Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: Spyros Konstantopoulos

4 Class Size Effects on Reading Achievement in Europe: Evidence from Progress in International Reading Literacy Study

Authors: Ting Shen, Spyros Konstantopoulos

Abstract:

During the past three decades, class size effects have been a focal debate in education. The idea of having smaller class is enormously popular among parents, teachers and policy makers. The rationale of its popularity is that small classroom could provide a better learning environment in which there would be more teacher-pupil interaction and more individualized instruction. This early stage benefits would also have a long-term positive effect. It is a common belief that reducing class size may result in increases in student achievement. However, the empirical evidence about class-size effects from experimental or quasi-experimental studies has been mixed overall. This study sheds more light on whether class size reduction impacts reading achievement in eight European countries: Bulgaria, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia. We examine class size effects on reading achievement using national probability samples of fourth graders. All eight European countries had participated in the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) in 2001, 2006 and 2011. Methodologically, the quasi-experimental method of instrumental variables (IV) has been utilized to facilitate causal inference of class size effects. Overall, the results indicate that class size effects on reading achievement are not significant across countries and years. However, class size effects are evident in Romania where reducing class size increases reading achievement. In contrast, in Germany, increasing class size seems to increase reading achievement. In future work, it would be valuable to evaluate differential class size effects for minority or economically disadvantaged student groups or low- and high-achievers. Replication studies with different samples and in various settings would also be informative. Future research should continue examining class size effects in different age groups and countries using rich international databases.

Keywords: instrumental variables, class size, reading achievement, PIRLS

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3 Is There a Month Effect on the Deposits Interest Rates? Evidence from the Greek Banking Industry during the Period 2003-13

Authors: Konstantopoulos N., Samitas A., E. Vasileiou, Kinias I.

Abstract:

This article introduces a new view on the month effect study. Applying a Markov Switching Regime model on data from the Greek Time Deposits (TDs) market for the time span January 2003 to October 2013, we examine if there is a month effect on the Greek banking industry. The empirical findings provide convincing evidence for a new king of monthly anomaly. The explanation for the specific abnormality may be the upward deposits window dressing. Further research should be done in order to examine if the specific calendar effect exists in other countries or it is only a Greek phenomenon.

Keywords: Banking Crisis, month effect, calendar anomalies, Greek banking industry

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2 Day of the Week Patterns and the Financial Trends' Role: Evidence from the Greek Stock Market during the Euro Era

Authors: Aristeidis Samitas, Nikolaos Konstantopoulos, Vasileiou Evangelos

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to examine if the financial trends influence not only the stock markets’ returns, but also their anomalies. We choose to study the day of the week effect (DOW) for the Greek stock market during the Euro period (2002-12), because during the specific period there are not significant structural changes and there are long term financial trends. Moreover, in order to avoid possible methodological counterarguments that usually arise in the literature, we apply several linear (OLS) and nonlinear (GARCH family) models to our sample until we reach to the conclusion that the TGARCH model fits better to our sample than any other. Our results suggest that in the Greek stock market there is a long term predisposition for positive/negative returns depending on the weekday. However, the statistical significance is influenced from the financial trend. This influence may be the reason why there are conflict findings in the literature through the time. Finally, we combine the DOW’s empirical findings from 1985-2012 and we may assume that in the Greek case there is a tendency for long lived turn of the week effect.

Keywords: Economic growth, Crisis, day of the week effect, GARCH family models, Athens stock exchange

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1 Liver Histopathological Findings after Treatment with Anastrazole and Letrozole in Ovariectomized Rats

Authors: Ioannis Boutas, Vasilios Pergialiotis, Nicolaos Salakos, George Agrogiannis, Panagiotis Konstantopoulos, Laskarina-Maria Korou, Theodoros Kalampokas, Odysseas Gregoriou, George Creatsas, Despina Perrea

Abstract:

Introduction: The effect of third generation aromatase inhibitors in the lipid profile among women with breast cancer, present diversities. It has been also shown that low levels of estrogens affect liver metabolism in mice in numerous ways, such as lipid accumulation and hepatic steatosis. Materials and Methods: Forty-five female Wistar rats underwent surgical ovariectomy. The animals were anesthetized with a combination of ketamine (75 mg/kg) and xylazine (10 mg/kg) which were administered intraperitoneally. After the ovariectomy, the operated animals were randomized in three groups. The first group did not receive any drug regimen (ovariectomized control group). The second group received Anastrazole and the third group received Letrozole. Four months after the initiation of the study, the animals were euthanized and livers were dissected immediately for further histopathological analysis. The histological features were grouped into 4 broad categories: steatosis, ballooning, portal inflammation and lobular activity. A score from 0 (absence) to 3 (severe) was assigned to each parameter. Results: The liver pathology analysis revealed significant differences among groups with favored mild steatosis and ballooning among animals that received Anastrazole or Letrozole. Conclusion: The effect of Anastrazole and Letrozole on liver function have not yet been clarified. In our study mild histological liver alterations seem also to occur and these alterations should be taken in mind in future clinical studies

Keywords: rats, Liver, letrozole, anastrazole

Procedia PDF Downloads 170