Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 91

Search results for: Sinai Peninsula

91 Present and Future Climate Extreme Indices over Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

Authors: Mahmoud Roushdi, Hany Mostafa, Khaled Kheireldin


Sinai Peninsula and Suez Canal Corridor are promising and important economic regions in Egypt due to the unique location and development opportunities. Thus, the climate change impacts should be assessed over the mentioned area. Accordingly, this paper aims to assess the climate extreme indices in through the last 35 year over Sinai Peninsula and Suez Canal Corridor in addition to predict the climate extreme indices up to 2100. Present and future climate indices were analyzed with using different RCP scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 from 2010 until 2100 for Sinai Peninsula and Suez Canal Corridor. Furthermore, both CanESM and HadGEM2 global circulation models were used. The results indicate that the number of summer days is predicted to increase, on the other hand the frost days is predicted to decrease. Moreover, it is noted a slight positive trend for the percentile of wet and extremely days R95p and R99p for RCP4.5 and negative trend for RCP8.5.

Keywords: climate change, extreme indices, RCP, Sinai Peninsula

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90 Spatiotemporal Variability in Rainfall Trends over Sinai Peninsula Using Nonparametric Methods and Discrete Wavelet Transforms

Authors: Mosaad Khadr


Knowledge of the temporal and spatial variability of rainfall trends has been of great concern for efficient water resource planning, management. In this study annual, seasonal and monthly rainfall trends over the Sinai Peninsula were analyzed by using absolute homogeneity tests, nonparametric Mann–Kendall (MK) test and Sen’s slope estimator methods. The homogeneity of rainfall time-series was examined using four absolute homogeneity tests namely, the Pettitt test, standard normal homogeneity test, Buishand range test, and von Neumann ratio test. Further, the sequential change in the trend of annual and seasonal rainfalls is conducted using sequential MK (SQMK) method. Then the trend analysis based on discrete wavelet transform technique (DWT) in conjunction with SQMK method is performed. The spatial patterns of the detected rainfall trends were investigated using a geostatistical and deterministic spatial interpolation technique. The results achieved from the Mann–Kendall test to the data series (using the 5% significance level) highlighted that rainfall was generally decreasing in January, February, March, November, December, wet season, and annual rainfall. A significant decreasing trend in the winter and annual rainfall with significant levels were inferred based on the Mann-Kendall rank statistics and linear trend. Further, the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) analysis reveal that in general, intra- and inter-annual events (up to 4 years) are more influential in affecting the observed trends. The nature of the trend captured by both methods is similar for all of the cases. On the basis of spatial trend analysis, significant rainfall decreases were also noted in the investigated stations. Overall, significant downward trends in winter and annual rainfall over the Sinai Peninsula was observed during the study period.

Keywords: trend analysis, rainfall, Mann–Kendall test, discrete wavelet transform, Sinai Peninsula

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89 Effect of Irrigation Interval on Jojoba Plants under Circumstance of Sinai

Authors: E. Khattab, S. Halla


Jojoba plants are characterized by a tolerance of water stress, but due to the conditions of the Sinai in which the water is less, an irrigation interval study was carried out the jojoba plant from water stress without affecting the yield of oil. The field experiment was carried out at Maghara Research Station at North Sinai, Desert Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt, to study the effect of irrigation interval on five clones of jojoba plants S-L, S-610, S- 700, S-B and S-G on growth and yield characters. Results showed that the clone S-700 has increase of all growth and yield characters under all interval irrigation compare with other clones. All variable of studied confirmed that clones of jojoba had significant effect with irrigation interval at one week but decrease value with three weeks. Jojoba plants tolerance to water stress but irrigation interval every week increased seed yield.

Keywords: interval irrigation, growth and yield characters, oil, jojoba, Sinai

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88 Genomic Diversity and Relationship among Arabian Peninsula Dromedary Camels Using Full Genome Sequencing Approach

Authors: H. Bahbahani, H. Musa, F. Al Mathen


The dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) are single-humped even-toed ungulates populating the African Sahara, Arabian Peninsula, and Southwest Asia. The genome of this desert-adapted species has been minimally investigated using autosomal microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers. In this study, the genomes of 33 dromedary camel samples from different parts of the Arabian Peninsula were sequenced using Illumina Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) platform. These data were combined with Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) data from African (Sudanese) dromedaries to investigate the genomic relationship between African and Arabian Peninsula dromedary camels. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and average genome-wide admixture analysis were be conducted on these data to tackle the objectives of these studies. Both of the two analyses conducted revealed phylogeographic distinction between these two camel populations. However, no breed-wise genetic classification has been revealed among the African (Sudanese) camel breeds. The Arabian Peninsula camel populations also show higher heterozygosity than the Sudanese camels. The results of this study explain the evolutionary history and migration of African dromedary camels from their center of domestication in the southern Arabian Peninsula. These outputs help scientists to further understand the evolutionary history of dromedary camels, which might impact in conserving the favorable genetic of this species.

Keywords: dromedary, genotyping-by-sequencing, Arabian Peninsula, Sudan

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87 Determining Optimum Locations for Runoff Water Harvesting in W. Watir, South Sinai, Using RS, GIS, and WMS Techniques

Authors: H. H. Elewa, E. M. Ramadan, A. M. Nosair


Rainfall water harvesting is considered as an important tool for overcoming water scarcity in arid and semi-arid region. Wadi Watir in the southeastern part of Sinai Peninsula is considered as one of the main and active basins in the Gulf of Aqaba drainage system. It is characterized by steep hills mainly consist of impermeable rocks, whereas the streambeds are covered by a highly permeable mixture of gravel and sand. A comprehensive approach involving the integration of geographic information systems, remote sensing and watershed modeling was followed to identify the RWH capability in this area. Eight thematic layers, viz volume of annual flood, overland flow distance, maximum flow distance, rock or soil infiltration, drainage frequency density, basin area, basin slope and basin length were used as a multi-parametric decision support system for conducting weighted spatial probability models (WSPMs) to determine the potential areas for the RWH. The WSPMs maps classified the area into five RWH potentiality classes ranging from the very low to very high. Three performed WSPMs' scenarios for W. Watir reflected identical results among their maps for the high and very high RWH potentiality classes, which are the most suitable ones for conducting surface water harvesting techniques. There is also a reasonable match with respect to the potentiality of runoff harvesting areas with a probability of moderate, low and very low among the three scenarios. WSPM results have shown that the high and very high classes, which are the most suitable for the RWH are representing approximately 40.23% of the total area of the basin. Accordingly, several locations were decided for the establishment of water harvesting dams and cisterns to improve the water conditions and living environment in the study area.

Keywords: Sinai, Wadi Watir, remote sensing, geographic information systems, watershed modeling, runoff water harvesting

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86 Educating on Historic Preservation in the Alabama Gulf Coast: The Case of the Peninsula of Mobile

Authors: Asmaa Benbaba


A series of action plans motivated this work within the city of mobile as the big category and the Peninsula more particularly. Most of the projects sought to educate about the historical and environmental assets of the place, to improve aesthetics, to preserve the natural resources on the Bayou, spread awareness, and reach out to the community. This study was conducted to preserve significant heritage landscapes, and significant historic buildings in the neighborhood of the Peninsula of Mobile at the state of Alabama, while simultaneously strengthen the cultural and historical resources. The purpose of this planning action was to provide planning regulations for the suburban areas of Mobile in Alabama. The plan attempted to overlap three main layers: community, environment, and history. The method that was used to collect data and conduct research was mainly qualitative. The Geographic Information System (GIS) was the tool used to represent this complexity. Results from this study revealed several interventions made to 'neighborhood marina.' The interventions were strategic scenarios to preserve the water landscape, create affordable leisure, connect the Dauphin Island Parkway to the water, preserve all the environmental layers, and add value to the neighborhoods of the Peninsula.

Keywords: community outreach, education, historic preservation, peninsula

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85 Selenium Content in Agricultural Soils and Wheat from the Balkan Peninsula

Authors: S. Krustev, V. Angelova, P. Zaprjanova


Selenium (Se) is an essential micro-nutrient for human and animals but it is highly toxic. Its organic compounds play an important role in biochemistry and nutrition of the cells. Concentration levels of this element in the different regions of the world vary considerably. This study aimed to compare the availability and levels of the Se in some rural areas of the Balkan Peninsula and relationship with the concentrations of other trace elements. For this purpose soil samples and wheat grains from different regions of Bulgaria, Serbia, Nord Macedonia, Romania, and Greece situated far from large industrial centers have been analyzed. The main methods for their determination were the atomic spectral techniques – atomic absorption and plasma atomic emission. As a result of this study, data on microelements levels from the main grain-producing regions of the Balkan Peninsula were determined and systematized. The presented results confirm the low levels of Se in this region: 0.222– 0.962 in soils and 0.001 - 0.005 in wheat grains and require measures to offset the effect of this deficiency.

Keywords: agricultural soils, balkan peninsula, rural areas, selenium

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84 Ants of the Genus Trichomyrmex Mayr, 1865 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Arabian Peninsula, with Description of Two New Species

Authors: Mostafa R. Sharaf, Shehzad Salman, Hathal M. Al Dhafer, Shahid A. Akbar, Abdulrahman S. Aldawood


The ant genus Trichomyrmex Mayr is revised for the Arabian Peninsula based on the worker caste. Nine species are recognized and descriptions of two new species, T. almosayari sp. n. and T. shakeri sp. n. from Riyadh Province, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) are given. A key to species and diagnostic characters of the treated species are presented. New country records are presented, T. abyssinicus (Forel) for the KSA and T. destructor (Jerdon) and T. mayri (Forel) for the State of Qatar. New distribution records for T. destructor (Jerdon) and T. mayri (Forel) in the KSA are provided. Regional and world distributions, and distribution maps for the treated species are included. Ecological and biological data are given where known.

Keywords: ants, Trichomyrmex, Arabian Peninsula, T. almosayari, T. shakeri

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83 Assessment of Gamma Radiation Exposure of Soils Associated with Granitic Rocks in Kapıdağ Peninsula, Turkey

Authors: Buket Canbaz Öztürk, N. Füsun Çam, Günseli Yaprak, Osman Candan


The external terrestrial radiation exposure is related to the types of rock from which the soils originate. Higher radiation levels are associated with igneous rocks, such as granite, and lower levels with sedimentary rocks. Therefore, this study aims to assess the gamma radiation exposure of soils associated with granitic rocks in Kapıdağ Peninsula, Turkey. In the ongoing study, a comprehensive survey carried out systematically as a part of the environmental monitoring program on radiologic impact of the granitoid areas in Western Anatolia. The activity measurements of the gamma emitters (238U, 232Th and 40K) in the surface soil samples and the granitic rocks carried out by means of NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometry system. To evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the absorbed dose rate (D), the annual effective dose rate (AED), the radium equivalent activity (Raeq) and the external (Hex) hazard index were calculated according to the UNSCEAR 2000 report. The corresponding absorbed dose rates in air from all natural radionuclides were always much lower than 200 nGy h-1 and did not exceed the typical range of worldwide average values noticed in the UNSCEAR (2000) report. Furthermore, the correlation between soil and granitic rock samples were utilized, and external gamma radiation exposure distribution was mapped in Kapıdağ Peninsula.

Keywords: external absorbed dose, granitic rocks, Kapıdağ Peninsula, soil

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82 Seawater Changes' Estimation at Tidal Flat in Korean Peninsula Using Drone Stereo Images

Authors: Hyoseong Lee, Duk-jin Kim, Jaehong Oh, Jungil Shin


Tidal flat in Korean peninsula is one of the largest biodiversity tidal flats in the world. Therefore, digital elevation models (DEM) is continuously demanded to monitor of the tidal flat. In this study, DEM of tidal flat, according to different times, was produced by means of the Drone and commercial software in order to measure seawater change during high tide at water-channel in tidal flat. To correct the produced DEMs of the tidal flat where is inaccessible to collect control points, the DEM matching method was applied by using the reference DEM instead of the survey. After the ortho-image was made from the corrected DEM, the land cover classified image was produced. The changes of seawater amount according to the times were analyzed by using the classified images and DEMs. As a result, it was confirmed that the amount of water rapidly increased as the time passed during high tide.

Keywords: tidal flat, drone, DEM, seawater change

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81 Using Seismic and GPS Data for Hazard Estimation in Some Active Regions in Egypt

Authors: Abdel-Monem Sayed Mohamed


Egypt rapidly growing development is accompanied by increasing levels of standard living particular in its urban areas. However, there is a limited experience in quantifying the sources of risk management in Egypt and in designing efficient strategies to keep away serious impacts of earthquakes. From the historical point of view and recent instrumental records, there are some seismo-active regions in Egypt, where some significant earthquakes had occurred in different places. The special tectonic features in Egypt: Aswan, Greater Cairo, Red Sea and Sinai Peninsula regions are the territories of a high seismic risk, which have to be monitored by up-to date technologies. The investigations of the seismic events and interpretations led to evaluate the seismic hazard for disaster prevention and for the safety of the dense populated regions and the vital national projects as the High Dam. In addition to the monitoring of the recent crustal movements, the most powerful technique of satellite geodesy GPS are used where geodetic networks are covering such seismo-active regions. The results from the data sets are compared and combined in order to determine the main characteristics of the deformation and hazard estimation for specified regions. The final compiled output from the seismological and geodetic analysis threw lights upon the geodynamical regime of these seismo-active regions and put Aswan and Greater Cairo under the lowest class according to horizontal crustal strains classifications. This work will serve a basis for the development of so-called catastrophic models and can be further used for catastrophic risk management. Also, this work is trying to evaluate risk of large catastrophic losses within the important regions including the High Dam, strategic buildings and archeological sites. Studies on possible scenarios of earthquakes and losses are a critical issue for decision making in insurance as a part of mitigation measures.

Keywords: b-value, Gumbel distribution, seismic and GPS data, strain parameters

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80 Reproductive Biology of Fringe-Lipped Carp, Labeo fimbriatus (Bloch) from Vanivilas Sagar Reservoir of Karnataka, India

Authors: K. B. Rajanna, P. Nayana, H. N. Anjanayappa, N. Chethan


The ‘fringed - lipped’ peninsula carp Labeo fimbriatus is a potential and an abundant fish species in rivers and reservoirs of peninsular India. It contributes a part of the inland fish production and also plays a role in the rural economy in major carp deficient regions of India. The fish is locally called as ‘Kemmeenu’ in Karnataka. Month wise samples were collected from the Vanivilasa Sagar Reservoir fish landing centre and fishing villages around the reservoir. Present investigation on the reproductive biology showed the occurrence of ripe gonads more during October, November, December and January. Thus it is concluded that spawning season coinciding with monsoon season and the size at maturity was found to be 36 and 37 cm total length (M and F). This study will throw light on reproductive biology of fish for captive brood stock development, breeding and rearing of Labeo fimbriatus. Since this fish is commercial important the study would help to take up hatchery production.

Keywords: inland, maturity, peninsula carp, reservoir

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79 Taphonomy and Paleoecology of Cenomanian Oysters (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from Egypt

Authors: Ahmed El-Sabbagh, Heba Mansour, Magdy El-Hedeny


This study provided a taphonomic alteration and paleoecology of Cenomanian oysters from the Musabaa Salama area, south western Sinai, Egypt. Three oyster zones can be recognized in the studied area, a lower one of Amphidonte (Ceratostreon) flabellatum (lower-middle Cenomanian), a middle zone of Ilymatogyra (Afrogyra) africana (upper Cenomanian) and an upper one of Exogyra (Costagyra) olisiponensis (upper Cenomanian). Taphonomic features including disarticulation, fragmentation, encrustation and bioerosion were subjected to multivariate statistical analyses. The analyses showed that the distributions of the identified ichnospecies were greatly similar within the identified oyster zones in the Musabaa Salama section. With rare exceptions, Entobia cretacea, Gastrochaenolites torpedo and Maeandropolydora decipiens are considered as common to abundant ichnospecies within the three recorded oyster zones. In contrast, and with some exceptions, E. ovula, E. retiformis and Rogerella pattei are considered as frequent to common ichnospecies within the identified oyster zones. Other ichnospecies, including Caulostrepsis cretacea, G. orbicularis, Trypanites solitarius, E. geometrica and C. taeniola, are mostly recorded in rare to frequent occurrences. Careful investigation of these host shells and the preserved encrusters and/or bioerosion sculptures provided data concerning: 1) the substrate characteristics, 2) time of encrustation and bioerosion, 3) rate of sedimentation, 4) the planktonic productivity level, and 5) the general bathymetry and the rate of transgression across the substrate.

Keywords: oysters, Cenomanian, taphonomy, palaeoecology, Sinai, Egypt

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78 Supply Chain of Energy Resources and Its Alternatives Due to the Arab Spring: The Case of Egyptian Natural Gas Flow to Jordan

Authors: Moh’d Anwer Al-Shboul


The year 2011 was a challenging year for Jordanian economy, which felt a variety of effects from the Arab Spring which took place in neighboring countries. Since February, 5th 2012, the Arab Gas Supply Pipeline, which carries natural gas from Egypt through the Sinai Peninsula and to Jordan and Israel, has been attacked more than 39 times. Jordan imported about 80 percent of its necessity of natural gas (about 250 million cubic feet of natural gas per day) from Egypt to generate particularly electricity, with the reminder of being produced locally. Jordan has utilized multiple alternatives to address the interruption of available natural gas supply from Egypt. The Jordanian distributed power plants now rely on the use of heavy fuel oil and diesel for electricity generation, in this case, it costs Jordan about four times than natural gas. The substitution of Egyptian natural gas supplies by fuel oil and diesel, coupled with the 32 percent rise in global fuel prices, has increased Jordan’s energy import bill by over 50 percent in 2011, reaching more than 16 percent of the 2011 GDP. The increase in the cost of electricity generation pushed the Jordanian economy to borrow from multiple internal and external resource channels, thus increasing the public debt. The Jordanian government’s short-term solution to the reduced natural gas supply from Egypt was alternatively purchasing the necessary quantities from some Gulf countries such as Qatar and/or Saudi Arabia, which can be imported with two possible methods. The first method is to rent a ship equipped with a liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal, which is currently operating. The second method requires equipping the Aqaba port with an LNG terminal, which also currently is operating. In the long-term, a viable solution to depending on importing expensive and often unreliable natural gas supplies from surrounding countries is to depend more heavily on renewable supply energy, including solar, wind, and water energy.

Keywords: energy supply resources, Arab spring, liquefied natural gas, pipeline, Jordan

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
77 A Study on Solutions to Connect Distribution Power Grid up to Renewable Energy Sources at KEPCO

Authors: Seung Yoon Hyun, Hyeong Seung An, Myeong Ho Choi, Sung Hwan Bae, Yu Jong Sim


In 2015, the southern part of the Korean Peninsula has 8.6 million poles, 1.25 million km power lines, and 2 million transformers, etc. It is the massive amount of distribution equipments which could cover a round-trip distance from the earth to the moon and 11 turns around the earth. These distribution equipments are spread out like capillaries and supplying power to every corner of the Korean Peninsula. In order to manage these huge power facility efficiently, KEPCO use DAS (Distribution Automation System) to operate distribution power system since 1997. DAS is integrated system that enables to remotely supervise and control breakers and switches on distribution network. Using DAS, we can reduce outage time and power loss. KEPCO has about 160,000 switches, 50%(about 80,000) of switches are automated, and 41 distribution center monitoring&control these switches 24-hour 365 days to get the best efficiency of distribution networks. However, the rapid increasing renewable energy sources become the problem in the efficient operation of distributed power system. (currently 2,400 MW, 75,000 generators operate in distribution power system). In this paper, it suggests the way to interconnect between renewable energy source and distribution power system.

Keywords: distribution, renewable, connect, DAS (Distribution Automation System)

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
76 An Iberian Study about Location of Parking Areas for Dangerous Goods

Authors: María Dolores Caro, Eugenio M. Fedriani, Ángel F. Tenorio


When lorries transport dangerous goods, there exist some legal stipulations in the European Union for assuring the security of the rest of road users as well as of those goods being transported. At this respect, lorry drivers cannot park in usual parking areas, because they must use parking areas with special conditions, including permanent supervision of security personnel. Moreover, drivers are compelled to satisfy additional regulations about resting and driving times, which involve in the practical possibility of reaching the suitable parking areas under these time parameters. The “European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road” (ADR) is the basic regulation on transportation of dangerous goods imposed under the recommendations of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. Indeed, nowadays there are no enough parking areas adapted for dangerous goods and no complete study have suggested the best locations to build new areas or to adapt others already existing to provide the areas being necessary so that lorry drivers can follow all the regulations. The goal of this paper is to show how many additional parking areas should be built in the Iberian Peninsula to allow that lorry drivers may park in such areas under their restrictions in resting and driving time. To do so, we have modeled the problem via graph theory and we have applied a new efficient algorithm which determines an optimal solution for the problem of locating new parking areas to complement those already existing in the ADR for the Iberian Peninsula. The solution can be considered minimal since the number of additional parking areas returned by the algorithm is minimal in quantity. Obviously, graph theory is a natural way to model and solve the problem here proposed because we have considered as nodes: the already-existing parking areas, the loading-and-unloading locations and the bifurcations of roads; while each edge between two nodes represents the existence of a road between both nodes (the distance between nodes is the edge's weight). Except for bifurcations, all the nodes correspond to parking areas already existing and, hence, the problem corresponds to determining the additional nodes in the graph such that there are less up to 100 km between two nodes representing parking areas. (maximal distance allowed by the European regulations).

Keywords: dangerous goods, parking areas, Iberian peninsula, graph-based modeling

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75 Conservation of Sea Turtle in Cox’s Bazar- Teknaf Peninsula and Sonadia Island Ecologically Critical Area (ECA) of Bangladesh

Authors: Pronob Kumar Mozumder M. Nazrul Islam, M. Abdur Rob Mollah


This study was conducted in Cox’s Bazar-Teknaf Peninsula and Sonadia Island Ecologically Critical Areas during the period of October, 2011 to June, 2013. Six species of marine turtle are found in the Indian Ocean. Among them, olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) listed as endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Marine turtle populations in the Indian Ocean have been depleted through long-term exploitation of eggs and adults, incidental capture (fisheries bycatch) and many other sources of mortality. The specific objective of the study was to conserve the sea turtles specially the olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) with a view to contribute towards protection of the turtle species from extinction and to facilitate hatching of eggs through providing protection to turtle eggs or nest through ex-situ conservation efforts. In order to achieve the desired outputs and success, a total of five turtle hatcheries were established at Pechardwip, Khurermukh, Hazompara, Bodormokam, and Sonadia Eastpara sites. In total, 31,853 eggs were collected from 260 nests and were transferred to five hatcheries. The number of eggs/nest varied from 38 to 190 with an average clutch size of 122 eggs/ nest. Hatching of eggs took place during January to June with a peak in April. Sea turtle eggs were incubated by metabolic heat and the heat of the sun. The incubation period of turtle eggs in Cox’s Bazar-Teknaf Peninsula and Sonadia Island ECAs extended from 54 to 75 days depending on the month with an average of 66 days. During study period the temperature in the ECAs varied between 10.5-34.5°C. A total of 27,937 hatchlings of turtle were produced from the five hatcheries and all the hatchlings produced were released into the sea. Hatching rates varied from 74-98 % depending on the location and months with an average of 88 %. Sea turtles spend the majority of their lives in the sea, only emerging on beaches to nest. Despite the intense conservation efforts on the beaches, some populations have still declined to the edge of extinction. So proper conservation and awareness measure should be taken for prevention of turtle extinction.

Keywords: conservation of sea turtle, Bangladesh, ecologically critical area, ECA, Lepidochelys olivacea

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74 Analysis of Ozone Episodes in the Forest and Vegetation Areas with Using HYSPLIT Model: A Case Study of the North-West Side of Biga Peninsula, Turkey

Authors: Deniz Sari, Selahattin İncecik, Nesimi Ozkurt


Surface ozone, which named as one of the most critical pollutants in the 21th century, threats to human health, forest and vegetation. Specifically, in rural areas surface ozone cause significant influences on agricultural productions and trees. In this study, in order to understand to the surface ozone levels in rural areas we focus on the north-western side of Biga Peninsula which covers by the mountainous and forested area. Ozone concentrations were measured for the first time with passive sampling at 10 sites and two online monitoring stations in this rural area from 2013 and 2015. Using with the daytime hourly O3 measurements during light hours (08:00–20:00) exceeding the threshold of 40 ppb over the 3 months (May, June and July) for agricultural crops, and over the six months (April to September) for forest trees AOT40 (Accumulated hourly O3 concentrations Over a Threshold of 40 ppb) cumulative index was calculated. AOT40 is defined by EU Directive 2008/50/EC to evaluate whether ozone pollution is a risk for vegetation, and is calculated by using hourly ozone concentrations from monitoring systems. In the present study, we performed the trajectory analysis by The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to follow the long-range transport sources contributing to the high ozone levels in the region. The ozone episodes observed between 2013 and 2015 were analysed using the HYSPLIT model developed by the NOAA-ARL. In addition, the cluster analysis is used to identify homogeneous groups of air mass transport patterns can be conducted through air trajectory clustering by grouping similar trajectories in terms of air mass movement. Backward trajectories produced for 3 years by HYSPLIT model were assigned to different clusters according to their moving speed and direction using a k-means clustering algorithm. According to cluster analysis results, northerly flows to study area cause to high ozone levels in the region. The results present that the ozone values in the study area are above the critical levels for forest and vegetation based on EU Directive 2008/50/EC.

Keywords: AOT40, Biga Peninsula, HYSPLIT, surface ozone

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73 Evaluation of the Beach Erosion Process in Varadero, Matanzas, Cuba: Effects of Different Hurricane Trajectories

Authors: Ana Gabriela Diaz, Luis Fermín Córdova, Jr., Roberto Lamazares


The island of Cuba, the largest of the Greater Antilles, is located in the tropical North Atlantic. It is annually affected by numerous weather events, which have caused severe damage to our coastal areas. In the same way that many other coastlines around the world, the beautiful beaches of the Hicacos Peninsula also suffer from erosion. This leads to a structural regression of the coastline. If measures are not taken, the hotels will be exposed to the advance of the sea, and it will be a serious problem for the economy. With the aim of studying the intensity of this type of activity, specialists of group of coastal and marine engineering from CIH, in the framework of the research conducted within the project MEGACOSTAS 2, provide their research to simulate extreme events and assess their impact in coastal areas, mainly regarding the definition of flood volumes and morphodynamic changes in sandy beaches. The main objective of this work is the evaluation of the process of Varadero beach erosion (the coastal sector has an important impact in the country's economy) on the Hicacos Peninsula for different paths of hurricanes. The mathematical model XBeach, which was integrated into the Coastal engineering system introduced by the project of MEGACOSTA 2 to determine the area and the more critical profiles for the path of hurricanes under study, was applied. The results of this project have shown that Center area is the greatest dynamic area in the simulation of the three paths of hurricanes under study, showing high erosion volumes and the greatest average length of regression of the coastline, from 15- 22 m.

Keywords: beach, erosion, mathematical model, coastal areas

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
72 Evaluation of Limestone as Self-Curing Aggregate for Concretes in the Southeast of Yucatan Peninsula

Authors: D. G. Rejon-Parra, B. Escobar-Morales, Romeli Barbosa, J. C. Cruz


In the southeast of Yucatan Peninsula, sedimentary limestone has different degrees of compaction. Due to its recent geological formation (Quaternary) and weathering effects causing an affordable aggregate for local manufacturers of concrete. It is characterized as lightweight aggregates (average density of 2,50), susceptible to abrasion and varying porosities (water content exceeding 7,50 % of its mass, in saturated condition). In this study, local aggregates with two moisture conditions (saturated and dry), have been examined in order to compare them for optimizing the performance of concrete. It is possible that these aggregates favour a phenomenon of mass transport (self-curing by porous aggregate); influencing the water reactions to form crystalline and gel hydration products. Based on the ACI methodology, a concrete mixture of 250 kg/cm2 was designed, with portland blended cement 30R. The bond between the mortar and the coarse aggregate was characterized as physicochemical based on trials which were carefully observed during time span of 28 days. The BET technique was used to analyse the micro porosity and surface areas of contact of the different crystalline phases of the limestone. Its chemical composition and crystal structures were verified with scanning electron microscopy SEM-EDS. On the third day, the samples with saturated aggregate reached 237 kg/cm2 of resistence, nearly the design strength; while samples with dry aggregate, exceeded the design strength, with a capacity of 308 kg/cm2. Aggregates in dry conditions demand a high quantity of water in the initial mixture, causing high resistance at the early stages. In saturated conditions, the development of resistance is progressive but constant.

Keywords: concrete, internal curing, limestone aggregate, porosity

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71 Impact of Lack of Testing on Patient Recovery in the Early Phase of COVID-19: Narratively Collected Perspectives from a Remote Monitoring Program

Authors: Nicki Mohammadi, Emma Reford, Natalia Romano Spica, Laura Tabacof, Jenna Tosto-Mancuso, David Putrino, Christopher P. Kellner


Introductory Statement: The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic demanded an unprecedented need for the rapid development, dispersal, and application of infection testing. However, despite the impressive mobilization of resources, individuals were incredibly limited in their access to tests, particularly during the initial months of the pandemic (March-April 2020) in New York City (NYC). Access to COVID-19 testing is crucial in understanding patients’ illness experiences and integral to the development of COVID-19 standard-of-care protocols, especially in the context of overall access to healthcare resources. Succinct Description of basic methodologies: 18 Patients in a COVID-19 Remote Patient Monitoring Program (Precision Recovery within the Mount Sinai Health System) were interviewed regarding their experience with COVID-19 during the first wave (March-May 2020) of the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City. Patients were asked about their experiences navigating COVID-19 diagnoses, the health care system, and their recovery process. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for thematic codes, using grounded theory to guide the identification of emergent themes and codebook development through an iterative process. Data coding was performed using NVivo12. References for the domain “testing” were then extracted and analyzed for themes and statistical patterns. Clear Indication of Major Findings of the study: 100% of participants (18/18) referenced COVID-19 testing in their interviews, with a total of 79 references across the 18 transcripts (average: 4.4 references/interview; 2.7% interview coverage). 89% of participants (16/18) discussed the difficulty of access to testing, including denial of testing without high severity of symptoms, geographical distance to the testing site, and lack of testing resources at healthcare centers. Participants shared varying perspectives on how the lack of certainty regarding their COVID-19 status affected their course of recovery. One participant shared that because she never tested positive she was shielded from her anxiety and fear, given the death toll in NYC. Another group of participants shared that not having a concrete status to share with family, friends and professionals affected how seriously onlookers took their symptoms. Furthermore, the absence of a positive test barred some individuals from access to treatment programs and employment support. Concluding Statement: Lack of access to COVID-19 testing in the first wave of the pandemic in NYC was a prominent element of patients’ illness experience, particularly during their recovery phase. While for some the lack of concrete results was protective, most emphasized the invalidating effect this had on the perception of illness for both self and others. COVID-19 testing is now widely accessible; however, those who are unable to demonstrate a positive test result but who are still presumed to have had COVID-19 in the first wave must continue to adapt to and live with the effects of this gap in knowledge and care on their recovery. Future efforts are required to ensure that patients do not face barriers to care due to the lack of testing and are reassured regarding their access to healthcare. Affiliations- 1Department of Neurosurgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 2Abilities Research Center, Department of Rehabilitation and Human Performance, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY

Keywords: accessibility, COVID-19, recovery, testing

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70 Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change on Climatic Zones over the Korean Peninsula for Natural Disaster Management Information

Authors: Sejin Jung, Dongho Kang, Byungsik Kim


Assessing the impact of climate change requires the use of a multi-model ensemble (MME) to quantify uncertainties between scenarios and produce downscaled outlines for simulation of climate under the influence of different factors, including topography. This study decreases climate change scenarios from the 13 global climate models (GCMs) to assess the impacts of future climate change. Unlike South Korea, North Korea lacks in studies using climate change scenarios of the CoupledModelIntercomparisonProject (CMIP5), and only recently did the country start the projection of extreme precipitation episodes. One of the main purposes of this study is to predict changes in the average climatic conditions of North Korea in the future. The result of comparing downscaled climate change scenarios with observation data for a reference period indicates high applicability of the Multi-Model Ensemble (MME). Furthermore, the study classifies climatic zones by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system to the MME, which is validated for future precipitation and temperature. The result suggests that the continental climate (D) that covers the inland area for the reference climate is expected to shift into the temperate climate (C). The coefficient of variation (CVs) in the temperature ensemble is particularly low for the southern coast of the Korean peninsula, and accordingly, a high possibility of the shifting climatic zone of the coast is predicted. This research was supported by a grant (MOIS-DP-2015-05) of Disaster Prediction and Mitigation Technology Development Program funded by Ministry of Interior and Safety (MOIS, Korea).

Keywords: MME, North Korea, Koppen–Geiger, climatic zones, coefficient of variation, CV

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69 Decision Support System for the Management of the Shandong Peninsula, China

Authors: Natacha Fery, Guilherme L. Dalledonne, Xiangyang Zheng, Cheng Tang, Roberto Mayerle


A Decision Support System (DSS) for supporting decision makers in the management of the Shandong Peninsula has been developed. Emphasis has been given to coastal protection, coastal cage aquaculture and harbors. The investigations were done in the framework of a joint research project funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). In this paper, a description of the DSS, the development of its components, and results of its application are presented. The system integrates in-situ measurements, process-based models, and a database management system. Numerical models for the simulation of flow, waves, sediment transport and morphodynamics covering the entire Bohai Sea are set up based on the Delft3D modelling suite (Deltares). Calibration and validation of the models were realized based on the measurements of moored Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) and High Frequency (HF) radars. In order to enable cost-effective and scalable applications, a database management system was developed. It enhances information processing, data evaluation, and supports the generation of data products. Results of the application of the DSS to the management of coastal protection, coastal cage aquaculture and harbors are presented here. Model simulations covering the most severe storms observed during the last decades were carried out leading to an improved understanding of hydrodynamics and morphodynamics. Results helped in the identification of coastal stretches subjected to higher levels of energy and improved support for coastal protection measures.

Keywords: coastal protection, decision support system, in-situ measurements, numerical modelling

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68 Assessment of the Bataan Peninsula State University Food Technology Situation

Authors: Rosemarie P. Ongoco, Rowena S. Badua, Kristine Joy S. Simpao, Ria L. Dizon


Food Technology (FT) has become a very powerful field in dealing with the processing of food making it available, safe, tasty and convenient. Bataan Peninsula State University (BPSU) has been offering FT as a major of the Bachelor of Science in Industrial Technology, both in the Main and Orani campuses since the 1970s. With the different orientation of FT offered in state universities and colleges, whether it is skill or science-based, this study aims to assess the current FT situation in BPSU. Curriculum, faculty profile and facilities of FT in BPSU were assessed and compared to the other FT related program in three state universities in Region III; Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology, Pampanga Agricultural College, and Central Luzon State University. Data were gathered through structured interview, ocular inspection for the facilities and questionnaires for the teacher and students’ personal interest. Results show that BPSU’s FT program is more likely similar to the one offered in NEUST. PAC is offering a similar course but is more business and management-oriented BS Home Economics while CLSU is offering a science and technology-related course, BS Home Economics while CLSU is offering a science and technology-related course, BS Food Technology. BPSU students more intercede in cooking and baking while doing sales report, dishwashing and food packaging are the activities faculty and students are least interested. Mechanized machines in cooking and baking are also suggested by the majority of the students in BPSU. In conclusion, BPSU’s program in BS IT major in Food Technology must be improved in the aspects of curriculum, faculty profile, and facilities. It is recommended for the department to consider the curriculum, faculty profile, and facilities. It is recommended for the department to consider the curriculum of NEUST in the BS IT major in Food Technology.

Keywords: food technology, curriculum, technology, assessment

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67 Genesis and Survival Chance of Autotriploid in Natural Diploid Population of Lilium lancifolium Thunb

Authors: Ji-Won Park, Jong-Wha Kim


Triploid L. lancifolium have a wide geographic distribution. By contrast, diploid L. lancifolium have limited distributions in the islands and coastal regions of the South and West Korean Peninsula and northern Tsushima Island, Japan. L. lancifolium diploids and triploids are not sympatrically distributed with other lily species or ploidy lines in West Sea and South Sea Islands of the Korean Peninsula. This observation raises the following questions: 'Why have autotriploid L. lancifolium never been observed in those isolated islands?', 'What mechanism excludes the occurrence of autotriploids, if they arise?'. To determine the occurrence and survival of triploid plants in natural diploid populations of tiger lily (Lilium lancifolium), ploidy analysis was conducted on natural open-pollinated seeds produced from plants grown on isolated islands, and on hybrid seeds produced by artificial crossing between plant populations originating on different Korean islands. Normal seeds were classified into five grades depending on the ratio of embryo/endosperm lengths, including 5/5, 4/5, 3/5, 2/5, and 1/5. Triploids were not observed among seedlings produced from natural open pollinations on isolated islands. Triploids were detected only in seedlings of underdeveloped seed grades(3/5 and 2/5) from artificial crosses between populations from different isolated islands. The triploid occurrence frequency was calculated as 0.0 for natural open-pollinated seedlings and 0.000582 for artificial crosses(6 triploids from 10,303 seedlings). Triploids were produced from crosses between isolated populations located at least 70 km apart; no triploids were detected in inter-population crosses of plants originating on the same islands. Triploid seedlings have very low viability in soil. We analyzed factors affecting triploid occurrence and survival in natural diploid populations of L. lancifolium. The results suggest that triploids originate from fertilization between plants that are genetically isolated due to geographical isolation and/or genotypic differences.

Keywords: Lilium lancifolium, autotriploid, natural population, genetic distance, 2n female gamete

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66 Preoperative Weight Management Education and Its Influence on Bariatric Surgery Patient Weights

Authors: Meghana Pandit, Abhishek Chakraborty


There are a multitude of factors that influence the clinical success of bariatric surgery. This study seeks to determine the efficacy of preoperative weight management education. The Food and Fitness Program at Mount Sinai serves to educate patients on topics such as stress management, sleep habits, body image, nutrition, and exercise 5-6 months before their surgeries to slowly decrease their weight. Each month, patients are weighed, and a different topic is presented. To evaluate the longitudinal effects of these lectures, patient’s weights are evaluated at the first appointment, before an informative lecture is presented. Weights are then reevaluated at the last appointment before the surgery. The weights were statistically analyzed using a paired t-test and the results demonstrated a statistically significant difference (p < .0001, n=55). Thus, it is reasonable to conclude that the education paradigm employed successfully empowered patients to maintain and reduce their gross BMI before clinical intervention.

Keywords: bariatric, surgery, weight, education

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65 A Study on Earthquake Activities and Tectonic Setting in the Northeastern Part of Egypt

Authors: Sayed Abdallah Mohamed Dahy


Northeastern part of Egypt is considered one of the few regions of the world whereas evidence of historical activities has been documented during the last 48 centuries or more. Instrumental, historical and pre-historical seismicity data indicate that large destructive earthquakes have occurred quite frequently in the investigated area. The main aims in the present study were to redraw attention to the fact that the northeastern part of Egypt is seismically active and this result is associated with earthquake risk in the region. The interaction of the African, Arabian and Eurasian plates and Sinai subplate, is the main factor behind the earthquake activities of northeastern part of Egypt. All earthquakes occur at shallow depth and are concentrated at four seismic zones, these zones including the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, around the entrance of the Gulf of Suez and the fourth one is located at the south-west of great Cairo (Dahshour area). The seismicity map of the previous zones shows that the activity is coincide with the major tectonic trends of the Suez rift, Aqaba rift with their connection with the great rift system of the Red Sea and Gulf of Suez-Cairo-Alexandria trend.

Keywords: earthquake ectivities, Egypt, northeastern, tectonic setting

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64 Fractal Behaviour of Earthquake Sequences in Himalaya

Authors: Kamal, Adil Ahmad


Earthquakes are among the most versatile natural and dynamic processes, and hence a fractal model is considered to be the best representative of the same. We present a novel method to process and analyse information hidden in earthquake sequences using Fractal Dimensions and Iterative Function Systems (IFS). Spatial and temporal variations in the fractal dimensions of seismicity observed around the Indian peninsula in last 30 years are studied. This was used as a possible precursor before large earthquakes in the region. IFS images for observed seismicity in the Himalayan belt were also obtained. We scan the whole data set and coarse grain of a selected window to reduce it to four bins. A critical analysis of four-cornered chaos-game clearly shows that the spatial variation in earthquake occurrences in Himalayan range is not random. Two subzones of Himalaya have a tendency to follow each other in time.

Keywords: earthquakes, fractals, Himalaya, iterated function systems

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63 Seismic Active Zones and Mechanism of Earthquakes in Northern Egypt

Authors: Awad Hassoup, Sayed Abdallah, Mohamed Dahy


Northern Egypt is known to be seismically active from the past several thousand years, based on the historical records and documents of eyewitnesses on one- hand and instrumental records on the other hand. Instrumental, historical and pre- historical seismicity data indicate that large destructive earthquakes have occurred quite frequently in the investigated area. The interaction of the African, Arabian, Eurasian plates and Sinai sub-plate is the main factor behind the seismicity of northern part of Egypt. All earthquakes occur at shallow depth and are concentrated at four seismic zones, these zones including the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, around the entrance of the Gulf of Suez and the fourth one is located at the south- west of great Cairo (Dahshour area). The seismicity map of the previous zones shows that the activity is coincide with the major tectonic trends of the Suez rift, Aqaba rift with their connection with the great rift system of the Red Sea and Gulf of Suez- Cairo- Alexandria trend. On the other hand, the focal mechanisms of some earthquakes occurred inside the studied area and having small to moderate size show a variety of patterns. The most predominant type is normal faulting.

Keywords: Northern Egypt, seismic active zone, seismicity, focal mechanism

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62 Developing Measurement Model of Interpersonal Skills of Youth

Authors: Mohd Yusri Ibrahim


Although it is known that interpersonal skills are essential for personal development, the debate however continues as to how to measure those skills, especially in youths. This study was conducted to develop a measurement model of interpersonal skills by suggesting three construct namely personal, skills and relationship; six function namely self, perception, listening, conversation, emotion and conflict management; and 30 behaviours as indicators. This cross-sectional survey by questionnaires was applied in east side of peninsula of Malaysia for 150 respondents, and analyzed by structural equation modelling (SEM) by AMOS. The suggested constructs, functions and indicators were consider accepted as measurement elements by observing on regression weight for standard loading, average variance extracted (AVE) for convergent validity, square root of AVE for discriminant validity, composite reliability (CR), and at least three fit indexes for model fitness. Finally, a measurement model of interpersonal skill for youth was successfully developed.

Keywords: interpersonal communication, interpersonal skill, youth, communication skill

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