Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: Sohaib Khaliq

27 The Divergent Discourse of Political Islam: A Comparative Study of Indonesia and Pakistan

Authors: Sohaib Khaliq

Abstract:

This paper pursues a systematic analysis of the broad range of theories and studies relevant to Islam and democracy, in general and as they have been developed from and applied to the Indonesian and Pakistani cases. The analysis finds that an Islamic society’s potential to assimilate democratic political institutions is contingent on either an unconstrained 'political participation' or its ability to 'reinterpret' religious text. Drawing on a comparison of Indonesia and Pakistan, the present study favors a route that passes through the religious gates of theoretical reinterpretation. In doing so, the study brings Muslim reformation theory into focus by clarifying the mechanism by which reformation takes place.

Keywords: Islam, democratization, political Islam, reformation

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26 A Study of Key Technologies for the Realization of Smart Grid and Its Research Situation in Pakistan and Abroad

Authors: Arjmand Khaliq, Pemra Sohaib

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In this paper smart grid technologies which converts conventional grid into smart grid has been discussed. Integration of advanced technologies including two way communication, advanced control system, sensors, smart metering system and other provide opportunity to make conventional grid a intelligent and automatic system which is named as smart grid. This paper gives the concept of smart grid and functional characteristics of smart grid technology, summed up the research progress in Pakistan and abroad and the significance of developing smart grid. Based on the analysis of the smart grid, smart grid technologies will result a reliable and energy efficient power system in the future. On the other hand smart grid technologies have been reviewed in this paper highlighting the key technologies of smart grid, and points out the problems and challenges in the realization of smart grid.

Keywords: energy, power system reliability, power system monitoring and control, sensor, smart grid, two-way communication

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25 Integration of Smart Grid Technologies with Smart Phones for Energy Monitoring and Management

Authors: Arjmand Khaliq, Pemra Sohaib

Abstract:

There is increasing trend of use of smart devices in the present age. The growth of computing techniques and advancement in hardware has also brought the use of sensors and smart devices to a high degree during the course of time. So use of smart devices for control, management communication and optimization has become very popular. This paper gives proposed methodology which involves sensing and switching unite for load, two way communications between utility company and smart phones of consumers using cellular techniques and price signaling resulting active participation of user in energy management .The goal of this proposed control methodology is active participation of user in energy management with accommodation of renewable energy resource. This will provide load adjustment according to consumer’s choice, increased security and reliability for consumer, switching of load according to consumer need and monitoring and management of energy.

Keywords: cellular networks, energy management, renewable energy source, smart grid technology

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24 Identifying Project Delay Factors in the Australian Construction Industry

Authors: Syed Sohaib Bin Hasib, Hiyam Al-Kilidar

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Meeting project deadlines is a major challenge for most construction projects. In this study, perceptions of contractors, clients, and consultants are compared relative to a list of factors derived from the review of the extant literature on project delay. 59 causes (categorized into 8 groups) of project delays were identified from the literature. A survey was devised to get insights and ranking of these factors from clients, consultants & contractors in the Australian construction industry. Findings showed that project delays in the Australian construction industry are mainly the result of skill shortages, interference in execution, and poor coordination and communication between the project stakeholders.

Keywords: construction, delay factors, time delay, australian construction industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
23 Stereotypes and Glass Ceiling Barriers for Young Women’s Leadership

Authors: Amna Khaliq

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In this article, the phenomena of common stereotypes and glass ceiling barriers in women’s career advancement in men dominating society are explored. A brief background is provided on the misconception for women as soft, delicate, polite and compassionate at a workplace in the place of strong head and go-getter. Then, the literature review supports that stereotypes and glass ceiling barriers are still in existence for young women’s leadership. Increased encouragement, emotional intelligence, and better communication skills are recommended to parents, educators, and employers to prepare young women for senior leadership roles. Young women need mentorship from other women with no competition.

Keywords: Gender inequality, Glass ceiling, Stereotypes, Leadership

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22 Green Synthesis of Copper Oxide and Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles Using Spinacia Oleracea Leaf Extract

Authors: Yameen Ahmed, Jamshid Hussain, Farman Ullah, Sohaib Asif

Abstract:

The investigation aims at the synthesis of copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles using Spinacia oleracea leaf extract. These nanoparticles have many properties and applications. They possess antimicrobial catalytic properties and also they can be used in energy storage materials, gas sensors, etc. The Spinacia oleracea leaf extract behaves as a reducing agent in nanoparticle synthesis. The plant extract was first prepared and then treated with copper and cobalt salt solutions to get the precipitate. The salt solutions used for this purpose are copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO₄.5H₂O) and cobalt chloride hexahydrate (CoCl₂.6H₂O). The UV-Vis, XRD, EDX, and SEM techniques are used to find the optical, structural, and morphological properties of copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles. The UV absorption peaks are at 326 nm and 506 nm for copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles.

Keywords: cobalt oxide, copper oxide, green synthesis, nanoparticles

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21 Expounding on the Role of Sustainability Values (SVs) on Consumers’ Switching Intentions Regarding Disruptive 5G Technology in China

Authors: Sayed Kifayat Shah, Tang Zhongjun, Mohammad Ahmad, Sohaib Mostafa

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This article investigates consumer’s intention to shift to 5G in the light of disruptive technology innovation. To switch from 4G (Existing) technology to 5G (Disruptive) technology requires not just economic benefits and costs but involves other values too, which aren't yet experienced in the framework of technology innovation. This study extended the valued adaptation (VAM) model by proposing the sustainability values (SVs) construct. The model was examined on data from 361 Chinese consumers using the partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) technique. The outcomes prove the significant correlation of sustainability values (SVs) which influences consumer’s switching intentions toward 5G disruptive technology. The findings of this research will be helpful to telecoms firms in developing consumer retention strategies. Some limitations and the importance of the research for scholars and managers are also discussed.

Keywords: value adaptation model (VAM), sustainability values (SVs), disruptive 5G technology, switching intentions (SI), partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM)

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20 Congestion Mitigation on an Urban Arterial through Infrastructure Intervention

Authors: Attiq Ur Rahman Dogar, Sohaib Ishaq

Abstract:

Pakistan had experienced rapid motorization in the last decade. Due to the soft leasing schemes of banks and increase in average household income, even the middle class can now afford cars. The public transit system is inadequate and sparse. Due to these reasons, traffic demand on urban arterials has increased manifold. Poor urban transit planning and aging transportation systems have resulted in traffic congestion. The focus of this study is to improve traffic flow on a section of N-5 passing through the Rawalpindi downtown. Present efforts aim to carry out the analysis of traffic conditions on this section and to investigate the impact of traffic signal co-ordination on travel time. In addition to signal co-ordination, we also examined the effect of different infrastructure improvements on the travel time. After the economic analysis of alternatives and discussions, the improvement plan for Rawalpindi downtown urban arterial section is proposed for implementation.

Keywords: signal coordination, infrastructure intervention, infrastructure improvement, cycle length, fuel consumption cost, travel time cost, economic analysis, travel time, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, traffic signals

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19 A Modified Periodic 2D Cellular Re-Entrant Honeycomb Model to Enhance the Auxetic Elastic Properties

Authors: Sohaib Z. Khan, Farrukh Mustahsan, Essam R. I. Mahmoud, S. H. Masood

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Materials or structures that contract laterally on the application of a compressive load and vice versa are said to be Auxetic materials which exhibit Negative Poisson’s Ratio (NPR). Numerous auxetic structures are proposed in the literature. One of the most studied periodic auxetic structure is the re-entrant honeycomb model. In this paper, a modified re-entrant model is proposed to enhance the auxetic behavior. The paper aimed to investigate the elastic behaviour of the proposed model to improve Young’s modulus and NPR by evaluating the analytical model. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is also conducted to support the analytical results. A significant increment in Young’s modulus and NPR can be achieved in one of the two orthogonal directions of the loading at the cost of compromising these values in other direction. The proposed modification resulted in lower relative densities when compared to the existing re-entrant honeycomb structure. A trade-off in the elastic properties in one direction at low relative density makes the proposed model suitable for uni-direction applications where higher stiffness and NPR is required, and strength to weight ratio is important.

Keywords: 2D model, auxetic materials, re-entrant honeycomb, negative Poisson's ratio

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18 Utilization of Waste Marble Dust as a Viscosity Modifying Agent in Self Compacting Concrete

Authors: Shams Ul Khaliq, Mushtaq Zeb, Fawad Bilal, Faizan Akbar, Syed Aamir Abbas

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Self Compacting Concrete as the name implies--is the concrete requiring a very little or no vibration to fill the form homogeneously. Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) is defined by two primary properties: Ability to flow or deform under its own weight (with or without obstructions) and the ability to remain homogeneous while doing so. Flow ability is achieved by utilizing high range water reducing admixtures and segregation resistance is ensured by introducing a chemical viscosity modifying admixture (VMA) or increasing the amount of fines in the concrete. The study explores the use waste marble dust (WMD) to increase the amount of fines and hence achieve self-compatibility in an economical way, suitable for Pakistani construction industry. The study focuses on comparison of fresh properties of SCC containing varying amounts of waste marble dust (WMD) with that containing commercially available viscosity modifying admixture. The comparison is done at different dosages of super plasticizer keeping cement, water, coarse aggregate, and fine aggregate contents constant.

Keywords: self compacting concrete, waste marble dust (WMD), flow ability, segregation resistance

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17 Using Facebook as an Alternative Learning Tools in Malaysian Higher Learning Institutions: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

Authors: Ahasanul Haque, Abdullah Sarwar, Khaliq Ahmed

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Networking is important among students to achieve better understanding. Social networking plays an important role in the education. Realizing its huge potential, various organizations, including institutions of higher learning have moved to the area of social networks to interact with their students especially through Facebook. Therefore, measuring the effectiveness of Facebook as a learning tool has become an area of interest to academicians and researchers. Therefore, this study tried to integrate and propose new theoretical and empirical evidences by linking the western idea of adopting Facebook as an alternative learning platform from a Malaysian perspective. This study, thus, aimed to fill a gap by being among the pioneering research that tries to study the effectiveness of adopting Facebook as a learning platform across other cultural settings, namely Malaysia. Structural equation modelling was employed for data analysis and hypothesis testing. This study findings have provided some insights that would likely affect students’ awareness towards using Facebook as an alternative learning platform in the Malaysian higher learning institutions. At the end, future direction is proposed.

Keywords: Learning Management Tool, social networking, education, Malaysia

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16 Trapping Efficiency of Highly Effective Slow Released Formulations of Biodegradable Waxes with Methyl Eugenol Against Bactrocera zonata

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammd Dildar Gogi, Mubashir Iqbal, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Muhammad Hamza Khaliq, Faisal Munir

Abstract:

Experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of highly effective Slow-Released Formulations (SRF) of Methyl eugenol with Lanolin wax, Candellila wax, Bee-wax, Carnauba wax and paraffin wax in the orchard of University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan against fruit flies. The waxes were mixed with methyl eugenol in 1:9 ratio. The results revealed that SRF of Candellila, Paraffin, Bees and Carnauba wax attracted 13.77, 11, 8.15 and 7.23 flies/day/trap which was 2.6, 2, 1.5 and 1.4 times higher than standard respectively and exhibited 41.42%, 32.05%, 20.98% and 12.87% attractive index respectively, proved moderately attractive slow-released formulation to B. zonata and was catagorized as Class-II slow-released formulation (AI = 11-50%). However, SRF of Lanolin wax trapped 1.81 flies/day/trap which was 3 times less than standard and exhibited -61.86% attractive index proved little or non attractive slow-released formulation and was categorized as Class-I slow-released formulation for B. zonata (AI < 11%).

Keywords: biodegradable waxes, slow-released formulation, Bactrocera zonata, methyl euginol

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15 Descriptive Epidemiology of Mortality in Certain Species of Captive Deer in Pakistan

Authors: Musadiq Idris, Sajjad Ali, Syed A. Khaliq, Umer Farooq

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Postmortem record of 217 captive ungulates including Black-buck (n=31), Chinkara (n=20), Hog deer (n=116), Spotted deer (n=35), Red Deer n=(04), and Rusa deer (n=11) submitted to the Veterinary Research Institute, Lahore, Pakistan was analyzed to determine the primary cause of mortality in these animals. The submissions included temporal distribution from Government wildlife captive farms, zoo, and private ownerships, over a three year period (2007-2009). The most common cause of death was found to be trauma (20.27%), followed by parasitic diseases (15.67%), bacterial diseases (11.98%), stillbirths (9.21%), snakebites (2.76%), gut affections (2.30%), neoplasia (1.38%) and starvation (0.92%). The exact cause of death could not be determined in 77 of 217 animals. Pneumonia (8.29%) and tuberculosis (3.69%) were the most common bacterial diseases. Analyses for parasitic infestation revealed tapeworms to be highest (11.05%), followed by roundworms (8.29%) and hemoparasitism (5.07%) (babesiosis and theileriosis). The mortality rate in young ungulates was lower as compared to adults (32.26% and 67.74%). Gender wise data presented higher mortality in females (55.30%) compared to males (44.70%). In conclusion, highest mortality factor in captive ungulates was trauma, followed by parasitic and bacterial infestations/infections of tapeworms and pneumonia, respectively. Furthermore, necropsies provided substantial information on etiology of death and other related epidemiological aspects.

Keywords: age, epidemiology, gender, mortality, ungulates

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14 Marble Powder’s Effect on Permeability and Mechanical Properties of Concrete

Authors: Shams Ul Khaliq, Khan Shahzada, Bashir Alam, Fawad Bilal, Mushtaq Zeb, Faizan Akbar

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Marble industry contributes its fair share in environmental deterioration, producing voluminous amounts of mud and other excess residues obtained from marble and granite processing, polluting soil, water and air. Reusing these products in other products will not just prevent our environment from polluting but also help with economy. In this research, an attempt has been made to study the expediency of waste Marble Powder (MP) in concrete production. Various laboratory tests were performed to investigate permeability, physical and mechanical properties, such as slump, compressive strength, split tensile test, etc. Concrete test samples were fabricated with varying MP content (replacing 5-30% cement), furnished from two different sources. 5% replacement of marble dust caused 6% and 12% decrease in compressive and tensile strength respectively. These parameters gradually decreased with increasing MP content up to 30%. Most optimum results were obtained with 10% replacement. Improvement in consistency and permeability were noticed. The permeability was improved with increasing MP proportion up to 10% without substantial decrease in compressive strength. Obtained results revealed that MP as an alternative to cement in concrete production is a viable option considering its economic and environment friendly implications.

Keywords: marble powder, strength, permeability, consistency, environment

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13 Assesment of Trapping Efficiency of Slow Released Formulations of Methyl Euginol with Carnauba Wax against Bactrocera zonata

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammd Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Sufian, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Mubashir Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Waqas Amjad, Muhammad Hamza Khaliq

Abstract:

Present study was carried out to evaluate the performance of Slow-Released Formulations (SRF) of methyl eugenol with Carnauba wax in orchard of University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan against fruit flies. Carnauba wax was mixed with methyl eugenol in nine ratios (10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10). The results revealed that SRFCN-9 trapped 35.3 flies/day/trap, exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of 50.35%, proved strongly attractive SRFCN for B. zonata and was categorized as Class-III slow-released formulation (Attractive Index > 50%). The SRFCN-1, SRFCN-2, SRFCN-3, SRFCN-4, SRFCN-5, SRFCN-6, SRFCN-7 and SRFCN-8 trapped 2.0, 5.3, 3.3, 4.0, 5.7, 12.0, 9.7 and 14.3 flies/day/trap respectively exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of -70.73%, -37.25%, -55.55%, -48.93%, -34.61%, 1.40%, -9.37% and 10.25% Attractive Index respectively, proved little or non attractive slow-released formulation and was categorized as Class-I slow-released formulation for B. zonata (Attractive Index < 11%). Results revealed that the Slow-Released Formulation containing 10% Carnauba wax with 90% methyl eugenol trapped maximum number of flies of over 30 days.

Keywords: slow-released formulation, Bactrocera zonata, Carnauba wax, methyl euginol

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12 Development of GIS-Based Geotechnical Guidance Maps for Prediction of Soil Bearing Capacity

Authors: Q. Toufeeq, R. Kauser, U. R. Jamil, N. Sohaib

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Foundation design of a structure needs soil investigation to avoid failures due to settlements. This soil investigation is expensive and time-consuming. Developments of new residential societies involve huge leveling of large sites that is accompanied by heavy land filling. Poor practices of land fill for deep depths cause differential settlements and consolidations of underneath soil that sometimes result in the collapse of structures. The extent of filling remains unknown to the individual developer unless soil investigation is carried out. Soil investigation cannot be performed on each available site due to involved costs. However, fair estimate of bearing capacity can be made if such tests are already done in the surrounding areas. The geotechnical guidance maps can provide a fair assessment of soil properties. Previously, GIS-based approaches have been used to develop maps using extrapolation and interpolations techniques for bearing capacities, underground recharge, soil classification, geological hazards, landslide hazards, socio-economic, and soil liquefaction mapping. Standard penetration test (SPT) data of surrounding sites were already available. Google Earth is used for digitization of collected data. Few points were considered for data calibration and validation. Resultant Geographic information system (GIS)-based guidance maps are helpful to anticipate the bearing capacity in the real estate industry.

Keywords: bearing capacity, soil classification, geographical information system, inverse distance weighted, radial basis function

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11 Evaluation of Beam Structure Using Non-Destructive Vibration-Based Damage Detection Method

Authors: Bashir Ahmad Aasim, Abdul Khaliq Karimi, Jun Tomiyama

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Material aging is one of the vital issues among all the civil, mechanical, and aerospace engineering societies. Sustenance and reliability of concrete, which is the widely used material in the world, is the focal point in civil engineering societies. For few decades, researchers have been able to present some form algorithms that could lead to evaluate a structure globally rather than locally without harming its serviceability and traffic interference. The algorithms could help presenting different methods for evaluating structures non-destructively. In this paper, a non-destructive vibration-based damage detection method is adopted to evaluate two concrete beams, one being in a healthy state while the second one contains a crack on its bottom vicinity. The study discusses that damage in a structure affects modal parameters (natural frequency, mode shape, and damping ratio), which are the function of physical properties (mass, stiffness, and damping). The assessment is carried out to acquire the natural frequency of the sound beam. Next, the vibration response is recorded from the cracked beam. Eventually, both results are compared to know the variation in the natural frequencies of both beams. The study concludes that damage can be detected using vibration characteristics of a structural member considering the decline occurred in the natural frequency of the cracked beam.

Keywords: concrete beam, natural frequency, non-destructive testing, vibration characteristics

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10 Pharmacokinetic Study of Clarithromycin in Human Female of Pakistani Population

Authors: Atifa Mushtaq, Tanweer Khaliq, Hafiz Alam Sher, Asia Farid, Anila Kanwal, Maliha Sarfraz

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The study was designed to assess the various pharmacokinetic parameters of a commercially available clarithromycin Tablet (Klaricid® 250 mg Abbot, Pakistan) in plasma sample of healthy adult female volunteers by applying a rapid, sensitive and accurate HPLC-UV analytical method. The human plasma samples were evaluated by using an isocratic High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) system of Sykam consisted of a pump with a column C18 column (250×4.6mn, 5µm) UV-detector. The mobile phase comprises of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (50 mM, pH 6.8, contained 0.7% triethylamine), methanol and acetonitrile (30:25:45, v/v/v) was delivered with injection volume of 20µL at flow rate of 1 mL/min. The detection was performed at λmax 275 nm. By applying this method, important pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, Tmax, Area under curve (AUC), half-life (t1/2), , Volume of distribution (Vd) and Clearance (Cl) were measured. The parameters of pharmacokinetics of clarithromycin were calculated by software (APO) pharmacological analysis. Maximum plasma concentrations Cmax 2.78 ±0.33 µg/ml, time to reach maximum concentration tmax 2.82 ± 0.11 h and Area under curve AUC was 20.14 h.µg/ml. The mean ± SD values obtained for the pharmacokinetic parameters showed a significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters observed in previous literature which emphasizes the need for dose adjustment of clarithromycin in Pakistani population.

Keywords: Pharmacokinetc, Clarothromycin, HPLC, Pakistan

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9 Effect of Carbon-Free Fly Ash and Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag on Compressive Strength of Mortar under Different Curing Conditions

Authors: Abdul Khaliq Amiri, Shigeyuki Date

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This study investigates the effect of using carbon-free fly ash (CfFA) and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) on the compressive strength of mortar. The CfFA used in this investigation is high-quality fly ash and the carbon content is 1.0% or less. In this study, three types of blends with a 30% water-binder ratio (w/b) were prepared: control, binary and ternary blends. The Control blend contained only Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), in binary and ternary blends OPC was partially replaced with CfFA and GGBFS at different substitution rates. Mortar specimens were cured for 1 day, 7 days and 28 days under two curing conditions: steam curing and water curing. The steam cured specimens were exposed to two different pre-curing times (1.5 h and 2.5 h) and one steam curing duration (6 h) at 45 °C. The test results showed that water cured specimens revealed higher compressive strength than steam cured specimens at later ages. An increase in CfFA and GGBFS contents caused a decrease in the compressive strength of mortar. Ternary mixes exhibited better compressive strength than binary mixes containing CfFA with the same replacement ratio of mineral admixtures.

Keywords: carbon-free fly ash, compressive strength, ground granulated blast-furnace slag, steam curing, water curing

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
8 Biochemical Approach to Renewable Energy: Enhancing Students' Perception and Understanding of Science of Energy through Integrated Hands-On Laboratory

Authors: Samina Yasmin, Anzar Khaliq, Zareen Tabassum

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Acute power shortage in Pakistan requires an urgent attention to take preliminary steps to spread energy awareness at all levels. One such initiative is taken at Habib University (HU), Pakistan, through renewable energy course, one of the core offerings, where students are trained to investigate various aspects of renewable energy concepts. The course is offered to all freshmen enrolled at HU regardless of their academic backgrounds and degree programs. A four-credit modular course includes both theory and laboratory elements. Hands-on laboratories play an important role in science classes, particularly to enhance the motivation and deep understanding of energy science. A set of selected hands-on activities included in course introduced students to explore the latest developments in the field of renewable energy such as dye-sensitized solar cells, gas chromatography, global warming, climate change, fuel cell energy and power of biomass etc. These projects not only helped HU freshmen to build on energy fundamentals but also provided them greater confidence in investigating, questioning and experimenting with renewable energy related conceptions. A feedback survey arranged during and end of term revealed the effectiveness of the hands-on laboratory to enhance the common understanding of real world problems related to energy such as awareness of energy saving, the level of concern about global climate change, environmental pollution and science of energy behind the energy usage.

Keywords: biochemical approaches, energy curriculum, hands-on laboratory, renewable energy

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7 Lethal and Sub-Lethal Effects of Pyriproxyfen on Demography of Convergent Lady Beetle, Hippodamia convergens (Goeze) (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera)

Authors: Ayesha Iftikhar, Faisal Hafeez, Muhammad Jawad Saleem, Afifa Naeem, Muhammad Sohaib

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To further develop integrated pest management (IPM) tactics against insect pests, demographic toxicology is considered important and efficient to evaluate the long-term effects of pesticides on biological control agents. In this study, lethal and sub-lethal effects of Pyriproxyfen (insect growth regulator) two concentrations of LC10 and LC30 were tested on second instar larvae of convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens (Goeze) in order to evaluate the effect of insecticide on demographic parameters of the predator under laboratory conditions. The life table parameters were analysed statistically by using age-stage, two sex life table procedure. The results of this study show that developmental time for immature was prolonged in treated population (LC30 and LC10) rather than in control. Similarly, male and female longevity was also longer in the control group as compared to the treated population. Adult pre-oviposition period and fecundity were also greater in control as compared to the treated population. In addition, population parameters such as net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ) were also greater in control group rather than treated population. However, mean generation time (T) was greater in the treated group. The results revealed that pyriproxyfen, even at low concentrations, has potential to greatly affect the population growth of predatory lady beetle, therefore care should be taken when insect growth regulators are used within an IPM framework.

Keywords: ladybird beetle, IGR, integrated pest management, population inhibition

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6 Development of Electrospun Porous Carbon Fibers from Cellulose/Polyacrylonitrile Blend

Authors: Zubair Khaliq, M. Bilal Qadir, Amir Shahzad, Zulfiqar Ali, Ahsan Nazir, Ali Afzal, Abdul Jabbar

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Carbon fibers are one of the most demanding materials on earth due to their potential application in energy, high strength materials, and conductive materials. The nanostructure of carbon fibers offers enhanced properties of conductivity due to the larger surface area. The next generation carbon nanofibers demand the porous structure as it offers more surface area. Multiple techniques are used to produce carbon fibers. However, electrospinning followed by carbonization of the polymeric materials is easy to carry process on a laboratory scale. Also, it offers multiple diversity of changing parameters to acquire the desired properties of carbon fibers. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is the most used material for the production of carbon fibers due to its promising processing parameters. Also, cellulose is one of the highest yield producers of carbon fibers. However, the electrospinning of cellulosic materials is difficult due to its rigid chain structure. The combination of PAN and cellulose can offer a suitable solution for the production of carbon fibers. Both materials are miscible in the mixed solvent of N, N, Dimethylacetamide and lithium chloride. This study focuses on the production of porous carbon fibers as a function of PAN/Cellulose blend ratio, solution properties, and electrospinning parameters. These single polymer and blend with different ratios were electrospun to give fine fibers. The higher amount of cellulose offered more difficulty in electrospinning of nanofibers. After carbonization, the carbon fibers were studied in terms of their blend ratio, surface area, and texture. Cellulose contents offered the porous structure of carbon fibers. Also, the presence of LiCl contributed to the porous structure of carbon fibers.

Keywords: cellulose, polyacrylonitrile, carbon nanofibers, electrospinning, blend

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5 Overview of Pre-Analytical Lab Errors in a Tertiary Care Hospital at Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Authors: S. Saeed, T. Butt, M. Rehan, S. Khaliq

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Objective: To determine the frequency of pre-analytical errors in samples taken from patients for various lab tests at Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi. Material and Methods: All the lab specimens for diagnostic purposes received at the lab from Fauji Foundation hospital, Rawalpindi indoor and outdoor patients were included. Total number of samples received in the lab is recorded in the computerized program made for the hospital. All the errors observed for pre-analytical process including patient identification, sampling techniques, test collection procedures, specimen transport/processing and storage were recorded in the log book kept for the purpose. Results: A total of 476616 specimens were received in the lab during the period of study including 237931 and 238685 from outdoor and indoor patients respectively. Forty-one percent of the samples (n=197976) revealed pre-analytical discrepancies. The discrepancies included Hemolyzed samples (34.8%), Clotted blood (27.8%), Incorrect samples (17.4%), Unlabeled samples (8.9%), Insufficient specimens (3.9%), Request forms without authorized signature (2.9%), Empty containers (3.9%) and tube breakage during centrifugation (0.8%). Most of these pre-analytical discrepancies were observed in samples received from the wards revealing that inappropriate sample collection by the medical staff of the ward, as most of the outdoor samples are collected by the lab staff who are properly trained for sample collection. Conclusion: It is mandatory to educate phlebotomists and paramedical staff particularly performing duties in the wards regarding timing and techniques of sampling/appropriate container to use/early delivery of the samples to the lab to reduce pre-analytical errors.

Keywords: pre analytical lab errors, tertiary care hospital, hemolyzed, paramedical staff

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4 Pattern of External Injuries Sustained during Bomb Blast Attacks in Karachi, Pakistan from 2000 to 2007

Authors: Arif Anwar Surani, Salman Ali, Asif Surani, Sohaib Zahid, Akbar Shoukat Ali, Zeeshan-Ul-Hassan Usmani, Joseph Varon, Salim Surani

Abstract:

Objective: Terrorism and suicidal bomb blast attacks are commonplace in Karachi, Pakistan. During the years 2000 to 2007, there were over 60 bomb explosions resulting in more than 1500 casualties. These explosions produce a wide variety of external injuries. We undertook this study to evaluate pattern of external injury produced after bomb blast attacks and to compare injury profile resulting from explosions in open versus semi-confined blast environments. Method: A retrospective, cross-sectional, study was conducted to review injuries sustained after bomb blast attacks in Karachi, Pakistan, from January 2000 to October 2007. Emergency medical records and medico legal certificates of patients presented to three major public sector hospitals of Karachi were evaluated using self-design proforma. Results: Data of 481 victims meet inclusion criteria and were incorporated for final analysis. Of these, 63.6% were injured in open spaces and 36.4% were injured in semi-confined blast environments. Lacerations were commonly encountered as external injury (47.7%) followed by penetrating wounds (15.3%). Lower and upper extremities were most commonly affected (38.6% and 19% respectively). Open and semi-confined blast environments produced a specific injury pattern and profile (p=<0.001). Conclusions: Bomb blast attacks in Karachi produce an external injury pattern consistent with other studies, with exception of an increased frequency in penetrating wounds. Semi-confined blast environments were associated with severe injuries. Further studies are required to better classify injuries and their severity based on standardized scoring systems. Effective emergency response systems must be designed to cope with mass causalities following bomb explosions.

Keywords: bomb blast attacks, injury pattern, external injury, open space, semi-confined space, blast environment

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3 Drug and Poison Information Centers: An Emergent Need of Health Care Professionals in Pakistan

Authors: Asif Khaliq, Sayeeda A. Sayed

Abstract:

The drug information centers provide drug related information to the requesters that include physicians, pharmacist, nurses and other allied health care professionals. The International Pharmacist Federation (FIP) describes basic functions of a drug and poison information centers as drug evaluation, therapeutic counseling, pharmaceutical advice, research, pharmaco-vigilence and toxicology. Continuous advancement in the field of medicine has expanded the medical literature, which has increased demand of a drug and poison information center for the guidance, support and facilitation of physicians. The objective of the study is to determine the need of drug and poison information centers in public and private hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. A cross sectional study was conducted during July 2013 to April 2014 using a self-administered, multi-itemed questionnaire. Non Probability Convenient sampling was used to select the study participants. A total of 307 physicians from public and private hospitals of Karachi participated in the study. The need for 24/7 Drug and poison information center was highlighted by 92 % of physicians and 67% physicians suggested opening a drug information center at the hospital. It was reported that 70% physicians take at least 15 minutes for searching the information about the drug while managing a case. Regarding the poisoning case management, 52% physicians complaint about the unavailability of medicines in hospitals; and mentioned the importance of medicines for safe and timely management of patients. Although 73% physicians attended continued medical education (CME) sessions, 92 % physicians insisted on the need of 24/7 Drug and poison information center. The scarcity of organized channel for obtaining the information about drug and poisons is one of the most crucial problems for healthcare workers in Pakistan. The drug and poison information center is an advisory body that assists health care professional and patients in provision of appropriate drug and hazardous substance information. Drug and poison information center is one of the integral needs for running an effective health care system. Provision of a 24 /7 drug information centers with specialized staff offer multiple benefits to the hospitals while reducing treatment delays, addressing awareness gaps of all stakeholders and ensuring provision of quality health care.

Keywords: drug and poison information centers, Pakistan, physicians, public and private hospitals

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2 An In-Depth Comparison Study of Canadian and Danish's Entrepreneurship and Education System

Authors: Amna Khaliq

Abstract:

In this research paper, a comparison study has been undertaken between Canada and Denmark to analyze the education system between the countries in entrepreneurship. Denmark, a land of high wages and high taxes, and Canada, a land of immigrants and opportunities, have seen a positive relationship in entrepreneurs' growth. They are both considered one of the top ten countries to start a business and to have government support globally. However, education is entirely free to Danish students, including university degrees, compared to Canadians, which can further hurdle for Canadian millennials to grow in the business world—the business experience more growth with educated entrepreneurs with international backgrounds in new immigrants. Denmark has seen a gradual increase in female entrepreneurs over the decade but is still lower than OECD countries. Compassionate management and work-life balance are prioritized in Denmark, unlike in Canada. Danish are early adopters of technology and have excellent infrastructure to support the technology industry, whereas Canada is still a service-oriented and manufacturer-based country. 2018 has been the highest number of opening businesses for Canada and Denmark. Some companies offer high wages, hiring bonuses, flexible working hours, wellness, and mental health benefits during Pandemic to keep the companies running and keep their workers' morale high. Pandemic has taught consumers new patterns to shop online. It is essential now to use technology and automation to increase productivity in businesses. Only those companies will survive that are applying this strategy. The Pandemic has ultimately changed entrepreneurs' and employees' behavior in the business world. Along with Ph.D. professors, entrepreneurs should be allowed to teach at learning intuitions. Millennials turn out to be the most entrepreneurial generation in both countries. Entrepreneurship education will only be beneficial when students create businesses and learn from real-life experiences. Managing physical, mental, emotional, and psychological health while dealing with high pressure in entrepreneurship are soft skills learned through practical work.

Keywords: entrepreneurship education, millennials, pandemic, Denmark, Canada

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1 Morphological Transformation of Traditional Cities: The Case Study of the Historic Center of the City of Najaf

Authors: Sabeeh Lafta Farhan, Ihsan Abbass Jasim, Sohaib Kareem Al-Mamoori

Abstract:

This study addresses the subject of transformation of urban structures and how does this transformation affect the character of traditional cities, which represents the research issue. Hence, the research has aimed at studying and learning about the urban structure characteristics and morphological transformation features in the traditional cities centers, and to look for means and methods to preserve the character of those cities. Cities are not merely locations inhabited by a large number of people, they are political and legal entities, in addition to economic activities that distinguish these cities, thus, they are a complex set of institutions, and the transformation in urban environment cannot be recognized without understanding these relationships. The research presumes an existing impact of urbanization on the properties of traditional structure of the Holy City of Najaf. The research has defined urbanization as restructuring and re-planning of urban areas that have lost their functions and bringing them into social and cultural life in the city, to be able to serve economy in order to better respond to the needs of users. Sacred Cities provide the organic connection between acts of worship and dealings and reveal the mechanisms and reasons behind the regulatory nature of the sacred shrine and their role in achieving organizational assimilation of urban morphology. The research has reached a theoretical framework of the particulars of urbanization. This framework has been applied to the historic center of the old city of Najaf, where the most important findings of the research were that the visual and structural dominant presence of holy shrine of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) remains to emphasize the visual particularity, and the main role of the city, which hosts one of the most important Muslim shrines in the world, in addition to the visible golden dome rising above the skyline, and the Imam Ali Mosque the hub and the center for religious activities. Thus, in view of being a place of main importance and a symbol of religious and Islamic culture, it is very important to have the shrine of Imam Ali (AS) prevailing on all zones of re-development in the old city. Consequently, the research underlined that the distinctive and unique character of the city of Najaf did not proceed from nothing, but was achieved through the unrivaled characteristics and features possessed by the city of Najaf alone, which allowed it and enabled it to occupy this status among the Arab and Muslim cities. That is why the activities arising from the development have to enhance the historical role of the city in order to have this development as clear support, strength and further addition to the city assets and its cultural heritage, and not seeing the developmental activities crushing the city urban traditional fabric, cultural heritage and its historical specificity.

Keywords: Iraq, the city of Najaf, heritage, traditional cities, morphological transformation

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