Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 50

Search results for: Salma E. Asmar

50 Sunflower Oil as a Nutritional Strategy to Reduce the Impacts of Heat Stress on Meat Quality and Dirtiness Pigs Score

Authors: Angela Cristina Da F. De Oliveira, Salma E. Asmar, Norbert P. Battlori, Yaz Vera, Uriel R. Valencia, Tâmara D. Borges, Antoni D. Bueno, Leandro B. Costa

Abstract:

The present study aimed to evaluate the replacement of 5% of starch per 5% of sunflower oil (SO) on meat quality and animal welfare of growing and finishing pigs (Iberic x Duroc), exposed to a heat stress environment. The experiment lasted 90 days, and it was carried out in a randomized block design, in a 2 x 2 factorial, composed of two diets (starch or sunflower oil (with or without) and two feed intake management (ad libitum and restriction). Seventy-two crossbred males (51± 6,29 kg body weight - BW) were housed in climate-controlled rooms, in collective pens and exposed to heat stress environment (32°C; 35% to 50% humidity). The treatments studies were: 1) control diet (5% starch x 0% SO) with ad libitum intake (n = 18); 2) SO diet (replacement of 5% of starch per 5% of SO) with ad libitum intake (n = 18); 3) control diet with restriction feed intake (n = 18); or 4) SO diet with restriction feed intake (n = 18). Feed were provided in two phases, 50-100 Kg BW for growing and 100-140 Kg BW for finishing, respectively. Within welfare evaluations, dirtiness score was evaluated all morning during ninety days of the experiment. The presence of manure was individually measured based on one side of the pig´s body and scored according to: 0 (less than 20% of the body surface); 1 (more than 20% but less than 50% of the body surface); 2 (over 50% of the body surface). After the experimental period, when animals reach 130-140 kg BW, they were slaughtered using carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning. Carcass weight, leanness and fat content, measured at the last rib, were recorded within 20 min post-mortem (PM). At 24h PM, pH, electrical conductivity and color measures (L, a*, b*) were recorded in the Longissimus thoracis and Semimembranosus muscles. Data shown no interaction between diet (control x SO) and management feed intake (ad libitum x restriction) on the meat quality parameters. Animals in ad libitum management presented an increase (p < 0.05) on BW, carcass weight (CW), back fat thickness (BT), and intramuscular fat content (IM) when compared with animals in restriction management. In contrast, animals in restriction management showing a higher (p < 0.05) carcass yield, percentage of lean and loin thickness. To welfare evaluations, the interaction between diet and management feed intake did not influence the degree of dirtiness. Although, the animals that received SO diet, independently of the management, were cleaner than animals in control group (p < 0,05), which, for pigs, demonstrate an important strategy to reduce body temperature. Based in our results, the diet and management feed intake had a significant influence on meat quality and animal welfare being considered efficient nutritional strategies to reduce heat stress and improved meat quality.

Keywords: Environment, Meat, Pig, dirtiness

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49 Impact of Sunflower Oil Supplemented Diet on Performance and Hematological Stress Indicators of Growing-Finishing Pigs Exposed to Hot Environment

Authors: Angela Cristina Da F. De Oliveira, Norbert P. Battlori, Yaz Vera, Antoni D. Bueno, Salma E. Asmar, Uriel R. Valencia, Tâmara Duarte Borges, Leandro Batista Costa

Abstract:

As homeothermic animals, pigs manifest maximum performance when kept at comfortable temperature levels, represented by a limit where thermoregulatory processes are minimal (18 - 20°C). In a stress situation where it will have a higher energy demand for thermal maintenance, the energy contribution to the productive functions will be reduced, generating health imbalances, drop in productive rates and welfare problems. The hypothesis of this project is that 5% starch replacement per 5% sunflower oil (SO), in growing and finishing pig’s diet (Iberic x Duroc), is effective as a nutritional strategy to reduce the negative impacts of thermal stress on performance and animal welfare. Seventy-two crossbred males (51± 6,29 kg body weight- BW) were housed according to the initial BW, in climate-controlled rooms, in collective pens, and exposed to heat stress conditions (30 - 32°C; 35% to 50% humidity). The experiment lasted 90 days, and it was carried out in a randomized block design, in a 2 x 2 factorial, composed of two diets (starch or sunflower oil (with or without) and two feed intake management (ad libitum and restriction). The treatments studied were: 1) control diet (5% starch x 0% SO) with ad libitum intake (n = 18); 2) SO diet (replacement of 5% of starch per 5% SO) with ad libitum intake (n = 18); 3) control diet with restriction feed intake (n = 18); or 4) SO diet with restriction feed intake (n = 18). Feed was provided in two phases, 50–100 Kg BW for growing and 100-140 Kg BW for finishing period, respectively. Hematological, biochemical and growth performance parameters were evaluated on all animals at the beginning of the environmental treatment, on the transition of feed (growing to finishing) and in the final of experiment. After the experimental period, when animals reached a live weight of 130-140 kg, they were slaughtered by carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning. Data have shown for the growing phase no statistical interaction between diet (control x SO) and management feed intake (ad libitum x restriction) on animal performance. At finishing phase, pigs fed with SO diet with restriction feed intake had the same average daily gain (ADG) compared with pigs in control diet with ad libitum feed intake. Furthermore, animals fed with the same diet (SO), presented a better feed gain (p < 0,05) due to feed intake reduce (p < 0,05) when compared with control group. To hematological and biochemical parameters, animals under heat stress had an increase in hematocrit, corpuscular volume, urea concentration, creatinine, calcium, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (p < 0,05) when compared with the beginning of experiment. These parameters were efficient to characterize the heat stress, although the experimental treatments were not able to reduce the hematological and biochemical stress indicators. In addition, the inclusion of SO on pig diets improve feed gain in pigs at finishing phase, even with restriction feed intake.

Keywords: Performance, welfare, Hematological, Pigs

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48 Production of Date Juice Infused with Natural Antioxidants from Qatari Herbs

Authors: Tahra Elobeid, Noura Al-Wahiemed, Jawaher Al-shammari, Wedad Al-Asmar

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to utilize Qatari raw materials in the production of a date juice high in antioxidants. The antioxidants were extracted from five Qatari herbs: Caspian manna, Tetraena mongolica, Capparis spinosa, Ziziphus Vulgaris and Lycium shawii. The date juice was prepared in the lab and was infused with the polyphenolic extracts from the 5 different Qatari herbs. The date juice was then infused with the antioxidant containing the highest antioxidant activity and was within the acceptable range in sensory evaluation scale. The phenolic content for Lycium shawii, Alhagi maurorum, Ziziphus Vulgaris, Capparis spinosa and Tetraena mongolica was 4294 ppm, 3843 ppm, 804.59 ppm, 189.14 ppm and 226 ppm respectively, whereas their antioxidant capacity of was 6.21 %, 45.27 %, 69.81 %, 2.96 % and 8.63 % respectively. The highest antioxidant capacity was found in Ziziphus Vulgaris 69.8 % and the highest phenolic content was found in Lycium shawii 4294 ppm. Alhagi maurorum, Tetraena mongolica and Lycium shawii showed good results in terms of taste and aroma however Ziziphus Vulgaris exhibited bitter flavor. Alhagi maurorum antioxidant extract was used to be added to the date juice due to its high phenolic content, high antioxidant capacity, good taste and aroma.

Keywords: Herbs, Antioxidants, Qatar, dates

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47 Constructing a Probabilistic Ontology from a DBLP Data

Authors: Emna Hlel, Salma Jamousi, Abdelmajid Ben Hamadou

Abstract:

Every model for knowledge representation to model real-world applications must be able to cope with the effects of uncertain phenomena. One of main defects of classical ontology is its inability to represent and reason with uncertainty. To remedy this defect, we try to propose a method to construct probabilistic ontology for integrating uncertain information in an ontology modeling a set of basic publications DBLP (Digital Bibliography & Library Project) using a probabilistic model.

Keywords: Uncertainty, Bayesian network, classical ontology, probabilistic ontology

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46 Ant System with Acoustic Communication

Authors: Salma Ouchraa, Saad Bougrine, Belaid Ahiod, Abdelhakim Ameur El Imrani

Abstract:

Ant colony optimization is an ant algorithm framework that took inspiration from foraging behaviour of ant colonies. Indeed, ACO algorithms use a chemical communication, represented by pheromone trails, to build good solutions. However, ants involve different communication channels to interact. Thus, this paper introduces the acoustic communication between ants while they are foraging. This process allows fine and local exploration of search space and permits optimal solution to be improved.

Keywords: Ant colony optimization, acoustic communication, local search, traveling salesman problem

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45 Detect Circles in Image: Using Statistical Image Analysis

Authors: Fathi M. O. Hamed, Salma F. Elkofhaifee

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to detect geometrical shape objects in an image. In this paper, the object is considered to be as a circle shape. The identification requires find three characteristics, which are number, size, and location of the object. To achieve the goal of this work, this paper presents an algorithm that combines from some of statistical approaches and image analysis techniques. This algorithm has been implemented to arrive at the major objectives in this paper. The algorithm has been evaluated by using simulated data, and yields good results, and then it has been applied to real data.

Keywords: Image Processing, Segmentation, threshold, median filter, projection, scale-space

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44 Release of Calcein from Liposomes Using Low and High Frequency Ultrasound

Authors: Ghaleb A. Husseini, Salma E. Ahmed, Hesham G. Moussa, Ana M. Martins, Mohammad Al-Sayah, Nasser Qaddoumi

Abstract:

This abstract aims to investigate the use of targeted liposomes as anticancer drug carriers in vitro in combination with ultrasound applied as drug trigger; in order to reduce the side effects caused by traditional chemotherapy. Pegylated liposomes were used to encapsulate calcein and then release this model drug when 20-kHz, 40-kHz, 1-MHz and 3-MHz ultrasound were applied at different acoustic power densities. Fluorescence techniques were then used to measure the percent drug release of calcein from these targeted liposomes. Results showed that as the power density increases, at the four frequencies studied, the release of calcein also increased. Based on these results, we believe that ultrasound can be used to increase the rate and amount of chemotherapeutics release from liposomes.

Keywords: Liposomes, Fluorescence Techniques, calcein release, high frequency ultrasound, low frequency ultrasound

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43 Numerical Solutions of Fractional Order Epidemic Model

Authors: Ayesha Sohail, Khadija Maqbool, Sadia Arshad, Sana Javed, Salma Kanwal

Abstract:

The dynamical study of the carriers play an essential role in the evolution and global transmission of infectious diseases and will be discussed in this study. To make this approach novel, we will consider the fractional order model which is generalization of integer order derivative to an arbitrary number. Since the integration involved is non local therefore this property of fractional operator is very useful to study epidemic model for infectious diseases. An extended numerical method (ODE solver) is implemented on the model equations and we will present the simulations of the model for different values of fractional order to study the effect of carriers on transmission dynamics. Global dynamics of fractional model are established by using the reproduction number.

Keywords: Numerical Simulations, Fractional differential equation, epidemic model, transmission dynamics

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42 Opportunities and Challenges of Omni Channel Retailing in the Emerging Market

Authors: Anil Kumar, Salma Ahmed

Abstract:

This paper develops and estimates a model for understanding the drivers and barriers for Omni-Channel retail. This study serves as one of the first attempt to empirically test the effect of various factors on Omni-channel retail. Omni-channel is relative new and evolving, we hypothesize three drivers: (1) Innovative sales and marketing opportunities, (2) channel migration, (3) Cross channel synergies; and three barriers: (1) Integrated sales and marketing operations, (2) Visibility and synchronization (3) Integration and Technology challenges. The findings from the study strongly support that Omni-channel effects exist between cross channel synergy and channel migration. However, it partially supports innovative sales and marketing operations. We also found the variables which we identified as barriers to Omni-channel retail have a strong impact on Omni-channel retail.

Keywords: Retailing, emerging market, multichannel, Omni-channel

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41 Market-Power, Stability, and Risk-Taking: An Analysis Surrounding the Riba-Free Banking

Authors: Louati Salma, Louhichi Awatef, Boujelbene Younes

Abstract:

Analysis of the trade-off between competition and financial stability has been at the center of academic and policy debate for over two decades and especially since the 2007-2008 global financial crises. We use information on 10 OIC countries from 2005 to 2014 to investigate the influence of bank competition on individual bank stability and risk-taking. Alternatively, we explore whether the quality of prudential regulation may affect the nexus between competition and banking stability/risk-taking. We provide a particular attention to the Islamic banking system which principally involves with the Riba-free instruments as compared to the conventional interest-based system. We first run a dynamic panel regression (GMM), and then we apply a panel vector autoregressive (PVAR) methodology to compare both banking business models.

Keywords: Islamic banks, Z-score, non-performing loans, Lerner index, prudential regulations

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40 Factors Affecting the Critical Understanding of the Strategies Which Children Use to Motivate Parents in the Family Buying Process: Case of British Bangladeshi Children in the UK

Authors: Salma Akter, Mohammad M. Haque, Lawrence Akwetey

Abstract:

An empirical research design will analyze different factors/predictors children use to influence their parents in the family buying decision process in the unexplored area of British Bangladeshi children in the United Kingdom. The proposed conceptual model of factors- buying decision making process will be tested by the Structure Equation Model. A structured Questionnaire and secondary sources will employ to collect data and analyse and measure the validity by Statistical tools (SPSS) and Microsoft Excel. The Contemporary research aims to use the deductive approach developing the research questions and testing the hypothesis to identify the impact of different strategies British Bangladeshi children used to influence their parents in the family buying decision which was overlooked in the previous research.

Keywords: British Bangladeshi children, buying decision process, children influence, influential factors

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39 A Modelling Analysis of Monetary Policy Rule

Authors: Wael Bakhit, Salma Bakhit

Abstract:

This paper employs a quarterly time series to determine the timing of structural breaks for interest rates in USA over the last 60 years. The Chow test is used for investigating the non-stationary, where the date of the potential break is assumed to be known. Moreover, an empirical examination of the financial sector was made to check if it is positively related to deviations from an assumed interest rate as given in a standard Taylor rule. The empirical analysis is strengthened by analysing the rule from a historical perspective and a look at the effect of setting the interest rate by the central bank on financial imbalances. The empirical evidence indicates that deviation in monetary policy has a potential causal factor in the build-up of financial imbalances and the subsequent crisis where macro prudential intervention could have beneficial effect. Thus, our findings tend to support the view which states that the probable existence of central banks has been a source of global financial crisis since the past decade.

Keywords: Econometrics, Taylor rule, financial imbalances, central banks

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38 Facile Synthesis of Novel Substituted Aryl-Thiazole (SAT) Analogs via One-Pot Multicomponent Reaction as Potent Cytotoxic Agents against Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Salma Mirza, Syeda Asma Naqvi, Khalid Mohammed Khan, M. Iqbal Choudhary

Abstract:

In this study twenty-five (25) newly synthesized compounds substituted aryl thiazoles (SAT) 1-25 were synthesized, and in vitro cytotoxicity of these compounds was evaluated against four cancer cell lines namely, MCF-7 (ER+ve breast), MDA-MB-231 (ER-ve breast), HCT116 (colorectal), and, HeLa (cervical) and compared with the standard anticancer drug doxorubicin with IC50 value of 1.56 ± 0.05 μM. Among them, compounds 1, 4-8 and 19 were found to be active against all four cell lines. Compound 20 was found to be selectively active against MCF7 cells with IC50 value of 40.21 ± 4.15 µM, whereas compound 19 was active against only MCF7 and HeLa cells with IC50 values of 46.72 ± 1.8 and 19.86 ± 0.11 μM, respectively. These results suggest that aryl thiazoles 1 and 4 deserve to be investigated further in vivo as anti-cancer agents.

Keywords: Anticancer Agents, breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, MDA-MB-231), colorectal cancer cell line (HCT-116), cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), Thiazole derivatives

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37 Evaluation of Wound Healing Activity of Curcuma purpurascens BI. Rhizomes in Rats

Authors: Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Elham Rouhollahi, Salma Baig, Zahurin Mohamed

Abstract:

This study was designed to assess cutaneous wound healing potential of hexane extract of Curcuma purpurascens rhizomes (HECP). Twenty-four rats were divided into 4 groups: 1. Negative, 2. Low dose, 3. High dose and 4. Treatment, with 6 rats in each group. Full-thickness incisions with a diameter of 2 cm were made on the back of each rat. Rats were topically treated two times a day for 15 days. Group 1-4 were treated with sterile distilled water, 5% and 10% of extract and intrasite gel, respectively. Masson's trichrome and hematoxylin staining techniques are employed for histological analysis revealed strong wound healing potential closer to that of conventional drug intrasite gel. HECP significantly decreased wound area and an increase in hydroxyproline, cellular proliferation, the number of blood vessels and the level of collagen synthesis was observed. Thus, it could be concluded that HECP possesses strong wound healing potential.

Keywords: Histopathology, Wound Healing, Curcuma purpurascens, hematoxylin staining

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36 The Impact of the Windows Opening on the Design of Buildings in Islamic Architecture

Authors: Amal A. Abdel-Sattar, Salma I. Dwidar

Abstract:

The window openings are the key to the relationship between the inside and the outside of any building. It is the eye that sees from, the lunges of the construction, and the ear to hear. The success of the building, as well as the comfort of the uses, depends mainly on this relationship. Usually, windows are affected by human factors like religious, social, political and economic factors as well as environmental factors like climatic, aesthetic and functional factors. In Islamic architecture, the windows were one of the most important elements of physiological and psychological comfort to the users of the buildings. Windows considered one of the main parameters in designing internal and external facade, where the window openings occupied a big part of the formation of the external facade of the buildings. This paper discusses the importance of the window openings and its relationship to residential buildings in the Islamic architecture. It addresses the rules that have been followed in the design of windows in Islamic architecture to achieve privacy and thermal comfort while there are no technological elements within the dwellings. Also, it demonstrates the effects of windows on the building form and identity and how it gives a distinctive fingerprint of the architecture buildings.

Keywords: Residential Buildings, Thermal comfort, window openings, the Islamic architecture, human considerations

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
35 Clarifier Dialogue Interface to resolve linguistic ambiguities in E-Learning Environment

Authors: Dalila Souilem, Salma Boumiza, Abdelkarim Abdelkader

Abstract:

The Clarifier Dialogue Interface (CDI) is a part of an online teaching system based on human-machine communication in learning situation. This interface used in the system during the learning action specifically in the evaluation step, to clarify ambiguities in the learner's response. The CDI can generate patterns allowing access to an information system, using the selectors associated with lexical units. To instantiate these patterns, the user request (especially learner’s response), must be analyzed and interpreted to deduce the canonical form, the semantic form and the subject of the sentence. For the efficiency of this interface at the interpretation level, a set of substitution operators is carried out in order to extend the possibilities of manipulation with a natural language. A second approach that will be presented in this paper focuses on the object languages with new prospects such as combination of natural language with techniques of handling information system in the area of online education. So all operators, the CDI and other interfaces associated to the domain expertise and teaching strategies will be unified using FRAME representation form.

Keywords: e-Learning, Information System, Natural Language, Dialogue, frame

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
34 Foreign Debt and Firm Performance: Evidence from French Non-Financial Firms

Authors: Salma Mefteh-Wali, Marie-Josephe Rigobert

Abstract:

We investigate the impact of foreign currency debt on firm performance for a sample of non-financial French firms studied over the period 2002 to 2012. As foreign currency debt is both a financing and hedging instrument against foreign exchange risk, we mobilize optimal hedging theory and capital structure theory. When we study the impact on firm value, our main results show that before and after the financial crisis of 2008, foreign debt had the same behavior as domestic debt. We find that during the crisis period, foreign debt positively affects firm value. Investors perceive foreign debt as a natural hedging instrument that is likely to reduce the costs of underinvestment, alleviate cash flow volatility, limit the costs of financial distress, and generate tax shield benefits. Also, our results show that foreign leverage negatively affects the firm performance proxied by ROA and ROE, during and after the financial crisis. However, this impact is positive in the pre-crisis period.

Keywords: Firm Performance, foreign currency derivatives, foreign currency debt, foreign currency hedging

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33 Microarrays: Wide Clinical Utilities and Advances in Healthcare

Authors: Salma M. Wakil

Abstract:

Advances in the field of genetics overwhelmed detecting large number of inherited disorders at the molecular level and directed to the development of innovative technologies. These innovations have led to gene sequencing, prenatal mutation detection, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis; population based carrier screening and genome wide analyses using microarrays. Microarrays are widely used in establishing clinical and diagnostic setup for genetic anomalies at a massive level, with the advent of cytoscan molecular karyotyping as a clinical utility card for detecting chromosomal aberrations with high coverage across the entire human genome. Unlike a regular karyotype that relies on the microscopic inspection of chromosomes, molecular karyotyping with cytoscan constructs virtual chromosomes based on the copy number analysis of DNA which improves its resolution by 100-fold. We have been investigating a large number of patients with Developmental Delay and Intellectual disability with this platform for establishing micro syndrome deletions and have detected number of novel CNV’s in the Arabian population with the clinical relevance.

Keywords: genetics, microarrays, molecular karyotyping, developmental delay

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32 Testing the Weak Form Efficiency of Islamic Stock Market: Empirical Evidence from Indonesia

Authors: Herjuno Bagus Wicaksono, Emma Almira Fauni, Salma Amelia Dina

Abstract:

The Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) states that, in an efficient capital market, price fully reflects the information available in the market. This theory has influenced many investors behavior in trading in the stock market. Advanced researches have been conducted to test the efficiency of the stock market in particular countries. Indonesia, as one of the emerging countries, has performed substantial growth in the past years. Hence, this paper aims to examine the efficiency of Islamic stock market in Indonesia in its weak form. The daily stock price data from Indonesia Sharia Stock Index (ISSI) for the period October 2015 to October 2016 were used to do the statistical tests: Run Test and Serial Correlation Test. The results show that there is no serial correlation between the current price with the past prices and the market follows the random walk. This research concludes that Indonesia Islamic stock market is weak form efficient.

Keywords: random walk, efficient market hypothesis, Indonesia sharia stock index, weak form efficiency

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31 Influence of Mass Flow Rate on Forced Convective Heat Transfer through a Nanofluid Filled Direct Absorption Solar Collector

Authors: M. A. Alim, Salma Parvin

Abstract:

The convective and radiative heat transfer performance and entropy generation on forced convection through a direct absorption solar collector (DASC) is investigated numerically. Four different fluids, including Cu-water nanofluid, Al2O3-waternanofluid, TiO2-waternanofluid, and pure water are used as the working fluid. Entropy production has been taken into account in addition to the collector efficiency and heat transfer enhancement. Penalty finite element method with Galerkin’s weighted residual technique is used to solve the governing non-linear partial differential equations. Numerical simulations are performed for the variation of mass flow rate. The outcomes are presented in the form of isotherms, average output temperature, the average Nusselt number, collector efficiency, average entropy generation, and Bejan number. The results present that the rate of heat transfer and collector efficiency enhance significantly for raising the values of m up to a certain range.

Keywords: Nanofluid, forced convection, mass flow rate, DASC

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30 Alienation in Somecontemporary Anglo Arab Novels

Authors: Atef Abdallah Abouelmaaty

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to study the theme of alienation in some contemporary novels of the most prominent Arab writers who live in Britain and write in English. The paper will focus on three female novelists of Arab origins who won wide fame among reading public, and also won international prizes for their literary creation. The first is the Egyptian Ahdaf Soueif(born in 1950) whose novel The Map of Love(1999) was shortlisted for the Man Booker Prize, and has been translated into twenty one languages and sold over a million copies. The second is the Jordanian Fadia Faqir (born in 1956) whose My Name is Salma(2007) was translated into thirteen languages, and was a runner up for the ALOA literary prize. The third is the Sudanese Leila Aboulela(born in 1964) who The Translator was nominated for the Orange Prize and was chosen as a a notable book of the year by the New York Times in 2006. The main reason of choosing the theme of alienation is that it is the qualifying feature of the above mentioned novels. This is because the theme is clearly projected and we can see different kinds of alienation: alienation of man from himself, alienation of man from other men, and alienation of man from society. The paper is concerned with studying this central theme together with its different forms. Moreover, the paper will try to identify the main causes of this alienation among which are frustrated love, the failure to adjust to change, and ethnic pride.

Keywords: Contemporary, Alienation, Novels, Anglo-Arab

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29 Gendered Self-Expression and Muslim Medieval Women's Participation in the Creation and Production of Islam's Literary Heritage

Authors: Safa Moussoud

Abstract:

Contrary to modern misconceptions, women in the Muslim Middle Ages enjoyed a generous degree of liberty both in the public and private sphere. Poetry was a significant component of public life throughout the Muslim Civilization as its vitality and multi-generic nature acted as a way for medieval Muslims to communicate with each other. As such, a continuity of poetic literary heritage was preserved through multiple centuries and dynasties. This paper will argue that Muslim women were active participants in medieval Muslim society’s social and public sphere and therefore, can be seen as vital contributors to the intellectual and literary creation of the Muslim Civilization. This paper will examine poetry written by Safiyya al-Baghddadiya and Salma bint al-Qaratisi from the Abbasid period, as well as Wallada bint al-Mustakfi from the Andalusian period and focus particularly at the poetesses’ modes of self-expression regarding beauty and sexuality to argue that Medieval Muslim women enjoyed creative and literary liberty thus allowing them to proclaim their subjectivity publicly through poetry. By emphasizing women’s involvement in the social aspects of Medieval Muslim societies, this paper will ultimately urge for a more thorough investigation of Muslim women’s role and function in the making of the Muslim Civilization.

Keywords: self-expression, Arabo-Islamic society, medieval Muslims, Muslim poetesses

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28 The Appropriateness of Antibiotic Prescribing within Dundee Dental Hospital

Authors: Salma Ainine, Colin Ritchie, Tracey McFee

Abstract:

Background: The societal impact of antibiotic resistance is a major public health concern. The increase in the incidence of resistant bacteria can ultimately be fatal. Objective: To analyse the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in Dundee Dental Hospital, ultimately improving the safety and quality of patient care. Methods: Two examiners independently cross-checked approximately fifty consecutive prescriptions, and corresponding patient case notes, for three data collection cycles between August 2014–September 2015. The Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Program (SDCEP) Drug Prescribing for Dentistry guidelines was the standard utilised. The criteria: clinical justification, regime justification, and review arrangements was measured, and compared to the standard. Results: Cycle one revealed 42% of antibiotic prescriptions were appropriate. Interventions included: multiple staff meetings, an introduction of a checklist attached to the prescription pack, and production of patient leaflets explaining indications for antibiotics. Cycle two and three revealed 44%, and 30% compliance, respectively. Conclusion: The results of the audit have yet to meet target standards set out in prescribing guidelines. However, steps are being taken and change has occurred on a cultural level.

Keywords: Antibiotic Resistance, antibiotic stewardship, dental infection, hygiene standards

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27 Utilization of an Object Oriented Tool to Perform Model-Based Safety Analysis According to Extended Failure System Models

Authors: Royia Soliman, Salma ElAnsary, Akram Amin Abdellatif, Florian Holzapfel

Abstract:

Model-Based Safety Analysis (MBSA) is an approach in which the system and safety engineers share a common system model created using a model-based development process. The model can also be extended by the failure modes of the system components. There are two famous approaches for the addition of fault behaviors to system models. The first one is to enclose the failure into the system design directly. The second approach is to develop a fault model separately from the system model, thus combining both independent models for safety analysis. This paper introduces a hybrid approach of MBSA. The approach tries to use informal abstracted models to investigate failure behaviors. The approach will combine various concepts such as directed graph traversal, event lists and Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSP). The approach is implemented using an Object Oriented programming language. The components are abstracted to its failure logic and relationships of connected components. The implemented approach is tested on various flight control systems, including electrical and multi-domain examples. The various tests are analyzed, and a comparison to different approaches is represented.

Keywords: System Modelling, Flight Control Systems, model based safety analysis, safety assessment analysis

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26 The Effect of Varying Cone Beam Computed Tomography Image Resolution and Field-of-View Centralization on the Effective Radiation Dose

Authors: Fatima M. Jadu, Asmaa A. Alzahrani, Maha A. Almutairi, Salma O. Al-Amoudi, Mawya A. Khafaji

Abstract:

Introduction: Estimating the potential radiation risk for a widely used imaging technique such as cone beam CT (CBCT) is crucial. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of varying two CBCT technical factors, the voxel size (VOX) and the Field-of-View (FOV) centralization, on the radiation dose. Methodology: The head and neck slices of a RANDO® man phantom (Alderson Research Laboratories) were used with nanoDot™ OSLD dosimeters to measure the absorbed radiation dose at 25 predetermined sites. Imaging was done using the i-CAT® (Imaging Science International, Hatfield, PA, USA) CBCT unit. The VOX was changed for every three cycles of exposures from 0.2mm to 0.3mm and then 0.4mm. Then the FOV was centered on the maxilla and mandible alternatively while holding all other factors constant. Finally, the effective radiation dose was calculated for each view and voxel setting. Results: The effective radiation dose was greatest when the smallest VOX was chosen. When the FOV was centered on the maxilla, the highest radiation doses were recorded in the eyes and parotid glands. While on the mandible, the highest radiation doses were recorded in the sublingual and submandibular glands. Conclusion: Minor variations in the CBCT exposure factors significantly affect the effective radiation dose and thus the radiation risk to the patient. Therefore, extreme care must be taken when choosing these parameters especially for vulnerable patients such as children.

Keywords: Field of view, Resolution, mandible, effective dose, CBCT, voxel, cone beam CT, maxilla

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25 Fish Scales as a Nonlethal Screening Tools for Assessing the Effects of Surface Water Contaminants in Cyprinus Carpio

Authors: Shahid Mahboob, Hafiz Muhammad Ashraf, Salma Sultana, Tayyaba Sultana, Khalid Al-Ghanim, Fahid Al-Misned, Zubair Ahmedd

Abstract:

There is an increasing need for an effective tool to estimate the risks derived from the large number of pollutants released to the environment by human activities. Typical screening procedures are highly invasive or lethal to the fish. Recent studies show that fish scales biochemically respond to a range of contaminants, including toxic metals, organic compounds, and endocrine disruptors. The present study evaluated the effects of the surface water contaminants on Cyprinus carpio in the Ravi River by comparing DNA extracted non-lethally from their scales to DNA extracted from the scales of fish collected from a controlled fish farm. A single, random sampling was conducted. Fish were broadly categorised into three weight categories (W1, W2 and W3). The experimental samples in the W1, W2 and W3 categories had an average DNA concentration (µg/µl) that was lower than the control samples. All control samples had a single DNA band; whereas the experimental samples in W1 fish had 1 to 2 bands, the experimental samples in W2 fish had two bands and the experimental samples in W3 fish had fragmentation in the form of three bands. These bands exhibit the effects of pollution on fish in the Ravi River. On the basis findings of this study, we propose that fish scales can be successfully employed as a new non-lethal tool for the evaluation of the effect of surface water contaminants.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Cyprinus carpio, DNA fragmentation, non-invasive, fish scales

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24 Evaluation of the Appropriateness of Common Oxidants for Ruthenium (II) Chemiluminescence in a Microfluidic Detection Device Coupled to Microbore High Performance Liquid Chromatography for the Analysis of Drugs in Formulations and Biological Fluids

Authors: Afsal Mohammed Kadavilpparampu, Haider A. J. Al Lawati, Fakhr Eldin O. Suliman, Salma M. Z. Al Kindy

Abstract:

In this work, we evaluated the appropriateness of various oxidants that can be used potentially with Ru(bipy)32+ CL system while performing CL detection in a microfluidic device using eight common active pharmaceutical ingredients- ciprofloxacin, hydrochlorothiazide, norfloxacin, buspirone, fexofenadine, cetirizine, codeine, and dextromethorphan. This is because, microfludics have very small channel volume and the residence time is also very short. Hence, a highly efficient oxidant is required for on-chip CL detection to obtain analytically acceptable CL emission. Three common oxidants were evaluated, lead dioxide, cerium ammonium sulphate and ammonium peroxydisulphate. Results obtained showed that ammonium peroxydisulphate is the most appropriate oxidant which can be used in microfluidic setup and all the tested analyte give strong CL emission while using this oxidant. We also found that Ru(bipy)33+ generated off-line by oxidizing [Ru(bipy)3]Cl2.6H2O in acetonitrile under acidic condition with lead dioxide was stable for more than 72 hrs. A highly sensitive microbore HPLC- CL method using ammonium peroxydisulphate as an oxidant in a microfluidic on-chip CL detection has been developed for the analyses of fixed-dose combinations of pseudoephedrine (PSE), fexofenadine (FEX) and cetirizine (CIT) in biological fluids and pharmaceutical formulations with minimum sample pre-treatment.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Chemiluminescence, Oxidants, microbore High Performance Liquid Chromatography

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23 The Impact of Training on Commitment, Retention, Job Satisfaction and Performance of Private Sector Banks in Bangladesh

Authors: Nazrul Islam, Md. Arifur Rahman, Ummya Salma

Abstract:

Private sector banking business is one of the leading businesses of Bangladesh as it is profitable and directly attached with the economic development of the country. Training has got very high importance in this sector for increasing the performance of the banks. It has a long term impact on a number of aspects of the bank employees and their performances. It is an investment of the organization that is permanent in nature. Study shows that there are positive relationships between training and the employee commitment, job retention, job satisfaction and company performance. Training is also concerned with promotion, compensation, work-life policies, career development, task and contextual performance of the employees. As such, this paper aims at identifying the impact of training on employee commitment, job retention, job satisfaction and the performance of the private sector banks in Bangladesh. Both primary and secondary data were used to conduct the study. Data were collected from the bank officers who were trained in their banks. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the present situation of the banks and their employees. Inferential statistics were used to identify the factors and their significance concerned with training. Results show that there is a significant relationship between the performance and the training of the employees. It also shows that the training can motivate employees and encourage them to work hard. However, this study did not find any relationship between the commitment of the employees and the training. This study suggests that for increasing the performance of the banks, training is a must which is to be given deliberately for improving the specific skills of the bank employees.

Keywords: training, Promotion, Compensation, work-life policies

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
22 Dietary Effect of Selenium-Enriched Radish Sprouts, Vitamin E and Rhodobacter capsulatus on Hypocholesterolemia and Immunity of Broiler

Authors: Abdul G. Miah, Hirotada Tsujii, Ummay Salma, Iwao Takeda

Abstract:

The study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary Selenium-enriched radish sprouts (Se-RS), Vitamin E (Vit E) and Rhodobacter capsulatus (RC) on broiler's immunity, cholesterol concentration and fatty acid composition in broiler meat. A total of 100 two-week-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned into 5 dietary groups, such as i) Control; ii) Se-RS (5 μg/kg Se-RS); iii) Se-RS+RC (5 μg/kg Se-RS + 0.2 g/kg RC); iv) Se-RS+Vit E (5 μg/kg Se-RS + 50 mg/kg Vit E) and v) Se-RS+RC+Vit E (5 μg/kg Se-RS + 0.2 g/kg RC + 50 mg/kg Vit E). The broilers were offered ad libitum specific diets and clean drinking water. After the end of 3-wk of feeding period, serum cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were decreased (p<0.05) specially, in the broilers fed Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplemented diet compared to the broilers fed control diet. At the end of the 6-wk feeding period, Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplemented diet significantly (p<0.05) reduced cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations, and improved the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) to saturated fatty acids (SFA) in broiler meat. The highest (p<0.05) number of leukocytes was observed in the broilers fed Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplemented diet than that of the broilers fed control diet. Spleen, bursa and thymus weight were significantly (p<0.05) increased by Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplemented diet than the control diet. Compared to the control diet, Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplemented diet significantly (p<0.05) increased foot web index. Moreover, there was no mortality in all groups of broilers during the experimental period. Therefore, the study may conclude that there are dual benefits of Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplementation in broiler diet improved immunity and meat quality for health conscious consumers.

Keywords: vitamin E, hypocholesterolemia, immunity of broiler, rhodobacter capsulatus, selenium-enriched radish sprouts

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21 Physiological Roles of Relaxin on Prefertilizing Activities of Spermatozoa

Authors: A. G. Miah, U. Salma, K. Schellander

Abstract:

Relaxin was first described in 1926 by Frederick Hisaw. Previously it was considered as only the hormone of pregnant mammals due to its important roles in pregnancy and parturition. From the last decade, the physiological role of relaxin in male reproduction has been given experimental attention, and the results have made it clear that relaxin can no longer be considered strictly as only the hormone of female reproduction. The accessory glands (specially, the prostate glands) of the male reproductive system are the source of seminal relaxin, which is secreted into the seminal plasma and saturated with spermatozoa just after ejaculation. Several studies have reported that relaxin has important roles in improving motility in human sperm. Thereafter, the growing interest on relaxin has intensified efforts to investigate the role of relaxin in other sperm physiological phenomena like, capacitation, acrosome reaction, and their mediating factors associated with successful fertilization. Therefore, this review aims to provide up-to-date information about the physiological roles of relaxin in sperm motility, capacitation, acrosome reaction, and their mediating factors, such as, utilization of glucose, cholesterol efflux, Ca2+-influx, intracellular cAMP and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Some studies have shown relaxin to increase the percentage of progressive motility and induce capacitation and acrosome reaction through increasing the utilization of glucose and mediating the cholesterol efflux, Ca2+-influx, intracellular cAMP and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Thus, the review suggests that the supplementation of relaxin into the capacitating medium may contribute the possible beneficial roles in fresh and cryopreserved spermatozoal prefertilization events.

Keywords: spermatozoa, relaxin, physiological roles, prefertilizing activities

Procedia PDF Downloads 426