Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: Shweta Hoyani

37 Biology and Life Fertility of the Cabbage Aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L) on Cauliflower Cultivars

Authors: Mandeep Kaur, K. C. Sharma, P. L. Sharma, R. S. Chandel

Abstract:

Cauliflower is an important vegetable crop grown throughout the world and is attacked by a large number of insect pests at various stages of the crop growth. Amongst them, the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is an important insect pest. Continued feeding by both nymphs and adults of this aphid causes yellowing, wilting and stunting of plants. Amongst various management practices, the use of resistant cultivars is important and can be an effective method of reducing the population of this aphid. So it is imperative to know the complete record on various biological parameters and life table on specific cultivars. The biology and life fertility of the cabbage aphid were studied on five cauliflower cultivars viz. Megha, Shweta, K-1, PSB-1 and PSBK-25 under controlled temperature conditions of 20 ± 2°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity and 16:8 h (Light: Dark) photoperiods. For studying biology; apterous viviparous adults were picked up from the laboratory culture of all five cauliflower cultivars after rearing them at least for two generations and placed individually on the desired plants of cauliflower cultivars grown in pots with ten replicates of each. Daily record on the duration of nymphal period, adult longevity, mortality in each stage and the total number of progeny produced per female was made. This biological data were further used to construct life fertility table on each cultivar. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference ( P  < 0.05) between the different growth stages and the mean number of laid nymphs. The maximum and minimum growth periods were observed on Shweta and Megha (at par with K-1) cultivars, respectively. The maximum number of nymphs were laid on Shweta cultivar (26.40 nymphs per female) and minimum on Megha (at par with K-1) cultivar (15.20 nymphs per female). The true intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was found to be maximum on Shweta (0.233 nymphs/female/day) followed by PSB K-25 (0.207 nymphs/female/day), PSB-1 (0.203 nymphs/female/day), Megha (0.166 nymphs/female/day) and K-1 (0.153 nymphs/female/day). The finite rate of natural increase (λ) was also found to be in the order: K-1 < Megha < PSB-1 < PSBK-25 < Shweta whereas the doubling time (DT) was in the order of K-1 >Megha> PSB-1 >PSBk-25> Shweta. The aphids reared on the K-1 cultivar had the lowest values of rm & λ and the highest value of DT whereas on Shweta cultivar the values of rm & λ were the highest and the lowest value of DT. So on the basis of these studies, K-1 cultivar was found to be the least suitable and the Shweta cultivar was the most suitable for the cabbage aphid population growth. Although the cauliflower cultivars used in different parts of the world may be different yet the results of the present studies indicated that the application of cultivars affecting multiplication rate and reproductive parameters could be a good solution for the management of the cabbage aphid.

Keywords: biology, cauliflower, cultivars, fertility

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36 Hazardous Effects of Metal Ions on the Thermal Stability of Hydroxylammonium Nitrate

Authors: Shweta Hoyani, Charlie Oommen

Abstract:

HAN-based liquid propellants are perceived as potential substitute for hydrazine in space propulsion. Storage stability for long service life in orbit is one of the key concerns for HAN-based monopropellants because of its reactivity with metallic and non-metallic impurities which could entrain from the surface of fuel tanks and the tubes. The end result of this reactivity directly affects the handling, performance and storability of the liquid propellant. Gaseous products resulting from the decomposition of the propellant can lead to deleterious pressure build up in storage vessels. The partial loss of an energetic component can change the ignition and the combustion behavior and alter the performance of the thruster. The effect of largely plausible metals- iron, copper, chromium, nickel, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, titanium and cadmium on the thermal decomposition mechanism of HAN has been investigated in this context. Studies involving different concentrations of metal ions and HAN at different preheat temperatures have been carried out. Effect of metal ions on the decomposition behavior of HAN has been studied earlier in the context of use of HAN as gun propellant. However the current investigation pertains to the decomposition mechanism of HAN in the context of use of HAN as monopropellant for space propulsion. Decomposition onset temperature, rate of weight loss, heat of reaction were studied using DTA- TGA and total pressure rise and rate of pressure rise during decomposition were evaluated using an in-house built constant volume batch reactor. Besides, reaction mechanism and product profile were studied using TGA-FTIR setup. Iron and copper displayed the maximum reaction. Initial results indicate that iron and copper shows sensitizing effect at concentrations as low as 50 ppm with 60% HAN solution at 80°C. On the other hand 50 ppm zinc does not display any effect on the thermal decomposition of even 90% HAN solution at 80°C.

Keywords: hydroxylammonium nitrate, monopropellant, reaction mechanism, thermal stability

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35 A Novel Antenna Design for Telemedicine Applications

Authors: Amar Partap Singh Pharwaha, Shweta Rani

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To develop a reliable and cost effective communication platform for the telemedicine applications, novel antenna design has been presented using bacterial foraging optimization (BFO) technique. The proposed antenna geometry is achieved by etching a modified Koch curve fractal shape at the edges and a square shape slot at the center of the radiating element of a patch antenna. It has been found that the new antenna has achieved 43.79% size reduction and better resonating characteristic than the original patch. Representative results for both simulations and numerical validations are reported in order to assess the effectiveness of the developed methodology.

Keywords: BFO, electrical permittivity, fractals, Koch curve

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34 On the Design of Wearable Fractal Antenna

Authors: Amar Partap Singh Pharwaha, Shweta Rani

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This paper is aimed at proposing a rhombus shaped wearable fractal antenna for wireless communication systems. The geometrical descriptors of the antenna have been obtained using bacterial foraging optimization (BFO) for wide band operation. The method of moment based IE3D software has been used to simulate the antenna and observed that miniaturization of 13.08% has been achieved without degrading the resonating properties of the proposed antenna. An analysis with different substrates has also been done in order to evaluate the effectiveness of electrical permittivity on the presented structure. The proposed antenna has low profile, light weight and has successfully demonstrated wideband and multiband characteristics for wearable electronic applications.

Keywords: BFO, bandwidth, electrical permittivity, fractals, wearable antenna

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33 Formulation and Evaluation of Ethosomes of Plumeria indica Linn. Flowers

Authors: Sumeet Dwivedi, Shweta Shriwas, Raghvendra Dubey

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The number of products based on new drug delivery systems has significantly increased in the past few years, and this growth is expected to continue in the near future. These biopharmaceuticals present challenges to drug delivery scientists because of their unique nature and difficulty in delivery through conventional routes. Therefore, future research will focus on the delivery of these complex molecules through different routes, including oral, nasal, pulmonary, vaginal, rectal, etc. The aim of present study was to formulate and evaluate ethosomes of Plumeria indica flowers which may deliver the drug to targeted site more efficiently than marketed preparation and also overcome the problems related with oral administration of drug. The formulations were prepared with ethanol, lecithin, propylene glycol and were evaluated.

Keywords: ethosomes, herbal extract, plumeria alba, lecithin

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32 A Survey on Smart Security Mechanism Using Graphical Passwords

Authors: Aboli Dhanavade, Shweta Bhimnath, Rutuja Jumale, Ajay Nadargi

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Security to any of our personal thing is our most basic need. It is not possible to directly apply that standard Human-computer—interaction approaches. Important usability goal for authentication system is to support users in selecting best passwords. Users often select text-passwords that are easy to remember, but they are more open for attackers to guess. The human brain is good in remembering pictures rather than textual characters. So the best alternative is being designed that is Graphical passwords. However, Graphical passwords are still immature. Conventional password schemes are also vulnerable to Shoulder-surfing attacks, many shoulder-surfing resistant graphical passwords schemes have been proposed. Next, we have analyzed the security and usability of the proposed scheme, and show the resistance of the proposed scheme to shoulder-surfing and different accidental logins.

Keywords: shoulder-surfing, security, authentication, text-passwords

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31 Quality Control Parameters and Pharmacological Aspects of Less Known Medicinal Plant of India: Plumeria pudica Linn.

Authors: Shweta Shriwas, Sumeet Dwivedi, Raghvendra Dubey

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Plumeria pudica Linn. Family Apocynaceae commonly known as Nag Chmapa is grown wildly in many parts of India. The plant is medium size shrub, grown up to height of 5-10 feet, evergreen with white flowers. In traditional system of medicine, the plant is widely used in the treatment of worms, infection, inflammation, etc. So, far no any systematic and documented study was done to revealed quality control parameters and pharmacological aspect of the selected plant species, therefore, the attempt was made in present investigation to reveal the same. The parameters such as Ash value, FOM, LOD, SI, etc. were studied using various coarsely dried plant materials of the species. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anthelmentic and anti-microbial activity of various extract was investigated and reported in present work.

Keywords: Plumeria pudica, quality control, pharmacology, parameters

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30 Traditional Phytotherapy among Tribes of Madhya Pradesh, India Used in the Treatment of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders

Authors: Sumeet Dwivedi, Shweta Shriwas, Raghvendra Dubey

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Madhya Pradesh, a Central State of India is rich in natural heritage due to tribal impact. Herbal harmony present either cultivated or by naturally being used by the tribes of the state in the treatment of several human and animal disorders. Diseases of ear, nose and throat (ENT) often have serious consequences including hearing impairment, and emotional strain that lower the quality of life of patients. Traditional phytotherapy have now been found to be instrumental in improving chances of discovering plants with antimicrobial activity in new drug development. The present paper enumerates the uses of ten herbs viz., garlic, eucalyptus, marigold, tulsi, euphorbia, lemon grass, haldi, bhringraj, ginger and ajwain. An attempt has also been made to reveal the method of preparation, dose, duration possible MOA of these herbs used for ENT disorders.

Keywords: ENT, traditional phytotherapy, herbs, Madhya Pradesh

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29 Variability of L-Band GPS Scintillation over Auroral Region, Maitri, Antarctica

Authors: Prakash Khatarkar, P. A. Khan, Shweta Mukherjee, Roshni Atulkar, P. K. Purohit, A. K. Gwal

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We have investigated the occurrence characteristics of ionospheric scintillations, using dual frequency GPS, installed and operated at Indian scientific base station Maitri (71.45S and 11.45E), Antarctica, during December 2009 to December 2010. The scintillation morphology is described in terms of S4 Index. The scintillations are classified into four main categories as Weak (0.21.0). From the analysis we found that the percentage of weak, moderate, strong and saturated scintillations were 96%, 80%, 58% and 7%, respectively. The maximum percentage of all types of scintillation was observed in the summer season, followed by equinox and the least in winter season. As the year 2010 was a low solar activity period, consequently the maximum occurrences of scintillations were those of weak and moderate and only four cases of saturated scintillation were observed.

Keywords: L-band scintillation, GPS, auroral region, low solar activity

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28 Distribution of Putative Dopaminergic Neurons and Identification of D2 Receptors in the Brain of Fish

Authors: Shweta Dhindhwal

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Dopamine is an essential neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of all vertebrates and plays an important role in many processes such as motor function, learning and behavior, and sensory activity. One of the important functions of dopamine is release of pituitary hormones. It is synthesized from the amino acid tyrosine. Two types of dopamine receptors, D1-like and D2-like, have been reported in fish. The dopamine containing neurons are located in the olfactory bulbs, the ventral regions of the pre-optic area and tuberal hypothalamus. Distribution of the dopaminergic system has not been studied in the murrel, Channa punctatus. The present study deals with identification of D2 receptors in the brain of murrel. A phylogenetic tree has been constructed using partial sequence of D2 receptor. Distribution of putative dopaminergic neurons in the brain has been investigated. Also, formalin induced hypertrophy of neurosecretory cells in murrel has been studied.

Keywords: dopamine, fish, pre-optic area, murrel

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27 Cultural Biases, Cognitive Dispositions and Conception of Marriage in Indian Families: Role of Urbanization

Authors: Nandita Chaube, S. S. Nathawat, Shweta Jha

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Keeping in view a drastic change in social and cultural scenario in India, influencing the marriage patterns, preferences and the concept of marriage, the present study examined cultural biases, cognitive dispositions and conception of marriage among Indian families hailing from urban, semi-urban and rural backgrounds. Structured interviews were conducted on 15 families of Jaipur region and its nearby villages including young adults and aged family members. The sample was comprised of both male and female family members. Qualitative analyses of interview data revealed a considerable difference amongst the families on the basis of residential background and other cultural, cognitive and conceptual levels. Hence, it is concluded that Indian families hailing from different cultural and residential backgrounds differ in their conceptions of marriage.

Keywords: cognitive dispositions, cultural biases, families, marriage, urbanization

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26 Statistical Modeling for Permeabilization of a Novel Yeast Isolate for β-Galactosidase Activity Using Organic Solvents

Authors: Shweta Kumari, Parmjit S. Panesar, Manab B. Bera

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The hydrolysis of lactose using β-galactosidase is one of the most promising biotechnological applications, which has wide range of potential applications in food processing industries. However, due to intracellular location of the yeast enzyme, and expensive extraction methods, the industrial applications of enzymatic hydrolysis processes are being hampered. The use of permeabilization technique can help to overcome the problems associated with enzyme extraction and purification of yeast cells and to develop the economically viable process for the utilization of whole cell biocatalysts in food industries. In the present investigation, standardization of permeabilization process of novel yeast isolate was carried out using a statistical model approach known as Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to achieve maximal b-galactosidase activity. The optimum operating conditions for permeabilization process for optimal β-galactosidase activity obtained by RSM were 1:1 ratio of toluene (25%, v/v) and ethanol (50%, v/v), 25.0 oC temperature and treatment time of 12 min, which displayed enzyme activity of 1.71 IU /mg DW.

Keywords: β-galactosidase, optimization, permeabilization, response surface methodology, yeast

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25 Real Time Acquisition and Psychoacoustic Analysis of Brain Wave

Authors: Shweta Singh, Dipali Bansal, Rashima Mahajan

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Psychoacoustics has become a potential area of research due to the growing interest of both laypersons and medical and mental health professionals. Non-invasive brain computer interface like Electroencephalography (EEG) is widely being used in this field. An attempt has been made in this paper to examine the response of EEG signals to acoustic stimuli further analysing the brain electrical activity. The real time EEG is acquired for 6 participants using a cost effective and portable EMOTIV EEG neuron headset. EEG data analysis is further done using EMOTIV test bench, EDF browser and EEGLAB (MATLAB Tool) application software platforms. Spectral analysis of acquired neural signals (AF3 channel) using these software platforms are clearly indicative of increased brain activity in various bands. The inferences drawn from such an analysis have significant correlation with subject’s subjective reporting of the experiences. The results suggest that the methodology adopted can further be used to assist patients with sleeping and depressive disorders.

Keywords: OM chant, spectral analysis, EDF browser, EEGLAB, EMOTIV, real time acquisition

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24 Degumming of Eri Silk Fabric with Ionic Liquid

Authors: Shweta K. Vyas, Rakesh Musale, Sanjeev R. Shukla

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Eri silk is a non mulberry silk which is obtained without killing the silkworms and hence it is also known as Ahmisa silk. In the present study, the results on degumming of eri silk with alkaline peroxide have been compared with those obtained by using ionic liquid (IL) 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM]Cl. Experiments were designed to find out the optimum processing parameters for degumming of eri silk by response surface methodology. The statistical software, Design-Expert 6.0 was used for regression analysis and graphical analysis of the responses obtained by running the set of designed experiments. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to estimate the statistical parameters. The polynomial equation of quadratic order was employed to fit the experimental data. The quality and model terms were evaluated by F-test. Three dimensional surface plots were prepared to study the effect of variables on different responses. The optimum conditions for IL treatment were selected from predicted combinations and the experiments were repeated under these conditions to determine the reproducibility.

Keywords: silk degumming, ionic liquid, response surface methodology, ANOVA

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23 Traditional Herbal Medicine Used to Treat Infertility in Women by Traditional Practitioner of Malwa Region of Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: Shweta Shriwas, Sumeet Dwivedi

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Knowledge of use of traditional medicine is as old as human civilization in almost every system of medicine. Traditional practitioner viz., vaidhayas, ojha, hakim have their own herbal therapy in the treatment of infertility among women’s. Infertility is very common in developed and developing countries due to busy life style of women’s. The present study was initiated with an aim to identify medicinal plants resources from traditional practitioners of Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh to treat infertility. An ethnomedicinal study of Malwa region viz., Indore, Dewas, Ratlam, Ujjain, Dhar, Mandsour and Neemuch of Madhya Pradesh, India comprising fifty-seven study site was conducted during Jan-217 to June-2017. During the course of present investigation, the traditional use of medicinal plants for infertility in women was revealed by traditional practitioner. The botanical name, family, local name, part used, habit along with mode of their administration and dose duration were enumerated.

Keywords: herbal medicine, infertility, traditional, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh

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22 Synthesis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pyrazol-3-yl Thiazole 4-Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Targeting Enzyme in the Leukotriene Pathway

Authors: Shweta Sinha, Mukesh Doble, Manju S. L.

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Pyrazole scaffold is an important group of compound in heterocyclic chemistry and is found to possess numerous uses in chemistry. Pyrazole derivatives are also known to possess important biological activities including antitumor, antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal, anticancer and anti-inflammatory. Inflammation is associated with pain, allergy and asthma. Leukotrienes are mediators of various inflammatory and allergic disorders. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is an important enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) and thus targeted for anti-inflammation. In vitro inhibitory activity of pyrazol-3-yl thiazole 4-carboxylic acid derivatives is tested against enzyme 5-LOX. Most of these compounds exhibit good inhibitory activity against this enzyme. Binding mode study of these compounds is determined by computational tool. Further experiments are being done to understand the mechanism of action of these compounds in inhibiting this enzyme. To conclude, these compounds appear to be a promising target in drug design against 5-LOX.

Keywords: inflammation, inhibition, 5-lipoxygenase, pyrazole

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21 Headache Masquerading as Common Psychiatric Disorders in Patients of Low Economic Class in a Tertiary Care Setting

Authors: Seema Singh Parmar, Shweta Chauhan

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Aims & Objectives: To evaluate the presence of various psychiatric disorders in patients reporting with a headache as the only symptom. Methodology: 200 patients with the chief complain of a headache who visited the psychiatric OPD of a tertiary care were investigated. Out of them 50 who had pure psychiatric illness without any other neurological disease were investigated, and their diagnosis was made. Independent sample t-tests were applied to generate results. Results: The most common psychiatric diagnosis seen in the sample was Depression (64%) out of which 47% showed features of Depression with anxious distress. Other psychiatric disorders seen were Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Panic Attacks, Somatic Symptom Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. For pure psychiatry, headache related illnesses female to male ratio was 1.64. Conclusion: The increasing frequency of psychiatric disorders among patients who only visit the doctor seeking treat a headache shows the need for better identification of psychiatric disorders because proper diagnosis and target of psychiatric treatment shall give complete relief to the patient’s symptomatology.

Keywords: anxiety disorders, depression, headache, panic attacks

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20 Therapeutic Journey towards Self: Developing Positivity with Indications of Cluster B and C Personality Traits

Authors: Shweta Jha, Nandita Chaube

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The concept of self has a major role to play in the study of personality which drives the current study in its present form. This is a case of Miss S, a 17-year-old Hindu, currently in eleventh standard, with no family history of mental illness but with a past history of inability to manage relationships, multiple emotional and sexual relationships, repeated self harming behaviour, and sexual abuse over a period of 2 months at the age of 10 years. She comes with a psychiatric history of one episode of dissociative fall followed by a stressful event which left the patient with many psychological disturbances matching the criterion of Cluster B and C traits. Current episode precipitated due to the relationship failure, predisposing factor is her personality traits, and poor social and family support. Considering the patient’s aspiration for positivity and demand of the therapy, ventilation sessions were carried out which made her capable of understanding and dealing with her negative emotions, also strengthened mother child bond, helped her maintain meaningful and healthy relationships, also helped her increase her problem solving ability and adaptive coping skills making her feel more positive and acceptable towards herself, family members and others.

Keywords: cluster B and C traits, personality, therapy, self

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19 Role of Geomatics in Architectural and Cultural Conservation

Authors: Shweta Lall

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The intent of this paper is to demonstrate the role of computerized auxiliary science in advancing the desired and necessary alliance of historians, surveyors, topographers, and analysts of architectural conservation and management. The digital era practice of recording architectural and cultural heritage in view of its preservation, dissemination, and planning developments are discussed in this paper. Geomatics include practices like remote sensing, photogrammetry, surveying, Geographic Information System (GIS), laser scanning technology, etc. These all resources help in architectural and conservation applications which will be identified through various case studies analysed in this paper. The standardised outcomes and the methodologies using relevant case studies are listed and described. The main component of geomatics methodology adapted in conservation is data acquisition, processing, and presentation. Geomatics is used in a wide range of activities involved in architectural and cultural heritage – damage and risk assessment analysis, documentation, 3-D model construction, virtual reconstruction, spatial and structural decision – making analysis and monitoring. This paper will project the summary answers of the capabilities and limitations of the geomatics field in architectural and cultural conservation. Policy-makers, urban planners, architects, and conservationist not only need answers to these questions but also need to practice them in a predictable, transparent, spatially explicit and inexpensive manner.

Keywords: architectural and cultural conservation, geomatics, GIS, remote sensing

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18 Scanning Electron Microscopy of the Erythrocytes of Channa punctatus (Bloch) Exposed to Mercuric Chloride

Authors: Shweta Maheshwari, Anish Dua

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Hematological changes reflect the adverse effects of heavy metals on fish. Hematology is a valuable tool to evaluate pathological condition of the fish. It helps in diagnosing the structural and functional status of fish exposed to toxicants. Morphological alteration in erythrocytes due to environmental stress can be studied through ultra-structural analysis. The aim of the present study was to assess the toxicity of mercuric chloride on red blood cells of an air breathing fish, Channa punctatus. Fish were subjected to chronic experiments using three sublethal concentration of mercuric chloride (0.020mg/L, 0.027mg/L, 0.040mg/L) for a period of 15, 30 and 60 days. Exposed fish of all the three concentrations were subjected to a recovery period of 30 days. A control was maintained in tap water simultaneously. For SEM analysis, blood from caudal vein of fish was taken and examined at an accelerating voltage of 20kV. Scanning electron micrographs revealed elliptical shaped erythrocytes of control fish. Alterations in the erythrocyte morphology such as presence of spherocytes, membrane internalization, crenation of membrane and development of lobopodial projections were observed in the exposed fish. The study revealed that ultra-structural analysis appears to be a sensitive method to evaluate the toxicity of various toxicants to fish.

Keywords: Channa punctatus, erythrocytes, mercuric chloride, scanning electron microscopy

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17 A Comparative Study between Behaviour Activation, Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy and Waiting List Control for Major Depressive Disorder

Authors: Shweta Jha, Digambar Darekar, Krishna Kadam

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Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is one of the most common of psychiatric disorders. It has a wide range of symptoms, aetiologies and risk factors, and these reasons make MDD affect not only the primary patient, but also their family, caregivers and associates; by negatively impacting their self dignity, economic condition and self-confidence. Thus, it is important to help individuals suffering from MDD learn adaptive mechanism and deal effectively with their environment, with that aim this study focused on a comparative therapeutic intervention using Behaviour Activation (BA), Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) and Waiting list control (WLC) for management of MDD. This study apart from enhancing personal skills will also help us understand which therapeutic method would be more beneficial in treating and prolonging relapse in patients with MDD in Indian population. Fifteen individuals following application of inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected as study samples. They were randomly assigned to three treatment groups. Ten sessions of therapy, forty-five minutes each according to the proposed sessions plan were conducted for each group. The individuals selected as samples were re–assessed after 2 months and 6 months post intervention. The overall result showed that individuals treated with BA and REBT showed more improvement in comparison to those in WLC.

Keywords: behaviour activation, major depressive disorder, rational emotive behaviour therapy, therapeutic intervention

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16 Comparative Evaluation of Postoperative Cosmesis, Mydriasis and Anterior Chamber Morphology after Single-Pass Four-Throw Pupilloplasty between Traumatic and Congenital Iris Defects

Authors: S. P. Singh, Shweta Gupta, Kshama Dwivedi, Shivangi Singh

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Aim: To compare the postoperative pupil cosmesis, mydriasis, and anterior chamber depth (ACD) in traumatic and congenital iris defects after Single-Pass Four-Throw pupilloplasty (SFTP). Method: SFTP was performed along with cataract surgery in 6 patients, each of congenital and traumatic iris defects and pupil size, mydriasis, and ACD was compared after three months. Results: SFTP was successful in repairing congenital and traumatic cases except in 1 traumatic case with a large iris defect. Horizontal pupil diameter decreased while ACD increased in both groups and was comparable between the two groups. The traumatic group showed a significant decrease in pupil diameter while there was an insignificant change in the horizontal pupil diameter in the congenital group. Mydriasis was adequate for fundus examination and was comparable between the two groups. The effect of SFTP on ACD was inconclusive due to the confounding effect of cataract surgery. The incidence of iris atrophy was equal in both groups. Conclusion: SFTP results in anatomical and functional restoration in cases of iris defects with no inadvertent effect on mydriasis.

Keywords: anterior chamber depth, mydriasis, pupil cosmesis, single-pass four-throw pupilloplasty

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15 Independent Directors and Board Decisions

Authors: Shital Jhunjhunwala, Shweta Saraf

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Research Question: The study, based on a survey, empirically tests the impact of the board’s engagement in the decision-making process on firm outcomes. It also examines the moderating effect of board leadership and board independence on the relationship. Research Findings: Boards’ engagement in the decision-making process is found to be vital for firm performance, wherein effective monitoring by the board outperforms their strategic guidance role in achieving desired outcomes. The separation of CEO and Chairman positively moderates the board’s engagement in protecting stakeholders’ interests, but lack of independence and passive behaviour of independent directors raises concern on the efficacy of independent directors. Theoretical Implications: The study provides the framework for process-oriented corporate governance research, where investigation of boards’ behaviour inside the boardroom develops a deeper understanding of board processes. Practitioner Implications: The study highlights the necessity of developing boards’ focus in a company on monitoring managerial actions. It suggests the need to separate the position of CEO and Chairman for addressing the interest of all stakeholders. It recommends policymakers review the existing mandate on board independence and create alternate monitoring mechanisms for addressing agency conflict.

Keywords: board, decision-making process, engagement, independence, leadership, innovation, stakeholders, firm performance, qualitative, India

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14 Antimicrobial Evaluation of Polyphenon 60 and Ciprofloxacin Loaded Nano Emulsion against Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Bacteria and Its in vivo Analysis

Authors: Atinderpal Kaur, Shweta Dang

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Our aim is to develop a nanoemulsion-based delivery system containing polyphenon 60 (P60) and ciprofloxacin (Cipro) for intravaginal delivery to treat urinary tract infection. In the present study Polyphenon 60 (P60) and ciprofloxacin (Cipro) were loaded in a single nano emulsion (NE) system via ultra-sonication technique and characterized for particle size, in vitro release and antibacterial efficacy against Bcl-2 level Escherichia coli bacteria. To determine in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters and intravaginal transportation of NE, gamma scintigraphy and biodistribution study was conducted by radiolabelling NE with technetium pertechnetate (99mTc). The preliminary antibacterial investigation showed synergy between these compounds with FICindex of 0.42. The developed formulation showed zeta potential +55.3 and particle size of 151.7 nm, with PDI of 0.196. The in vitro release percentage of P60 at the end of 7th hours was 94.8 ± 0.9 % whereas the release for Cipro was 75.1± 0.15 % in simulated vaginal media. MBC was identified and the findings demonstrated that in both ESBL (Extended Spectrum β- lactamase) and MBL (Metallo β- lactamase) cultures the P60+Cipro NE showed inhibition of growth of all the isolates at 2 mg/ml dilutions. The percentage per gram of radiolabelled drug was found (3.50±0.26) and (3.81±0.30) in kidney and urinary bladder, respectively at 3 h. From the findings, it was concluded that the developed P60+Cipro NE was transported efficiently throughout the target organs, had long duration of action and high biocompatibility via intravaginal administration as compared to oral administration.

Keywords: ciprofloxacin, gamma scintigraphy, intravaginal drug delivery, Polyphenon 60

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13 Equipment Donation: A Perspective from a Teaching Tertiary Care Hospital in North India

Authors: Jitender Sodhi, Shweta Talati, A. K. Gupta, Pankaj Arora

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Background:Equipment donation to hospitals in resource-limited settings can significantly benefit services in these settings albeit requires important ethical, practical and financial issues to be considered before accepting donations. Objective: To understand the decision making process leading to acceptance/ rejection/ deferment of equipment donation from the perspective of a public sector teaching tertiary care hospital. Design: Retrospective, record based study. Setting: 2000-bedded public sector teaching tertiary care hospital in North India. Methods: A total of 30 cases of equipment donation from March 2010-October 2013, were analysed for their decision process leading to acceptance/rejection/deferment.Each case was studied retrospectively and data pertaining to the agenda and decision taken was collected. Results: A total of 30 cases of equipment donation received from March 2010- October 2013 were screened, out of which 17 (56.6%) were for diagnostic purpose and 13 (43.3%) for therapeutic purpose. Out of 30 cases, 16 (53.3%) were accepted and 8 (26.6%) were rejected. The remaining 6 cases included 3 (10%) which required further clarification and other 3 (10%) which were out of the domain of committee. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of equipment donation in resource limited settings and considerations involved while making decisions for acceptance/rejections/defermentof such donations.

Keywords: equipment donation, teaching hospital, decision-making, North India

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12 Comparison of Mini-BESTest versus Berg Balance Scale to Evaluate Balance Disorders in Parkinson's Disease

Authors: R. Harihara Prakash, Shweta R. Parikh, Sangna S. Sheth

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to explore the usefulness of the Mini-BESTest compared to the Berg Balance Scale in evaluating balance in people with Parkinson's Disease (PD) of varying severity. Evaluation were done to obtain (1) the distribution of patients scores to look for ceiling effects, (2) concurrent validity with severity of disease, and (3) the sensitivity & specificity of separating people with or without postural response deficits. Methods and Material: Seventy-seven(77) people with Parkinson's Disease were tested for balance deficits using the Berg Balance Scale, Mini-BESTest. Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III and the Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) disease severity scales were used for classification. Materials used in this study were case record sheet, chair without arm rests or wheels, Incline ramp, stopwatch, a box, 3 meter distance measured out and marked on the floor with tape [from chair]. Statistical analysis used: Multiple Linear regression was carried out of UPDRS jointly on the two scores for the Berg and Mini-BESTest. Receiver operating characteristic curves for classifying people into two groups based on a threshold for the H&Y score, to discriminate between mild PD versus more severe PD.Correlation co-efficient to find relativeness between the two variables. Results: The Mini-BESTest is highly correlated with the Berg (r = 0.732,P < 0.001), but avoids the ceiling compression effect of the Berg for mild PD (skewness −0.714 Berg, −0.512 Mini-BESTest). Consequently, the Mini-BESTest is more effective than the Berg for predicting UPDRS Motor score (P < 0.001 Mini-BESTest versus P = 0.72 Berg), and for discriminating between those with and without postural response deficits as measured by the H&Y (ROC).

Keywords: balance, berg balance scale, MINI BESTest, parkinson's disease

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11 Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Role of Long Non-Coding RNA NEAT1 in Dengue Patients

Authors: Abhaydeep Pandey, Shweta Shukla, Saptamita Goswami, Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay, Vishnampettai Ramachandran, Sudhanshu Vrati, Arup Banerjee

Abstract:

Background: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are the important regulators of gene expression and play important role in viral replication and disease progression. The role of lncRNA genes in the pathogenesis of Dengue virus-mediated pathogenesis is currently unknown. Methods: To gain additional insights, we utilized an unbiased RNA sequencing followed by in silico analysis approach to identify the differentially expressed lncRNA and genes that are associated with dengue disease progression. Further, we focused our study on lncRNAs NEAT1 (Nuclear Paraspeckle Assembly Transcript 1) as it was found to be differentially expressed in PBMC of dengue infected patients. Results: The expression of lncRNAs NEAT1, as compared to dengue infection (DI), was significantly down-regulated as the patients developed the complication. Moreover, pairwise analysis on follow up patients confirmed that suppression of NEAT1 expression was associated with rapid fall in platelet count in dengue infected patients. Severe dengue patients (DS) (n=18; platelet count < 20K) when recovered from infection showing high NEAT1 expression as it observed in healthy donors. By co-expression network analysis and subsequent validation, we revealed that coding gene; IFI27 expression was significantly up-regulated in severe dengue cases and negatively correlated with NEAT1 expression. To discriminate DI from dengue severe, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated. It revealed sensitivity and specificity of 100% (95%CI: 85.69 – 97.22) and area under the curve (AUC) = 0.97 for NEAT1. Conclusions: Altogether, our first observations demonstrate that monitoring NEAT1and IFI27 expression in dengue patients could be useful in understanding dengue virus-induced disease progression and may be involved in pathophysiological processes.

Keywords: dengue, lncRNA, NEAT1, transcriptome

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10 Mid-Winter Stratospheric Warming Effects on Equatorial Dynamics over Peninsular India

Authors: SHWETA SRIKUMAR

Abstract:

Winter stratospheric dynamics is a highly variable and spectacular field of research in middle atmosphere. It is well believed that the interaction of energetic planetary waves with mean flow causes the temperature to increase in the stratosphere and associated circulation reversal. This wave driven sudden disturbances in the polar stratosphere is defined as Sudden Stratospheric Warming. The main objective of the present work is to investigate the mid-winter major stratospheric warming events on equatorial dynamics over Peninsular India. To explore the effect of mid-winter stratospheric warming on Indian region (60oE -100oE), we have selected the winters 2003/04, 2005/06, 2008/09, 2012/13 and 2018/19. This study utilized the data from ERA-Interim Reanalysis, Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) from NOAA and TRMM satellite data from NASA mission. It is observed that a sudden drop in OLR (averaged over Indian Region) occurs during the course of warming for the winters 2005/06, 2008/09 and 2018/19. But in winters 2003/04 and 2012/13, drop in OLR happens prior to the onset of major warming. Significant amplitude of planetary wave activity is observed in equatorial lower stratosphere which indicates the propagation of extra-tropical planetary waves from high latitude to equator. During the course of warming, a strong downward propagation of EP flux convergence is observed from polar to equator region. The polar westward wind reaches upto 20oN and the weak eastward wind dominates the equator during the winters 2003/04, 2005/06 and 2018/19. But in 2012/13 winter, polar westward wind reaches upto equator. The equatorial wind at 2008/09 is dominated by strong westward wind. Further detailed results will be presented in the conference.

Keywords: Equatorial dynamics, Outgoing Longwave Radiation, Sudden Stratospheric Warming, Planetary Waves

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9 Comparison of Water Curing and Carbonation Curing on Mortar Mix Incorporating Cement Kiln Dust

Authors: Devender Sharma, Shweta Goyal

Abstract:

Sustainable development is a key to protect the environment for a secure future. Accelerated carbonation curing is a comparatively new technique for curing of concrete which involves sequestration of carbon dioxide gas into the precast concrete, resulting in improvement of the properties of concrete. This paper presents the results of a study to evaluate the effect of carbonation curing on cement mortars incorporating cement kiln dust (CKD) as partial replacement of cement. The mortar specimens were prepared by replacing cement with CKD in varying percentages of 0-50% by the weight of cement. The specimens were subjected to 12 hour carbonation curing, followed by sealed packing till testing age. The results were compared with the normal curing procedure, in which the specimens were water cured till the testing age. Compressive strength and microstructure of the mix were studied. It was noted that on increasing the percentage of CKD up to 10% by the weight of the cement, no considerable change was observed in the compressive strength. But as the percentage of CKD was further increased, there was a decrease in compressive strength, with strength decreasing up to 40% when 50% of the cement was replaced with CKD. The decrease in strength is due to the lesser lime content in CKD as compared to cement. High ettringite formation was observed in mixes with high percentages of CKD, thus indicating a decrease in the compressive strength. With carbonation curing, an early age strength gain was observed in mortars, even with higher percentages of CKD. The early strength of the carbonation cured mixes was found to be greater than water cured mixes irrespective of the percentage of CKD. 7 days and 28 days compressive strength of the mix was comparable for both the carbonation cured and water cured specimen. The increase in compressive strength can be attributed to the conversion of unstable Ca(OH)2 into stable CaCO3, which causes densification of the mix. CaCO3 precipitation and greater CSH gel formation was clearly observed in the SEM images of carbonation cured specimen, indicating higher compressive strength. Thus, carbonation curing can be used as an efficient method to enhance the properties of concrete.

Keywords: carbonation, cement kiln dust, compressive strength, microstructure

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8 Effect of Surfactant Level of Microemulsions and Nanoemulsions on Cell Viability

Authors: Sonal Gupta, Rakhi Bansal, Javed Ali, Reema Gabrani, Shweta Dang

Abstract:

Nanoemulsions (NEs) and microemulsions (MEs) have been an attractive tool for encapsulation of both hydrophilic and lipophillic actives. Both these systems are composed of oil phase, surfactant, co-surfactant and aqueous phase. Depending upon the application and intended use, both oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions can be designed. NEs are fabricated using high energy methods employing less percentage of surfactant as compared to MEs which are self assembled drug delivery systems. Owing to the nanometric size of the droplets these systems have been widely used to enhance solubility and bioavailability of natural as well as synthetic molecules. The aim of the present study is to assess the effect of % age of surfactants on cell viability of Vero cells (African Green Monkeys’ Kidney epithelial cells) via MTT assay. Green tea catechin (Polyphenon 60) loaded ME employing low energy vortexing and NE employing high energy ultrasonication were prepared using same excipients (labrasol as oil, cremophor EL as surfactant and glycerol as co-surfactant) however, the % age of oil and surfactant needed to prepare the ME was higher as compared to NE. These formulations along with their excipients (oilME=13.3%, SmixME=26.67%; oilNE=10%, SmixNE=13.52%) were added to Vero cells for 24 hrs. The tetrazolium dye, 3-(4,5-dimethylthia/ol-2-yl)-2,5-diphi-iiyltclrazolium bromide (MTT), is reduced by live cells and this reaction is used as the end point to evaluate the cytoxicity level of a test formulation. Results of MTT assay indicated that oil at different percentages exhibited almost equal cell viability (oilME ≅ oilNE) while surfactant mixture had a significant difference in the cell viability values (SmixME < SmixNE). Polyphenon 60 loaded ME and its PlaceboME showed higher toxicity as compared to Polyphenon 60 loaded NE and its PlaceboNE that can be attributed to the higher concentration of surfactants present in MEs. Another probable reason for high % cell viability of Polyphenon 60 loaded NE might be due to the effective release of Polyphenon 60 from NE formulation that helps in the sustenance of Vero cells.

Keywords: cell viability, microemulsion, MTT, nanoemulsion, surfactants, ultrasonication

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