Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 274

Search results for: Sandeep Kaur Chouhan

274 L1-Convergence of Modified Trigonometric Sums

Authors: Sandeep Kaur Chouhan, Jatinderdeep Kaur, S. S. Bhatia

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The existence of sine and cosine series as a Fourier series, their L1-convergence seems to be one of the difficult question in theory of convergence of trigonometric series in L1-metric norm. In the literature so far available, various authors have studied the L1-convergence of cosine and sine trigonometric series with special coefficients. In this paper, we present a modified cosine and sine sums and criterion for L1-convergence of these modified sums is obtained. Also, a necessary and sufficient condition for the L1-convergence of the cosine and sine series is deduced as corollaries.

Keywords: conjugate Dirichlet kernel, Dirichlet kernel, L1-convergence, modified sums

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
273 Design an Development of an Agorithm for Prioritizing the Test Cases Using Neural Network as Classifier

Authors: Amit Verma, Simranjeet Kaur, Sandeep Kaur

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Test Case Prioritization (TCP) has gained wide spread acceptance as it often results in good quality software free from defects. Due to the increase in rate of faults in software traditional techniques for prioritization results in increased cost and time. Main challenge in TCP is difficulty in manually validate the priorities of different test cases due to large size of test suites and no more emphasis are made to make the TCP process automate. The objective of this paper is to detect the priorities of different test cases using an artificial neural network which helps to predict the correct priorities with the help of back propagation algorithm. In our proposed work one such method is implemented in which priorities are assigned to different test cases based on their frequency. After assigning the priorities ANN predicts whether correct priority is assigned to every test case or not otherwise it generates the interrupt when wrong priority is assigned. In order to classify the different priority test cases classifiers are used. Proposed algorithm is very effective as it reduces the complexity with robust efficiency and makes the process automated to prioritize the test cases.

Keywords: test case prioritization, classification, artificial neural networks, TF-IDF

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
272 Cryptosystems in Asymmetric Cryptography for Securing Data on Cloud at Various Critical Levels

Authors: Sartaj Singh, Amar Singh, Ashok Sharma, Sandeep Kaur

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With upcoming threats in a digital world, we need to work continuously in the area of security in all aspects, from hardware to software as well as data modelling. The rise in social media activities and hunger for data by various entities leads to cybercrime and more attack on the privacy and security of persons. Cryptography has always been employed to avoid access to important data by using many processes. Symmetric key and asymmetric key cryptography have been used for keeping data secrets at rest as well in transmission mode. Various cryptosystems have evolved from time to time to make the data more secure. In this research article, we are studying various cryptosystems in asymmetric cryptography and their application with usefulness, and much emphasis is given to Elliptic curve cryptography involving algebraic mathematics.

Keywords: cryptography, symmetric key cryptography, asymmetric key cryptography

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271 Purification and Characterization of Phycoerythrin from a Mesophilic Cyanobacterium Nostoc piscinale PUPCCC 405.17

Authors: Sandeep Kaur

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Phycoerythrin (PE) from the mesophilic filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc piscinale PUPCCC 405.17, a good producer of phycobiliproteins, has been characterized in terms of their unit assembly and stability. The phycoerythrin was extracted by freeze-thawing the cells in water, concentrated by ammonium sulphate fractionation and purified by anion exchange chromatography. The purification process resulted in 2.90 fold increase in phycoerythrin purity reaching to 1.54. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate- Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of purified PE demonstrated three protein bands of 14.3, 27.54 and 39.81 kDa. The native PE also showed one band of 125.87 kDa, assumed to be a dimer (αβ)2γ based on results of non-denaturing PAGE. Lyophilized powder PE was more stable compared to phycoerythrin in the solution. The half-life of dry PE is 80 days when stored at 4 °C under dark. The phycoerythrin from this organism has potential applications in food as natural colour and as a fluorescent marker.

Keywords: characterization, Nostoc piscinale, phycoerythrin, purification

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
270 Adolescent Obesity Leading to Adulthood Cardiovascular Diseases among Punjabi Population

Authors: Manpreet Kaur, Badaruddoza, Sandeep Kaur Brar

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The increasing prevalence of adolescent obesity is one of the major causes to be hypertensive in adulthood. Various statistical methods have been applied to examine the performance of anthropometric indices for the identification of adverse cardiovascular risk profile. The present work was undertaken to determine the significant traditional risk factors through principal component factor analysis (PCFA) among population based Punjabi adolescents aged 10-18 years. Data was collected among adolescent children from different schools situated in urban areas of Punjab, India. Principal component factor analysis (PCFA) was applied to extract orthogonal components from anthropometric and physiometric variables. Association between components were explained by factor loadings. The PCFA extracted four factors, which explained 84.21%, 84.06% and 83.15% of the total variance of the 14 original quantitative traits among boys, girls and combined subjects respectively. Factor 1 has high loading of the traits that reflect adiposity such as waist circumference, BMI and skinfolds among both sexes. However, waist circumference and body mass index are the indicator of abdominal obesity which increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The loadings of these two traits have found maximum in girls adolescents (WC=0.924; BMI=0.905). Therefore, factor 1 is the strong indicator of atherosclerosis in adolescents. Factor 2 is predominantly loaded with blood pressures and related traits (SBP, DBP, MBP and pulse rate) which reflect the risk of essential hypertension in adolescent girls and combined subjects, whereas, factor 2 loaded with obesity related traits in boys (weight and hip circumferences). Comparably, factor 3 is loaded with blood pressures in boys and with height and WHR in girls, while factor 4 contains high loading of pulse pressure among boys, girls and combined group of adolescents.

Keywords: adolescent obesity, cvd, hypertension, punjabi population

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
269 Roullete Wheel Selection Mechanism for Solving Travelling Salesman Problem in Ant Colony Optimization

Authors: Sourabh Joshi, Geetinder Kaur, Sarabjit Kaur, Gulwatanpreet Singh, Geetika Mannan

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In this paper, we have use an algorithm that able to obtain an optimal solution to travelling salesman problem from a huge search space, quickly. This algorithm is based upon the ant colony optimization technique and employees roulette wheel selection mechanism. To illustrate it more clearly, a program has been implemented which is based upon this algorithm, that presents the changing process of route iteration in a more intuitive way. In the event, we had find the optimal path between hundred cities and also calculate the distance between two cities.

Keywords: ant colony, optimization, travelling salesman problem, roulette wheel selection

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268 Exploring Time-Series Phosphoproteomic Datasets in the Context of Network Models

Authors: Sandeep Kaur, Jenny Vuong, Marcel Julliard, Sean O'Donoghue

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Time-series data are useful for modelling as they can enable model-evaluation. However, when reconstructing models from phosphoproteomic data, often non-exact methods are utilised, as the knowledge regarding the network structure, such as, which kinases and phosphatases lead to the observed phosphorylation state, is incomplete. Thus, such reactions are often hypothesised, which gives rise to uncertainty. Here, we propose a framework, implemented via a web-based tool (as an extension to Minardo), which given time-series phosphoproteomic datasets, can generate κ models. The incompleteness and uncertainty in the generated model and reactions are clearly presented to the user via the visual method. Furthermore, we demonstrate, via a toy EGF signalling model, the use of algorithmic verification to verify κ models. Manually formulated requirements were evaluated with regards to the model, leading to the highlighting of the nodes causing unsatisfiability (i.e. error causing nodes). We aim to integrate such methods into our web-based tool and demonstrate how the identified erroneous nodes can be presented to the user via the visual method. Thus, in this research we present a framework, to enable a user to explore phosphorylation proteomic time-series data in the context of models. The observer can visualise which reactions in the model are highly uncertain, and which nodes cause incorrect simulation outputs. A tool such as this enables an end-user to determine the empirical analysis to perform, to reduce uncertainty in the presented model - thus enabling a better understanding of the underlying system.

Keywords: κ-models, model verification, time-series phosphoproteomic datasets, uncertainty and error visualisation

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267 Experimental and Theoretical Studies for Removal of Dyes from Industrial Wastewater Using Bioremediation

Authors: Sakshi Batra, Suresh Gupta, Pratik Pande, Navneet Kaur, Lovdeep Kaur

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The objective of this study is removal of Methylene blue dye or reactive orange-16 from industrial waste water or from soil using bioremediation technique. As huge amount of dyes are releasing from textile industry in water and soil environment during dyeing process. In this study, we focused on removal of Methylene blue dye and Reactive orange dye from industrial soil at different initial concentration of dye. An experiment study was carried out at methylene blue dye or Reactive orange-16 dye at varying concentration of both the dye as 50 ppm, 100ppm, 200 ppm, 300 ppm and 400 ppm. Maximum removal is obtained at 16-20 hours Experiments are carried out for pH, Temperature and MSM composition. The final concentration has been observed by UV-VIS. The two species has been isolated from the Industrial effluent. Finally the product analysis has been done by GC-MS.

Keywords: bioremediation, cultural growth, dyes, environment

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266 Design and Analysis of Proximity Fed Single Band Microstrip Patch Antenna with Parasitic Lines

Authors: Inderpreet Kaur, Sukhjit Kaur, Balwinder Singh Sohi

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The design proposed in this paper mainly focuses on implementation of a single feed compact rectangular microstrip patch antenna (MSA) for single band application. The antenna presented here also works in dual band but its best performance has been obtained when optimised to work in single band mode. In this paper, a new feeding structure is applied in the patch antenna design to overcome undesirable features of the earlier multilayer feeding structures while maintaining their interesting features.To make the proposed antenna more efficient the optimization of the antenna design parameters have been done using HFSS’s optometric. For the proposed antenna one resonant frequency has been obtained at 6.03GHz, with Bandwidth of 167MHz and return loss of -33.82db. The characteristics of the designed structure are investigated by using FEM based electromagnetic solver.

Keywords: bandwidth, retun loss, parasitic lines, microstrip antenna

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
265 Wavelet Coefficients Based on Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) Based Filtering for Remotely Sensed Images

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur, Kamaljit Kaur

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In recent years, the technology of the remote sensing is growing rapidly. Image enhancement is one of most commonly used of image processing operations. Noise reduction plays very important role in digital image processing and various technologies have been located ahead to reduce the noise of the remote sensing images. The noise reduction using wavelet coefficients based on Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) has less consequences on the edges than available methods but this is not as establish in edge preservation techniques. So in this paper we provide a new technique minimum patch based noise reduction OMP which reduce the noise from an image and used edge preservation patch which preserve the edges of the image and presents the superior results than existing OMP technique. Experimental results show that the proposed minimum patch approach outperforms over existing techniques.

Keywords: image denoising, minimum patch, OMP, WCOMP

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264 Manganese Imidazole Complexes: Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Production

Authors: Vishakha Kaim, Mookan Natarajan, Sandeep Kaur-Ghumaan

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Hydrogen is one of the most abundant elements present on earth’s crust and considered to be the simplest element in existence. It is not found naturally as a gas on earth and thus has to be manufactured. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of sources, i.e., water, fossil fuels, or biomass and it is a byproduct of many chemical processes. It is also considered as a secondary source of energy commonly referred to as an energy carrier. Though hydrogen is not widely used as a fuel, it still has the potential for greater use in the future as a clean and renewable source of energy. Electrocatalysis is one of the important source for the production of hydrogen which could contribute to this prominent challenge. Metals such as platinum and palladium are considered efficient for hydrogen production but with limited applications. As a result, a wide variety of metal complexes with earth abundant elements and varied ligand environments have been explored for the electrochemical production of hydrogen. In nature, [FeFe] hydrogenase enzyme present in DesulfoVibrio desulfuricans and Clostridium pasteurianum catalyses the reversible interconversion of protons and electrons into dihydrogen. Since the first structure for the enzyme was reported in 1990s, a range of iron complexes has been synthesized as structural and functional mimics of the enzyme active site. Mn is one of the most desirable element for sustainable catalytic transformations, immediately behind Fe and Ti. Only limited number manganese complexes have been reported in the last two decades as catalysts for proton reduction. Furthermore, redox reactions could be carried out in a facile manner, due to the capability of manganese complexes to be stable at different oxidation states. Herein are reported, four µ2-thiolate bridged manganese complexes [Mn₂(CO)₆(μ-S₂N₄C₁₄H₁₀)] 1, [Mn₂(CO)7(μ- S₂N₄C₁₄H₁₀)] 2, Mn₂(CO)₆(μ-S₄N₂C₁₄H₁₀)] 3 and [Mn₂(CO)(μ- S₄N₂C₁₄H₁₀)] 4 have been synthesized and characterized. The cyclic voltammograms of the complexes displayed irreversible reduction peaks in the range - 0.9 to -1.3 V (vs. Fc⁺/Fc in acetonitrile at 0.1 Vs⁻¹). The complexes were catalytically active towards proton reduction in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid as seen from electrochemical investigations.

Keywords: earth abundant, electrocatalytic, hydrogen, manganese

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263 Component Based Testing Using Clustering and Support Vector Machine

Authors: Iqbaldeep Kaur, Amarjeet Kaur

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Software Reusability is important part of software development. So component based software development in case of software testing has gained a lot of practical importance in the field of software engineering from academic researcher and also from software development industry perspective. Finding test cases for efficient reuse of test cases is one of the important problems aimed by researcher. Clustering reduce the search space, reuse test cases by grouping similar entities according to requirements ensuring reduced time complexity as it reduce the search time for retrieval the test cases. In this research paper we proposed approach for re-usability of test cases by unsupervised approach. In unsupervised learning we proposed k-mean and Support Vector Machine. We have designed the algorithm for requirement and test case document clustering according to its tf-idf vector space and the output is set of highly cohesive pattern groups.

Keywords: software testing, reusability, clustering, k-mean, SVM

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
262 Sensitizing Bamboo Fabric with Antimicrobial Turmeric Dye

Authors: Varinder Kaur, Amanjit Kaur, Simran Kaur, Samriti Vaid

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Coating of fabrics with anti-microbial dyes is an adaptable technique of protection from various diseases. Natural dyes, which are known to possess antibacterial properties, can be used for antibacterial finishing of fibers like cotton, wool, bamboo and so many. Dyeing of fabrics with natural dyes normally requires the use of mordants so that dyes can stay on the fabric as well as into interstices of the fabric during multiple washings. In this study, the mordants used are alum and chitosan for ensuring a reasonable color fastness to light and washing. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide having significant biological and chemical properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, bioactivity, microbial activity and polycationicity. The metal ion of alum mordant can act as electron acceptor for electron donor to form coordination bond with the dye molecule, making them insoluble in water. The dyeing of bamboo fabric using a natural dye extracted from turmeric has been studied using conventional dyeing method. Natural dye was extracted using water as solvent by Soxhlet extraction method. The extracted color was characterized by spectroscopic studies like UV/visible and further tested for antimicrobial activity. The effect of mordants on the dyeing outcome in terms of colour depth as well as fastness properties of the dyeing was investigated. It has been found that employing the conventional dyeing technique at 100 oC, the mordanted samples were deeper in depth than their unmordanted counterparts. The results of fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were fair to good. Turmeric extract was found to enhance microbial resistance of bamboo as well as was itself as a good cause of coloration. These textiles dyed with the turmeric as natural dye can be very useful in developing clothing for infants, elderly and infirm people to protect them against common infections. The outcome of this study will provide a new feature to the interface of dyeing and pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, bamboo fabric, natural dye, turmeric

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261 Quality Evaluation of Bread Enriched with Red Sweet Pepper Powder (Capsicum annuum)

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur, Kamaljit Kaur, Preeti Ahluwalia, Poonam A. Sachdev

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Bread is an ideal vehicle to impart bioactive compounds to the consumers in a convenient manner. This study evaluated bread enriched with red sweet pepper powder (RSP) at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10% and compared to control bread (without RSP). The bread crumbs were assayed for bioactive, physical, nutritional, textural, color, and sensory properties. Bread supplemented with RSP improved its color, nutritional, and bioactive properties. The low moisture content and increased hardness were observed at higher levels of RSP. Color intensity (expressed as L*, a*, b* values) of bread with 2 and 4% RSP were lower than those of high levels, and the same trend was observed for protein, fibre and ash content of bread. Significant (p < 0.05) increases were recorded for bioactive compounds such as total phenols (0.145 to 235 mg GAE/g), antioxidant activity (56% to 78%) and flavonoids (0.112 to 0.379 mg/g) as the level of powder increased. Bread enriched with 8% RSP showed improved sensory profile as compared to control, whereas a further increase in RSP decreased the sensory and textural properties. Thus, RSP act as a natural colorant and functional food that enhanced the functional and nutritional properties of bread and can be used to customize bread for specific health needs.

Keywords: breads, bioactive compounds, red sweet pepper powder, sensory scores

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260 Investigation of Ameliorative Effect of a Polyphenolic Compound of Green Tea Extract against Rotenone Induced Neurotoxicity: A Mechanistic Approach

Authors: Sandeep Goyal, Sandeep Saluja

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Natural antioxidants have major role in maintenance of health. Green tea extract principally contains epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), as its abundant antioxidant constituent. Green tea is consumed daily worldwide as antioxidant to combat CNS diseases and has traditional importance also. EGCG has neuroprotective potential in various animal models of Parkinson disease, Alzheimer’s disease etc. but its exact mechanism has not been ruled out. The present study has been designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and mitochondrial modulating mechanism of neuroprotective effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate against rodent model of rotenone induced Parkinson’s disease (PD). The behavioural alterations were assessed by using open field test apparatus, Chatilon’s grip strength test apparatus and elevated plus maze for determining the locomotor activity, grip strength and cognition respectively. Biochemically, various parameters to assess oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and neurochemical estimations were performed on rat brain homogenates. A histological examination of rat brain striatum was done to check the neurodegeneration. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) at 10 & 20 mg/kg, were investigated for their neuroprotective potential along with levodopa as a standard agent. Minocycline, a microglial activation inhibitor, was administered alone and in combination with EGCG. EGCG and minocycline produced ameliorative effect against rotenone induced PD like symptoms by significantly reduced behavioral, biochemical and histological alterations. Results of our study reveal the neuroprotective effect of EGCG and minocycline against rotenone induced PD. Results of our study indicate that EGCG exerted neuroprotective effect against rotenone induced PD via its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and mitochondrial modulating mechanisms and substantiate its previously reported and traditional claims for its use in CNS diseases.

Keywords: antioxidants, neurotoxicity, rotenone, EGCG

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259 Conventional and Computational Investigation of the Synthesized Organotin(IV) Complexes Derived from o-Vanillin and 3-Nitro-o-Phenylenediamine

Authors: Harminder Kaur, Manpreet Kaur, Akanksha Kapila, Reenu

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Schiff base with general formula H₂L was derived from condensation of o-vanillin and 3-nitro-o-phenylenediamine. This Schiff base was used for the synthesis of organotin(IV) complexes with general formula R₂SnL [R=Phenyl or n-octyl] using equimolar quantities. Elemental analysis UV-Vis, FTIR, and multinuclear spectroscopic techniques (¹H, ¹³C, and ¹¹⁹Sn) NMR were carried out for the characterization of the synthesized complexes. These complexes were coloured and soluble in polar solvents. Computational studies have been performed to obtain the details of the geometry and electronic structures of ligand as well as complexes. Geometry of the ligands and complexes have been optimized at the level of Density Functional Theory with B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) and B3LYP/MPW1PW91 respectively followed by vibrational frequency analysis using Gaussian 09. Observed ¹¹⁹Sn NMR chemical shifts of one of the synthesized complexes showed tetrahedral geometry around Tin atom which is also confirmed by DFT. HOMO-LUMO energy distribution was calculated. FTIR, ¹HNMR and ¹³CNMR spectra were also obtained theoretically using DFT. Further IRC calculations were employed to determine the transition state for the reaction and to get the theoretical information about the reaction pathway. Moreover, molecular docking studies can be explored to ensure the anticancer activity of the newly synthesized organotin(IV) complexes.

Keywords: DFT, molecular docking, organotin(IV) complexes, o-vanillin, 3-nitro-o-phenylenediamine

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258 Scope of Virtualization

Authors: Pavneet Kaur, Palak Sharma

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Virtualization is a term that basically describe creation of virtual version of something like operating system, network, etc. Virtualization is a technology which is in use from 1970, but with new developments and inventions, it is now useful in education, software development etc. This paper will describe basic introduction of virtualization, along with its various categories. It will also describe use of virtualization in software engineering, its various benefits and shortcomings.

Keywords: virtualization, hardware, software, os

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
257 Optimization of a Hand-Fan Shaped Microstrip Patch Antenna by Means of Orthogonal Design Method of Design of Experiments for L-Band and S-Band Applications

Authors: Jaswinder Kaur, Nitika, Navneet Kaur, Rajesh Khanna

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A hand-fan shaped microstrip patch antenna (MPA) for L-band and S-band applications is designed, and its characteristics have been reconnoitered. The proposed microstrip patch antenna with double U-slot defected ground structure (DGS) is fabricated on an FR4 substrate which is a very readily available and inexpensive material. The suggested antenna is optimized using Orthogonal Design Method (ODM) of Design of Experiments (DOE) to cover the frequency range from 0.91-2.82 GHz for L-band and S-band applications. The L-band covers the frequency range of 1-2 GHz, which is allocated to telemetry, aeronautical, and military systems for passive satellite sensors, weather radars, radio astronomy, and mobile communication. The S-band covers the frequency range of 2-3 GHz, which is used by weather radars, surface ship radars and communication satellites and is also reserved for various wireless applications such as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (Wi-MAX), super high frequency radio frequency identification (SHF RFID), industrial, scientific and medical bands (ISM), Bluetooth, wireless broadband (Wi-Bro) and wireless local area network (WLAN). The proposed method of optimization is very time efficient and accurate as compared to the conventional evolutionary algorithms due to its statistical strategy. Moreover, the antenna is tested, followed by the comparison of simulated and measured results.

Keywords: design of experiments, hand fan shaped MPA, L-Band, orthogonal design method, S-Band

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256 Dyeing of Wool and Silk with Soxhlet Water Extracted Natural Dye from Dacryodes macrophylla Fruits and Study of Antimicrobial Properties of Extract

Authors: Alvine Sandrine Ndinchout, D. P. Chattopadhyay, Moundipa Fewou Paul, Nyegue Maximilienne Ascension, Varinder Kaur, Sukhraj Kaur, B. H. Patel

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Dacryodes macrophylla is a species of the Burseraceae family that is widespread in Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon. The only part of D. macrophylla known to use is the pulp contained in the fruit. This very juicy pulp is consumed directly and used in making juices. During consumption, these fruit leaves a dark blackish colour on fingers and garment. This observation means that D. macrophylla fruits must be a good source of natural dye with probably good fastness properties on textile materials. But D. macrophylla has not yet been investigated with reference as a potential source of natural dye to our best knowledge. Natural dye has been extracted using water as solvent by soxhlet extraction method. The extracted color was characterized by spectroscopic studies like UV/Visible and further tested for antimicrobial activity against gram-negative (Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, Shigella flexneri) and gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. It was observed that the water extract of D. macrophylla showed antimicrobial activities against S. enterica. The results of fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were fair to good. Taken together, these results indicate that D. macrophylla can be used as natural dye not only in textile but also in other domains like food coloring.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, natural dye, silk, wash fastness, wool

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255 Experimental Investigation of Bituminous Roads with Waste Plastic

Authors: Arjita Biswas, Sandeep Potnis

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Plastic roads (bituminous roads using waste plastic in the wearing course ) have now become familiar in the Road Construction Sector in India. With the Indian Road Congress Code (IRC SP: 98 -2013), many agencies are coming forward to implement Plastic Roads in India. This paper discuss and compare about the various properties of bituminous mix with 8% waste plastic and normal bituminous mix. This paper also signifies the performance of both the types of roads after 4 months of age under loading conditions. Experiments were carried out to evaluate its performance. The result shows improved performance of plastic roads.

Keywords: bituminous roads, experiments, performance, plastic roads

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254 Analysis of Big Data

Authors: Sandeep Sharma, Sarabjit Singh

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As per the user demand and growth trends of large free data the storage solutions are now becoming more challenge-able to protect, store and to retrieve data. The days are not so far when the storage companies and organizations are start saying 'no' to store our valuable data or they will start charging a huge amount for its storage and protection. On the other hand as per the environmental conditions it becomes challenge-able to maintain and establish new data warehouses and data centers to protect global warming threats. A challenge of small data is over now, the challenges are big that how to manage the exponential growth of data. In this paper we have analyzed the growth trend of big data and its future implications. We have also focused on the impact of the unstructured data on various concerns and we have also suggested some possible remedies to streamline big data.

Keywords: big data, unstructured data, volume, variety, velocity

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253 Genetic Analysis of CYP11A1 Gene with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome from North India

Authors: Ratneev Kaur, Tajinder Kaur, Anupam Kaur

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Introduction: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogenous disorder of endocrine system among women of reproductive age. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, anovulation, polycystic ovaries, hirsutism, obesity, and hyperinsulinemia. Several pathways are implicated in its etiology including the metabolic pathway of steroid hormone synthesis regulatory pathways. PCOS is an androgen excess disorder, genes operating in steroidogenesis may alter pathogenesis of PCOS. The cytochrome P450scc is a cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme coded by CYP11A1 gene and catalyzes conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone, the initial and rate-limiting step in steroid hormone synthesis. It is postulated that polymorphisms in this gene may play an important role in the regulation of CYP11A1 expression and leading to increased or decreased androgen production. The present study will be the first study from north India to best of our knowledge, to analyse the association of CYP11A1 (rs11632698) polymorphism in women suffering from PCOS. Methodology: The present study was approved by ethical committee of Guru Nanak Dev University in consistent with declaration of Helsinki. A total of 300 samples (150 PCOS cases and 150 controls) were recruited from Hartej hospital, for the present study. Venous blood sample (3ml) was withdrawn from women diagnosed with PCOS by doctor, according to Rotterdam 2003 criteria and from healthy age matched controls only after informed consent and detailed filled proforma. For molecular genetics analysis, blood was stored in EDTA vials. After DNA isolation by organic method, PCR-RFLP approach was used for genotyping and association analysis of rs11632698 polymorphism. Statistical analysis was done to check for significance of selected polymorphism with PCOS. Results: In 150 PCOS cases, the frequency of AA, AG and GG genotype was found to be 48%, 35%, and 13% compared to 62%, 27% and 8% in 150 controls. The major allele (A) and minor allele (G) frequency was 68% and 32% in cases and 78% and 22% in controls. Minor allele frequency was higher in cases as compared to controls, as well as the distribution of genotype was observed to be statistically significant (ᵡ²=6.525, p=0.038). Odds ratio in dominant, co-dominant and recessive models observed was 1.81 (p=0.013), 1.54 (p=0.012) and 1.77 (p=0.132) respectively. Conclusion: The present study showed statistically significant association of rs11632698 with PCOS (p=0.038) in North Indian women.

Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome, CYP11A1, rs11632698, hyperandrogenism

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252 Fabrication, Testing and Machinability Evaluation of Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: S. S. Panda, Arkesh Chouhan, Yogesh Deshpande

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The present paper deals with designing and fabricating an apparatus for the speedy and accurate manufacturing of fiber reinforced composite lamina of different orientation, thickness and stacking sequences for testing. Properties derived through an analytical approach are verified through measuring the elastic modulus, ultimate tensile strength, flexural modulus and flexural strength of the samples. The 00 orientation ply looks stiffer compared to the 900 ply. Similarly, the flexural strength of 00 ply is higher than to the 900 ply. Sample machinability has been studied by conducting numbers of drilling based on Taguchi Design experiments. Multi Responses (Delamination and Damage grading) is obtained using the desirability approach and optimum cutting condition (spindle speed, feed and drill diameter), at which responses are minimized is obtained thereafter. Delamination increases nonlinearly with the increase in spindle speed. Similarly, the influence of the drill diameter on delamination is higher than the spindle speed and feed rate.

Keywords: delamination, FRP composite, Taguchi design, multi response optimization

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251 Unseen Classes: The Paradigm Shift in Machine Learning

Authors: Vani Singhal, Jitendra Parmar, Satyendra Singh Chouhan

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Unseen class discovery has now become an important part of a machine-learning algorithm to judge new classes. Unseen classes are the classes on which the machine learning model is not trained on. With the advancement in technology and AI replacing humans, the amount of data has increased to the next level. So while implementing a model on real-world examples, we come across unseen new classes. Our aim is to find the number of unseen classes by using a hierarchical-based active learning algorithm. The algorithm is based on hierarchical clustering as well as active sampling. The number of clusters that we will get in the end will give the number of unseen classes. The total clusters will also contain some clusters that have unseen classes. Instead of first discovering unseen classes and then finding their number, we directly calculated the number by applying the algorithm. The dataset used is for intent classification. The target data is the intent of the corresponding query. We conclude that when the machine learning model will encounter real-world data, it will automatically find the number of unseen classes. In the future, our next work would be to label these unseen classes correctly.

Keywords: active sampling, hierarchical clustering, open world learning, unseen class discovery

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250 Orphan Node Inclusion Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Sandeep Singh Waraich

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Wireless sensor network (WSN ) consists of a large number of sensor nodes. The disparity in their energy consumption usually lead to the loss of equilibrium in wireless sensor network which may further results in an energy hole problem in wireless network. In this paper, we have considered the inclusion of orphan nodes which usually remain unutilized as intermediate nodes in multi-hop routing. The Orphan Node Inclusion (ONI) Protocol lets the cluster member to bring the orphan nodes into their clusters, thereby saving important resources and increasing network lifetime in critical applications of WSN.

Keywords: wireless sensor network, orphan node, clustering, ONI protocol

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
249 Mindful Habits to Remain Unruffled by Stress in the Workplace

Authors: Sandeep Nath

Abstract:

There are good stresses and bad stresses. To tell the difference, recognize early signs of stress, and label stress conditions correctly, we need to understand stress triggers and the mechanism of stress as it arises. By understanding this through mindfulness of body, mind, and spirit, we can be prepared to prevent harmful stress from escalating and ruining health; physical, mental, and emotional. We can also prepare others/peers to be stress-free. The understanding of this is available in a form closest to our natural being, in ancient oriental wisdom, and is brought together as actionable habits in the movement called RENEWALism. The constructs of RENEWALism Habits are detailed in this paper, and case studies presented of how mindfulness has equipped individuals with both capability and capacity to handle their situations and environments despite the odds.

Keywords: habits, mindfulness, renewalism, stress

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248 Prediction of Anticancer Potential of Curcumin Nanoparticles by Means of Quasi-Qsar Analysis Using Monte Carlo Method

Authors: Ruchika Goyal, Ashwani Kumar, Sandeep Jain

Abstract:

The experimental data for anticancer potential of curcumin nanoparticles was calculated by means of eclectic data. The optimal descriptors were examined using Monte Carlo method based CORAL SEA software. The statistical quality of the model is following: n = 14, R² = 0.6809, Q² = 0.5943, s = 0.175, MAE = 0.114, F = 26 (sub-training set), n =5, R²= 0.9529, Q² = 0.7982, s = 0.086, MAE = 0.068, F = 61, Av Rm² = 0.7601, ∆R²m = 0.0840, k = 0.9856 and kk = 1.0146 (test set) and n = 5, R² = 0.6075 (validation set). This data can be used to build predictive QSAR models for anticancer activity.

Keywords: anticancer potential, curcumin, model, nanoparticles, optimal descriptors, QSAR

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247 Catalytic Conversion of Biomass Derived Intermediates into Gasoline

Authors: Sandeep K. Saxena, N. Viswanadham, Ala’a H. Al-Muhtaseb

Abstract:

In an attempt to facilitate effective conversion of biomass derived products into gasoline rich in aromatics and iso-paraffins, various zeolite catalysts with special features such as nano crystallite size and acidity has been synthesized and evaluated. The catalyst (NZ) exhibits highest gasoline yield of about 74wt% with aromatics and iso-paraffins as major components. The product measures Research Octane Number (RON) of about 95, which is desirable for the gasoline specifications. Moreover, considerable amount of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) (15wt%) and light olefins (14wt%) are also formed as bi-product that adds value to the process. The study reveals the effective conversion of bio- ethanol to high-octane gasoline.

Keywords: biomass, ethanol, acetone, gasoline, zeolite

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246 Applications of Sulfur Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Characterizations

Authors: Sandeep K. Shukla, Roli Jain, Soumitra S. Pande, Archna Pandey

Abstract:

Sulfur nanoparticles were prepared by different methods with different sizes and shapes. When the sulfur is present as nanoparticles they have many practical applications in our life. This research discusses sulfur nanoparticles synthesis, characterizations and applications. With dandruff being a common everyday problem and the market is loaded with antidandruff shampoos and such skin care products, it is obvious to assume resourceful research into this area would be both objective to present scenario and potentially lucrative. Nanoparticles are frequently in use in some very powerful antimicrobial, antifungal cosmetics nowadays, especially silver. To check its antidandruff activity, experiments have been conducted on Malassezia furfur the causal organism for seborrheaic dermatitis or dandruff, which have been cultured for such study in our lab.

Keywords: CTAB surfactant SEM, sulfur nanoparticles (S-NPs), XRD, polymeric surfactant

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245 A Quadratic Approach for Generating Pythagorean Triples

Authors: P. K. Rahul Krishna, S. Sandeep Kumar, Jayanthi Sunder Raj

Abstract:

The article explores one of the important relations between numbers-the Pythagorean triples (triplets) which finds its application in distance measurement, construction of roads, towers, buildings and wherever Pythagoras theorem finds its application. The Pythagorean triples are numbers, that satisfy the condition “In a given set of three natural numbers, the sum of squares of two natural numbers is equal to the square of the other natural number”. There are numerous methods and equations to obtain the triplets, which have their own merits and demerits. Here, quadratic approach for generating triples uses the hypotenuse leg difference method. The advantage is that variables are few and finally only three independent variables are present.

Keywords: arithmetic progression, hypotenuse leg difference method, natural numbers, Pythagorean triplets, quadratic equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 116