Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: Shaden S. Attia

23 Foreign Language Anxiety: Perceptions and Attitudes in the Egyptian ESL Classroom

Authors: Shaden S. Attia

Abstract:

This study investigated foreign language anxiety (FLA) and teachers’ awareness of its presence in the Egyptian ESL classrooms and how FLA correlates with different variables such as four language skills, students' sex, and activities used in class. A combination of quantitative and qualitative instruments was used in order to investigate the previously mentioned variables, which included five interviews with teachers, six classroom observations, a survey for teachers, and a questionnaire for students. The findings of the study revealed that some teachers were aware of the presence of FLA, with some of them believing that other teachers, however, are not aware of this phenomenon, and even when they notice anxiety, they do not always relate it to learning a foreign language. The results also showed that FLA was affected by students’ sex, different language skills, and affective anxieties; however, teachers were unaware of the effect of these variables. The results demonstrated that both teachers and students preferred group and pair work to individual activities as they were more relaxing and less anxiety-provoking. These findings contribute to raising teachers' awareness of FLA in ESL classrooms and how it is affected by different variables.

Keywords: foreign language anxiety, situation specific anxiety, skill-specific anxiety, teachers’ perceptions

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22 Detection of Leishmania Mixed Infection from Phlebotomus papatasi in Central Iran

Authors: Nassibeh Hosseini-Vasoukolaei, Amir Ahmad Akhavan, Mahmood Jeddi-Tehrani, Ali Khamesipour, Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi Ershadi, Kamhawi Shaden, Valenzuela Jesus, Hossein Mirhendi, Mohammad Hossein Arandian

Abstract:

Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is an endemic disease in many rural areas of Iran. Sand flies were collected from rural areas of Esfahan province and were identified using valid identification keys. DNA was extracted from sand flies and Nested PCRs were done using specific primers. In this study, 44 out of 152 (28.9 %) sand flies were infected with L. majoralone. Eight sand flies showed mixed infection: four sand flies (2.6 %) were infected with L. major, L. turanicaand L. gerbili, one sand fly (0.7 %) was infected with L. major and L. turanica and three sand flies (2 %) were infected with L. turanicaand L. gerbili. Our results demonstrate the natural infection of P. papatasi sand fly with three species of L. major, L. turanica and L. gerbili which are circulating among R. opimusreservoir host and P. papatasi sand fly vector in central Iran.

Keywords: Phlebotomus papatasi, Leishmania major, Leishmania turanica, Leishmania gerbili, mixed infection, Iran

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21 ANSYS Investigation on Stability and Performance of a Solar Driven Inline Alpha Stirling Engine

Authors: Joseph Soliman, Youssef Attia, Khairy Megalla

Abstract:

The stable operation of an inline Stirling engine will be achieved when both engine configurations and operating conditions are optimum. This paper presents stability and performance investigation of an inline Stirling engine using ANSYS. Dynamic motion of engine pistons such as the displacer and the power piston are both obtained. For engine design, the optimum parameters are given such as engine specifications, engine characteristics and working conditions to yield the maximum efficiency and reliability. The prototype was built and tested and it is used as a validation case. The comparison of both experimental and simulation results are provided and discussed. Results were found to be encouraging to initiate a Stirling engine project for 3 kW power output. The working fluids are air, hydrogen, nitrogen and helum.

Keywords: stirling engine, solar energy, new energy, dynamic motion

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20 The Effect of Gas Pollutants on Museum Environment: Case Study of an Oil Paintings in Ethnographic Museum, Egypt

Authors: Hagar Ezzat, Mostafa Attia, Ahmed Bedeir, Abdelrazek Elnagger, Matija Strlic

Abstract:

Ethnographic Museum in Cairo- Egypt is a place of valuable collections (manuscripts, paintings, textiles and other ethnographic materials), the museum experiences serious neglecting with unacceptable display and storage conditions, the museum is located in Tahrir sq., which consider a high traffic area where pollution levels exceed the acceptable levels in museums. The materials used in manufacturing the display cases are expected to be source of many pollutants which affecting the sensitive oil paintings objects in the galleries. 24 diffusion tubes (12 No2, So2 & 12 O3) have been used in "winter 2014 and spring 2014" for monitoring museum environment with three cases "outdoor & indoor and in the gallery display". A series of analytical techniques with scientific tools: Ion Chromatography have been used to assess measurements and effects of gas pollutants on the museum which help us to make good assessment for the damage of oil paintings objects and the condition of the museum and understand the effect of the museum environment on the deterioration of the sensitive oil paintings.

Keywords: environment, museum, paintings, ethnographic, conservation

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19 Orange Peel Extracts (OPE) as Eco-Friendly Corrosion Inhibitor for Carbon Steel in Produced Oilfield Water

Authors: Olfat E. El-Azabawy, Enas M. Attia, Nadia Shawky, Amira M. Hypa

Abstract:

In this work, an attempt is made to study the effects of orange peel extract (OPE) as an environment-friendly corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel (CS) within a formation water solution (FW). The study was performed in different concentrations (0.5-2.5% (v/v)) of peel extracts at ambient temperatures (25oC) and (2.5% (v/v)) at temperature range (25- 55 oC) by weight loss measurements, open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance. The inhibition efficiency was calculated from all measurements and confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Inhibition was found to increase with increasing inhibitors concentration and decrease with increasing temperature. It was seen that IE% is about 92.84% in the presence of 2.5% (v/v) of orange peel inhibitor by using weight loss method. The adsorption process was of physical type and obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Also, adsorption, as well as the inhibition process, followed first-order kinetics at all concentrations.

Keywords: eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor, OPE, oilfield water, electrochemical impedance

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18 Load Management Using Multiple Sequential Load Shaping Techniques

Authors: Amira M. Attia, Karim H. Youssef, Nabil H. Abbasi

Abstract:

Demand Side Management (DSM) is an essential characteristic of current and future smart grid systems. As one of DSM functions, load management aims to control customers’ total electric consumption and utility’s load factor by using various load shaping techniques. However, applying load shaping techniques such as load shifting, peak clipping, or strategic conservation individually does not provide the desired level of improvement for load factor increment and/or customer’s bill reduction. In this paper, two load shaping techniques will be simulated as constrained optimization problems. The purpose is to reflect the application of combined load shifting and strategic conservation model together at the same time, and the application of combined load shifting and peak clipping model as well. The problem will be formulated and solved by using disciplined convex programming (CVX) based MATLAB® R2013b. Simulation results will be evaluated and compared for studying the most impactful multi-techniques model in improving load curve.

Keywords: convex programing, demand side management, load shaping, multiple, building energy optimization

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17 Impact of Tablet Based Learning on Continuous Assessment (ESPRIT Smart School Framework)

Authors: Mehdi Attia, Sana Ben Fadhel, Lamjed Bettaieb

Abstract:

Mobile technology has become a part of our daily lives and assist learners (despite their level and age) in their leaning process using various apparatus and mobile devices (laptop, tablets, etc.). This paper presents a new learning framework based on tablets. This solution has been developed and tested in ESPRIT “Ecole Supérieure Privée d’Igénieurie et de Technologies”, a Tunisian school of engineering. This application is named ESSF: Esprit Smart School Framework. In this work, the main features of the proposed solution are listed, particularly its impact on the learners’ evaluation process. Learner’s assessment has always been a critical component of the learning process as it measures students’ knowledge. However, traditional evaluation methods in which the learner is evaluated once or twice each year cannot reflect his real level. This is why a continuous assessment (CA) process becomes necessary. In this context we have proved that ESSF offers many important features that enhance and facilitate the implementation of the CA process.

Keywords: continuous assessment, mobile learning, tablet based learning, smart school, ESSF

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16 Traditional Sustainable Architecture Techniques and Its Applications in Contemporary Architecture: Case Studies of the Islamic House in Fatimid Cairo and Sana'a, Cities in Egypt and Yemen

Authors: Ahmed S. Attia

Abstract:

This paper includes a study of modern sustainable architectural techniques and elements that are originally found in vernacular and traditional architecture, particularly in the Arab region. Courtyards, Wind Catchers, and Mashrabiya, for example, are elements that have been developed in contemporary architecture using modern technology to create sustainable architecture designs. An analytical study of the topic will deal with some examples of the Islamic House in Fatimid Cairo city in Egypt, analyzing its elements and their relationship to the environment, in addition to the examples in southern Egypt (Nubba) of sustainable architecture systems, and traditional houses in Sana'a city, Yemen, using earth resources of mud bricks and other construction materials. In conclusion, a comparative study between traditional and contemporary techniques will be conducted to confirm that it is possible to achieve sustainable architecture through the use of low-technology in buildings in Arab regions.

Keywords: Islamic context, cultural environment, natural environment, Islamic house, low-technology, mud brick, vernacular and traditional architecture

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15 Short Arc Technique for Baselines Determinations

Authors: Gamal F.Attia

Abstract:

The baselines are the distances and lengths of the chords between projections of the positions of the laser stations on the reference ellipsoid. For the satellite geodesy, it is very important to determine the optimal length of orbital arc along which laser measurements are to be carried out. It is clear that for the dynamical methods long arcs (one month or more) are to be used. According to which more errors of modeling of different physical forces such as earth's gravitational field, air drag, solar radiation pressure, and others that may influence the accuracy of the estimation of the satellites position, at the same time the measured errors con be almost completely excluded and high stability in determination of relative coordinate system can be achieved. It is possible to diminish the influence of the errors of modeling by using short-arcs of the satellite orbit (several revolutions or days), but the station's coordinates estimated by different arcs con differ from each other by a larger quantity than statistical zero. Under the semidynamical ‘short arc’ method one or several passes of the satellite in one of simultaneous visibility from both ends of the chord is known and the estimated parameter in this case is the length of the chord. The comparison of the same baselines calculated with long and short arcs methods shows a good agreement and even speaks in favor of the last one. In this paper the Short Arc technique has been explained and 3 baselines have been determined using the ‘short arc’ method.

Keywords: baselines, short arc, dynamical, gravitational field

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14 Simulation-Based Optimization Approach for an Electro-Plating Production Process Based on Theory of Constraints and Data Envelopment Analysis

Authors: Mayada Attia Ibrahim

Abstract:

Evaluating and developing the electroplating production process is a key challenge in this type of process. The process is influenced by several factors such as process parameters, process costs, and production environments. Analyzing and optimizing all these factors together requires extensive analytical techniques that are not available in real-case industrial entities. This paper presents a practice-based framework for the evaluation and optimization of some of the crucial factors that affect the costs and production times associated with this type of process, energy costs, material costs, and product flow times. The proposed approach uses Design of Experiments, Discrete-Event Simulation, and Theory of Constraints were respectively used to identify the most significant factors affecting the production process and simulate a real production line to recognize the effect of these factors and assign possible bottlenecks. Several scenarios are generated as corrective strategies for improving the production line. Following that, data envelopment analysis CCR input-oriented DEA model is used to evaluate and optimize the suggested scenarios.

Keywords: electroplating process, simulation, design of experiment, performance optimization, theory of constraints, data envelopment analysis

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13 Applying Energy Consumption Schedule and Comparing It with Load Shifting Technique in Residential Load

Authors: Amira M. Attia, Karim H. Youssef, Nabil H. Abbasy

Abstract:

Energy consumption schedule (ECS) technique shifts usage of loads from on peak hours and redistributes them throughout the day according to residents’ operating time preferences. This technique is used as form of indirect control from utility to improve the load curve and hence its load factor and reduce customer’s total electric bill as well. Similarly, load shifting technique achieves ECS purposes but as direct control form applied from utility. In this paper, ECS is simulated twice as optimal constrained mathematical formula, solved by using CVX program in MATLAB® R2013b. First, it is utilized for single residential building with ten apartments to determine max allowable energy consumption per hour for each residential apartment. Then, it is used for single apartment with number of shiftable domestic devices, where operating schedule is deduced using previous simulation output results as constraints. The paper ends by giving differences between ECS technique and load shifting technique via literature and simulation. Based on results assessment, it will be shown whether using ECS or load shifting is more beneficial to both customer and utility.

Keywords: energy consumption schedule, load shifting, comparison, demand side mangement

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12 Bridges Seismic Isolation Using CNT Reinforced Polymer Bearings

Authors: Mohamed Attia, Vissarion Papadopoulos

Abstract:

There is no doubt that there is a continuous deterioration of structures as a result of multiple hazards which can be divided into natural hazards (e.g., earthquakes, floods, winds) and other hazards due to human behavior (e.g., ship collisions, excessive traffic, terrorist attacks). There have been numerous attempts to address the catastrophic consequences of these hazards and traditional solutions through structural design and safety factors within the design codes, but there has not been much research addressing solutions through the use of new materials that have high performance and can be more effective than usual materials such as reinforced concrete and steel. To illustrate the effect of one of the new high-performance materials, carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer (CNT/polymer) bearings with different weight fractions were simulated as structural components of seismic isolation using ABAQUS in the connection between a bridge superstructure and the substructure. The results of the analyzes showed a significant increase in the time period of the bridge and a clear decrease in the bending moment at the base of the bridge piers at each time step of the time-history analysis in the case of using CNT/polymer bearings compared to the case of direct contact between the superstructure of the bridge and the substructure.

Keywords: seismic isolation, bridges damage, earthquake hazard, earthquake resistant structures

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11 Role of Interlukin-18 in Primary Knee Osteoarthritis: Clinical, Laboratory and Radiological Study

Authors: Ibrahim Khalil Ibrahim, Enas Mohamed Shahine, Abeer Shawky El Hadedy, Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Ghada Salah Attia Hussein

Abstract:

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease characterized by a progressive degradation of articular cartilage and is the leading cause of disability in elderly persons. IL-18 contributes to the destruction of cartilage and bone in the disease process of arthritis. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of IL-18 in primary knee OA patients. Serum level of IL-18 was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 30 primary knee OA patients and compared to 20 age and gender-matched healthy volunteers as a control group. Radiographic severity of OA was assessed by Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) global scale. Pain, stiffness and functional assessment were done using Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). OA patients had significantly higher serum IL-18 level than in control group (420.93 ± 345.4 versus 151.03 ± 144.16 pg/ml, P=0.001). Serum level of IL-18 was positively correlated with KL global scale (P=0.001). There were no statistically significant correlations between serum level of IL-18 and pain, stiffness, function subscales and total WOMAC index scores among the studied patients. In conclusions, IL-18 has a role in the pathogenesis of OA and it is positively correlated with the radiographic damage of OA.

Keywords: Interlukin-18, knee osteoarthritis, primary osteoarthritis, WOMAC scale

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10 Magnesium Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

Authors: D. M. El-Tanbouly, R. M. Abdelsalam, A. S. Attia, M. T. Abdel-Aziz

Abstract:

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin, a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis. LPS administration induces systemic inflammation that mimics many of the initial clinical features of sepsis and has deleterious effects on several organs including the liver and eventually leading to septic shock and death. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of magnesium, a well-known cofactor in many enzymatic reactions and a critical component of the antioxidant system, on hepatic damage associated with LPS induced- endotoxima in mice. Mg (20 and 40 mg/kg, po) was administered for 7 consecutive days. Systemic inflammation was induced one hour after the last dose of Mg by a single dose of LPS (2 mg/kg, ip) and three hours thereafter plasma was separated, animals were sacrificed and their livers were isolated. LPS-treated mice suffered from hepatic dysfunction revealed by histological observation, elevation in plasma transaminases activities, C-reactive protein content and caspase-3, a critical marker of apoptosis. Liver inflammation was evident by elevation in liver cytokines contents (TNF-α and IL-10) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Additionally, oxidative stress was manifested by increased liver lipoperoxidation, glutathione depletion, elevated total nitrate/nitrite (NOx) content and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Pretreatment with Mg largely mitigated these alternations through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials. Mg, therefore, could be regarded as an effective strategy for prevention of liver damage associated with septicemia.

Keywords: LPS, liver damage, magnesium, septicemia

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9 Driving in a Short Arm Plaster Cast Steer a Patient off Course: A Randomised, Controlled, Crossover Study

Authors: B. W. Kenny, D.Mansour, K. G. Mansour, J. Attia, B. Meads

Abstract:

There is currently insufficient evidence to make a conclusive statement about safety while immobilized in a short arm cast. There is a paucity of published literature on this topic. The purpose of this study is to specifically evaluate short arm casts and their effect on driving abilities, particularly steering and avoidance of obstacles. The ability to drive safely is extrapolated from this data. In this study, a randomised, controlled, crossover design was used to assess 30 subjects randomised into 2 groups. A Logitech force feedback steering column and simulated driving program with a standardised road course was used. Objective outcome measures were the number of times subjects drove off the track, the number of crashes, time to lap completion and subjective assessment on whether wearing a short arm plaster cast impeded their steering. Recruited subjects had no upper limb pathology. The side of the applied plaster cast was randomised. The mean lap completion time reduced with repetition, the difference being statistically significant. There was no significant difference in mean number of times subjects in casts drove off the track (3 with vs. 3.07 without casts), average number of crashes (1.27 vs 0.97). Steering ability was not reduced whilst a subject was immobilised in a short arm Plaster of Paris cast, despite subject’s own impressions that their steering was impeded. This may help guide doctors in their advice to patients regarding driving in these casts.

Keywords: upper limb, arm injury, plaster cast, splint, driving, automobile, bone fracture

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8 Green Synthesis Approach for Renewable Textile Coating and Their Mechanical and Thermal Properties

Authors: Heba Gamal Abd Elhaleem Elsayed, Nour F Attia

Abstract:

The extensive use of textile and textile based materials in various applications including industrial applications are increasing regularly due to their interesting properties which require rapid development in their functions to be adapted to these applications [1-3]. Herein, green, new and renewable smart coating was developed for furniture textile fabrics. Facile and single step method was used for synthesis of green coating based on mandarin peel and chitosan. As, the mandarin peel as fruit waste material was dried, grinded and directly dispersed in chitosan solution producing new green coating composite and then coated on textile fabrics. The mass loadings of green mandarin peel powder was varied on 20-70 wt% and optimized. Thermal stability of coated textile fabrics was enhanced and char yield was improved compared to uncoated one. The charring effect of mandarin peel powder coated samples was significantly enhanced anticipating good flame retardancy effect. The tensile strength of the coated textile fabrics was improved achieved 35% improvement compared to uncoated sample. The interaction between the renewable coating and textile was evaluated. The morphology of uncoated and coated textile fabrics was studied using microscopic technique. Additionally, based on thermal properties of mandarin peel powder it could be promising flame retardant for textile fabrics. This study open new avenues for finishing textile fabrics with enhanced thermal, flame retardancy and mechanical properties with cost-effective and renewable green and effective coating

Keywords: flame retardant , Thermal Properties, Textile Coating , Renewable Textile

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7 Modulation of Tamoxifen-Induced Cytotoxicity in Breast Cancer Cell Lines by 3-Bromopyruvate

Authors: Yasmin M. Attia, Hanan S. El-Abhar, Mahmoud M. Al Marzabani, Samia A. Shouman

Abstract:

Background: Tamoxifen (TAM) is the most commonly used hormone therapy for the treatment of early and metastatic breast cancer. Although it significantly decreases the tumor recurrence rate and provides an overall benefit, as much as 20–30% of women still relapse during or after long-term therapy. 3-Bromopyruvate (3-BP) is a promising agent with impressive antitumor effects in several models of animal tumors and cell lines. Aim: This study was designed to investigate the combined effect of (TAM) and (3-BP) in breast cancer cells and to explore their molecular interaction via assessment of apoptotic, angiogenic, and metastatic markers. Methods: In vitro cytotoxicity study was carried out for both compounds to determine the combination regimen producing a synergistic effect and mechanistic pathways were studied using RT-PCR and western techniques. Moreover, the anti-oncolytic and anti-angiogenic potentials were assessed in mice bearing solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC). Results: The combined treatment significantly increased the expressions and protein levels of caspase 7, 9, and 3 and decreased of angiogenic markers VEGF, HIF-1α, and HK2 compared to cells treated with either drug individually. However, there were no significant changes in MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein levels. Interestingly, the in vivo results supported the in vitro findings; there was a decrease in the tumor volume and VEFG using immunohistochemistry in the combination-treated groups compared to either TAM or 3-BP treated one. Conclusion: 3-BP synergizes the cytotoxic effect of TAM by increasing apoptosis and decreasing angiogenesis which makes this combination a promising regimen to be applied clinically.

Keywords: tamoxifen, 3-bromopyruvate, breast cancer, cytotoxicity, angiogenesis

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6 Performance Evaluation of a Very High-Resolution Satellite Telescope

Authors: Walid A. Attia, Taher M. Bazan, Fawzy Eltohamy, Mahmoud Fathy

Abstract:

System performance evaluation is an essential stage in the design of high-resolution satellite telescopes prior to the development process. In this paper, a system performance evaluation of a very high-resolution satellite telescope is investigated. The evaluated system has a Korsch optical scheme design. This design has been discussed in another paper with respect to three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) scheme design and the former configuration showed better results. The investigated system is based on the Korsch optical design integrated with a time-delay and integration charge coupled device (TDI-CCD) sensor to achieve a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 25 cm. The key performance metrics considered are the spatial resolution, the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the total modulation transfer function (MTF) of the system. In addition, the national image interpretability rating scale (NIIRS) metric is assessed to predict the image quality according to the modified general image quality equation (GIQE). Based on the orbital, optical and detector parameters, the estimated GSD is found to be 25 cm. The SNR has been analyzed at different illumination conditions of target albedos, sun and sensor angles. The system MTF has been computed including diffraction, aberration, optical manufacturing, smear and detector sampling as the main contributors for evaluation the MTF. Finally, the system performance evaluation results show that the computed MTF value is found to be around 0.08 at the Nyquist frequency, the SNR value was found to be 130 at albedo 0.2 with a nadir viewing angles and the predicted NIIRS is in the order of 6.5 which implies a very good system image quality.

Keywords: modulation transfer function, national image interpretability rating scale, signal to noise ratio, satellite telescope performance evaluation

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5 Correlation between Sleeping Disturbance and Academic Achievement in University Female Students

Authors: Amel Fayed, Shaden AlSubaih, Nouf Al-Qahtani, Asmaa Gosty, Asma Aljuhaimi

Abstract:

Introduction: Sleep difficulties are vastly predominant among adults and affect different aspects of their life. Many literatures found out that females are more liable to suffer from sleeping problems. College students are typical example of people dealing with daily pressure and stress to fulfill the daily tasks and responsibilities. In addition to their ultimate goal of achieving excellent academic records which require their full concentration and effort. Consequently, many of them start complaining of sleep deprivations which can undesirably affect their academic achievements. This study was aiming to investigate how prevalent is sleeping disorders among different colleges in the university and its relation their academic achievements. Methods: A cross-sectional study of female university students at Princess Norah Bint Abdulrahman University using self-administered questionnaire was conducted. Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) was used to assess different grades of insomnia. Students were requested to answer the questions evaluating their sleeping habits over the last two weeks. Participants reported their latest Grade Point Average (GPA). According to ISI, insomnia severity is reported as ‘No clinically significant’, ‘Subthreshold ‘,’ Clinical moderate insomnia’ and ‘Clinical severe’. Results: In the current study, 228 students participated; 172(75.4%) from medical colleges and 56 (24.6%) from non-medical colleges. About 80% of them claimed to have never taken any medications to help them sleep while only three students confirmed their regular use of sleep-inducing medications. About 16% of the students drink milk or other hot drinks to help them fall asleep. None of the students was suspected of having obstructive sleep apnea or apparent psychiatric disorder. According to ISI, 182 (79.8%) students suffered from subthreshold insomnia, 37 (16.2%) had clinical insomnia (moderate severity) and 9 (3.9%) of students had sleeping problems of non-clinically significance level. However, none of students was found to have severe clinical insomnia. Clinical moderate insomnia was reported in 15.1% of medical students and 19.6% of non-medical students. Moreover, about 82% of medical students suffered from subthreshold insomnia compared to 73.2% of non-medical students. This difference was not statistically significant (P=0.24). About 63% of medical students and 48% of non-medical students believed that high percentage of their colleagues are suffering from insomnias (p-value 0.08) The association between GPA and insomnia revealed that; 19.5% of low GPA group compared to 9.3% of high GPA group had clinical moderate insomnia. This association was not statistically significant (p=0.15). The correlation between the GPA and the ISI score was negative but not conclusive (r=-0.08, p-value = 0.29). More than 92% of all students agreed that sleeping problems affect their academic achievement to varying degrees. Conclusion: our results suggest that insomnia is commonly prevalent among female university students and might affect the students’ achievement. This study provides preliminary data about the quality of sleep among medical and non-medical university students which may be used to promote the healthy sleeping habits among female students.

Keywords: academic achievement, females, insomnia, university student

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4 Chronic Pesticides Exposure and Certain Endocrine Functions Among Farmers in East Almnaif District, Ismailia, Egypt

Authors: Amani Waheed, Mostafa Kofi, Shaymaa Attia, Soha Younis, Basma Abdel Hadi

Abstract:

Background: Exposure to pesticides is one of the most important occupational risks among farmers in developing countries. Along with the wide use of pesticides in the world, the concerns over their health impacts are rapidly growing. Objective: To investigate thyroid and reproductive hormones and fasting blood glucose levels among farmers chronically exposed to pesticide from East Almnaif district, Ismailia governorate. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 43 farmers with active involvement pesticides handling and 43 participants not occupationally exposed to pesticides as the control group. A structured interview questionnaire measuring the sociodemographic characteristics, pesticides exposure characteristics, and safety measures was used. General examination including measurements of height, weight, and blood pressure was done. Moreover, levels of plasma cholinesterase enzyme (PChE), glucose, as well as reproductive and thyroid hormones (TSH, T4, and testosterone) were determined. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between both groups regarding their age, educational level, smoking status, and body mass index. The mean duration of exposure was 20.60 11.06 years. Majority of farmers (76.7%) did not use any personal protective equipment (PPE) during pesticides handling. The mean systolic blood pressure among exposed farmers was greater (134.88 17.18 mm Hg) compared to control group (125 14.69 mm Hg) with statistically significant difference (p = 0.003). The mean diastolic blood pressure was higher (84.02 8.69 mm Hg) compared to control group (78.79 8.98 mm Hg) with statistically significant difference (p = 0.006). The pesticide exposed farmers had statistically significant lower level of PChE (3969.93 1841U/L) than control group (4879.29 1950.08 U/L). Additionally, TSH level was significantly higher in exposed farmers (median =1.39µIU/ml) compared to controls (median = 0.91 µIU/ml) (p=0.032). While, the exposed group had a lower T4 level (6.91 1.91 µg/dl) compared to the control group (7.79 2.10µg/dl), with the statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.045). The exposed group had significantly lower level of testosterone hormone (median=3.37 ng/ml) compared to the control group (median= 6.22 ng/ml) (p=0.003). While, the exposed farmers had statistically insignificant higher level of fasting blood glucose (median =89 mg/dl) than the controls (median=88 mg/dl). Furthermore, farmers who did not use PPE had statistically significant lower level of T4 (6.57 1.81µg/dl) than farmers who used PPE during handling of pesticides (8.01 1.89 µg/dl). Conclusion: Chronic exposure to pesticides exerts disturbing action on reproductive function and thyroid function of the male farmers.

Keywords: chronic occupational pesticide exposure, Diabetes mellitus, male reproductive hormones, thyroid function

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3 Utilizing Artificial Intelligence to Predict Post Operative Atrial Fibrillation in Non-Cardiac Transplant

Authors: Alexander Heckman, Rohan Goswami, Zachi Attia, Paul Friedman, Peter Noseworthy, Demilade Adedinsewo, Pablo Moreno-Franco, Rickey Carter, Tathagat Narula

Abstract:

Background: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is associated with adverse health consequences, higher costs, and longer hospital stays. Utilizing existing predictive models that rely on clinical variables and circulating biomarkers, multiple societies have published recommendations on the treatment and prevention of POAF. Although reasonably practical, there is room for improvement and automation to help individualize treatment strategies and reduce associated complications. Methods and results: In this retrospective cohort study of solid organ transplant recipients, we evaluated the diagnostic utility of a previously developed AI-based ECG prediction for silent AF on the development of POAF within 30 days of transplant. A total of 2261 non-cardiac transplant patients without a preexisting diagnosis of AF were found to have a 5.8% (133/2261) incidence of POAF. While there were no apparent sex differences in POAF incidence (5.8% males vs. 6.0% females, p=.80), there were differences by race and ethnicity (p<0.001 and 0.035, respectively). The incidence in white transplanted patients was 7.2% (117/1628), whereas the incidence in black patients was 1.4% (6/430). Lung transplant recipients had the highest incidence of postoperative AF (17.4%, 37/213), followed by liver (5.6%, 56/1002) and kidney (3.6%, 32/895) recipients. The AUROC in the sample was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.58-0.67). The relatively low discrimination may result from undiagnosed AF in the sample. In particular, 1,177 patients had at least 1 AI-ECG screen for AF pre-transplant above .10, a value slightly higher than the published threshold of 0.08. The incidence of POAF in the 1104 patients without an elevated prediction pre-transplant was lower (3.7% vs. 8.0%; p<0.001). While this supported the hypothesis that potentially undiagnosed AF may have contributed to the diagnosis of POAF, the utility of the existing AI-ECG screening algorithm remained modest. When the prediction for POAF was made using the first postoperative ECG in the sample without an elevated screen pre-transplant (n=1084 on account of n=20 missing postoperative ECG), the AUROC was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.57-0.75). While this discrimination is relatively low, at a threshold of 0.08, the AI-ECG algorithm had a 98% (95% CI: 97 – 99%) negative predictive value at a sensitivity of 66% (95% CI: 49-80%). Conclusions: This study's principal finding is that the incidence of POAF is rare, and a considerable fraction of the POAF cases may be latent and undiagnosed. The high negative predictive value of AI-ECG screening suggests utility for prioritizing monitoring and evaluation of the transplant patients with a positive AI-ECG screening. Further development and refinement of a post-transplant-specific algorithm may be warranted further to enhance the diagnostic yield of the ECG-based screening.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, atrial fibrillation, cardiology, transplant, medicine, ECG, machine learning

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2 Counteract Heat Stress on Broiler Chicks by Adding Anti-Heat Stress Vitamins (Vitamin C and E) with Organic Zinc

Authors: Omnia Y. Shawky, Asmaa M. Megahed, Alaa E. ElKomy, A. E. Abd-El-Hamid, Y. A. Attia

Abstract:

This study was carried out to elevate the broilers physiological response against heat stress and reduce this impact by adding vitamin C (VC), vitamin E (VE) alone/or with organic zinc (Zn) to chicks’ rations. A total of 192, 26-day-old Arbor Acers male chicks were randomly divided into equal 8 groups (4 replicates for each). All experimental groups were treated as follow: Group 2 was served as a heat stress control that reared at 37ºC with relative humidity 53 ± 8% for 6 hours/day for three successive days/week and fed the basal diet only. Groups 3-8 were heat stressed in a like manner to group 2 and fed basal diet inclusion 200mg VC (group 3), 200mg VE (group 4), 200mg VC+200mg VE (group 5), 200mg VC+30mg Zn (group 6), 200mg VE+30mg Zn (group 7) and 200mg VC+200mg VE+30mg Zn (group 8) /kg feed, while Group 1 was served as a positive control that reared on a neutral temperature (NT) (approximately 21ºC) and fed the basal diet only. Respiration rate and rectal temperature were boosted of HS chicks (80.8 breath/min and 41.97ºC) compared to NT group (60.12 breath/min and 40.9ºC), while, adding VC alone and with VE or Zn resulted in decrease these measurements. Heat stress had a significantly negative effect on chicks body weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio compared to the NT group, this harmful effect could be overcome by adding VC and VE individually or with Zn. Chicks exposed to heat stress showed slightly increase hemoglobin concentration compared to NT group, while, adding VC, VE individually or with Zn alleviated this effect. Plasma glucose concentration was significantly increased in HS group than the NT group, but adding VC, VE individually or with Zn resulted in a reduction plasma glucose level, which it was still higher than the NT group. Heat stress caused an increase in plasma total lipids and cholesterol concentration compared to the NT group and inclusion VC or VE alone or with Zn was not able to reduce this effect. The increased liver enzymes activities (AST and ALT) that observed in HS group compared to NT group were removed by adding VC and VE individually or with Zn. As well, exposure of broiler chicks to heat stress resulted in a slightly decrease in plasma total antioxidant capacity level (TAC) superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes activities, while inclusion VC and VE individually or with Zn in chicks rations caused an increased in these measurements. Broiler chicks that exposed to HS revealed a significant increase in heat shock protein (Hsp 70) compared to the NT group, while, adding VC or VE individually or with Zn resulted in a significant decrease in Hsp70 than the HS group and VE alone or with VC had the greatest effect. In conclusion, it could be overcome the harmful and the negative effect of heat stress on broiler chicks’ productive performance and physiological status by inclusion VC (200mg) or VE (200mg) individual or in a combination with organic zinc (30 mg) in chicks’ rations.

Keywords: heat stress, broiler, vitamin C, vitamin E, organic zinc

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1 Isolation and Transplantation of Hepatocytes in an Experimental Model

Authors: Inas Raafat, Azza El Bassiouny, Waldemar L. Olszewsky, Nagui E. Mikhail, Mona Nossier, Nora E. I. El-Bassiouni, Mona Zoheiry, Houda Abou Taleb, Noha Abd El-Aal, Ali Baioumy, Shimaa Attia

Abstract:

Background: Orthotopic liver transplantation is an established treatment for patients with severe acute and end-stage chronic liver disease. The shortage of donor organs continues to be the rate-limiting factor for liver transplantation throughout the world. Hepatocyte transplantation is a promising treatment for several liver diseases and can, also, be used as a "bridge" to liver transplantation in cases of liver failure. Aim of the work: This study was designed to develop a highly efficient protocol for isolation and transplantation of hepatocytes in experimental Lewis rat model to provide satisfactory guidelines for future application on humans.Materials and Methods: Hepatocytes were isolated from the liver by double perfusion technique and bone marrow cells were isolated by centrifugation of shafts of tibia and femur of donor Lewis rats. Recipient rats were subjected to sub-lethal dose of irradiation 2 days before transplantation. In a laparotomy operation the spleen was injected by freshly isolated hepatocytes and bone marrow cells were injected intravenously. The animals were sacrificed 45 day latter and splenic sections were prepared and stained with H & E, PAS AFP and Prox1. Results: The data obtained from this study showed that the double perfusion technique is successful in separation of hepatocytes regarding cell number and viability. Also the method used for bone marrow cells separation gave excellent results regarding cell number and viability. Intrasplenic engraftment of hepatocytes and live tissue formation within the splenic tissue were found in 70% of cases. Hematoxylin and eosin stained splenic sections from 7 rats showed sheets and clusters of cells among the splenic tissues. Periodic Acid Schiff stained splenic sections from 7 rats showed clusters of hepatocytes with intensely stained pink cytoplasmic granules denoting the presence of glycogen. Splenic sections from 7 rats stained with anti-α-fetoprotein antibody showed brownish cytoplasmic staining of the hepatocytes denoting positive expression of AFP. Splenic sections from 7 rats stained with anti-Prox1 showed brownish nuclear staining of the hepatocytes denoting positive expression of Prox1 gene on these cells. Also, positive expression of Prox1 gene was detected on lymphocytes aggregations in the spleens. Conclusions: Isolation of liver cells by double perfusion technique using collagenase buffer is a reliable method that has a very satisfactory yield regarding cell number and viability. The intrasplenic route of transplantation of the freshly isolated liver cells in an immunocompromised model was found to give good results regarding cell engraftment and tissue formation. Further studies are needed to assess function of engrafted hepatocytes by measuring prothrombin time, serum albumin and bilirubin levels.

Keywords: Lewis rats, hepatocytes, BMCs, transplantation, AFP, Prox1

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