Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Saheed A. Gbadegeshin

14 Stating Best Commercialization Method: An Unanswered Question from Scholars and Practitioners

Authors: Saheed A. Gbadegeshin


Commercialization method is a means to make inventions available at the market for final consumption. It is described as an important tool for keeping business enterprises sustainable and improving national economic growth. Thus, there are several scholarly publications on it, either presenting or testing different methods for commercialization. However, young entrepreneurs, technologists and scientists would like to know the best method to commercialize their innovations. Then, this question arises: What is the best commercialization method? To answer the question, a systematic literature review was conducted, and practitioners were interviewed. The literary results revealed that there are many methods but new methods are needed to improve commercialization especially during these times of economic crisis and political uncertainty. Similarly, the empirical results showed there are several methods, but the best method is the one that reduces costs, reduces the risks associated with uncertainty, and improves customer participation and acceptability. Therefore, it was concluded that new commercialization method is essential for today's high technologies and a method was presented.

Keywords: commercialization method, technology, knowledge, intellectual property, innovation, invention

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13 Lean Commercialization: A New Dawn for Commercializing High Technologies

Authors: Saheed A. Gbadegeshin


Lean Commercialization (LC) is a transformation of new technologies and knowledge to products and services through application of lean/agile principle. This principle focuses on how resources can be minimized on development, manufacturing, and marketing new products/services, which can be accepted by customers. To understand how the LC has been employed by the technology-based companies, a case study approach was employed by interviewing the founders, observing their high technologies, and interviewing the commercialization experts. Two serial entrepreneurs were interviewed in 2012, and their commercialized technologies were monitored from 2012 till 2016. Some results were collected, but to validate the commercialization strategies of these entrepreneurs, four commercialization experts were interviewed in 2017. Initial results, observation notes, and experts’ opinions were analyzed qualitatively. The final findings showed that the entrepreneurs applied the LC unknowingly, and the experts were aware of the LC. Similarly, the entrepreneurs used the LC due to the financial constraints, and their need for success. Additionally, their commercialization practices revealed that LC appeared to be one of their commercialization strategies. Thus, their practices were analyzed, and a framework was developed. Furthermore, the experts noted that LC is a new dawn, which technologists and scientists need to consider for their high technology commercialization. This article contributes to the theory and practice of commercialization. Theoretically, the framework adds value to the commercialization discussion. And, practically the framework can be used by the technology entrepreneurs (technologists and scientists), technology-based enterprises, and technology entrepreneurship educators as a guide in their commercialization adventures.

Keywords: lean commercialization, high technologies, lean start-up, technology-based companies

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12 Detection of Epinephrine in Chicken Serum at Iron Oxide Screen Print Modified Electrode

Authors: Oluwole Opeyemi Dina, Saheed E. Elugoke, Peter Olutope Fayemi, Omolola E. Fayemi


This study presents the detection of epinephrine (EP) at Fe₃O₄ modified screen printed silver electrode (SPSE). The iron oxide (Fe₃O₄) nanoparticles were characterized with UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) prior to the modification of the SPSE. The EP oxidation peak current (Iap) increased with an increase in the concentration of EP as well as the scan rate (from 25 - 400 mVs⁻¹). Using cyclic voltammetry (CV), the relationship between Iap and EP concentration was linear over a range of 3.8 -118.9 µM and 118.9-175 µM with a detection limit of 41.99 µM and 83.16 µM, respectively. Selective detection of EP in the presence of ascorbic acid was also achieved at this electrode.

Keywords: screenprint electrode, iron oxide nanoparticle, epinephrine, serum, cyclic voltametry

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11 Microbial Evaluation of Geophagic and Cosmetic Clays from Southern and Western Nigeria: Potential Natural Nanomaterials

Authors: Bisi-Johnson, Mary A., Hamzart A. Oyelade, Kehinde A. Adediran, Saheed A. Akinola


Geophagic and cosmetic clays are among potential nano-material which occur naturally and are of various forms. The use of these nano-clays is a common practice in both rural and urban areas mostly due to tradition and medicinal reasons. These naturally occurring materials can be valuable sources of nano-material by serving as nano-composites. The need to ascertain the safety of these materials is the motivation for this research. Physical Characterization based on the hue value and microbiological qualities of the nano-clays were carried out. The Microbial analysis of the clay samples showed considerable contamination with both bacteria and fungi with fungal contaminants taking the lead. This observation may not be unlikely due to the ability of fungi species to survive harsher growth conditions than bacteria. 'Atike pupa' showed no bacterial growth. The clay with the largest bacterial count was Calabash chalk (Igbanke), while that with the highest fungal count was 'Eko grey'. The most commonly isolated bacteria in this study were Clostridium spp. and Corynebacterium spp. while fungi included Aspergillus spp. These results are an indication of the need to subject these clay materials to treatments such as heating before consumption or topical usage thereby ascertaining their safety.

Keywords: nano-material, clay, microorganism, quality

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10 Harmonization of Conflict Ahadith between Dissociation and Peaceful Co-Existence with Non-Muslims

Authors: Saheed Biodun Qaasim-Badmusi


A lot has been written on peaceful co-existence with non-Muslims in Islam, but little attention is paid to the conflict between Ahadith relating to dissociation from non-Muslims as a kernel of Islamic faith, and the one indicating peaceful co-existence with them. Undoubtedly, proper understanding of seemingly contradictory prophetic traditions is an antidote to the bane of pervasive extremism in our society. This is what calls for need to shed light on ‘Harmonization of Conflict Ahadith between Dissociation and Peaceful Co-existence with Non-Muslims. It is in view of the above that efforts are made in this paper to collate Ahadith pertaining to dissociation from non-Muslims as well as co-existence with them. Consequently, a critical study of their authenticity is briefly explained before proceeding to analysis of their linguistic and contextual meanings. To arrive at the accurate interpretation, harmonization is graphically applied. The result shows that dissociation from non –Muslims as a bedrock of Islamic faith could be explained in Sunnah by prohibition of participating or getting satisfaction from their religious matters, and anti-Islamic activities. Also, freedom of apostasy, ignoring da`wah with wisdom and seeking non-Muslims support against Muslims are frowned upon in Sunnah as phenomenon of dissociation from non –Muslims. All the aforementioned are strictly prohibited in Sunnah whether under the pretext of enhancing peaceful co-existence with non-Muslims or not. While peaceful co-existence with non-Muslims is evidenced in Sunnah by permissibility of visiting the sick among them, exchange of gift with them, forgiving the wrong among them, having good relationship with non-Muslim neighbours, ties of non-Muslim kinship, legal business transaction with them and the like. Finally, the degree of peaceful co-existence with non-Muslims is determined by their attitude towards Islam and Muslims.

Keywords: Ahadith, conflict, co-existence, non-Muslims

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9 Evaluating the Nexus between Energy Demand and Economic Growth Using the VECM Approach: Case Study of Nigeria, China, and the United States

Authors: Rita U. Onolemhemhen, Saheed L. Bello, Akin P. Iwayemi


The effectiveness of energy demand policy depends on identifying the key drivers of energy demand both in the short-run and the long-run. This paper examines the influence of regional differences on the link between energy demand and other explanatory variables for Nigeria, China and USA using the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) approach. This study employed annual time series data on energy consumption (ED), real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (RGDP), real energy prices (P) and urbanization (N) for a thirty-six-year sample period. The utilized time-series data are sourced from World Bank’s World Development Indicators (WDI, 2016) and US Energy Information Administration (EIA). Results from the study, shows that all the independent variables (income, urbanization, and price) substantially affect the long-run energy consumption in Nigeria, USA and China, whereas, income has no significant effect on short-run energy demand in USA and Nigeria. In addition, the long-run effect of urbanization is relatively stronger in China. Urbanization is a key factor in energy demand, it therefore recommended that more attention should be given to the development of rural communities to reduce the inflow of migrants into urban communities which causes the increase in energy demand and energy excesses should be penalized while energy management should be incentivized.

Keywords: economic growth, energy demand, income, real GDP, urbanization, VECM

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8 A Study to Evaluate Some Physical and Mechanical Properties, Relevant in Estimating Energy Requirements in Grinding the Palm Kernel and Coconut Shells

Authors: Saheed O. Akinwale, Olufemi A. Koya


Based on the need to modify palm kernel shell (PKS) and coconut shell (CNS) for some engineering applications, the study evaluated some physical characteristics and fracture resistance, relevant in estimating energy requirements in comminution of the nutshells. The shells, obtained from local processing mills, were washed, sun-dried and sorted to remove kernels, nuts and other extraneous materials. Experiments were then conducted to determine the thickness, density, moisture content, and hardness of the shells. Fracture resistances were characterised by the average compressive load, stiffness and toughness at bio-yield point of specially prepared section of the shells, under quasi-static compression loading. The densities of the dried PKS at 7.12% and the CNS at 6.47% (wb) moisture contents were 1291.20 and 1247.40 kg/m3, respectively. The corresponding Brinnel Hardness Numbers were 58.40 ± 1.91 and 56.33 ± 4.33. Close shells thickness of both PKS and CNS exhibited identical physical properties although; CNS is relatively larger in physical dimensions than PKS. The findings further showed that both shell types exhibited higher resistance with compression along the longitudinal axes than the transverse axes. With compressions along the longitudinal axes, the fracture force were 1.41 ± 0.11 and 3.62 ± 0.09 kN; bio-stiffness; 934.70 ± 67.03 kN/m and 1980.74 ± 8.92 kN/m; and toughness, 2.17 ± 0.16 and 6.51 ± 0.15 KN mm for the PKS and CNS, respectively. With the estimated toughness of CNS higher than that of PKS, the study showed the requirement of higher comminution energy for CNS.

Keywords: bio-stiffness, coconut shell, comminution, crushing strength, energy requirement, palm kernel shell, toughness

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7 The Changing Face of Pedagogy and Curriculum Development Sub-Components of Teacher Education in Nigeria: A Comparative Evaluation of the University of Lagos, Lagos State University, and Sokoto State University Models

Authors: Saheed A. Rufai


Courses in Pedagogy and Curriculum Development expectedly occupy a core place in the professional education components of teacher education at Lagos, Lagos State, and Sokoto State Universities. This is in keeping with the National Teacher Education Policy statement that stipulates that for student teachers to learn effectively teacher education institutions must be equipped to prepare them adequately. However, there is a growing concern over the unfaithfulness of some of the dominant Nigerian models of teacher education, to this policy statement on teacher educators’ knowledge and skills. The purpose of this paper is to comparatively evaluate both the curricular provisions and the manpower for the pedagogy and curriculum development sub-components of the Lagos, Lagos State, and Sokoto State models of teacher preparation. The paper employs a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. Preliminary analysis revealed a new trend in teacher educators’ pedagogical knowledge and understanding, with regard to the two intertwined sub-components. The significance of such a study lies in its potential to determine the degree of conformity of each of the three models to the stipulated standards. The paper’s contribution to scholarship lies in its correlation of deficiencies in teacher educators’ professional knowledge and skills and articulation of the implications of such deficiencies for the professional knowledge and skills of the prospective teachers, with a view to providing a framework for reforms.

Keywords: curriculum development, pedagogy, teacher education, dominant Nigerian teacher preparation models

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6 Analysis of Effect of Microfinance on the Profit Level of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Lagos State, Nigeria

Authors: Saheed Olakunle Sanusi, Israel Ajibade Adedeji


The study analysed the effect of microfinance on the profit level of small and medium scale enterprises in Lagos. The data for the study were obtained by simple random sampling, and total of one hundred and fifty (150) small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) were sampled for the study. Seventy-five (75) each are microfinance users and non-users. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, logit model, t-test and ordinary least square (OLS) regression. The mean profit of the enterprises using microfinance is ₦16.8m, while for the non-users of microfinance is ₦5.9m. The mean profit of microfinance users is statistically different from the non-users. The result of the logit model specified for the determinant of access to microfinance showed that three of specified variables- educational status of the enterprise head, credit utilisation and volume of business investment are significant at P < 0.01. Enterprises with many years of experience, highly educated enterprise heads and high volume of business investment have more potential access to microfinance. The OLS regression model indicated that three parameters namely number of school years, the volume of business investment and (dummy) participation in microfinance were found to be significant at P < 0.05. These variables are therefore significant determinants of impacts of microfinance on profit level in the study area. The study, therefore, concludes and recommends that to improve the status of small and medium scale enterprises for an increase in profit, the full benefit of access to microfinance can be enhanced through investment in social infrastructure and human capital development. Also, concerted efforts should be made to encouraged non-users of microfinance among SMEs to use it in order to boost their profit.

Keywords: credit utilisation, logit model, microfinance, small and medium enterprises

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5 Formulating Anti-Insurgency Curriculum Conceptual and Design Principles for Translation into Anti-Terrorist Curriculum Framework for Muslim Secondary Schools

Authors: Saheed Ahmad Rufai


The growing nature of insurgencies in their various forms in the Muslim world is now of great concern to both the leadership and the citizenry. The high sense of insecurity occasioned by the unpleasant experience has in fact attained an alarming rate in the estimation of both Muslims and non-Muslims alike. Consequently, the situation began to attract contributions from scholars and researchers in security-related fields of humanities and social sciences. However, there is little evidence of contribution to the discourse and the scholarship involved by scholars in the field of education. The purpose of this proposed study is to contribute an education dimension to the growing scholarship on the subject. The study which is situated in the broad scholarship of curriculum making and grounded in both the philosophical and sociological foundations of the curriculum, employs a combination of curriculum criticism and creative synthesis, as methods, in reconstructing Muslim schools’ educational blueprint. The significance of the proposed study lies in its potential to contribute a useful addition to the scholarship of curriculum construction in the context of the Muslim world. The significance also lies in its potential to offer an ameliorative proposal over unnecessary insurgency or militancy thereby paving the way for the enthronement of a regime characterized by peaceful, harmonious and tranquil co-existence among people of diverse orientations and ideological persuasions in the Muslim world. The study is restricted to only the first two stages of curriculum making namely the formulation of philosophy which concerns the articulation of objectives, aims, purposes, goals, and principles, as well as the second stage which covers the translation of such principles to an anti-insurgency secondary school curriculum for the Muslim world.

Keywords: education for conflict resolution, anti-insurgency curriculum principles, peace education, anti-terrorist curriculum framework, curriculum for Muslim secondary schools

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4 Physicochemical and Microbiological Assessment of Source and Stored Domestic Water from Three Local Governments in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Authors: Mary A. Bisi-Johnson, Kehinde A. Adediran, Saheed A. Akinola, Hamzat A. Oyelade


Some of the main problems man contends with are the quantity (source and amount) and quality of water in Nigeria. Scarcity leads to water being obtained from various sources and microbiological contaminations of the water may thus occur between the collection point and the point of usage. Thus, this study aims to assess the general and microbiological quality of domestic water sources and household stored water used within selected areas in Ile-Ife, South-Western part of Nigeria for microbial contaminants. Physicochemical and microbiological examination were carried out on 45 source and stored water samples collected from well and spring in three different local government areas i.e. Ife east, Ife-south, and Ife-north. Physicochemical analysis included pH value, temperature, total dissolved solid, dissolved oxygen, and biochemical oxygen demand. Microbiology involved most probable number analysis, total coliform, heterotrophic plate, faecal coliform, and streptococcus count. The result of the physicochemical analysis of samples showed anomalies compared to acceptable standards with the pH value of 7.20-8.60 for stored and 6.50-7.80 for source samples as the total dissolved solids (TDS of stored 20-70mg/L, source 352-691mg/L), dissolved oxygen (DO of stored 1.60-9.60mg/L, source 1.60-4.80mg/L), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD stored 0.80-3.60mg/L, source 0.60-5.40mg/L). General microbiological quality indicated that both stored and source samples with the exception of a sample were not within acceptable range as indicated by analysis of the MPN/100ml which ranges (stored 290-1100mg/L, source 9-1100mg/L). Apart from high counts, most samples did not meet the World Health Organization standard for drinking water with the presence of some pathogenic bacteria and fungi such as Salmonella and Aspergillus spp. To annul these constraints, standard treatment methods should be adopted to make water free from contaminants. This will help identify common and likely water related infection origin within the communities and thus help guide in terms of interventions required to prevent the general populace from such infections.

Keywords: domestic, microbiology, physicochemical, quality, water

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3 Chikungunya Virus Infection among Patients with Febrile Illness Attending University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

Authors: Abdul-Dahiru El-Yuguda, Saka Saheed Baba, Tawa Monilade Adisa, Mustapha Bala Abubakar


Background: Chikungunya (CHIK) virus, a previously anecdotally described arbovirus, is now assuming a worldwide public health burden. The CHIK virus infection is characterized by potentially life threatening and debilitating arthritis in addition to the high fever, arthralgia, myalgia, headache and rash. Method: Three hundred and seventy (370) serum samples were collected from outpatients with febrile illness attending University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, and was used to detect for Chikungunya (CHIK) virus IgG and IgM antibodies using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs). Result: Out of the 370 sera tested, 39 (10.5%) were positive for presence of CHIK virus antibodies. A total of 24 (6.5%) tested positive for CHIK virus IgM only while none (0.0%) was positive for presence of CHIK virus IgG only and 15 (4.1%) of the serum samples were positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies. A significant difference (p<0.0001) was observed in the distribution of CHIK virus antibodies in relation to gender. The males had prevalence of 8.5% IgM antibodies as against 4.6% observed in females. On the other hand 4.6% of the females were positive for concurrent CHIK virus IgG and IgM antibodies when compared to a prevalence of 3.4% observed in males. Only the age groups ≤ 60 years and the undisclosed age group were positive for presence of CHIK virus IgG and/or IgM antibodies. No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in the seasonal prevalence of CHIK virus antibodies among the study subjects Analysis of the prevalence of CHIK virus antibodies in relation to clinical presentation (as observed by Clinicians) of the patients revealed that headache and fever were the most frequently encountered ailments. Conclusion: The CHIK virus IgM and concurrent IgM and IgG antibody prevalence rates of 6.5% and 4.1% observed in this study indicates a current infection and the lack of IgG antibody alone observed shows that the infection is not endemic but sporadic. Recommendation: Further studies should be carried to establish the seasonal prevalence of CHIK virus infection vis-à-vis vector dynamics in the study area. A comprehensive study need to be carried out on the molecular characterization of the CHIK virus circulating in Nigeria with a view to developing CHIK virus vaccine.

Keywords: Chikungunya virus, IgM and IgG antibodies, febrile patients, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay

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2 Modelling the Physicochemical Properties of Papaya Based-Cookies Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Mayowa Saheed Sanusi A, Musiliu Olushola Sunmonua, Abdulquadri Alakab Owolabi Raheema, Adeyemi Ikimot Adejokea


The development of healthy cookies for health-conscious consumers cannot be overemphasized in the present global health crisis. This study was aimed to evaluate and model the influence of ripeness levels of papaya puree (unripe, ripe and overripe), oven temperature (130°C, 150°C and 170°C) and oven rack speed (stationary, 10 and 20 rpm) on physicochemical properties of papaya-based cookies using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The physicochemical properties (baking time, cookies mass, cookies thickness, spread ratio, proximate composition, Calcium, Vitamin C and Total Phenolic Content) were determined using standard procedures. The data obtained were statistically analysed at p≤0.05 using ANOVA. The polynomial regression model of response surface methodology was used to model the physicochemical properties. The adequacy of the models was determined using the coefficient of determination (R²) and the response optimizer of RSM was used to determine the optimum physicochemical properties for the papaya-based cookies. Cookies produced from overripe papaya puree were observed to have the shortest baking time; ripe papaya puree favors cookies spread ratio, while the unripe papaya puree gives cookies with the highest mass and thickness. The highest crude protein content, fiber content, calcium content, Vitamin C and Total Phenolic Content (TPC) were observed in papaya based-cookies produced from overripe puree. The models for baking time, cookies mass, cookies thickness, spread ratio, moisture content, crude protein and TPC were significant, with R2 ranging from 0.73 – 0.95. The optimum condition for producing papaya based-cookies with desirable physicochemical properties was obtained at 149°C oven temperature, 17 rpm oven rack speed and with the use of overripe papaya puree. The Information on the use of puree from unripe, ripe and overripe papaya can help to increase the use of underutilized unripe or overripe papaya and also serve as a strategic means of obtaining a fat substitute to produce new products with lower production cost and health benefit.

Keywords: papaya based-cookies, modeling, response surface methodology, physicochemical properties

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1 Contributory Antioxidant Role of Testosterone and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Males Exposed to Mixed Chemicals in an Automobile Repair Community

Authors: Saheed A. Adekola, Mabel A. Charles-Davies, Ridwan A. Adekola


Background: Testosterone is a known androgenic and anabolic steroid, primarily secreted in the testes. It plays an important role in the development of testes and prostate and has a range of biological actions. There is evidence that exposure to mixed chemicals in the workplace leads to the generation of free radicals and inadequate antioxidants leading to oxidative stress, which may serve as an early indicator of a pathophysiologic state. Based on findings, testosterone shows direct antioxidant effects by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes like glutathione peroxidase, thus indirectly contributing to antioxidant capacity. Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant role of testosterone as well as the relationship between testosterone and oxidative stress biomarkers in males exposed to mixed chemicals in the automobile repair community. Methods: The study included 43 participants aged 22- 60years exposed to mixed chemicals (EMC) from the automobile repair community. Forty (40) apparently healthy, unexposed, age-matched controls were recruited after informed consent. Demographic, sexual and anthropometric characteristics were obtained from pre-test structured questionnaires using standard methods. Blood samples (10mls) were collected from each subject into plain bottles and sera obtained were used for biochemical analyses. Serum levels of testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) were determined by enzyme immunoassay method, EIA (Immunometrics UK.LTD). Levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total plasma peroxide (TPP), Malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), glutathione peroxide (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and reduced glutathione (GSH) were determined using spectrophotometric methods respectively. Results obtained were analyzed using the Student’s t-test and Chi-square test for quantitative variables and qualitative variables respectively. Multiple regression was used to find associations and relationships between the variables. Results: Significant higher concentrations of TPP, MDA, OSI, H2O2 and GST were observed in EMC compared with controls (p < 0.001). Within EMC, significantly higher levels of testosterone, LH and TAC were observed in eugonadic when compared with hypogonadic participants (p < 0.001). Diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, waist height ratio and waist hip ratio were significantly higher in participants EMC compared with the controls. Sexual history and dietary intake showed that the controls had normal erection during sex and took more vegetables in their diet which may therefore be beneficial. Conclusion: The significantly increased levels of total antioxidant capacity in males exposed to mixed chemicals despite their exposure may probably reflect the contributory antioxidant role testosterone that prevents oxidative stress.

Keywords: mixed chemicals, oxidative stress, antioxidant, hypogonadism testosterone

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