emerged with force in the XIX century, Society currently demands a new radical change that will lead to the complete and irreversible implementation of a circular sustainable economic model. The implementation of biorefineries will be essential for this. There, renewable raw materials as sugars and other biomass resources are exploited for the development of new materials that will partially replace their petroleum-derived homologs in a safer, and environmentally more benign approach. Isosorbide, (1,4:3,6-dianhydro-d-glucidol) is a primary bio-based derivative obtained from the plant (poly) saccharides and a very interesting example of a useful chemical produced in biorefineries. It can, in turn, be converted to other secondary monomers as isosorbide bis-methyl carbonate (IBMC), whose main field of application can be as a key biodegradable intermediary substitute of bisphenol-A in the manufacture of polycarbonates, or as an alternative to the toxic isocyanates in the synthesis of new polyurethanes (non-isocyanate polyurethanes) both with a huge application market. New products will present advantageous mechanical or optical properties, as well as improved behavior in non-toxicity and biodegradability aspects in comparison to their petro-derived alternatives. A robust production process of IBMC, a biomass-derived chemical, is here presented. It can be used with different raw material qualities using dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as both co-reactant and solvent. It consists of the transesterification of isosorbide with DMC under soft operational conditions, using different basic catalysts, always active with the isosorbide characteristics and purity. Appropriate isolation processes have been also developed to obtain crude IBMC yields higher than 90%, with oligomers production lower than 10%, independently of the quality of the isosorbide considered. All of them are suitable to be used in polycondensation reactions for polymers obtaining. If higher qualities of IBMC are needed, a purification treatment based on nanofiltration membranes has been also developed. The IBMC reaction-isolation conditions established in the laboratory have been successfully modeled using appropriate software programs and moved to a pilot-scale (production of 100 kg of IBMC). It has been demonstrated that a highly efficient IBMC production process able to be up-scaled under suitable market conditions has been obtained. Operational conditions involved the production of IBMC involve soft temperature and energy needs, no additional solvents, and high operational efficiency. All of them are according to green manufacturing rules.

Keywords: biomass, catalyst, isosorbide bis-methyl carbonate, polycarbonate, polyurethane, transesterification

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