Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: Serene Goh

4 Algae Growth and Biofilm Control by Ultrasonic Technology

Authors: Vojtech Stejskal, Hana Skalova, Petr Kvapil, George Hutchinson

Abstract:

Algae growth has been an important issue in water management of water plants, ponds and lakes, swimming pools, aquaculture & fish farms, gardens or golf courses for last decades. There are solutions based on chemical or biological principles. Apart of these traditional principles for inhibition of algae growth and biofilm production there are also physical methods which are very competitive compared to the traditional ones. Ultrasonic technology is one of these alternatives. Ultrasonic emitter is able to eliminate the biofilm which behaves as a host and attachment point for algae and is original reason for the algae growth. The ultrasound waves prevent majority of the bacteria in planktonic form becoming strongly attached sessile bacteria that creates welcoming layer for the biofilm production. Biofilm creation is very fast – in the serene water it takes between 30 minutes to 4 hours, depending on temperature and other parameters. Ultrasound device is not killing bacteria. Ultrasound waves are passing through bacteria, which retract as if they were in very turbulent water even though the water is visually completely serene. In these conditions, bacteria does not excrete the polysaccharide glue they use to attach to the surface of the pool or pond, where ultrasonic technology is used. Ultrasonic waves decrease the production of biofilm on the surfaces in the selected area. In case there are already at the start of the application of ultrasonic technology in a pond or basin clean inner surfaces, the biofilm production is almost absolutely inhibited. This paper talks about two different pilot applications – one in Czech Republic and second in United States of America, where the used ultrasonic technology (AlgaeControl) is coming from. On both sites, there was used Mezzo Ultrasonic Algae Control System with very positive results not only on biofilm production, but also algae growth in the surrounding area. Technology has been successfully tested in two different environments. The poster describes the differences and their influence on the efficiency of ultrasonic technology application. Conclusions and lessons learned can be possibly applied also on other sites within Europe or even further.

Keywords: algae growth, biofilm production, ultrasonic solution, ultrasound

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3 Impact of Data and Model Choices to Urban Flood Risk Assessments

Authors: Abhishek Saha, Serene Tay, Gerard Pijcke

Abstract:

The availability of high-resolution topography and rainfall information in urban areas has made it necessary to revise modeling approaches used for simulating flood risk assessments. Lidar derived elevation models that have 1m or lower resolutions are becoming widely accessible. The classical approaches of 1D-2D flow models where channel flow is simulated and coupled with a coarse resolution 2D overland flow models may not fully utilize the information provided by high-resolution data. In this context, a study was undertaken to compare three different modeling approaches to simulate flooding in an urban area. The first model used is the base model used is Sobek, which uses 1D model formulation together with hydrologic boundary conditions and couples with an overland flow model in 2D. The second model uses a full 2D model for the entire area with shallow water equations at the resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM). These models are compared against another shallow water equation solver in 2D, which uses a subgrid method for grid refinement. These models are simulated for different horizontal resolutions of DEM varying between 1m to 5m. The results show a significant difference in inundation extents and water levels for different DEMs. They are also sensitive to the different numerical models with the same physical parameters, such as friction. The study shows the importance of having reliable field observations of inundation extents and levels before a choice of model and data can be made for spatial flood risk assessments.

Keywords: flooding, DEM, shallow water equations, subgrid

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2 How Vernacular Attributes of Traditional Buildings Can Be Integrated Into Modern Designs - A Case Study of Thirumayilai, Mylapore

Authors: Divya Ramaseshan

Abstract:

The indigenous beauty of a space supported by its local context is unmatchable. India, known to be a hub for varied cultural significance, has one of the best uses of vernacularism. This paper focuses on the traditional houses present in Thirumayilai, Mylapore, one of the oldest and most populous cities in Chennai. The Mylapore houses are known for their Agraharam style with thinnai, courtyard, and sloping roof characteristics. These homes had a combined influence of Indian, Islamic as well as Neo-classical architecture in their design. The design of the houses reflects the lives of Brahmin communities which have almost vanished from sight now. According to the growing demands of local residents as well as urbanization, many houses have been renovated. Some of those structures have been conserved in certain streets showcasing their historical identity. Other structures have either been demolished or redesigned based on people’s needs. Those structures have been identified and studied to understand the comparative features that have been changed. Many of those were in direct relevance to the city’s climate, family size, socializing habits, and local materials. Being a temple town, Mylapore has contour variations sloping towards various water bodies. These factors have been considered for building homes as well. The study aims to list down the possible design guidelines that could be effective in today’s construction field. The pros and cons are analyzed, and the respective methodologies are framed. Our modern construction technologies have brought in the best visual aesthetics in a short frame of time, but the serene touch of teak wood, walking through paved stones, daydreaming in the sunlit courtyards, and chitchatting in porticos are always cherished. Architects around the world are trying hard to achieve such appreciated design elements in upcoming projects with the best use of modern technology. This will also improvise people’s mental health in the comfort of their homes.

Keywords: Agraharam, Mylapore, traditional, vernacularism

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1 Assessing the Impact of Frailty in Elderly Patients Undergoing Emergency Laparotomies in Singapore

Authors: Zhao Jiashen, Serene Goh, Jerry Goo, Anthony Li, Lim Woan Wui, Paul Drakeford, Chen Qing Yan

Abstract:

Introduction: Emergency laparotomy (EL) is one of the most common surgeries done in Singapore to treat acute abdominal pathologies. A significant proportion of these surgeries are performed in the geriatric population (65 years and older), who tend to have the highest postoperative morbidity, mortality, and highest utilization of intensive care resources. Frailty, the state of vulnerability to adverse outcomes from an accumulation of physiological deficits, has been shown to be associated with poorer outcomes after surgery and remains a strong driver of healthcare utilization and costs. To date, there is little understanding of the impact it has on emergency laparotomy outcomes. The objective of this study is to examine the impact of frailty on postoperative morbidity, mortality, and length of stay after EL. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in two tertiary centres in Singapore, Tan Tock Seng Hospital and Khoo Teck Puat Hospital the period from January to December 2019. Patients aged 65 years and above who underwent emergency laparotomy for intestinal obstruction, perforated viscus, bowel ischaemia, adhesiolysis, gastrointestinal bleed, or another suspected acute abdomen were included. Laparotomies performed for trauma, cholecystectomy, appendectomy, vascular surgery, and non-GI surgery were excluded. The Clinical Frailty Score (CFS) developed by the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) was used. A score of 1 to 4 was defined as non-frail and 5 to 7 as frail. We compared the clinical outcomes of elderly patients in the frail and non-frail groups. Results: There were 233 elderly patients who underwent EL during the study period. Up to 26.2% of patients were frail. Patients who were frail (CFS 5-9) tend to be older, 79 ± 7 vs 79 ± 5 years of age, p <0.01. Gender distribution was equal in both groups. Indication for emergency laparotomies, time from diagnosis to surgery, and presence of consultant surgeons and anaesthetists in the operating theatre were comparable (p>0.05). Patients in the frail group were more likely to receive postoperative geriatric assessment than in the non-frail group, 49.2% vs. 27.9% (p<0.01). The postoperative complications were comparable (p>0.05). The length of stay in the critical care unit was longer for the frail patients, 2 (IQR 1-6.5) versus 1 (IQR 0-4) days, p<0.01. Frailty was found to be an independent predictor of 90-day mortality but not age, OR 2.9 (1.1-7.4), p=0.03. Conclusion: Up to one-fourth of the elderly who underwent EL were frail. Patients who were frail were associated with a longer length of stay in the critical care unit and a 90-day mortality rate of more than three times that of their non-frail counterparts. PPOSSUM was a better predictor of 90-day mortality in the non-frail group than in the frail group. As frailty scoring was a significant predictor of 90-day mortality, its integration into acute surgical units to facilitate shared decision-making and discharge planning should be considered.

Keywords: frailty elderly, emergency, laparotomy

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