Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Shrikant Chavan

19 The Developmental Model of Self-Efficacy Emotional Intelligence and Social Maturity among High School Boys and Girls

Authors: Shrikant Chavan, Vikas Minchekar

Abstract:

The present study examined the self-efficacy, emotional intelligence and social maturity of High school boys and girls. Furthermore, study aimed at to foster the self-efficacy, emotional intelligence and social maturity of high school students. The study was conducted on 100 high school students, out of which 50 boys and 50 girls were selected through simple random sampling method from the Sangli city of Maharashtra state, India. The age range of the sample is 14 to 16 years. Self-efficacy scale developed by Jesusalem Schwarzer, Emotional intelligence scale developed by Hyde, Pethe and Dhar and social maturity scale developed by Rao were administered to the sample. Data was analyzed using mean, SD and ‘t’ test further Karl Pearson’s product moment, correlation of coefficient was used to know the correlation between emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, and social maturity. Results revealed that boys and girls did not differ significantly in their self-efficacy and social maturity. Further, the analysis revealed that girls are having high emotional intelligence compared to boys, which is significant at 0.01 level. It is also found that there is a significant and positive correlation between self-efficacy and emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and social maturity and emotional intelligence and social maturity. Some developmental strategies to strengthen the self-efficacy, emotional intelligence and social maturity of high school students are suggested in the study.

Keywords: self-efficacy, emotional intelligence, social maturity, developmental model and high school students

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18 Field Experience with Sweep Frequency Response Analysis for Power Transformer Diagnosis

Authors: Ambuj Kumar, Sunil Kumar Singh, Shrikant Singh, Zakir Husain, R. K. Jarial

Abstract:

Sweep frequency response analysis has been turning out a powerful tool for investigation of mechanical as well as electrical integration of transformers. In this paper various aspect of practical application of SFRA has been studied. Open circuit and short circuit measurement were done on different phases of high voltage and low voltage winding. A case study was presented for the transformer of rating 31.5 MVA for various frequency ranges. A clear picture was presented for sub- frequency ranges for HV as well as LV winding. The main motive of work is to investigate high voltage short circuit response. The theoretical concept about SFRA responses is validated with expert system software results.

Keywords: transformer winding, SFRA, OCT & SCT, frequency deviation

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17 To Study the Effect of Optic Fibre Laser Cladding of Cast Iron with Silicon Carbide on Wear Rate

Authors: Kshitij Sawke, Pradnyavant Kamble, Shrikant Patil

Abstract:

The study investigates the effect on wear rate of laser clad of cast iron with silicon carbide. Metal components fail their desired use because they wear, which causes them to lose their functionality. The laser has been used as a heating source to create a melt pool over the surface of cast iron, and then a layer of hard silicon carbide is deposited. Various combinations of power and feed rate of laser have experimented. A suitable range of laser processing parameters was identified. Wear resistance and wear rate properties were evaluated and the result showed that the wear resistance of the laser treated samples was exceptional to that of the untreated samples.

Keywords: laser clad, processing parameters, wear rate, wear resistance

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16 Single Species vs Mixed Microbial Culture Degradation of Pesticide in a Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: Karan R. Chavan, Srivats Gopalan, Kumudini V. Marathe

Abstract:

In the current work, the comparison of degradation of malathion by single species, Pseudomonas Stutzeri, and Activated Sludge/Mixed Microbial Culture is studied in a Membrane Bioreactor. Various parameters were considered to study the effect of single species degradation compared to degradation by activated sludge. The experimental results revealed 85-90% reduction in the COD of the Malathion containing synthetic wastewater. Complete reduction of malathion was observed within 24 hours in both the cases. The critical flux was 10 LMH for both the systems. Fouling propensity, Cake and Membrane resistances were calculated thus giving an insight regarding the working of Membrane Bioreactor-based on single species and activated sludge.

Keywords: fouling, membrane bioreactor, mixed microbial culture, single species

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15 Using Augmented Reality to Enhance Doctor Patient Communication

Authors: Rutusha Bhutada, Gaurav Chavan, Sarvesh Kasat, Varsha Mujumdar

Abstract:

This software system will be an Augmented Reality application designed to maximize the doctor’s productivity by providing tools to assist in automating the patient recognition and updating patient’s records using face and voice recognition features, which would otherwise have to be performed manually. By maximizing the doctor’s work efficiency and production, the application will meet the doctor’s needs while remaining easy to understand and use. More specifically, this application is designed to allow a doctor to manage his productive time in handling the patient without losing eye-contact with him and communicate with a group of other doctors for consultation, for in-place treatments through video streaming, as a video study. The system also contains a relational database containing a list of doctor, patient and display techniques.

Keywords: augmented reality, hand-held devices, head-mounted devices, marker based systems, speech recognition, face detection

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14 Controlled Mobile Platform for Service Based Humanoid Robot System

Authors: Shrikant V. Sangludkar, Dilip I. Sangotra, Sachin T. Bagde, Abhijeet A. Khandagale

Abstract:

The paper discloses a controlled tracked humanoid robot moving platform. A driving and driven wheel are controlled by a control module to drive a robot body to move according to data signals of a monitoring module, in addition, remote transmission can be achieved, and a certain remote control function can be realized. A power management module circuit board looks after in used for providing electric drive for moving of the robot body and distribution of separate power source to be used in internal of robot system. An external port circuit board is arranged, the tracked robot moving platform can be used immediately for any data acquisition. The moving platform is simple and compact in structure, strong in adaptation performance, stable in operation and suitable for being operated in severe environments. Meanwhile, a layered modular installation structure is adopted, and therefore the moving platform is convenient to assemble and disassemble.

Keywords: moving platform, humanoid robot, embedded controlled drive, mobile robot, museum robots, self-localization, obstacle avoidance, communication

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13 Arsenic Removal by Membrane Technology, Adsorption and Ion Exchange: An Environmental Lifecycle Assessment

Authors: Karan R. Chavan, Paula Saavalainen, Kumudini V. Marathe, Riitta L. Keiski, Ganapati D. Yadav

Abstract:

Co-contamination of groundwaters by arsenic in different forms is often observed around the globe. Arsenic is introduced into the waters by several mechanisms and different technologies are proposed and practiced for effective removal. The assessment of three prominent technologies, namely, adsorption, ion exchange and nanofiltration was carried out in this study based on lifecycle methodology. The life of the technologies was divided into two stages: cradle to gate (C-G) and gate to gate (G-G), in order to find out the impacts in different categories of environmental burdens, human health and resource consumption. Life cycle inventory was estimated by use of models and design equations concerning with the different technologies. Regeneration was considered for each technology and over the course of its full lifetime. The impact values of adsorption technology for the C-G stage are greater by thousand times (103) and million times (106) compared to ion exchange and nanofiltration technologies, respectively. The impact of G-G stage of the lifecycle is the major contributor of the impact for all the 3 technologies due to electricity consumption during the operation. Overall, the ion Exchange technology fares well in this study of removal of As (V) only.

Keywords: arsenic, nanofiltration, lifecycle assessment, membrane technology

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12 Degradation of Chlorpyrifos Pesticide in Aqueous Solution and Chemical Oxygen Demand from Real Effluent with Hydrodynamic Cavitation Approach

Authors: Shrikant Randhavane, Anjali Khambete

Abstract:

Use of Pesticides is vital in attaining food security and protection from harmful pests and insects in living environment. Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide is widely used worldwide for various purposes. Due to its wide use and applications, its residues are found in environmental matrices and persist in nature for long duration of time. This has an adverse effect on human, aquatic and living bodies. Use of different methodologies is need of an hour to treat such type of recalcitrant compound. The paper focuses on Hydrodynamic Cavitation (HC), a hybrid Advanced Oxidation Potential (AOP) method to degrade Chlorpyrifos in aqueous water. Obtained results show that optimum inlet pressure of 5 bars gave maximum degradation of 99.25% for lower concentration and 87.14% for higher concentration Chlorpyrifos solution in 1 hour treatment time. Also, with known initial concentrations, comparing treatment time with optimum pressure of 5 bars, degradation efficiency increases with Hydrodynamic Cavitation. The potential application of HC in removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) from real effluent with venturi as cavitating device reveals around 40% COD removal with 1 hour of treatment time.

Keywords: advanced oxidation potential, cavitation, chlorpyrifos, COD

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11 Medical Image Augmentation Using Spatial Transformations for Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Trupti Chavan, Ramachandra Guda, Kameshwar Rao

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The lack of data is a pain problem in medical image analysis using a convolutional neural network (CNN). This work uses various spatial transformation techniques to address the medical image augmentation issue for knee detection and localization using an enhanced single shot detector (SSD) network. The spatial transforms like a negative, histogram equalization, power law, sharpening, averaging, gaussian blurring, etc. help to generate more samples, serve as pre-processing methods, and highlight the features of interest. The experimentation is done on the OpenKnee dataset which is a collection of knee images from the openly available online sources. The CNN called enhanced single shot detector (SSD) is utilized for the detection and localization of the knee joint from a given X-ray image. It is an enhanced version of the famous SSD network and is modified in such a way that it will reduce the number of prediction boxes at the output side. It consists of a classification network (VGGNET) and an auxiliary detection network. The performance is measured in mean average precision (mAP), and 99.96% mAP is achieved using the proposed enhanced SSD with spatial transformations. It is also seen that the localization boundary is comparatively more refined and closer to the ground truth in spatial augmentation and gives better detection and localization of knee joints.

Keywords: data augmentation, enhanced SSD, knee detection and localization, medical image analysis, openKnee, Spatial transformations

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10 Quantification of Lustre in Textile Fibers by Image Analysis

Authors: Neelesh Bharti Shukla, Suvankar Dutta, Esha Sharma, Shrikant Ralebhat, Gurudatt Krishnamurthy

Abstract:

A key component of the physical attribute of textile fibers is lustre. It is a complex phenomenon arising from the interaction of light with fibers, yarn and fabrics. It is perceived as the contrast difference between the bright areas (specular reflection) and duller backgrounds (diffused reflection). Lustre of fibers is affected by their surface structure, morphology, cross-section profile as well as the presence of any additives/registrants. Due to complexities in measurements, objective measurements such as gloss meter do not give reproducible quantification of lustre. Other instruments such as SAMBA hair systems are expensive. In light of this, lustre quantification has largely remained subjective, judged visually by experts, but prone to errors. In this development, a physics-based approach was conceptualized and demonstrated. We have developed an image analysis based technique to quantify visually observed differences in lustre of fibers. Cellulosic fibers, produced with different approaches, with visually different levels of lustre were photographed under controlled optics. These images were subsequently analyzed using a configured software system. The ratio of Intensity of light from bright (specular reflection) and dull (diffused reflection) areas was used to numerically represent lustre. In the next step, the set of samples that were not visually distinguishable easily were also evaluated by the technique and it was established that quantification of lustre is feasible.

Keywords: lustre, fibre, image analysis, measurement

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9 Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles as MRI Contrast Agents

Authors: Suhas Pednekar, Prashant Chavan, Ramesh Chaughule, Deepak Patkar

Abstract:

Iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are one of the most attractive nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. An important potential medical application of polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is as imaging agents. Composition, size, morphology and surface chemistry of these nanoparticles can now be tailored by various processes to not only improve magnetic properties but also affect the behavior of nanoparticles in vivo. MNPs are being actively investigated as the next generation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. Also, there is considerable interest in developing magnetic nanoparticles and their surface modifications with therapeutic agents. Our study involves the synthesis of biocompatible cancer drug coated with iron oxide nanoparticles and to evaluate their efficacy as MRI contrast agents. A simple and rapid microwave method to prepare Fe3O4 nanoparticles has been developed. The drug was successfully conjugated to the Fe3O4 nanoparticles which can be used for various applications. The relaxivity R2 (reciprocal of the spin-spin relaxation time T2) is an important factor to determine the efficacy of Fe nanoparticles as contrast agents for MRI experiments. R2 values of the coated magnetic nanoparticles were also measured using MRI technique and the results showed that R2 of the Fe complex consisting of Fe3O4, polymer and drug was higher than that of bare Fe nanoparticles and polymer coated nanoparticles. This is due to the increase in hydrodynamic sizes of Fe NPs. The results with various amounts of iron molar concentrations are also discussed. Using MRI, it is seen that the R2 relaxivity increases linearly with increase in concentration of Fe NPs in water.

Keywords: cancer drug, hydrodynamic size, magnetic nanoparticles, MRI

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8 Soil-Structure Interaction Models for the Reinforced Foundation System – A State-of-the-Art Review

Authors: Ashwini V. Chavan, Sukhanand S. Bhosale

Abstract:

Challenges of weak soil subgrade are often resolved either by stabilization or reinforcing it. However, it is also practiced to reinforce the granular fill to improve the load-settlement behavior of over weak soil strata. The inclusion of reinforcement in the engineered granular fill provided a new impetus for the development of enhanced Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) models, also known as mechanical foundation models or lumped parameter models. Several researchers have been working in this direction to understand the mechanism of granular fill-reinforcement interaction and the response of weak soil under the application of load. These models have been developed by extending available SSI models such as the Winkler Model, Pasternak Model, Hetenyi Model, Kerr Model etc., and are helpful to visualize the load-settlement behavior of a physical system through 1-D and 2-D analysis considering beam and plate resting on the foundation respectively. Based on the literature survey, these models are categorized as ‘Reinforced Pasternak Model,’ ‘Double Beam Model,’ ‘Reinforced Timoshenko Beam Model,’ and ‘Reinforced Kerr Model.’ The present work reviews the past 30+ years of research in the field of SSI models for reinforced foundation systems, presenting the conceptual development of these models systematically and discussing their limitations. Special efforts are taken to tabulate the parameters and their significance in the load-settlement analysis, which may be helpful in future studies for the comparison and enhancement of results and findings of physical models.

Keywords: geosynthetics, mathematical modeling, reinforced foundation, soil-structure interaction, ground improvement, soft soil

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7 Self-Determination among Individuals with Intellectual Disability: An Experiment

Authors: Wasim Ahmad, Bir Singh Chavan, Nazli Ahmad

Abstract:

Objectives: The present investigation is an attempt to find out the efficacy of training the special educators on promoting self-determination among individuals with intellectual disability. Methods: The study equipped the special educators with necessary skills and knowledge to train individuals with the intellectual disability for practicing self-determination. Subjects: Special educators (N=25) were selected for training on self-determination among individuals with intellectual disability. After receiving the training, (N=50) individuals with an intellectual disability were selected and intervened by the trained special educators. Tool: Self-Determination Scale for Adults with Mild Mental Retardation (SDSAMR) developed by Keshwal and Thressiakutty (2010) has been used. It’s a reliable and valid tool used by many researchers. It has 36 items distributed in five domains namely: personal management, community participation, recreation and leisure time, choice making and problem solving. Analysis: The collected data was analyzed using the statistical techniques such as t-test, ANCOVA, and Posthoc Tuckey test. Results: The findings of the study reveal that there is a significant difference at 1% level in the pre and post tests mean scores (t-15.56) of self-determination concepts among the special educators. This indicates that the training enhanced the performance of special educators on the concept of self-determination among individuals with intellectual disability. The study also reveals that the training received on transition planning by the special educators found to be effective because they were able to practice the concept by imparting and training the individuals with intellectual disability to if determined. The results show that there was a significant difference at 1% level in the pre and post tests mean scores (t-16.61) of self-determination among individuals with intellectual disability. Conclusion: To conclude it can be said that the training has a remarkable impact on the performance of the individuals with intellectual disability on self-determination.

Keywords: experiment, individuals with intellectual disability, self-determination, special educators

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6 Study and Analysis of Permeable Articulated Concrete Blocks Pavement: With Reference to Indian Context

Authors: Shrikant Charhate, Gayatri Deshpande

Abstract:

Permeable pavements have significant benefits like managing runoff, infiltration, and carrying traffic over conventional pavements in terms of sustainability and environmental impact. Some of the countries are using this technique, especially at locations where durability and other parameters are of importance in nature; however, sparse work has been done on this concept. In India, this is yet to be adopted. In this work, the progress in the characterization and development of Permeable Articulated Concrete Blocks (PACB) pavement design is described and discussed with reference to Indian conditions. The experimentation and in-depth analysis was carried out considering conditions like soil erosion, water logging, and dust which are significant challenges caused due to impermeability of pavement. Concrete blocks with size 16.5’’x 6.5’’x 7’’ consisting of arch shape (4’’) at beneath and ½” PVC holes for articulation were casted. These blocks were tested for flexural strength. The articulation process was done with nylon ropes forming series of concrete block system. The total spacing between the blocks was kept about 8 to 10% of total area. The hydraulic testing was carried out by placing the articulated blocks with the combination of layers of soil, geotextile, clean angular aggregate. This was done to see the percentage of seepage through the entire system. The experimental results showed that with the shape of concrete block the flexural strength achieved was beyond the permissible limit. Such blocks with the combination could be very useful innovation in Indian conditions and useful at various locations compared to the traditional blocks as an alternative for long term sustainability.

Keywords: connections, geotextile, permeable ACB, pavements, stone base

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5 Mathematical Analysis of Variation in Inlet Shock Wave Angle on Specific Impulse of Scramjet Engine

Authors: Shrikant Ghadage

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Study of shock waves generated in the Scramjet engine is typically restricted to pressure, temperature, density, entropy and Mach number variation across the shock wave. The present work discusses the impact of inlet shock wave angles on the specific impulse of the Scramjet engine. A mathematical analysis has done for the isentropic hypersonic flow of air flowing through a Scramjet with hydrogen fuel at an altitude of 30 km. Analysis has been done in order to get optimum shock wave angle to achieve maximum impulse. Since external drag has excluded from the analysis, the losses due to friction are not considered for the present analysis. When Mach number of the airflow at the entry of the nozzle reaches unity, then that flow is choked. This condition puts limitations on increasing the inlet shock wave angle. As inlet shock wave angle increases, speed of the flow entering into the nozzle decreases, which results in an increase in the specific impulse of the engine. When the speed of the flow at the entry of the nozzle reduces below sonic speed, then there is no further increase in the specific impulse of the engine. Here the Conclusion is the thrust and specific impulse of a scramjet engine, which increases gradually with an increase in inlet shock wave angle up to the condition when airflow speed reaches sonic velocity at the exit of the combustor. In addition to that, variation in drag force at the inlet of the scramjet and variation in hypersonic flow conditions at every stage of the scramjet also studied in order to understand variation on flow characteristics with respect to flow deflection angle. Essentially, it helps in designing inlet profile for the Scramjet engine to achieve optimum specific impulse.

Keywords: hypersonic flow, scramjet, shock waves, specific impulse, mathematical analysis

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4 Transcriptome Analysis of Dry and Soaked Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Seeds in Response to Fast Neutron Irradiation

Authors: Yujie Zhou, Hee-Seong Byun, Sang-In Bak, Eui-Joon Kil, Kyung Joo Min, Vivek Chavan, Won Kyong Cho, Sukchan Lee, Seung-Woo Hong, Tae-Sun Park

Abstract:

Fast neutron irradiation (FNI) can cause mutations on plant genome but, in the most of cases, these irradiated plants have not shown significant characteristics phenotypically. In this study, we utilized RNA-Seq to generate a high-resolution transcriptome map of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genome effected by FNI. To quantify the different transcription levels in tomato irradiated by FNI, tomato seeds were irradiated by using MC-50 cyclotron (KIRAMS, Korea) for 0, 30 and 90 minutes, respectively. To investigate the effects on the pre-soaking condition, experimental groups were divided into dry and soaked seeds, which were soaked for 8 hours before irradiation. There was no noticeable difference in the percentage germination (PG) among dry seeds, while irradiated soaked seeds have about 10 % lower PG compared to the unirradiated control group. Using whole transcriptome sequencing by HiSeq 2000, we analyzed the differential gene expression in response to different time of FNI in dry and soaked seeds. More than 1.4 million base pair reads were mapped onto the tomato reference genome and the expression pattern differences between irradiated and unirradiated seeds were assessed. In 0, 30 and 90 minutes irradiation, 12,135, 28,495 and 28,675 transcripts were generated, respectively. Gene ontology analysis suggested the different enrichment of transcripts involved in response to different FNI. The present study showed that FNI effects on plant gene expression, which can become a new parameters for evaluating the responses against FNI on plants. In addition, the comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in D and S seeds by FNI will also give us a chance to deep explore novel candidate genes for FNI, which could be a good model system to understand the mechanisms behind the adaption of plant to space biology research.

Keywords: tomato (solanum lycopersicum), fast neutron irradiation, RNA-sequence, transcriptome expression

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3 Dwindling the Stability of DNA Sequence by Base Substitution at Intersection of COMT and MIR4761 Gene

Authors: Srishty Gulati, Anju Singh, Shrikant Kukreti

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The manifestation of structural polymorphism in DNA depends on the sequence and surrounding environment. Ample of folded DNA structures have been found in the cellular system out of which DNA hairpins are very common, however, are indispensable due to their role in the replication initiation sites, recombination, transcription regulation, and protein recognition. We enumerate this approach in our study, where the two base substitutions and change in temperature embark destabilization of DNA structure and misbalance the equilibrium between two structures of a sequence present at the overlapping region of the human COMT gene and MIR4761 gene. COMT and MIR4761 gene encodes for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme and microRNAs (miRNAs), respectively. Environmental changes and errors during cell division lead to genetic abnormalities. The COMT gene entailed in dopamine regulation fosters neurological diseases like Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, velocardiofacial syndrome, etc. A 19-mer deoxyoligonucleotide sequence 5'-AGGACAAGGTGTGCATGCC-3' (COMT19) is located at exon-4 on chromosome 22 and band q11.2 at the intersection of COMT and MIR4761 gene. Bioinformatics studies suggest that this sequence is conserved in humans and few other organisms and is involved in recognition of transcription factors in the vicinity of 3'-end. Non-denaturating gel electrophoresis and CD spectroscopy of COMT sequences indicate the formation of hairpin type DNA structures. Temperature-dependent CD studies revealed an unusual shift in the slipped DNA-Hairpin DNA equilibrium with the change in temperature. Also, UV-thermal melting techniques suggest that the two base substitutions on the complementary strand of COMT19 did not affect the structure but reduces the stability of duplex. This study gives insight about the possibility of existing structurally polymorphic transient states within DNA segments present at the intersection of COMT and MIR4761 gene.

Keywords: base-substitution, catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), hairpin-DNA, structural polymorphism

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2 Current Deflecting Wall: A Promising Structure for Minimising Siltation in Semi-Enclosed Docks

Authors: A. A. Purohit, A. Basu, K. A. Chavan, M. D. Kudale

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Many estuarine harbours in the world are facing the problem of siltation in docks, channel entrances, etc. The harbours in India are not an exception and require maintenance dredging to achieve navigable depths for keeping them operable. Hence, dredging is inevitable and is a costly affair. The heavy siltation in docks in well mixed tide dominated estuaries is mainly due to settlement of cohesive sediments in suspension. As such there is a need to have a permanent solution for minimising the siltation in such docks to alter the hydrodynamic flow field responsible for siltation by constructing structures outside the dock. One of such docks on the west coast of India, wherein siltation of about 2.5-3 m/annum prevails, was considered to understand the hydrodynamic flow field responsible for siltation. The dock is situated in such a region where macro type of semi-diurnal tide (range of about 5m) prevails. In order to change the flow field responsible for siltation inside the dock, suitability of Current Deflecting Wall (CDW) outside the dock was studied, which will minimise the sediment exchange rate and siltation in the dock. The well calibrated physical tidal model was used to understand the flow field during various phases of tide for the existing dock in Mumbai harbour. At the harbour entrance where the tidal flux exchanges in/out of the dock, measurements on water level and current were made to estimate the sediment transport capacity. The distorted scaled model (1:400 (H) & 1:80 (V)) of Mumbai area was used to study the tidal flow phenomenon, wherein tides are generated by automatic tide generator. Hydraulic model studies carried out under the existing condition (without CDW) reveal that, during initial hours of flood tide, flow hugs the docks breakwater and part of flow which enters the dock forms number of eddies of varying sizes inside the basin, while remaining part of flow bypasses the entrance of dock. During ebb, flow direction reverses, and part of the flow re-enters the dock from outside and creates eddies at its entrance. These eddies do not allow water/sediment-mass to come out and result in settlement of sediments in dock both due to eddies and more retention of sediment. At latter hours, current strength outside the dock entrance reduces and allows the water-mass of dock to come out. In order to improve flow field inside the dockyard, two CDWs of length 300 m and 40 m were proposed outside the dock breakwater and inline to Pier-wall at dock entrance. Model studies reveal that, during flood, major flow gets deflected away from the entrance and no eddies are formed inside the dock, while during ebb flow does not re-enter the dock, and sediment flux immediately starts emptying it during initial hours of ebb. This reduces not only the entry of sediment in dock by about 40% but also the deposition by about 42% due to less retention. Thus, CDW is a promising solution to significantly reduce siltation in dock.

Keywords: current deflecting wall, eddies, hydraulic model, macro tide, siltation

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1 Cross-Cultural Conflict Management in Transnational Business Relationships: A Qualitative Study with Top Executives in Chinese, German and Middle Eastern Cases

Authors: Sandra Hartl, Meena Chavan

Abstract:

This paper presents the outcome of a four year Ph.D. research on cross-cultural conflict management in transnational business relationships. An important and complex problem about managing conflicts that arise across cultures in business relationships is investigated, and conflict resolution strategies are identified. This paper particularly focuses on transnational relationships within a Chinese, German and Middle Eastern framework. Unlike many papers on this issue which have been built on experiments with international MBA students, this research provides real-life cases of cross-cultural conflicts which are not easy to capture. Its uniqueness is underpinned as the real case data was gathered by interviewing top executives at management positions in large multinational corporations through a qualitative case study method approach. This paper makes a valuable contribution to the theory of cross-cultural conflicts, and despite the sensitivity, this research primarily presents real-time business data about breaches of contracts between two counterparties engaged in transnational operating organizations. The overarching aim of this research is to identify the degree of significance for the cultural factors and the communication factors embedded in cross-cultural business conflicts. It questions from a cultural perspective what factors lead to the conflicts in each of the cases, what the causes are and the role of culture in identifying effective strategies for resolving international disputes in an increasingly globalized business world. The results of 20 face to face interviews are outlined, which were conducted, recorded, transcribed and then analyzed using the NVIVO qualitative data analysis system. The outcomes make evident that the factors leading to conflicts are broadly organized under seven themes, which are communication, cultural difference, environmental issues, work structures, knowledge and skills, cultural anxiety and personal characteristics. When evaluating the causes of the conflict it is to notice that these are rather multidimensional. Irrespective of the conflict types (relationship or task-based conflict or due to individual personal differences), relationships are almost always an element of all conflicts. Cultural differences, which are a critical factor for conflicts, result from different cultures placing different levels of importance on relationships. Communication issues which are another cause of conflict also reflect different relationships styles favored by different cultures. In identifying effective strategies for solving cross-cultural business conflicts this research identifies that solutions need to consider the national cultures (country specific characteristics), organizational cultures and individual culture, of the persons engaged in the conflict and how these are interlinked to each other. Outcomes identify practical dispute resolution strategies to resolve cross-cultural business conflicts in reference to communication, empathy and training to improve cultural understanding and cultural competence, through the use of mediation. To conclude, the findings of this research will not only add value to academic knowledge of cross-cultural conflict management across transnational businesses but will also add value to numerous cross-border business relationships worldwide. Above all it identifies the influence of cultures and communication and cross-cultural competence in reducing cross-cultural business conflicts in transnational business.

Keywords: business conflict, conflict management, cross-cultural communication, dispute resolution

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