Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 54

Search results for: Saroj Biswas

54 Fault Tolerant (n, k)-Star Power Network Topology for Multi-Agent Communication in Automated Power Distribution Systems

Authors: Li Bai, Ning Gong, Michael Korostelev, Qiangguo Ren, Saroj Biswas, Frank Ferrese

Abstract:

This paper investigates the joint effect of the interconnected (n,k)-star network topology and Multi-Agent automated control on restoration and reconfiguration of power systems. With the increasing trend in development in Multi-Agent control technologies applied to power system reconfiguration in presence of faulty components or nodes. Fault tolerance is becoming an important challenge in the design processes of the distributed power system topology. Since the reconfiguration of a power system is performed by agent communication, the (n,k)-star interconnected network topology is studied and modeled in this paper to optimize the process of power reconfiguration. In this paper, we discuss the recently proposed (n,k)-star topology and examine its properties and advantages as compared to the traditional multi-bus power topologies. We design and simulate the topology model for distributed power system test cases. A related lemma based on the fault tolerance and conditional diagnosability properties is presented and proved both theoretically and practically. The conclusion is reached that (n,k)-star topology model has measurable advantages compared to standard bus power systems while exhibiting fault tolerance properties in power restoration, as well as showing efficiency when applied to power system route discovery.

Keywords: Fault tolerance, multi-agent system, k)-star topology, conditional diagnosability, automated power system

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53 Fault Tolerant (n,k)-star Power Network Topology for Multi-Agent Communication in Automated Power Distribution Systems

Authors: Li Bai, Ning Gong, Michael Korostelev, Qiangguo Ren, Saroj K. Biswas and Frank Ferrese

Abstract:

This paper investigates the joint effect of the interconnected (n,k)-star network topology and Multi-Agent automated control on restoration and reconfiguration of power systems. With the increasing trend in development in Multi-Agent control technologies applied to power system reconfiguration in presence of faulty components or nodes. Fault tolerance is becoming an important challenge in the design processes of the distributed power system topology. Since the reconfiguration of a power system is performed by agent communication, the (n,k)-star interconnected network topology is studied and modeled in this paper to optimize the process of power reconfiguration. In this paper, we discuss the recently proposed (n,k)-star topology and examine its properties and advantages as compared to the traditional multi-bus power topologies. We design and simulate the topology model for distributed power system test cases. A related lemma based on the fault tolerance and conditional diagnosability properties is presented and proved both theoretically and practically. The conclusion is reached that (n,k)-star topology model has measurable advantages compared to standard bus power systems while exhibiting fault tolerance properties in power restoration, as well as showing efficiency when applied to power system route discovery.

Keywords: Fault tolerance, multi-agent system, k)-star topology, conditional diagnosability, automated power system

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
52 Pyramid Binary Pattern for Age Invariant Face Verification

Authors: Saroj Bijarnia, Preety Singh

Abstract:

We propose a simple and effective biometrics system based on face verification across aging using a new variant of texture feature, Pyramid Binary Pattern. This employs Local Binary Pattern along with its hierarchical information. Dimension reduction of generated texture feature vector is done using Principal Component Analysis. Support Vector Machine is used for classification. Our proposed method achieves an accuracy of 92:24% and can be used in an automated age-invariant face verification system.

Keywords: Biometrics, Verification, support vector machine, age invariant

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
51 Experimental Investigation of Bituminous Roads with Waste Plastic

Authors: Sandeep Potnis, Arjita Biswas

Abstract:

Plastic roads (bituminous roads using waste plastic in the wearing course ) have now become familiar in the Road Construction Sector in India. With the Indian Road Congress Code (IRC SP: 98 -2013), many agencies are coming forward to implement Plastic Roads in India. This paper discuss and compare about the various properties of bituminous mix with 8% waste plastic and normal bituminous mix. This paper also signifies the performance of both the types of roads after 4 months of age under loading conditions. Experiments were carried out to evaluate its performance. The result shows improved performance of plastic roads.

Keywords: Experiments, Performance, bituminous roads, plastic roads

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
50 Burden of Dengue in Northern India

Authors: Ashutosh Biswas, Poonam Coushic, Kalpana Baruah, Paras Singla, AC Dhariwal, Pawana Murthy

Abstract:

Burden of Dengue in Northern India Ashutosh Biswas, Poonam Coushic, Kalpana Baruah, Paras Singla, AC Dhariwal, Pawana Murthy. All India Institute of Medical Sciences, NVBDCP,WHO New Delhi, India Aim: This study was conducted to estimate the burden of dengue in capital region of India. Methodology:Seropositivity of Dengue for IgM Ab, NS1 Ag and IgG Ab were performed among the blood donors’ samples from blood bank, those who were coming to donate blood for the requirement of blood for the admitted patients in hospital. Blood samplles were collected through out the year to estimate seroprevalance of dengue with or without outbreak season. All the subjects were asymptomatic at the time of blood donation. Results: A total of 1558 donors were screened for the study. On the basis of inclusion/ exclusion criteria, we enrolled 1531subjects for the study.Twenty seven donors were excluded from the study, out of which 6 were detected HIV +ve, 11 were positive for HBsAg and 10 were found positive for HCV.Mean age was 30.51 ± 7.75 years.Of 1531subjects, 18 (1.18%) had a past history of typhoid fever, 28 (1.83%) had chikungunya fever, 9 (0.59%) had malaria and 43 subjects (2.81%) had a past history of symptomatic dengue infection.About 2.22% (34) of subjects were found to have sero-positive for NS1 Ag with a peak point prevalence of 7.14% in the month of October and sero-positive of IgM Ab was observed about 5.49% (84)with a peak point prevalence of 14.29% in the month of October. Sero-prevalnce of IgGwas detected in about 64.21% (983) of subjects. Conclusion: Acute asymptomatic dengue (NS1 Ag+ve) was observed in 7.14%, as the subjects were having no symptoms at the time of sampling. This group of subjects poses a potential public health threat for transmitting dengue infection through blood transfusion (TTI) in the community as evident by presence of active viral infection due to NS1Ag +VE. Therefore a policy may be implemented in the blood bank for testing NS1 Ag to look for active dengue infection for preventing dengue transmission through blood transfusion (TTI). Acute or Subacute dengue infection ( IgM Ab+ve) was observed from 5.49% to 14.29% which is a peak point prevalence in the month of October. About 64.21% of the population were immunized by natural dengue infection ( IgG Ab+ve) in theNorthern province of India. This might be helpful for implementing the dengue vaccine in a region. Blood samples in blood banks should be tested for dengue before transfusion to any other person to prevent transfusion transmitted dengue infection as we estimated upto 7.14% positivity of NS1 Ag in our study which indicates presence of dengue virus in blood donors’ samples.

Keywords: Dengue Burden, Seroprevalance, Asymptomatic dengue, Dengue transmission through blood transfusion

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49 Anomalous Origin of Bilateral Testicular Arteries: A Case Report

Authors: Arthi Ganapathy, Arithra Banerjee, Saroj Kaler

Abstract:

Abdominal aorta is the sole purveyor of all organs in the abdomen. Anomalies of its main trunk or its branches are to be meticulously observed as it effects the perfusion of an organ. Varying patterns of the testicular artery is one of them. The origin and course of testicular arteries have to be identified carefully during various surgical procedures like renal transplant, intra abdominal surgeries and even in orthopedic surgery like spine surgery. With the advent of new intra-abdominal therapeutic and diagnostic techniques, the anatomy of testicular arteries has assumed much more significance. Though the variations of the testicular vein are well documented, the variations of the testicular artery are not so frequent in incidence. We report a case of the bilateral aberrant origin of the testicular artery from polar renal arteries. We also discuss its developmental basis. Such anomalies if left unnoticed will lead to serious intraoperative complications during procedures on retroperitoneal organs. Any damage to testicular arteries will compromise the function of the gonads.

Keywords: Surgery, Renal, gonadal, cadaver

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
48 Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network for Rainfall-Water Level Modeling

Authors: Thohidul Islam, Md. Hamidul Haque, Robin Kumar Biswas

Abstract:

Floods are one of the deadliest natural disasters which are very complex to model; however, machine learning is opening the door for more reliable and accurate flood prediction. In this research, a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP) is developed to model the rainfall-water level relation, in a subtropical monsoon climatic region of the Bangladesh-India border. Our experiments show promising empirical results to forecast the water level for 1 day lead time. Our best performing MLP model achieves 98.7% coefficient of determination with lower model complexity which surpasses previously reported results on similar forecasting problems.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Regression, Flood Forecasting, multilayer perceptron network

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47 Process Modified Geopolymer Concrete: A Sustainable Material for Green Construction Technology

Authors: Dibyendu Adak, Saroj Mandal

Abstract:

The fly ash based geopolymer concrete generally requires heat activation after casting, which has been considered as an important limitation for its practical application. Such limitation can be overcome by a modification in the process at the time of mixing of ingredients (fly and activator fluid) for geopolymer concrete so that curing can be made at ambient temperature. This process modified geopolymer concrete shows an appreciable improvement in structural performance compared to conventional heat cured geopolymer concrete and control cement concrete. The improved durability performance based on water absorption, sulphate test, and RCPT is also noted. The microstructural properties analyzed through Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques show the better interaction of fly ash and activator solution at early ages for the process modified geopolymer concrete. This accelerates the transformation of the amorphous phase of fly ash to the crystalline phase.

Keywords: Durability, fly ash, Geopolymer Concrete, structural properties, process modification, micro-structures

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46 Improved Color-Based K-Mean Algorithm for Clustering of Satellite Image

Authors: Sangeeta Yadav, Mantosh Biswas

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed an improved color based K-mean algorithm for clustering of satellite Image (SAR). Our method comprises of two stages. The first step is an interactive selection process where users are required to input the number of colors (ncolor), number of clusters, and then they are prompted to select the points in each color cluster. In the second step these points are given as input to K-mean clustering algorithm that clusters the image based on color and Minimum Square Euclidean distance. The proposed method reduces the mixed pixel problem to a great extent.

Keywords: Cluster, ncolor method, K-mean method, interactive selection process

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45 Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Undoped and Fe Doped TiO₂ (Ti₁₋ₓFeₓO₂; X=0.01, 0.02, 0.03) Nanoparticles

Authors: Sudhakar Saroj, Satya Vir Singh

Abstract:

Undoped and Fe doped TiO₂, Ti₁₋ₓFeₓO₂ (x=0.00, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.09) have been synthesized by solution combustion method using Titanium (IV) oxide as a precursor, and also were characterized by XRD, DRS, FTIR, XPS, SEM, and EDX. The formation of anatase phase of undoped and Fe TiO₂ nanoparticles were confirmed by XRD, and the average crystallite size was determined by Debye-Scherer's equation. The DRS analysis indicates the shifting of light absorbance in visible region from UV region with increasing the doping concentration in TiO₂. The vibrational band of the Ti-O lattice was confirmed by the FT-IR spectrum. The XPS results confirm the presence of elements of titanium, oxygen and iron in the synthesized samples and determine the binding energy of elements. SEM image of the above-synthesized nanoparticles showed the spherical shape of nanoparticles. The purities of the synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed by EDX analysis. The photocatalytic activities of the synthesized nanoparticles were tested by studying the degradation of dye (Direct Blue 199) in the photocatalytic reactor. The Ti₀.₉₇Fe₀.₀₃O₂ photocatalyst shows highest photodegradation activity among all the synthesized undoped and Fe doped TiO₂ photocatalyst.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Photodegradation, TiO2, direct blue 199

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
44 Co-Factors of Hypertension and Decomposition of Inequalities in Its Prevalence in India: Evidence from NFHS-4

Authors: Ayantika Biswas

Abstract:

Hypertension still remains one of the most important preventable contributors to adult mortality and morbidity and a major public health challenge worldwide. Studying regional and rural-urban differences in prevalence and assessment of the contributions of different indicators is essential in determining the drivers of this condition. The 2015-16 National Family Health Survey data has been used for the study. Bivariate analysis, multinomial regression analysis, concentration indices and decomposition of concentration indices assessing contribution of factors has been undertaken in the present study. An overall concentration index of 0.003 has been found for hypertensive population, which shows its concentration among the richer wealth quintiles. The contribution of factors like age 45 to 49 years, years of schooling between 5 to 9 years are factors that are important contributors to inequality in hypertension occurrence. Studies should be conducted to find approaches to prevent or delay the onset of the condition.

Keywords: Hypertension, inequalities, India, Decomposition

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43 South Asia’s Political Landscape: Precipitating Terrorism

Authors: Saroj Kumar Rath

Abstract:

India's Muslims represent 15 percent of the nation's population, the world's third largest group in any nation after Indonesia and Pakistan. Extremist groups like the Islamic State, Al Qaeda, the Taliban and the Haqqani network increasingly view India as a target. Several trends explain the rise: Terrorism threats in South Asia are linked and mobile - if one source is batted down, jihadists relocate to find another Islamic cause. As NATO withdraws from Afghanistan, some jihadists will eye India. Pakistan regards India as a top enemy and some officials even encourage terrorists to target areas like Kashmir or Mumbai. Meanwhile, a stream of Wahhabi preachers have visited India, offering hard-line messages; extremist groups like Al Qaeda and the Islamic State compete for influence, and militants even pay jihadists. Muslims as a minority population in India could offer fertile ground for the extremist recruiters. This paper argues that there is an urgent need for the Indian government to profile militants and examine social media sites to attack Wahhabi indoctrination while supporting education and entrepreneurship for all of India's citizens.

Keywords: Terrorism, Pakistan, India, Islamic State, Al Qaeda, haqqani network, Taliban

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
42 Homology Modelling of Beta Defensin 3 of Bos taurus and Its Docking Studies with Molecules Responsible for Formation of Biofilm

Authors: RAVINDER SINGH, Ankita Gurao, Saroj Bandhan, Sudhir Kumar Kashyap

Abstract:

The Bos taurus Beta defensin 3 is a defensin peptide secreted by neutrophils and epithelial that exhibits anti-microbial activity. It is one of the crucial components forming an innate defense against intra mammary infections in livestock. The beta defensin 3 by virtue of its anti-microbial activity inhibits major mastitis pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa etc, which are also responsible for biofilm formation leading to antibiotic resistance phenomenon. Therefore, the defensin may prove as a non-conventional option to treat mastitis. In this study, computational analysis has been performed including sequence comparison among species and homology modeling of Bos taurus beta defensin 3 protein. The assessments of protein structure were done using the protein structure and model assessment tools integrated in Swiss Model server, which employs various local and global quality evaluation parameters. Further, molecular docking was also carried out between the defensin peptide and the components of biofilm to gain insight into various interactions and structural differences crucial for functionality of this protein.

Keywords: Homology Modeling, docking, beta defensin 3, bos taurus

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41 Insights of Interaction Studies between HSP-60, HSP-70 Proteins and HSF-1 in Bubalus bubalis

Authors: Shailendra Mishra, RAVINDER SINGH, C Rajesh, Saroj Badhan, Ranjit Singh Kataria

Abstract:

Heat shock protein 60 and 70 are crucial chaperones that guide appropriate folding of denatured proteins under heat stress conditions. HSP60 and HSP70 provide assistance in correct folding of a multitude of denatured proteins. The heat shock factors are the family of some transcription factors which controls the regulation of gene expression of proteins involved in folding of damaged or improper folded proteins during stress conditions. Under normal condition heat shock proteins bind with HSF-1 and act as its repressor as well as aids in maintaining the HSF-1’s nonactive and monomeric confirmation. The experimental protein structure for all these proteins in Bubalus bubalis is not known till date. Therefore computational approach was explored to identify three-dimensional structure analysis of all these proteins. In this study, an extensive in silico analysis has been performed including sequence comparison among species to comparative modeling of Bubalus bubalis HSP60, HSP70 and HSF-1 protein. The stereochemical properties of proteins were assessed by utilizing several scrutiny bioinformatics tools to ensure model accuracy. Further docking approach was used to study interactions between Heat shock proteins and HSF-1.

Keywords: Bubalus bubalis, docking, comparative modelling, heat shock protein

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40 Treatment of Carribean Colonial Historical Experience in Walcott and Brathwaite's Poems: Finding the Long Lost 'Root' in the Route

Authors: Gopashis Biswas G. Son

Abstract:

This paper will attempt to explore the notions that the two Caribbean poets- Derek Walcott and Edward Kamau Brathwaite endorse on Caribbean history in their poems. Though both of these poets hold almost the same notion regarding history but their approach is totally different from one another. Coming from a 'hybrid' race, Walcott is aware of the history and acknowledges it and writes in 'mulatto of style'; whereas Brathwaite is enraged by it and attempts to sublimate it to erect a history of the new world. It is Walcott’s view to rise above the delusion and hatred and engulf the world of literature with creativity. On the other hand, Brathwaite holds the grudge which helps him not to forget and forgive the past experience but to transform that very experience into something positive which may help the Caribbean to transform their frustration into something creative and to help the Caribbean to overcome the present struggle against the legacy of colonization. Following discourse analysis, this paper seeks to identify if it is possible to rewrite and re-‘right’ the Caribbean history which has been lost in the route and analyze Walcott and Brathwaite’s attitude towards that very history which has been implemented through their poetry.

Keywords: Colonialism, Caribbean history, mulatto of style, Walcott vis-à-vis Brathwaite

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39 A Combined Activated Sludge-Sonication Process for Abattoir Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Pello Alfonso-Muniozguren, Madeleine Bussemaker, Judy Lee, Devendra Saroj

Abstract:

Wastewater treatment is becoming a worldwide concern due to new and tighter environmental regulations, and the increasing need for fresh water for the exponentially growing population. The meat industry has one of the highest consumption of water producing up to 10 times more polluted (BOD) wastewaters in comparison to domestic sewage. Therefore, suitable wastewater treatment methods are required to ensure the wastewater quality meet regulations before discharge. In the present study, a combined lab scale activated sludge-sonication system was used to treat pre-treated abattoir wastewater. A hydraulic retention time of 24 hours and a solid retention time of 13 days were used for the activated sludge process and using ultrasound as tertiary treatment. Different ultrasonic frequencies, powers and sonication times were applied to the samples and results were analysed for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids, pH, total coliforms and total viable counts. Additionally, both mechanical and chemical effects of ultrasound were quantified for organic matter removal (COD and BOD) and disinfection (microorganism inactivation) using different techniques such as aluminum foil pitting, flow cytometry, and KI dosimetry.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, Ultrasound, Water Disinfection, abattoir wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
38 Feeding Ecology and Habitat Preference of Red Panda in Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve, Nepal

Authors: Saroj Panthi

Abstract:

The red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) is distributed throughout the Himalayas and is found in both protected and unprotected areas of Nepal. Loss and fragmentation of habitat threaten red panda population throughout its range, and as a consequence, it is listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Despite this pressing situation, data on the ecology of the red panda in western Nepal are lacking. Our aim in the current study was to determine the distribution, associated habitats, and summer diet of the red panda in Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve (DHR), Nepal. Evidence of red pandas was found in all 7 blocks of the reserve, spanning an area of 345.8 km2, between elevations of 2800 m and 4000 m and predominantly (> 75%) in forests comprising plant communities dominated by Abies spectabilis, Acer caesium, Tsuga domusa, and Betula utilis, with ground cover of Arundinaria spp. The dominant plant found in scat of the red panda was Arundinaria spp. (81.7%), with Acer spp., B. utilis, and lichen also frequently present. Livestock grazing and human activities were significantly higher in habitats where signs of pandas were recorded than in areas where they were absent. This habitat overlap between the red panda and livestock potentially poses a major threat to the panda’s survival in the DHR, a fact that should be taken into account in devising management strategies for this threatened species.

Keywords: diet, habitat preference, red panda, Dhorpatan hunting reserve

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
37 India, Pakistan and the US in the Afghan Imbroglio: The Way Forward

Authors: Saroj Kumar Rath

Abstract:

When insurgency erupted in Kashmir in 1989, it was quickly backed by Pakistan. Kashmir witnessed terrorism for more than a decade till 2004 when Indian forces decimated militancy. After the US pressure in 1992, terrorist training camps of Pakistan shifted to Afghanistan and al Qaeda and the Taliban had taken over training of Kashmiri militants in Afghanistan after 1997 as part of their global jihad. The Indo-Pak rivalry over Kashmir dispute had taken a new turn in the aftermath of 9/11 developments. Islamabad viewed its Afghan policy through the prism of denying India any advantage in Kabul. Pakistan was successful in refuting Indian presence in Kabul for a decade through the Taliban. After the 9/11 attacks the Inter Services Intelligence (ISI) saw Northern Alliance, supported by the Americans and all of Pakistan’s regional rivals – India, Iran, and Russia – as claiming victory in Kabul. For Pakistan’s military regime, this was a strategic disaster and prompted the ISI to give refuge to the escaping Taliban, while denying full support to Hamid Karzai. The new development in Afghanistan prompted India to establish a foothold it had lost nearly a decade earlier. India established diplomatic contacts with Afghanistan; supported the Karzai government and funded aid programs. Pakistan alleged that Indian agents are training Baloch and Sindhi dissidents in Pakistan through Afghanistan. Kabul had suddenly become the new Kashmir – the new battleground for India-Pakistan rivalry.

Keywords: Afghan imbroglio, Kashmir conflict, Indo-Pak rivalry, US policy in South Asia

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36 Study of Microstructure of Weldment Obtained by Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) on IS 2062 Grade B Mild Steel Plate at Zero Degree Celsius

Authors: SWAPAN BHAUMIK, Ajay Biswas, Abhijit Bhowmik

Abstract:

Present experiment has been carried out to study the microstructure of weldment obtained by submerged arc welding on mild steel plate at zero degree Celsius. To study this, bead on plate welding is done by submerged arc welding on the sample plate of heavy duty mild steel of designation IS 2062 grade B, fitted on the special fixture ensuring the plate temperature at zero degree Celsius. Sixteen numbers of such samples are welded by varying the most influencing parameters viz. travel speed, voltage, wire feed rate and electrode stick-out at four different levels. Taguchi’s design of experiment is applied by selecting Taguchi's L16 orthogonal array to restrict the number of experimental runs. Cross sectioned samples are polished and etched to view the weldment. Finally, different zone of the weldment is observed by optical microscope. From the type of microstructure of weldment it is concluded that submerged arc welding is feasible at zero degree Celsius on mild steel plate.

Keywords: Submerged Arc Welding, zero degree Celsius, Taguchi’s design of experiment, microstructure of weldment

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
35 A Combined Activated Sludge-Filtration-Ozonation Process for Abattoir Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Pello Alfonso-Muniozguren, Madeleine Bussemaker, Ralph Chadeesingh, Caryn Jones, David Oakley, Judy Lee, Devendra Saroj

Abstract:

Current industrialized livestock agriculture is growing every year leading to an increase in the generation of wastewater that varies considerably in terms of organic content and microbial population. Therefore, suitable wastewater treatment methods are required to ensure the wastewater quality meet regulations before discharge. In the present study, a combined lab scale activated sludge-filtration-ozonation system was used to treat a pre-treated abattoir wastewater. A hydraulic retention time of 24 hours and a solid retention time of 13 days were used for the activated sludge process, followed by a filtration step (4-7 µm) and using ozone as tertiary treatment. An average reduction of 93% and 98% was achieved for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), respectively, obtaining final values of 128 mg/L COD and 12 mg/L BOD. For the Total Suspended Solids (TSS), the average reduction increased to 99% in the same system, reducing the final value down to 3 mg/L. Additionally, 98% reduction in Phosphorus (P) and a complete inactivation of Total Coliforms (TC) was obtained after 17 min ozonation time. For Total Viable Counts (TVC), a drastic reduction was observed with 30 min ozonation time (6 log inactivation) at an ozone dose of 71 mg O3/L. Overall, the combined process was sufficient to meet discharge requirements without further treatment for the measured parameters (COD, BOD, TSS, P, TC, and TVC).

Keywords: Waste Water Treatment, ozone, activated sludge, abattoir waste water

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
34 Artificial Neural Network Based Approach for Estimation of Individual Vehicle Speed under Mixed Traffic Condition

Authors: Satish Chandra, Indrajit Ghosh, Subhadip Biswas, Shivendra Maurya

Abstract:

Developing speed model is a challenging task particularly under mixed traffic condition where the traffic composition plays a significant role in determining vehicular speed. The present research has been conducted to model individual vehicular speed in the context of mixed traffic on an urban arterial. Traffic speed and volume data have been collected from three midblock arterial road sections in New Delhi. Using the field data, a volume based speed prediction model has been developed adopting the methodology of Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The model developed in this work is capable of estimating speed for individual vehicle category. Validation results show a great deal of agreement between the observed speeds and the predicted values by the model developed. Also, it has been observed that the ANN based model performs better compared to other existing models in terms of accuracy. Finally, the sensitivity analysis has been performed utilizing the model in order to examine the effects of traffic volume and its composition on individual speeds.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, arterial, speed model, mixed traffic

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33 A New 3D Shape Descriptor Based on Multi-Resolution and Multi-Block CS-LBP

Authors: Nihad Karim Chowdhury, Mohammad Sanaullah Chowdhury, Muhammed Jamshed Alam Patwary, Rubel Biswas

Abstract:

In content-based 3D shape retrieval system, achieving high search performance has become an important research problem. A challenging aspect of this problem is to find an effective shape descriptor which can discriminate similar shapes adequately. To address this problem, we propose a new shape descriptor for 3D shape models by combining multi-resolution with multi-block center-symmetric local binary pattern operator. Given an arbitrary 3D shape, we first apply pose normalization, and generate a set of multi-viewed 2D rendered images. Second, we apply Gaussian multi-resolution filter to generate several levels of images from each of 2D rendered image. Then, overlapped sub-images are computed for each image level of a multi-resolution image. Our unique multi-block CS-LBP comes next. It allows the center to be composed of m-by-n rectangular pixels, instead of a single pixel. This process is repeated for all the 2D rendered images, derived from both ‘depth-buffer’ and ‘silhouette’ rendering. Finally, we concatenate all the features vectors into one dimensional histogram as our proposed 3D shape descriptor. Through several experiments, we demonstrate that our proposed 3D shape descriptor outperform the previous methods by using a benchmark dataset.

Keywords: CS-LBP, overlapped sub-images

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32 Effect of Traffic Volume and Its Composition on Vehicular Speed under Mixed Traffic Conditions: A Kriging Based Approach

Authors: Satish Chandra, Indrajit Ghosh, Subhadip Biswas, Shivendra Maurya

Abstract:

Use of speed prediction models sometimes appears as a feasible alternative to laborious field measurement particularly, in case when field data cannot fulfill designer’s requirements. However, developing speed models is a challenging task specifically in the context of developing countries like India where vehicles with diverse static and dynamic characteristics use the same right of way without any segregation. Here the traffic composition plays a significant role in determining the vehicular speed. The present research was carried out to examine the effects of traffic volume and its composition on vehicular speed under mixed traffic conditions. Classified traffic volume and speed data were collected from different geometrically identical six lane divided arterials in New Delhi. Based on these field data, speed prediction models were developed for individual vehicle category adopting Kriging approximation technique, an alternative for commonly used regression. These models are validated with the data set kept aside earlier for validation purpose. The predicted speeds showed a great deal of agreement with the observed values and also the model outperforms all other existing speed models. Finally, the proposed models were utilized to evaluate the effect of traffic volume and its composition on speed.

Keywords: Speed, traffic volume, kriging, arterial

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
31 In vitro and in vivo Assessment of Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of the Bark Extracts of Pterocarpus santalinus L. for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

Authors: K. Biswas, U. H. Armin, S. M. J. Prodhan, J. A. Prithul, S. Sarker, F. Afrin

Abstract:

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (a progressive neurodegenerative disorder) is mostly predominant cause of dementia in the elderly. Prolonging the function of acetylcholine by inhibiting both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase is most effective treatment therapy of AD. Traditionally Pterocarpus santalinus L. is widely known for its medicinal use. In this study, in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity was investigated and methanolic extract of the plant showed significant activity. To confirm this activity (in vivo), learning and memory enhancing effects were tested in mice. For the test, memory impairment was induced by scopolamine (cholinergic muscarinic receptor antagonist). Anti-amnesic effect of the extract was investigated by the passive avoidance task in mice. The study also includes brain acetylcholinesterase activity. Results proved that scopolamine induced cognitive dysfunction was significantly decreased by administration of the extract solution, in the passive avoidance task and inhibited brain acetylcholinesterase activity. These results suggest that bark extract of Pterocarpus santalinus can be better option for further studies on AD via their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory actions.

Keywords: alzheimer’s disease, passive avoidance, Pterocarpus santalinus, cholinesterase inhibitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
30 Development of Al Foam by a Low-Cost Salt Replication Method for Industrial Applications

Authors: B. Soni, S. Biswas

Abstract:

Metal foams of Al find diverse applications in several industrial sectors such as in automotive and sports equipment industry as impact, acoustic and vibration absorbers, the aerospace industry as structural components in turbines and spatial cones, in the naval industry as low frequency vibration absorbers, and in construction industry as sound barriers inside tunnels, as fire proof materials and structure protection systems against explosions and even in heat exchangers, orthopedic components, and decorative items. Here, we report on the development of Al foams by a low cost and convenient technique of salt replication method with efficient control over size, geometry and distribution of the pores. Sodium bicarbonate was used as the foaming agent to form the porous refractory salt pattern. The mixed refractory salt slurry was microwave dried followed by sintering for selected time periods. Molten Al was infiltrated into the salt pattern in an inert atmosphere at a pressure of 2 bars. The final products were obtained by leaching out the refractory salt pattern. Mechanical properties of the derived samples were studied with a universal testing machine. The results were analyzed in correlation with their microstructural features evaluated with a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, SEM, metal foam, salt replication method

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29 A Combination of Filtration and Coagulation Processes for Tannery Effluent Treatment

Authors: M. G. Mostafa, Manjushree Chowdhury, Tapan Kumar Biswas, and Ananda Kumar Saha

Abstract:

This study focused on effluents characterization and treatment process to reduce of toxicity from tannery effluents. Tanning industry is one of the oldest industries in the world. It is typically characterized as pollutants generated industries which produce wide varieties of high strength toxic chemicals. The study was conducted during the year 2008 to 2009 and the tannery effluents were collected three times in a year from the outlet of some selected leather industries located in Hagaribagh industrial zone Dhaka, Bangladesh. The analysis results of the raw effluents reveal that the effluents were yellowish-brown color, having basic pH, very high value of BOD5¬¬, COD, TDS, TSS, TS, and high concentrations of Cr, Na, SO42-, Cl- and other organic and inorganic constituents. The tannery effluents were treated with various doses of FeCl3 after settling and a subsequent filtration through sand-stone. The study observed that coagulant (FeCl3) 150 mg/L dose around neutral pH showed the best removal efficiency for major physico-chemical parameters. The analysis results of illustrate that the most of the physical and chemical parameters were found well below the prescribed permissible limits for effluent discharged. The study suggests that tannery effluents could be treated by a combined process consisting of settling, filtering and coagulating with FeCl3.

Keywords: Characterization, treatment, effluent, tannery

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28 Reproductive Health Knowledge, Attitude and Health Services Utilization among Adolescents in Kaski District of Nepal

Authors: Dipendra Kumar Yadav, Rajani Ghimire, Saroj Yadav

Abstract:

Background: The concern about adolescent on reproductive health has grown due to unprecedented increasing rates of early pregnancies and sexually transmitted Infections and they do not have adequate awareness and knowledge about it. Access to these services as well as information about them is, therefore, crucial for adolescents to utilize and benefit from sexual and reproductive health services. The objective of the study was to assess the reproductive health knowledge, attitude and health services utilization among adolescents in rural and urban areas of Kaski district. Materials and Methods: A community-based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescents (10-19 years of age) in rural and urban areas of Kaski district, Nepal. The period of data collection was October to November, 2014. Altogether 419 participants were taken for the study. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 15.86 and standard deviation was ±2.305. More than half (58.7 %) of the respondents were females and 41.3 % were males. Out of 419, majority (78.8%) of the respondents were known about family planning, among them only 70 % of respondents were aware about family planning methods. Fifty-one percentages of the respondents were aware about the sexually transmitted diseases. Before giving a birth there is need to consult with partner with this fact 68.7 % of the respondents were agree, 23.6 % of them were neutral and very few (7.6%) of them were disagree. Nearly twenty six percentage of the respondents were faced the reproductive health problems within one month. Out of 107 respondents, 57.9 % did not utilize reproductive health services because of different reasons. Conclusions: The overall level of knowledge towards reproductive health among adolescents was found low. However, levels of attitude towards different reproductive health components were found favorable. Only 42.1% of the respondents were utilized reproductive health services among those who was faced the reproductive health problems within one month which was low coverage of reproductive health services utilization.

Keywords: Adolescent, reproductive health knowledge, reproductive health attitudes, service utilization

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27 Distribution and Habitat Preference of Red Panda (Ailurus Fulgens Fulgens) in Jumla District, Nepal

Authors: Saroj Panthi, Sher Singh Thagunna

Abstract:

Reliable and sufficient information regarding status, distribution and habitat preference of red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) is lacking in Nepal. The research activities on red panda in the mid-western Nepal are very limited, so the status of red panda in the region is quite unknown. The study conducted during May, 2013 in three Village Development Committees (VDCs) namely Godhemahadev, Malikathata and Tamti of Jumla district was an important step for providing vital information including distribution and habitat preference of this species. The study included the reconnaissance, key informants survey, interviews, and consultation for the most potential area identification, opportunistic survey comprising the direct observation and indirect sign count method for the presence and distribution, habitat assessment consisting vegetation sampling and ocular estimation. The study revealed the presence of red panda in three forests namely Bahirepatan, Imilchadamar and Tyakot of Godhemahadev, Tamti and Malikathata VDCs respectively. The species was found distributed between 2880 and 3244 m with an average dropping encounter rate of 1.04 per hour of searching effort and 12 pellets per dropping. Red panda mostly preferred the habitat in the elevation range of 2900 - 3000 m with southwest facing steep slopes (36˚ - 45˚), associated with water sources at the distance of ≤100 m. Trees such as Acer spp., Betula utilis and Quercus semecarpifolia, shrub species of Elaeagnus parvifolia, Drepanostachyum spp. and Jasminum humile, and the herbs like Polygonatum cirrhifolium, Fragaria nubicola and Galium asperifolium were found to be the most preferred species by red panda. The red panda preferred the habitat with dense crown coverage ( >20% - 100%) and 31% - 50% ground cover. Fallen logs (39%) were the most preferred substrate used for defecation.

Keywords: Distribution, habitat preference, jumla, red panda

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26 Cadaveric Study of Lung Anatomy: A Surgical Overview

Authors: Arthi Ganapathy, Saroj Kaler, Rati Tandon

Abstract:

Introduction: A thorough knowledge of variations in lung anatomy is of prime significance during surgical procedures like lobectomy, pneumonectomy, and segmentectomy of lungs. The arrangement of structures in the lung hilum act as a guide in performing such procedures. The normal pattern of arrangement of hilar structures in the right lung is eparterial bronchus, pulmonary artery, hyparterial bronchus and pulmonary veins from above downwards. In the left lung, it is pulmonary artery, principal bronchus and pulmonary vein from above downwards. The arrangement of hilar structures from anterior to posterior in both the lungs is pulmonary vein, pulmonary artery, and principal bronchus. The bronchial arteries are very small and usually the posterior most structures in the hilum of lungs. Aim: The present study aims at reporting the variations in hilar anatomy (arrangement and number) of lungs. Methodology: 75 adult formalin fixed cadaveric lungs from the department of Anatomy AIIMS New Delhi were observed for variations in the lobar anatomy. Arrangement of pulmonary hilar structures was meticulously observed, and any deviation in the pattern of presentation was recorded. Results: Among the 75 adult lung specimens observed 36 specimens were of right lung and the rest of left lung. Seven right lung specimens showed only 2 lobes with an oblique fissure dividing them and one left lung showed 3 lobes. The normal pattern of arrangement of hilar structures was seen in 22 right lungs and 23 left lungs. Rest of the lung specimens (14 right and 16 left) showed a varied pattern of arrangement of hilar structures. Some of them showed alterations in the sequence of arrangement of pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, bronchus, and others in the number of these structures. Conclusion: Alterations in the pattern of arrangement of structures in the lung hilum are quite frequent. A compromise in knowledge of such variations will result in inadvertent complications like intraoperative bleeding during surgical procedures.

Keywords: Pulmonary, fissures, hilum, lobes

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25 Feasibility Study of Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) on Mild Steel Plate IS 2062 Grade B at Zero Degree Celsius

Authors: SWAPAN BHAUMIK, Ajay Biswas, Abhijit Bhowmik, Saurav Datta

Abstract:

A series of experiments has been carried out to study the feasibility of submerged arc welding (SAW) on mild steel plate of designation IS 2062 grade B. Specimen temperature of which is reduced to zero degree Celsius whereas the ambient temperature is about 25-27 degree Celsius. To observe this, bead on plate submerged arc welding is formed on the specimen plate of heavy duty mild steel of designation IS 2062 grade B, fitted on the special fixture ensuring zero degree Celsius temperature to the specimen plate. Sixteen numbers of cold samples is welded by varying the most influencing parameters viz. Voltage, wire feed rate, travel speed and electrode stick-out at four different levels. Another sixteen numbers of specimens are at normal room temperature are welded by applying same combination of parameters. Those sixteen numbers of specimens are selected based on the design of experiment of Taguchi‘s L16 orthogonal array with the intension of reducing the number of experimental runs. Different attributes of bead geometry of the entire sample for both the situations are measured and compared. It is established that submerged arc welding is feasible at zero degree Celsius on mild steel plate of designation IS 2062 grade B and optimization of the process parameters can also be drawn as a clear response of parameters are obtained.

Keywords: Submerged Arc Welding, zero degree Celsius, Taguchi’s design of experiment, geometry of weldment

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