Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2466

Search results for: South Asian Indians

2466 Diagnosis and Management of Obesity Among South Asians: A Paradigm

Authors: Deepa Vasudevan, Thomas Northrup, Angela Stotts, Michelle Klawans

Abstract:

To date, we have conducted three studies on this subject. The research done to date is through three studies. The initial study was to document that modified criteria independently identified higher numbers of overweight/obese South Asian Indians. The second study was to document physician knowledge of appropriate diagnosis of obesity among South Asian Indians. The final study was an intervention to evaluate the efficacy of a training module on improving physician diagnosis and counseling of overweight/obese Asian patients.

Keywords: South Asian Indians, obesity, physicians, BMI and waist circumference

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2465 Decomposing the Socio-Economic Inequalities in Utilization of Antenatal Care in South Asian Countries: Insight from Demographic and Health Survey

Authors: Jeetendra Yadav, Geetha Menon, Anita Pal, Rajkumar Verma

Abstract:

Even after encouraging maternal and child wellness programs at worldwide level, lower-middle income nations are not reached the goal set by the UN yet. This study quantified the contribution of socioeconomic determinants of inequality to the utilization of Antenatal Care in South Asian Countries. This study used data from Demographic Health Survey (DHS) of the selected countries were used, and Oaxaca decomposing were applied for socioeconomic inequalities in utilization of antenatal care. Finding from the multivariate analysis shows that mother’s age at the time of birth, birth order and interval, mother’s education, mass media exposure and economic status were significant determinants of the utilization of antenatal care services in South Asian countries. Considering, concentration index curve, the line of equity was greatest in Pakistan which followed by India and Nepal.

Keywords: antenatal care, decomposition, inequalities, South Asian countries

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2464 A Comparative Study of Dividend Policy and Share Price across the South Asian Countries

Authors: Anwar Hussain, Ahmed Imran, Farida Faisal, Fatima Sultana

Abstract:

The present research evaluates a comparative assessment of dividend policy and share price across the South Asian countries including Pakistan, India and Sri-Lanka over the period of 2010 to 2014. Academic writers found that dividend policy and share price relationship is not same in south Asian market due to different reasons. Moreover, Panel Models used = for the evaluation of current study. In addition, Redundant fixed effect Likelihood and Hausman test used for determine of Common, Fixed and Random effect model. Therefore Indian market dividend policies play a fundamental role and significant impact on Market Share Prices. Although, present research found that different as compared to previous study that dividend policy have no impact on share price in Sri-Lanka and Pakistan.

Keywords: dividend policy, share price, South Asian countries, panel data analysis, theories and parameters of dividend

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2463 Morphological Study of Sesamoid Bones of Thumb in South Indians

Authors: B. V. Murlimanju, R. Abisshek Balaji, Apoorva Aggarwal, Mangala M. Pai

Abstract:

Background: Since the literature is scarce from the South Indian population about the sesamoid bones of the thumb, the present study was undertaken. The objective of the present study was to figure out the muscle of the thumb which contain these sesamoid bones. Methods: The present study included 25 cadaveric thumbs, which were obtained from the anatomy laboratory of our institution. Thumbs were studied for the prevalence of sesamoid bones at the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints. The muscle which contain these sesamoid bones were identified. Results: The present study observed that, there were 2 sesamoid bones (92%) at the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb each at its medial and lateral aspect. The medial sesamoid bone was found inside the adductor pollicis muscle and lateral one was found either in the flexor pollicis brevis muscle or abductor pollicis brevis muscle. However, among the 25 thumbs being studied, 2 thumbs (8%) had solitary sesamoid bone. The interphalangeal joint of the thumb exhibited only one sesamoid bone at the median plane. Conclusion: The morphological data of the present study from the South Indians can be used as a database, which is enlightening to the operating hand surgeon and radiologist.

Keywords: morphology, muscles, sesamoid bones, thumb

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2462 Analyzing the Impact of Global Financial Crisis on Interconnectedness of Asian Stock Markets Using Network Science

Authors: Jitendra Aswani

Abstract:

In the first section of this study, impact of Global Financial Crisis (GFC) on the synchronization of fourteen Asian Stock Markets (ASM’s) of countries like Hong Kong, India, Thailand, Singapore, Taiwan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, South Korea, Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan, China, Philippines and Sri Lanka, has been analysed using the network science and its metrics like degree of node, clustering coefficient and network density. Then in the second section of this study by introducing the US stock market in existing network and developing a Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) spread of crisis from the US stock market to Asian Stock Markets (ASM) has been explained. Data used for this study is adjusted the closing price of these indices from 6th January, 2000 to 15th September, 2013 which further divided into three sub-periods: Pre, during and post-crisis. Using network analysis, it is found that Asian stock markets become more interdependent during the crisis than pre and post crisis, and also Hong Kong, India, South Korea and Japan are systemic important stock markets in the Asian region. Therefore, failure or shock to any of these systemic important stock markets can cause contagion to another stock market of this region. This study is useful for global investors’ in portfolio management especially during the crisis period and also for policy makers in formulating the financial regulation norms by knowing the connections between the stock markets and how the system of these stock markets changes in crisis period and after that.

Keywords: global financial crisis, Asian stock markets, network science, Kruskal algorithm

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2461 Differences in Vitamin D Status in Caucasian and Asian Women Following Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) Exposure

Authors: O. Hakim, K. Hart, P. McCabe, J. Berry, L. E. Rhodes, N. Spyrou, A. Alfuraih, S. Lanham-New

Abstract:

It is known that skin pigmentation reduces the penetration of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and thus photosynthesis of 25(OH)D. However, the ethnic differences in 25(OH)D production remain to be fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the differences in vitamin D production between Asian and Caucasian postmenopausal women, in response to a defined, controlled UVB exposure. Seventeen women; nine white Caucasian (skin phototype II and III), eight South Asian women (skin phototype IV and V) participated in the study, acting as their controls. Three blood samples were taken for measurement of 25(OH)D during the run-in period (nine days, no sunbed exposure) after which all subjects underwent an identical UVR exposure protocol irrespective of skin colour (nine days, three sunbed sessions: 6, 8 and 8 minutes respectively with approximately 80% of body surface exposed). Skin tone was measured four times during the study. Both groups showed a gradual increase in 25(OH)D with final levels significantly higher than baseline (p<0.01). 25(OH)D concentration mean from a baseline of 43.58±19.65 to 57.80±17.11 nmol/l among Caucasian and from 27.03±23.92 to 44.73±17.74 nmol/l among Asian women. The baseline status of vitamin D was classified as deficient among the Asian women and insufficient among the Caucasian women. The percentage increase in vitamin D3 among Caucasians was 39.86% (21.02) and 207.78% (286.02) in Asian subjects respectively. This greater response to UVR exposure reflects the lower baseline levels of the Asian subjects. The mixed linear model analysis identified a significant effect of duration of UVR exposure on the production of 25(OH)D. However, the model shows no significant effect of ethnicity and skin tone on the production of 25(OH)D. These novel findings indicate that people of Asian ethnicity have the full capability to produce a similar amount of vitamin D compared to the Caucasian group; initial vitamin D concentration influences the amount of UVB needed to reach equal serum concentrations.

Keywords: ethnicity, Caucasian, South Asian, vitamin D, ultraviolet radiation, UVR

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2460 Cultural Aspects of Tax Compliance of Medium Size Enterprises in South Africa

Authors: Oludele A. Akinboade

Abstract:

The paper discusses cultural aspects of tax compliance of medium size companies (MEs) in South Africa to enhance tax compliance. A survey of 641 companies in eight provinces was made. Racial identities of ME owners are not significant in explaining differences in tax registration compliance. Black ownership of MEs is negatively and highly significantly correlated with pay as you earn compliance. The opposite is found in favour of Asian ME owners. White ownership of MEs is negative and weakly (10%) significantly correlated with company income tax compliance while the opposite is found in favour of Asian ownership. Race is negative and highly significant in explaining White owned MEs value added tax compliance behaviour. The opposite is found in favour of Asian ME owners. Black ownership of MEs is negatively and weakly significantly(10%) associated with timely submission of tax returns.

Keywords: tax compliance, cultural diversity, medium size companies, South Africa

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2459 Effects of Financial Development on Economic Growth in South Asia

Authors: Anupam Das

Abstract:

Although financial liberalization has been one of the most important policy prescriptions of international organizations like the World Bank and the IMF, the effect of financial liberalization on economic growth in developing countries is far from unanimous. Since the '80s, South Asian countries made a significant development in liberalization the financial sector. However, due to unavailability of a sufficient number of time series observations, the relationship between economic growth and financial development has not been investigated adequately. We aim to fill this gap by examining time series data of five developing countries from the South Asian region: Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Nepal. Applying the cointegration tests and Granger causality within the vector error correction model (VECM), we do not find unanimous evidence of financial development on positive economic growth. These results are helpful for developing countries which have been trying to liberalize the financial sector in recent decades.

Keywords: economic growth, financial development, Granger causality, South Asia

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2458 The Impact of Government Expenditure on Economic Growth: A Study of Asian Countries

Authors: K. P. K. S. Lahirushan, W. G. V. Gunasekara

Abstract:

Main purpose of this study is to identifying the impact of government expenditure on economic growth in Asian Countries. Consequently, Fist, objective is to analyze whether government expenditure causes economic growth in Asian countries vice versa and then scrutinizing long-run equilibrium relationship exists between them. The study completely based on secondary data. The methodology being quantitative that includes econometrical techniques of cointegration, panel fixed effects model and granger causality in the context of panel data of Asian countries; Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, South Korea, Japan, China, Sri Lanka, India and Bhutan with 44 observations in each country, totaling to 396 observations from 1970 to 2013. The model used is the random effects panel OLS model. As with the above methodology, the study found the fascinating outcome. At first, empirical findings exhibit a momentous positive impact of government expenditure on Gross Domestic Production in Asian region. Secondly, government expenditure and economic growth indicate a long-run relationship in Asian countries. In conclusion, there is a unidirectional causality from economic growth to government expenditure and government expenditure to economic growth in Asian countries. Hence the study is validated that it is in line with the Keynesian theory and Wagner’s law as well. Consequently, it can be concluded that role of government would play a vital role in economic growth of Asian Countries .However; if government expenditure did not figure out with the economy’s needs it might be considerably inspiration the economy in a negative way so that society bears the costs.

Keywords: Asian countries, government expenditure, Keynesian theory, Wagner’s theory, random effects panel ols model

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2457 Prevalence of Depression among Post Stroke Survivors in South Asian Region: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Roseminu Varghese, Laveena Anitha Barboza, Jyothi Chakrabarty, Ravishankar

Abstract:

Depression among post-stroke survivors is prevalent, but it is unidentified. The purpose of this review was to determine the pooled prevalence of depression among post-stroke survivors in the South Asian region from all published health sciences research articles. The review also aimed to analyze the disparities in the prevalence of depression among the post-stroke survivors from different study locations. Data search to identify the relevant research articles published from 2005 to 2016 was done by using mesh terms and keywords in Web of Science, PubMed Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, J gate, IndMED databases. The final analysis comprised of 9 studies, including a population of 1,520 men and women. Meta-analysis was performed in STATA version 13.0. The overall pooled post-stroke depression prevalence was 0.46, 95% (CI), (0.3- 0.62). The prevalence rate in this systematic review is evident of depression among post-stroke survivors in the South Asian Region. Identifying the prevalence of post-stroke depression at an early stage is important to improve outcomes of the rehabilitative process of stroke survivors and for its early intervention.

Keywords: depression, post stroke survivors, prevalence, systematic review

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2456 The Divine Elephant: Asian Elephants in Religions and Religious Practices

Authors: Ashna Sinha, Surendra Varma

Abstract:

The Asian elephant is predominantly found in South Asian and Southeast Asian countries. They are intrinsically associated with the religions, religious and cultural practices and festivals of these regions. Amazingly, these magnificent animals are also mentioned in the texts and are found sculpted on the walls of places of religious significance even in the Middle Eastern countries, and evidently, they have been mentioned in all the major religions. The elephants are intrigued and associated with the cultural and religious practices of Asians for thousands of years. While some of the practices and festivals in certain geographical regions are going on for years; some regions and religions have gone through a cultural shift and cultural adaptation, and have incorporated the participation of these divine beings. The symbolism of elephants is used for preaching and giving philosophical lessons through stories and painted art, across different religions through varying literary and visual artworks. The animals carved on the ancient and present day temples can easily be found in South and South East Asian countries, signifying the importance of the animal in a given religion which the temples are associated with. Though not sculpted but captive elephants are easily found on the premises of the places of worship to give a blessing to the people or to give a tour to show their own connotation with the religion. They are also used for carrying out processions in varying religious and cultural activities, and are considered to be of immense value as they add an extra glamour and publicize the wealth and weightiness of that distinct religion or culture. Our critical review of elephant’s association with religions and their practices show, although they give a higher degree of value and respects to this animal, the practices do not match with their biological design, but profoundly compromise their welfare and conservation. It is time to follow the values the animal enjoy and use the same for their conservation and welfare.

Keywords: conservation, elephant, religion, welfare

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2455 Intelligent Recognition of Diabetes Disease via FCM Based Attribute Weighting

Authors: Kemal Polat

Abstract:

In this paper, an attribute weighting method called fuzzy C-means clustering based attribute weighting (FCMAW) for classification of Diabetes disease dataset has been used. The aims of this study are to reduce the variance within attributes of diabetes dataset and to improve the classification accuracy of classifier algorithm transforming from non-linear separable datasets to linearly separable datasets. Pima Indians Diabetes dataset has two classes including normal subjects (500 instances) and diabetes subjects (268 instances). Fuzzy C-means clustering is an improved version of K-means clustering method and is one of most used clustering methods in data mining and machine learning applications. In this study, as the first stage, fuzzy C-means clustering process has been used for finding the centers of attributes in Pima Indians diabetes dataset and then weighted the dataset according to the ratios of the means of attributes to centers of theirs. Secondly, after weighting process, the classifier algorithms including support vector machine (SVM) and k-NN (k- nearest neighbor) classifiers have been used for classifying weighted Pima Indians diabetes dataset. Experimental results show that the proposed attribute weighting method (FCMAW) has obtained very promising results in the classification of Pima Indians diabetes dataset.

Keywords: fuzzy C-means clustering, fuzzy C-means clustering based attribute weighting, Pima Indians diabetes, SVM

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2454 Engaging with Security and State from a Gendered Lens in the South Asian Context: Indian State’s Construction of Internal Security and State Responses

Authors: Pooja Bakshi

Abstract:

In the following paper, an attempt would be made to engage with the relationship between the state and the imperatives of security from a gendered lens. This will be juxtaposed with the feminist engagement with International Law. Theorizations from the literature on South Asian politics and Global politics would be applied to the manner in which the Indian state has defined and proposed to deal with concerns of internal security pertaining to the ‘Left Wing Extremism’ in 2010-2011. It would be argued that the state needs to be disaggregated into the legislature, executive and the judiciary; since there are times when some institutional parts of the state provide space for progressive democratic engagement whilst other institutions don’t. The specific contours of violence faced by women and children at the hands of the state, in the above-mentioned discourse would also be examined. In the end, implications of the security state discourse on debates in International Law would be elaborated.

Keywords: feminist engagement, human rights, state response to left extremism, security studies in South Asia

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2453 Addressing Ophthalmic and Vascular Diabetic Complications in South Asians

Authors: Haaris Khan, Farhad Udwadia

Abstract:

South Asians are the fastest-growing immigrant population in Canada and are 3-4 times more likely to develop diabetes. In a primary care setting, language barriers continue to persist as a prominent obstacle when delivering crucial health information. Given the abundance of languages in the South Asian community and the varying levels of English fluency, there is compelling evidence that these language barriers can adversely impact health outcomes. The microvascular and macrovascular complications of poor diabetic management are well established and universally recognized. However, these are often difficult concepts to grasp for even individuals fluent in English. In order to lessen the burden of language barriers, we developed a comprehensive guide in various languages that discuss the complications and screening guidelines for diabetic and prediabetic patients. The guide is presented in the form of a pamphlet, with an electronic version being constructed as well, that provides basic information on diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy as well as the screening recommendations. We also conducted a review of the literature around the topic and incorporated our findings into our project. Our goal is for primary care physicians to have this resource and to be able to provide the link or pamphlet to patients in need. Our presentation also provides a comprehensive overview of some of the other barriers that individuals in the South Asian community face when seeking care. Given the staggering number of individuals in the South Asian community with diabetes and the morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes and its complications, effective community-specific strategies are needed to mitigate the potential consequences of poor diabetes management.

Keywords: diabetes, patient education, ophthalmology, vascular surgery

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2452 Analyzing the Impact of Indian Architecture on the Architecture of Cambodia, Thailand and Indonesia

Authors: Sriranjani Srinivasan

Abstract:

To appreciate Indian art and architecture by studying it in India alone will only lead to partial understanding of the whole story and the variety of the statement has been amply proved by subsequent decades of patient research. The results of the work of the Archaeological Survey of India forms only one half of the picture, the other half emerges with the studies of the archaeology and art of the Far East that progressed almost simultaneously under the Archaeological Survey of the Dutch East Indies, the École française d'Extrême-Orient (EFEO), or French School of Asian Studies, and allied institutions. The conclusions arrived at have only rendered the assertion that India produced her ultimate master pieces only through foreign influences and in foreign lands (the South-Eastern peninsular and archipelagic regions) almost axiomatic. Angkor in Cambodia and Borobudur in Java, undoubtedly the two greatest architectural marvels of Indian genius, for in content and spirit these (and other monuments of varying magnitudes), are purely Indian, would well illustrate the statement mentioned earlier. Stimulated research followed the discoveries and among the many studies and publications of such pioneers like Coedes, Parmentier, Coomaraswamy and many others in Dutch, French and English made growing contributions to the subject. This paper will discuss in detail the impact of India on the architecture of South East Asia by detailed comparison of architectural styles, elements, and construction materials of a few specific architectural master pieces, in both India and South East Asian countries. It will also analyze the reasoning behind the influence of India on South East Asian countries in spite of them being exposed to the equally culturally rich and civilized kingdoms of China. The intention of this paper is to understand that, conquest by war is not always the only reason for architectural influences and impacts.

Keywords: architectural influence, Buddhist architecture, Indian architecture, Southeast Asian architecture

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2451 Discursive (Re/De)Construction of Objectivity-Subjectivity: Critiquing Rape/Flesh Trade-Documentaries

Authors: Muhammed Shahriar Haque

Abstract:

As an offshoot of journalistic discourse, the documentary should be objective in nature without harbouring any preconceived notion to foster ulterior motifs. When it comes to a social issue like rape in South Asian countries, as media in recent times is inundated with this violent act in India, Pakistan, Myanmar, Bangladesh, how does one document it in terms of objectivity and subjectivity? The objective of this study is twofold: to document the history of documentaries, and to critically analyze South Asian rape/flesh trade-documentaries. The overall goal is to trace the (re/de)construction of objectivity-subjectivity in documentaries. This paper adopts a qualitative approach to documentarist discourse through the lens of critical discourse analysis (CDA). Data was gathered for 10 documentaries on the theme of rape and/or flesh trade from eight South Asian countries, predominantly the South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC) region. The documentaries were primarily categorised by using three frameworks based on six modes, six subgenres, and four basic approaches of documentary. Subsequently, the findings were critiqued from CDA perspective. The outcome suggests that there a two schools of thoughts regarding documentaries. According to journalistic ethics, news and/or documentaries should be objective in orientation and focus on informing the audience and/common people. The empirical findings tend to challenge ethical parameters of objectivity. At times, it seems that journalistic discourse is discursively (re)constructed to give an augmented simulation of objectivity. Based on the findings it may be recommended that if documentaries steer away from empirical facts and indulge in poetic naivety, their credibility could be questioned. A research of this nature is significant as it raises questions with regard to ethical and moral conscience of documentary filmmakers. Furthermore, it looks at whether they uphold journalistic integrity or succumb to their bias, and thereby depict subjective views, which could be tainted with political and/or propagandist ulterior motifs.

Keywords: discursive (re/de)construction, documentaries, journalistic integrity, rape/flesh trade

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2450 India’s Foreign Policy toward its South Asian Neighbors: Retrospect and Prospect

Authors: Debasish Nandy

Abstract:

India’s foreign policy towards all of her neighbor countries is determinate on the basis of multi-dimensional factors. India’s relations with its South Asian neighbor can be classified into three categories. In the first category, there are four countries -Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Afghanistan- whose bilateral relationships have encompassed cooperation, irritants, problems and crisis at different points in time. With Pakistan, the relationship has been perpetually adversarial. The third category includes Bhutan and Maldives whose relations are marked by friendship and cooperation, free of any bilateral problems. It is needless to say that Jawaharlal Nehru emphasized on friendly relations with the neighboring countries. The subsequent Prime Ministers of India especially I.K. Gujral had advocated in making of peaceful and friendly relations with the subcontinental countries. He had given a unique idea to foster bilateral relations with the neighbors. His idea is known as ‘Gujral Doctrine’. A dramatical change has been witnessed in Indian foreign policy since 1991.In the post-Cold War period, India’s national security has been vehemently threatened by terrorism, which originated from Pakistan-Afghanistan and partly Bangladesh. India has required a cooperative security, which can be made by mutual understanding among the South Asian countries. Additionally, the countries of South Asia need to evolve the concept of ‘Cooperative Security’ to explain the underlying logic of regional cooperation. According to C. Rajamohan, ‘cooperative security could be understood, as policies of governments, which see themselves as former adversaries or potential adversaries to shift from or avoid confrontationist policies.’ A cooperative security essentially reflects a policy of dealing peacefully with conflicts, not merely by abstention from violence or threats but by active engagement in negotiation, a search for practical solutions and with a commitment to preventive measures. Cooperative assumes the existence of a condition in which the two sides possess the military capabilities to harm each other. Establishing cooperative security runs into a complex process building confidence. South Asian nations often engaged with hostility to each other. Extra-regional powers have been influencing their powers in this region since a long time. South Asian nations are busy to purchase military equipment. In spite of weakened economic systems, these states are spending a huge amount of money for their security. India is the big power in this region in every aspect. The big states- small states syndrome is a negative factor in this respect. However, India will have to an initiative to extended ‘track II diplomacy’ or soft diplomacy for its security as well as the security of this region.Confidence building measures could help rejuvenate not only SAARC but also build trust and mutual confidence between India and its neighbors in South Asia. In this paper, I will focus on different aspects of India’s policy towards it, South-Asian neighbors. It will also be searched that how India is dealing with these countries by using a mixed type of diplomacy – both idealistic and realistic points of view. Security and cooperation are two major determinants of India’s foreign policy towards its South Asian neighbors.

Keywords: bilateral, diplomacy, infiltration, terrorism

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2449 South Asia as an Emerging Region of the World in the 21st Century

Authors: Shazia Shinwari

Abstract:

In the 21st century, South Asia is becoming one of the rising sub-regions of the world. In the whole of Asia, South Asia is going to be the center part of opportunities, development, and challenges. The increasing economy and its geopolitical importance are changing the landscape of South Asia. Despite intensifying the opportunities and development, the region is also facing the challenges of security, poverty, and conflicts. It is one of the most populated sub-regions and has many internal conflicts because of which the region remains for a long time a least developed region in the world. But now South Asia is transforming into the developing process and trying to utilize its potentials and to remove the hurdles in the way of development. South Asia is one of the distinctive regions of the world and could play an important role at the global level if the potentials of the region are properly utilized. South Asia is one of the most important regions of the world and assumed more importance after the British withdrawal from the region. Now South Asia is playing an important role in world politics due to its strategic and geographical location. That is why the importance of this region in the international political systems cannot be ignored. Day by day, changes have been taking place in the structure of the global economy, and South Asia could take advantage of these changes to advance as an economic region. For this, South Asia will need to look at its history, and that changes, particularly in the India and Pakistan relations, are necessary for the development of the South Asian region. Despite having challenges in the region, South Asia is also rising as the land of opportunities and development if the potentials of the region are properly utilized and smoothen the way for regional integration.

Keywords: challenges, development, opportunities, South Asia

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2448 Governance and Economic Growth: Evidence for Ten Asian Countries

Authors: Chiung-Ju Huang

Abstract:

This study utilizes a frequency domain approach over the period of 1996 to 2013 to examine the causal relationship between governance and economic growth in ten Asian countries, which have different levels of democracy; classified as “Free”, “Partly Free”, and “Not Free” countries. The empirical results show that there is no Granger causality running from governance to economic growth in “Not Free” countries and “Partly Free” countries with the exception of Singapore. As for “Free” countries such as South Korea and Taiwan, there is a one-way causality running from governance to economic growth. The findings of this study indicate that policy makers in South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore could use governance index to improve their predictions of the future economic growth.

Keywords: economic growth, frequency domain, governance, granger causality

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2447 Corporate Sustainability Practices in Asian Countries: Pattern of Disclosure and Impact on Financial Performance

Authors: Santi Gopal Maji, R. A. J. Syngkon

Abstract:

The changing attitude of the corporate enterprises from maximizing economic benefit to corporate sustainability after the publication of Brundtland Report has attracted the interest of researchers to investigate the sustainability practices of firms and its impact on financial performance. To enrich the empirical literature in Asian context, this study examines the disclosure pattern of corporate sustainability and the influence of sustainability reporting on financial performance of firms from four Asian countries (Japan, South Korea, India and Indonesia) that are publishing sustainability report continuously from 2009 to 2016. The study has used content analysis technique based on Global Reporting Framework (3 and 3.1) reporting framework to compute the disclosure score of corporate sustainability and its components. While dichotomous coding system has been employed to compute overall quantitative disclosure score, a four-point scale has been used to access the quality of the disclosure. For analysing the disclosure pattern of corporate sustainability, box plot has been used. Further, Pearson chi-square test has been used to examine whether there is any difference in the proportion of disclosure between the countries. Finally, quantile regression model has been employed to examine the influence of corporate sustainability reporting on the difference locations of the conditional distribution of firm performance. The findings of the study indicate that Japan has occupied first position in terms of disclosure of sustainability information followed by South Korea and India. In case of Indonesia, the quality of disclosure score is considerably less as compared to other three countries. Further, the gap between the quality and quantity of disclosure score is comparatively less in Japan and South Korea as compared to India and Indonesia. The same is evident in respect of the components of sustainability. The results of quantile regression indicate that a positive impact of corporate sustainability becomes stronger at upper quantiles in case of Japan and South Korea. But the study fails to extricate any definite pattern on the impact of corporate sustainability disclosure on the financial performance of firms from Indonesia and India.

Keywords: corporate sustainability, quality and quantity of disclosure, content analysis, quantile regression, Asian countries

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2446 Regional Trade Integration: Empirical Investigation of Trade within the European Union versus Association for South East Asian Nations

Authors: Sarina Zainab Shirazi

Abstract:

Abstract— With the advent of globalization, different countries have liberalized their trade policies to enhance economic integration and developmental processes but the advantages accrued vary greatly from region to region. This study specifically examines European Union (EU) and Association for South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), two regions that show contrasting integration patterns. EU shows most successful integrations versus the slower paced integration in the ASEAN region. A comprehensive panel data empirical investigation of EU and ASEAN in the context of economy size, geographical distances, language, ethnicity, common border and regional trade agreements (RTA) is conducted for a period of 1985 – 2015. The empirical investigation through the augmented gravity equation shows that the real effectiveness for enhanced intra-regional trade is significant when specific examination of export and import components is conducted in the presence of non-tariff barriers. These barriers surface in the form of terms of trade openness, inflation, exchange rate, common borders, common language, ethnic similarity, and presence of a formal regional trade agreement (RTA). Thus, these factors can be utilized by the EU and ASEAN regions in order to formulate effective policy tools to enhance trade within their respective spheres of influence.

Keywords: Association for South East Asian Nations, European Union, Gravity Model, Regional Trade

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2445 The Effectiveness of Genre-Based Pedagogy in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language in Hong Kong

Authors: Mark Shiu-kee Shum, Dan Shi

Abstract:

This paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of genre-based pedagogy in teaching Chinese as a foreign language to South Asian ethnic minority students in Hong Kong. South Asian ethnic minority students, as a disadvantaged group of foreign language learners, lack sufficient parental and institutional support in Chinese language learning. The genre-based “Reading to Learn, Learning to Write, R2L” pedagogy derived from Halliday’s Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) is applied in this study to improve Chinese language performance of South Asian ethnic minority students for better chance to participate in mainstream society. In this study, the R2L pedagogy is applied to teach students Chinese writing of different genres in junior secondary level for a year. To determine the effectiveness of the R2L pedagogy, the pre-test and post-test writings were evaluated by R2L assessment criteria and analyzed using Systemic Functional Linguistics framework from the whole-text level, sentence level, and the word level. Besides, semi-structured interviews were conducted to perceive students’ learning expectations via experiencing with R2L pedagogy. The finding shows that after the pedagogic interventions, students are equipped with an increased meta-linguistic awareness of genre-specific writing in improving and facilitating their writing performance. It is hoped that the findings can provide a reference for language teachers in teaching and learning Chinese as a foreign language to non-Chinese speaking students in Hong Kong and beyond.

Keywords: ethnic minority, genre-based approach, reading to learn pedagogy, foreign language education

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2444 Cultural Boundaries and Mental Health Stigma: A Systemic Review of Interventions to Reduce Opposition of Mental Health Services in Asian American Families

Authors: Tanya L. Patimeteeporn, Murali D. Nair

Abstract:

There is a wide range of literature that suggests the factors that prevent Asian American families from utilizing mental health services. These factors arise from a combination of cultural perceptions of mental illness, and methods of treating them without the use of a mental health professional. Due to the increased awareness of Asian Americans’ stigmatization to mental health, there has been an effort to create culturally competent interventions for Asian American families that would reduce opposition to mental health services. Assessment of the effectiveness of these interventions reveals practices that integrate traditional healing methods with psychoeducation are more likely to promote receptiveness of mental health services by Asian American families. The documentary in this review, demonstrates these traditional healing methods from various ethnic enclaves in Los Angeles. In addition, mental health professionals who provide these interventions to Asian American families need to consider culture-bound syndromes and the various Asian health philosophies and belief systems in order to provide a culturally sensitive holistic treatment for their clients. However, because the literature on these interventions is limited, there is a need for a larger body of evidence to accurately assess the effectiveness of these culturally competent psychoeducation interventions.

Keywords: Asian American, cultural boundaries, intervention, mental health stigma, psychoeducation, traditional healing

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2443 The First Report of Fresh Water Crab Potamon Potamios (Decapoda: brachyura) in Chahnimeh’s Water Reservoirs from Sistan, Iran

Authors: Ahmad Gharaei, Javad Mirdar Harijani

Abstract:

The freshwater crab family (Potamidae Ortmann, 1896) is a big group and varies over 500 species in 74 genuses. This family distributed in South Europe, South Africa, East and South-east Asian. Iran's Sistan region located in the South East and recently after a decade of drought in the international wetland of Hamoon, in fact, the aquatic fauna in the Chahnimeh’s water reservoirs had taken refuge. This paper reports the second site for Potamon Potamios, in the southern half of the Iran. The specimens were collected from the shallow water in reservoir banks with muddy bottom in July 2010. The morphological features, habitat and systematic, are described.

Keywords: freshwater crab, potamon potamios, sistan, Iran

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2442 Socio-Cultural Economic and Demographic Profile of Return Migration: A Case Study of Mahaboobnagar District in ‘Andhra Pradesh’

Authors: Ramanamurthi Botlagunta

Abstract:

Return migrate on is a process; it’s not a new phenomenal. People are migrating since civilization started. In the case of Indian Diaspora, peoples migrated before the Independence of India. Even after the independence. There are various reasons for the migration. According to the characteristics of the migrants, geographical, political, and economic factors there are many changes occur in the mode of migration. In India currently almost 25 million peoples are outside of the country. But all of them not able to get the immigrants status in their respective host society due to the nature of individual perception and the immigration policies of the host countries. They came back to homeland after spending days/months/years. They are known as the return migrants. Returning migrants are 'persons returning to their country of citizenship after having been international migrants, whether short term or long-term'. Increasingly, migration is seen very differently from what was once believed to be a one-way phenomenon. The renewed interest of return migration can be seen through two aspects one is that growing importance of temporary migration programmers in other countries and other one is that potential role of migrants in developing their home countries. Conceptualized return migration in several ways: occasional return, seasonal return, temporary return, permanent return, and circular return. The reasons for the return migration are retirement, failure to assimilate in the host country, problems with acculturation in the destination country, being unsuccessful in the emigrating country, acquiring the desired wealth, innovate and to serve as change agents in the birth country. With the advent of globalization and the rapid development of transportation systems and communication technologies, this is a process by which immigrants forge and sustain simultaneous multi-stranded social relations that link together their societies of origin and settlement. We can find that Current theories of transnational migration are greatly focused on the economic impacts on the home countries, while social, cultural and political impacts have recently started gaining momentum. This, however, has been changing as globalization is radically transforming the way people move around the world. One of the reasons for the return migration is that lack of proportionate representation of Asian immigrants in positions of authority and decision-making can be a result of challenges confronted in cultural and structural assimilation. The present study mainly focuses socioeconomic and demographic profile of return migration of Indians from other countries in general and particularly on Andhra Pradesh the people who are returning from other countries. Migration is that lack of proportionate representation of Asian immigrants in positions of authority and decision-making can be a result of challenges confronted in cultural and structural assimilation. The present study mainly focuses socioeconomic and demographic profile of return migration of Indians from other countries in general and particularly on Andhra Pradesh the people who are returning from other countries.

Keywords: migration, return migration, globalization, development, socio- economic, Asian immigrants, UN, Andhra Pradesh

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2441 The Role of Trust in International Relations– Examining India’s Gujaral Doctrine and South Asian Politics

Authors: Bhavana Mahajan

Abstract:

International Relations is a discipline of paradoxes. The State is the dominant political institution, yet little attention has been accorded to why individual countries behave the way they do with the theoretical analysis dismissing the State as a reactionary monolith – thus States either play to “quest for power” or to “systemic” forces. However, States do behave as and are influenced by agents when interacting with international structures as well as with other states. While questions on “competitive power politics” and “trust” have been examined and developed to a fair extent by International Relations theorists in the post 1990s period, their application to the domain of South Asian politics is limited and little research, if any, examines the conduct of foreign policy beyond rational choice. This paper is an initial attempt to marry these theoretical insights with the foreign policy exercised by India especially the case of the “Gujral Doctrine, as one of “non-reciprocal accommodation”. Ignoring the view that such a policy move can be viewed as political “feinting” or deception, it is noteworthy that India even made the first move in terms of defining its role as one who “trusts” rather than one who “seeks” to trust, given the country’s geo-strategic context and threat perceptions.

Keywords: India’s foreign policy, South Asia, social constructivism, English school, trusting relationships, Gujral Doctrine, rationality

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2440 Volatility Spillover Among the Stock Markets of South Asian Countries

Authors: Tariq Aziz, Suresh Kumar, Vikesh Kumar, Sheraz Mustafa, Jhanzeb Marwat

Abstract:

The paper provides an updated version of volatility spillover among the equity markets of South Asian countries, including Pakistan, India, Srilanka, and Bangladesh. The analysis uses both symmetric and asymmetric Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity models to investigate volatility persistence and leverage effect. The bivariate EGARCH model is used to test for volatility transmission between two equity markets. Weekly data for the period February 2013 to August 2019 is used for empirical analysis. The findings indicate that the leverage effect exists in the equity markets of all the countries except Bangladesh. The volatility spillover from the equity market of Bangladesh to all other countries is negative and significant whereas the volatility of the equity market of Sri-Lanka does influence the volatility of any other country’s equity market. Indian equity market influence only the volatility of the Sri-Lankan equity market; and there is bidirectional volatility spillover between the equity markets of Pakistan and Bangladesh. The findings are important for policy-makers and international investors.

Keywords: volatility spillover, volatility persistence, garch, egarch

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2439 Man Eaters and the Eaten Men: A Study of the Portrayal of Indians in the Writings of Jim Corbett

Authors: Iti Roychowdhury

Abstract:

India to the Colonial mind was a crazy quilt of multicoloured patchwork- a land of untold wealth and bejewelled maharajas, of snake charmers and tight rope walkers. India was also the land that offered unparalled game. Indeed Shikar (hunting) was de rigueur for the Raj experience. Tales of shootings and trophies were told and retold in clubs and in company. Foremost among the writers of this genre is Jim Corbett – tracker, hunter, writer, conservationist. Corbett is best known for the killing of man eating tigers and his best known books are Man eaters of Kumaon, The Temple Tiger, Man eating Leopard of Rudraprayag etc. The stories of Jim Corbett are stories of hunting, with no palpable design, no subtext of hegemony, or white man’s burden. The protagonists are the cats. Nevertheless from his writings emerge a vibrant picture of Indian villages, of men, women and children toiling for a livelihood under the constant shadow of the man eaters. Corbett shared a symbiotic relationship with the villagers. They needed him to kill the predators while Corbett needed the support of the locals as drum beaters, coolies and runners to accomplish his tasks. The aim of the present paper is to study the image of Indians in the writings of Jim Corbett and to examine them in the light of colonial perception of Indians.

Keywords: hegemony, orientalism, Shikar literature, White Man's Burden

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2438 Characterization of Onion Peels Extracts and Its Utilization in a Deep Fried Snack

Authors: Nabia Siddiqui, Tahira Mohsin Ali, Tanveer Abbas, Abid Hasnain

Abstract:

The present study proposed the use of different onion peel extracts in a South Asian snacks called ‘sew’. The polyphenols extracted from peels were initially analyzed for their antimicrobial potential and bioactive components following three different extraction systems. A relatively higher level of total phenolic content (TP), total flavonoid (TF) and antioxidant activity was observed for EWE (ethanol and water based) extracts followed by EAAE (ethanol and acetic acid) and WE (water extract) sample. Onion extracts showed ability to inhibit gram-positive as well as gram-negative bacteria. The incorporation of onion peel extracts in sew showed a marked increase in bioactive components. Besides bioactivity, sensory attributes, textural characteristics and storage stability of these snacks containing onion peel extract also significantly improved during the shelf study at ambient temperature for up to two months. Thus, these results justify the utilization of these plant polyphenols in fried snacks.

Keywords: onion peels extract, South Asian snacks, antioxidant capacity, bioactivity

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2437 Social Implementation of Information Sharing Road Safety Measure in South-East Asia

Authors: Hiroki Kikuchi, Atsushi Fukuda, Hirokazu Akahane, Satoru Kobayakawa, Tuenjai Fukuda, Takeru Miyokawa

Abstract:

According to WHO reports, fatalities by road traffic accidents in many countries of South-East Asia region especially Thailand and Malaysia are increasing year by year. In order to overcome these serious problems, both governments are focusing on road safety measures. In response, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) of Japan and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) have begun active support based on the experiences to reduce the number of fatalities in road accidents in Japan in the past. However, even if the successful road safety measures in Japan is adopted in South-East Asian countries, it is not sure whether it will work well or not. So, it is necessary to clarify the issues and systematize the process for the implementation of road safety measures in South-East Asia. On the basis of the above, this study examined the applicability of "information sharing traffic safety measure" which is one of the successful road safety measures in Japan to the social implementation of road safety measures in South-East Asian countries. The "Information sharing traffic safety measure" is carried out traffic safety measures by stakeholders such as residents, administration, and experts jointly. In this study, we extracted the issues of implementation of road safety measures under local context firstly. This is clarifying the particular issues with its implementation in South-East Asian cities. Secondly, we considered how to implement road safety measures for solving particular issues based on the method of "information sharing traffic safety measure". In the implementation method, the location of the occurrence of a dangerous event was extracted based on the “HIYARI-HATTO” data which were obtained from the residents. This is because it is considered that the implementation of the information sharing traffic safety measure focusing on the location where the dangerous event occurs leads to the reduction of traffic accidents. Also, the target locations for the implementation of measures differ for each city. In Penang, we targeted the intersections in the downtown, while in Suphan Buri, we targeted mainly traffic control on the intercity highway. Finally, we proposed a method for implementing traffic safety measures. For Penang, we proposed a measure to improve the signal phase and showed the effect of the measure on the micro traffic simulation. For Suphan Buri, we proposed the suitable measures for the danger points extracted by collecting the “HIYARI-HATTO” data of residents to the administration. In conclusion, in order to successfully implement the road safety measure based on the "information sharing traffic safety measure", the process for social implementation of the road safety measures should be consistent and carried out repeatedly. In particular, by clarifying specific issues based on local context in South-East Asian countries, the stakeholders, not only such as government sectors but also local citizens can share information regarding road safety and select appropriate countermeasures. Finally, we could propose this approach to the administration that had the authority.

Keywords: information sharing road safety measure, social implementation, South-East Asia, HIYARI-HATTO

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