Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 69

Search results for: Saba Mateen

69 Prescribing Trends and Outcomes Associated with the Use of Short-Acting β2 Agonists: A Hong Kong Wide Study

Authors: Lydia W. Y. Fung, Vincent K. C. Yan, Esther W. Chan

Abstract:

Overuse of short-acting β2 agonists (SABA) among patients with asthma remains a concern because of its association with increased mortality. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using electronic healthcare records of Hong Kong to investigate the prescribing pattern and clinical outcomes associated with SABA use in real-world settings. Patients newly diagnosed with asthma and aged ≥ 12 years between 2011 and 2018 were included, stratified by their SABA use (≤2, 3-6, 7-10, ≥11 canisters/year) during the one-year post-index date period, during which the index date was defined as the date of first asthma diagnosis. Risks of all-cause, respiratory-related, and asthma-related mortalities associated with SABA use were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression after adjusting for age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) dose. The frequency of hospital admissions associated with SABA use was estimated using negative binomial regression after adjusting for age, sex, CCI, and ICS dose. A total of 17,782 patients with asthma (mean age 46.7 years, 40.8% male) were included. Among them, 59.1% of patients had SABA potential overuse (>2 canisters/ year), of which 3,276 (18.4%) patients collected 3-6 canisters, 1,846 (10.4%) collected 7-10 canisters, and 5,394 (30.3%) patients collected ≥11 canisters during the baseline period. During the study period, each patient has prescribed a median of 5.61 SABA canisters/year on average. Overuse of SABA (>2 canisters/year) during the baseline period had a higher risk of all-cause mortality compared to patients with <2 canisters/year. The association was dose-dependent, with the highest risk in those who used ≥11 canisters/year (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR): 1.84, 95% CI: 1.55, 2.19), followed by 7-10 canisters/year (adjusted HR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.79) and 3-6 canisters/year (adjusted HR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.50). Despite a similar association observed in the risk of respiratory-related and asthma-related mortality, these two associations were not statistically significant. Higher SABA prescription volume was associated with an increased frequency of hospital admissions, although a dose-response relationship was not observed. The greatest risk was observed in the 7-10 SABA canister/year subgroup (adjusted Rate Ratio (RR): 4.81, 95% CI: 3.66, 6.37), which was higher than the ≥11 SABA canister/year subgroup (adjusted RR: 3.72, 95% CI: 2.98, 4.66). As a whole, SABA overuse was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality and increased frequency of hospital admissions among patients with asthma in Hong Kong. Despite the change in international guidelines in 2019 that as-needed SABA monotherapy was no longer recommended in patients with asthma, our data up to 2020 revealed no evidence of a corresponding change in prescribing practice. SABA overuse remains prevalent among patients with asthma in Hong Kong. Low adherence to ICS-containing controller medications and over-reliance on SABA as a reliever option may have contributed to poor symptom control. Effective education on the importance of potential adverse outcomes of SABA overuse and adherence to controller medications would be a key strategy in improving asthma treatment. A review of prescribing and dispensing practices may be warranted to avoid the potential overuse of SABA inhalers.

Keywords: asthma, mortality, overuse, prescribing pattern, short-acting β2 agonists

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68 The Impact of Brand Loyalty on Product Performance

Authors: Tanzeel bin Abdul Rauf Patker, Saba Mateen

Abstract:

This research investigates the impact of Brand Loyalty on the product performance and the factors those are considered more important in brand reputation. Variables selected for this research are Brand quality, Brand Equity, Brand Reputation to explore the impact of these variables on Product performance. For this purpose, primary research has been conducted. The questionnaire survey for this research study was administered among the population mainly at the shopping malls. For this research study, a sample size of 250 respondents has been taken into consideration. Customers from the shopping malls and university students constitute the sample for this research study using random sampling (non-probabilistic) used as a sampling technique for conducting the research survey. According to the results obtained from the collected data, it is interpreted that product performance shares a direct relationship with brand quality, brand quality, and brand reputation. Result also showed that brand quality and brand equity has a significant effect on product performance, whereas brand reputation has an insignificant effect on product performance.

Keywords: product performance, brand quality, brand equity, brand reputation

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67 Application of Response Surface Methodology to Optimize the Factor Influencing the Wax Deposition of Malaysian Crude Oil

Authors: Basem Elarbe, Ibrahim Elganidi, Norida Ridzuan, Norhyati Abdullah

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Wax deposition in production pipelines and transportation tubing from offshore to onshore is critical in the oil and gas industry due to low-temperature conditions. It may lead to a reduction in production, shut-in, plugging of pipelines and increased fluid viscosity. The most significant popular approach to solve this issue is by injection of a wax inhibitor into the channel. This research aims to determine the amount of wax deposition of Malaysian crude oil by estimating the effective parameters using (Design-Expert version 7.1.6) by response surface methodology (RSM) method. Important parameters affecting wax deposition such as cold finger temperature, inhibitor concentration and experimental duration were investigated. It can be concluded that SA-co-BA copolymer had a higher capability of reducing wax in different conditions where the minimum point of wax reduction was found at 300 rpm, 14℃, 1h, 1200 ppmThe amount of waxes collected for each parameter were 0.12g. RSM approach was applied using rotatable central composite design (CCD) to minimize the wax deposit amount. The regression model’s variance (ANOVA) results revealed that the R2 value of 0.9906, indicating that the model can be clarified 99.06% of the data variation, and just 0.94% of the total variation were not clarified by the model. Therefore, it indicated that the model is extremely significant, confirming a close agreement between the experimental and the predicted values. In addition, the result has shown that the amount of wax deposit decreased significantly with the increase of temperature and the concentration of poly (stearyl acrylate-co-behenyl acrylate) (SABA), which were set at 14°C and 1200 ppm, respectively. The amount of wax deposit was successfully reduced to the minimum value of 0.01 g after the optimization.

Keywords: wax deposition, SABA inhibitor, RSM, operation factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
66 Optimized Approach for Secure Data Sharing in Distributed Database

Authors: Ahmed Mateen, Zhu Qingsheng, Ahmad Bilal

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In the current age of technology, information is the most precious asset of a company. Today, companies have a large amount of data. As the data become larger, access to data for some particular information is becoming slower day by day. Faster data processing to shape it in the form of information is the biggest issue. The major problems in distributed databases are the efficiency of data distribution and response time of data distribution. The security of data distribution is also a big issue. For these problems, we proposed a strategy that can maximize the efficiency of data distribution and also increase its response time. This technique gives better results for secure data distribution from multiple heterogeneous sources. The newly proposed technique facilitates the companies for secure data sharing efficiently and quickly.

Keywords: ER-schema, electronic record, P2P framework, API, query formulation

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65 An Exploratory Research on Awareness towards Human Rights among Public Representatives of Bihar, India

Authors: Saba Farheen, Uday Shankar

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Background- Attaining equality among all humans and eliminating all forms of discrimination against them are fundamental human rights. These rights are based on the belief that all human beings are born free with equal dignity, esteem, and honour. In India, more than 30 percent politicians are having criminal background. They are also illiterate, which obstacle them in governing the system. They do not know the basic human rights. Because of this, they cannot decide what to do for the sake of the nation. Bihar is the third largest populated state of India and is characterized by corrupt politicians and poor literacy rate. If the politicians can aware about the human rights, then they will show positive attitude towards these. Aim- The main goal of the present research was to study the subjects’ knowledge or awareness towards their human rights. It was an attempt to identify social-psychological conditions that inhibit or facilitate awareness among public representatives towards their human rights in the special context of Bihar, India. Thus the main variable awareness towards human rights has been treated as the main dependent variable. The other two variables-socio economic status and Educational status, have been treated as independent variables. Method- The subjects were 400 public representatives in the age group of 35 to 50 years. They were from High socio economic status (N=150), Middle socio economic status (N=150), and Low socio economic status (N=100). The subjects were either educated (N=200) or Uneducated (N=200). The subjects were selected randomly from the different districts of Bihar, India. “Human Rights Awareness Scale” by Dr. Iftekhar Hossain, Dr. Saba Farheen, and Dr. Uday Shankar was applied in this study. Results- Results have shown that the public representatives have very low level of awareness towards the human rights. Also, the subjects from Middle SES have highest awareness in comparison with subjects of High and Low SES. Uneducated public representatives have less awareness than the educated one about human rights. Conclusion- Conclusively, it can be stated that human rights awareness among the public representatives of India is very low, and it is being affected by their Socio economic status and literacy level.

Keywords: human rights, awareness, public representatives, bihar, India

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
64 IT and Security Experts' Innovation and Investment Front for IT-Entrepreneurship in Pakistan

Authors: Ahmed Mateen, Zhu Qingsheng, Muhammad Awais, Muhammad Yahya Saeed

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This paper targets the rising factor of entrepreneurship innovation, which lacks in Pakistan as compared to the other countries or the regions like China, India, and Malaysia, etc. This is an exploratory and explanatory study. Major aspects have identified as the direction for the policymakers while highlighting the issues in true spirit. IT needs to be considered not only as a technology but also as itself growing as a new community. IT management processes are complex and broad, so generally requires extensive attention to the collective aspects of human variables, capital and technology. In addition, projects tend to have a special set of critical success factors, and if these are processed and given attention, it will improve the chances of successful implementation. This is only possible with state of the art intelligent decision support systems and accumulating IT staff to some extent in decision processes. This paper explores this issue carefully and discusses six issues to observe the implemented strength and possible enhancement.

Keywords: security and defense forces, IT-incentives, big IT-players, IT-entrepreneurial-culture

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
63 Assessing Water Quality Using GIS: The Case of Northern Lebanon Miocene Aquifer

Authors: M. Saba, A. Iaaly, E. Carlier, N. Georges

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This research focuses on assessing the ground water quality of Northern Lebanon affected by saline water intrusion. The chemical, physical and microbiological parameters were collected in various seasons spanning over the period of two years. Results were assessed using Geographic Information System (GIS) due to its visual capabilities in presenting the pollution extent in the studied region. Future projections of the excessive pumping were also simulated using GIS in order to assess the extent of the problem of saline intrusion in the near future.

Keywords: GIS, saline water, quality control, drinkable water quality standards, pumping

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
62 Power Management in Wireless Combustible Gas Sensors

Authors: Denis Spirjakin, Alexander Baranov, Saba Akbari, Natalia Kalenova, Vladimir Sleptsov

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In this paper we propose the approach to power management in wireless combustible gas sensors. This approach makes possible drastically prolong sensor nodes autonomous lifetime. That is necessary to tie battery replacement to every year technical service procedures which are claimed by safety standards. Using this approach the current consumption of the wireless combustible gas sensor node was decreased from 80 mA to less than 2 mA and the power consumption from more than 220 mW to 4.6 mW. These values provide autonomous lifetime of the node more than one year.

Keywords: Gas sensors, power management, wireless sensor network

Procedia PDF Downloads 477
61 Requirement Engineering and Software Product Line Scoping Paradigm

Authors: Ahmed Mateen, Zhu Qingsheng, Faisal Shahzad

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Requirement Engineering (RE) is a part being created for programming structure during the software development lifecycle. Software product line development is a new topic area within the domain of software engineering. It also plays important role in decision making and it is ultimately helpful in rising business environment for productive programming headway. Decisions are central to engineering processes and they hold them together. It is argued that better decisions will lead to better engineering. To achieve better decisions requires that they are understood in detail. In order to address the issues, companies are moving towards Software Product Line Engineering (SPLE) which helps in providing large varieties of products with minimum development effort and cost. This paper proposed a new framework for software product line and compared with other models. The results can help to understand the needs in SPL testing, by identifying points that still require additional investigation. In our future scenario, we will combine this model in a controlled environment with industrial SPL projects which will be the new horizon for SPL process management testing strategies.

Keywords: requirements engineering, software product lines, scoping, process structure, domain specific language

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
60 Application of Machine Learning Techniques in Forest Cover-Type Prediction

Authors: Saba Ebrahimi, Hedieh Ashrafi

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Predicting the cover type of forests is a challenge for natural resource managers. In this project, we aim to perform a comprehensive comparative study of two well-known classification methods, support vector machine (SVM) and decision tree (DT). The comparison is first performed among different types of each classifier, and then the best of each classifier will be compared by considering different evaluation metrics. The effect of boosting and bagging for decision trees is also explored. Furthermore, the effect of principal component analysis (PCA) and feature selection is also investigated. During the project, the forest cover-type dataset from the remote sensing and GIS program is used in all computations.

Keywords: classification methods, support vector machine, decision tree, forest cover-type dataset

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
59 Stress Analysis of Turbine Blades of Turbocharger Using Structural Steel

Authors: Roman Kalvin, Anam Nadeem, Saba Arif

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Turbocharger is a device that is driven by the turbine and increases efficiency and power output of the engine by forcing external air into the combustion chamber. This study focused on the distribution of stress on the turbine blades and total deformation that may occur during its working along with turbocharger to carry out its static structural analysis of turbine blades. Structural steel was selected as the material for turbocharger. Assembly of turbocharger and turbine blades was designed on PRO ENGINEER. Furthermore, the structural analysis is performed by using ANSYS. This research concluded that by using structural steel, the efficiency of engine is improved and by increasing number of turbine blades, more waste heat from combustion chamber is emitted.

Keywords: turbocharger, turbine blades, structural steel, ANSYS

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58 Bifidobacterial Postbiotics as Health-Promoting Agents in Dairy Products

Authors: Saba Kamalledin Moghadam, Amir M. Mortazavian, Aziz Homayouni-Rad

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In the recent decade, bioactive-enriched foods, as well as natural health products, have caught the intention of the general and health-conscious population. In this regard, naturally occurring beneficial microorganisms have been successfully added to various dairy products during fermentation. Bifidobacteria, known as probiotics with a broad range of bioactivities, are commonly used in the dairy industry to naturally enrich dairy products. These bioactive metabolites are industrially and commercially important due to health-promoting activities on the consumers (e.g., anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidative, immune-modulatory, anti-cholesterolemic, or microbiome modulation, etcetera). This review aims to discuss the potential of bifidobacteria for the elaboration of dairy foods with functional properties and added value.

Keywords: dairy, probiotic, postbiotic, bifidobacteria, bifidobacterial postbiotic

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57 Application of Biometrics in Patient Identification Card: Case Study of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Sarah Aldhalaan, Tanzila Saba

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Healthcare sectors are increasing rapidly to fulfill patient’s needs across the world. A patient identification is considered as the main aspect for a patient to be served in healthcare institutes. Nowadays, people are presenting their insurance card along with their identification card in order to get the needed treatment in hospitals however, this process lack security preferences. The aim of this research paper is to reveal a solution to introduce and use biometrics in healthcare hospitals. The findings show that the people know biometrics since they are interacting with them through different channels and that the need for biometrics techniques to identify patients is essential. Also, the survey relevant questions are used to analyze and add insights on what is are the suitable biometrics to be used in such cases. Moreover, results are presented to exhibit the effectiveness of the used methodology and in analyzing usage of biometrics in hospitals in an enhancing way. Finally, an interesting conclusion of overall work is presented at the end of paper.

Keywords: biometrics, healthcare, fingerprint, Saudi Arabia

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
56 Contribution to Energy Management in Hybrid Energy Systems Based on Agents Coordination

Authors: Djamel Saba, Fatima Zohra Laallam, Brahim Berbaoui

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This paper presents a contribution to the design of a multi-agent for the energy management system in a hybrid energy system (SEH). The multi-agent-based energy-coordination management system (MA-ECMS) is based mainly on coordination between agents. The agents share the tasks and exchange information through communications protocols to achieve the main goal. This intelligent system can fully manage the consumption and production or simply to make proposals for action he thinks is best. The initial step is to give a presentation for the system that we want to model in order to understand all the details as much as possible. In our case, it is to implement a system for simulating a process control of energy management.

Keywords: communications protocols, control process, energy management, hybrid energy system, modelization, multi-agents system, simulation

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55 Degradation of Neonicotinoid Insecticides (Acetamiprid and Imidacloprid) Using Biochar of Rice Husk and Fruit Peels

Authors: Mateen Abbas, Abdul Muqeet Khan, Sadia Bashir, Muhammad Awais Khalid, Aamir Ghafoor, Zara Hussain, Mashal Shahid

Abstract:

The irrational use of insecticides in everyday life has drawn attention worldwide towards its harmful effects. To mitigate the toxic effects of insecticides to humans, present study was planned on the degradation/detoxification of the neonicotinoid insecticides including imidacloprid and acetamiprid. Biocarbon of fruit peels (Banana & Watermelon) and biochar (activated or non-activated) of rice husk was utilized as adsorbents for degradation of selected pesticides. Both activated and non-activated biochar were prepared for treatment and then applied in different concentrations (0.5 to 2.0 ppm) and dosage (1.0 to 2.5g) to insecticides (Acetamiprid & Imidacloprid) as well as studied at different times (30-120 minutes). Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with Photodiode array detector was used to quantify the insecticides. Results depicted that activated biochar of rice husk minimized the 73% concentrations of both insecticides however, watermelon activated biocarbon degraded 72% of imidacloprid and 56% of acetamiprid. Results proved the efficiency of the method employed and it was also inferred that high concentration of biocarbon resulted in larger percentage of degradation. The applied method is cheaper, easy and accessible that can be used to minimize the pesticide residues in animal feed. Degradation using biochar proved significant degradation, eco-friendly and economic method to reduce toxicity of insecticides.

Keywords: insecticides, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, biochar, HPLC

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54 The Latest Salt Caravans: The Chinese Presence between Danakil and Tigray: Interdisciplinary Study to Integrate Chinese and African Relations in Ethiopia: Analyzing Road Evolution and Ethnographic Contexts

Authors: Erika Mattio

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The aim of this project is to study the Chinese presence in Ethiopia, in the area between the Saba River and the Coptic areas of the Tigray, with detailed documentation of the Danakil region, from which the salt pickers caravans departed; the study was created to understand the relationships and consequences of the Chinese advance in these areas, inhabited by tribes linked to ancient, still practiced religious rituals, and home to unique landscapes and archaeological sites. Official estimates of the number of Chinese in Africa vary widely; on the continent, there are increasingly diverse groups of Chinese migrants in terms of language, dialect, class, education, and employment. Based on this and on a very general state of the art, it was decided to increase the studies on this phenomenon, focusing the attention on one of the most interesting countries for its diversity, cultural wealth, and for strong Chinese presence: Ethiopia. The study will be integrated with interdisciplinary investigation methods, such as landscape archeology, historiographic research, participatory anthropology, geopolitics, and cultural anthropology and ethnology. There are two main objectives of the research. The first is to predict what will happen to these populations and how the territory will be modified, trying to monitor the growth of infrastructure in the country and the effects it will have on the population. Risk analyzes will be carried out to understand what the foreign presence may entail, such as the absence of sustenance for local populations, the ghettoization of foreigners, unemployment of natives and the exodus of the population to the capital; the relationships between families and the local population will be analyzed, trying to understand the dynamics of socialization and interaction. Thanks to the use of GIS, the areas affected by the Chinese presence will be geo-referenced and mapped, delimiting the areas most affected and creating a risk analysis, both in desert areas and in archaeologically and historically relevant areas. The second point is to document the life and rituals of Ethiopian populations in order not to lose the aspects of uniqueness that risk being lost. Local interviews will collect impressions and criticisms from the local population to understand if the Chinese presence is perceived as a threat or as a solution. Furthermore, Afar leaders in the Logya area will be interviewed, in truly exclusive research, to understand their links with the foreign presence. From the north, along the Saba river, we will move to the northwest, in the Tigray region, to know the impressions in the Coptic area, currently less threatened by the Chinese presence but still affected by urbanization proposals. There will also be documented the Coptic rituals of Gennà and Timkat, unique expressions of a millennial tradition. This will allow the understanding of whether the Maoist presence could influence the religious rites and forms of belief present in the country, or the country will maintain its cultural independence.

Keywords: Ethiopia, GIS, risk perceptions, salt caravans

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53 Role of Moderate Intensity Exercises in the Amelioration of Oxidant-Antioxidant Status and the Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Authors: Somaiya Mateen, Shagufta Moin, Abdul Qayyum, Atif Zafar

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Cytokines and reactive species play an important role in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was done to determine the levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), inflammatory cytokines and the markers of protein, DNA and lipid oxidation in the blood of RA patients, with the aim to study the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory role of moderate intensity exercises in the management of RA. RA patients were subdivided into two groups- first group (n=30) received treatment with conventional RA drugs while the second group (n=30) received moderate exercise therapy along with the conventional drugs for a period of 12 weeks. The levels of ROS, RNS, inflammatory cytokines and markers of biomolecule oxidation were monitored before and after 12 weeks of treatment. RA patients showed a marked increase in the levels of ROS, RNS, inflammatory cytokines, lipid, protein and DNA oxidation as compared to the healthy controls. These parameters were ameliorated after treatment with drugs alone and exercise combined with drugs, with the amelioration being more significant in patients given drugs along with the moderate intensity exercise treatment. In conclusion, the role of ROS, RNS and inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of RA has been confirmed by this study. These may also serve as potential biomarker for assessing the disease severity. Finally, the addition of moderate intensity exercises in the management of RA may be of great value.

Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines, moderate intensity exercises

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52 Resilience, Mental Health, and Life Satisfaction

Authors: Saba Harati, Nasrin Arian Parsa

Abstract:

The current research was an attempt to investigate the effect of resilience on mental health and life satisfaction. In one Cross Sectional research, 287 (173 females and 114 males) students of Tehran University were participated their average age was 23.17 years old (SD=4.9). The instruments used for assessing the research variables included: Cutter and Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC), the short form of the depression-anxiety-stress scale, and life satisfaction scale. The data analysis was done in the form of structural equation model. The results of Simultaneous Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that there was a significant mediating role of the negative emotions (depression, anxiety, and stress), in the relationship between the family resilience (p < 0.001) and satisfaction with life (p < 0.001). Resilience results in life satisfaction by reducing the emotional problems (or increasing the mental health level). The effect of the resilience variable on life satisfaction was indirect.

Keywords: resilience, negative emotion, mental health, life satisfaction

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51 Different Methods of Producing Bioemulsifier by Bacillus licheniformis Strains

Authors: Saba Pajuhan, Afshin Farahbakhsh, S. M. M. Dastgheib

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Biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers are a structurally diverse group of surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms, they are amphipathic molecules which reduce surface and interfacial tensions and widely used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and petroleum industries. In this paper, several methods of bioemulsifer synthesis and purification by Bacillus licheniformis strains (namely ACO1, PTCC 1595 and ACO4) were investigated. Strains were grown in nutrient broth with different conditions in order to get maximum production of bioemulsifer. The purification of bio emulsifier and the quality evaluation of the product was done by adding sulfuric acid (H₂SO₄) (98%), Ethanol or HCl to the solution followed by centrifuging. To determine the optimal conditions yielding the highest bioemulsifier production, the effect of various carbon and nitrogen sources, temperature, NaCl concentration, pH, O₂ levels, incubation time are indispensable and all of them were highly effective in bioemulsifiers production.

Keywords: biosurfactant, bioemulsifier, purification, surface tension, interfacial tension

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
50 Experimental Investigation on Tsunami Acting on Bridges

Authors: Iman Mazinani, Zubaidah Ismail, Ahmad Mustafa Hashim, Amir Reza Saba

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Two tragic tsunamis that devastated the west coast of Sumatra Island, Indonesia in 2004 and North East Japan in 2011 had damaged bridges to various extents. Tsunamis have resulted in the catastrophic deterioration of infrastructures i.e. coastal structures, utilities and transportation facilities. A bridge structure performs vital roles to enable people to perform activities related to their daily needs and for development. A damaged bridge needs to be repaired expeditiously. In order to understand the effects of tsunami forces on bridges, experimental tests are carried out to measure the characteristics of hydrodynamic force at various wave heights. Coastal bridge models designed at a 1:40 scale are used in a 24.0 m long hydraulic flume with a cross section of 1.5 m by 2.0 m. The horizontal forces and uplift forces in all cases show that forces increase nonlinearly with increasing wave amplitude.

Keywords: tsunami, bridge, horizontal force, uplift force

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49 A Generalized Family of Estimators for Estimation of Unknown Population Variance in Simple Random Sampling

Authors: Saba Riaz, Syed A. Hussain

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This paper is addressing the estimation method of the unknown population variance of the variable of interest. A new generalized class of estimators of the finite population variance has been suggested using the auxiliary information. To improve the precision of the proposed class, known population variance of the auxiliary variable has been used. Mathematical expressions for the biases and the asymptotic variances of the suggested class are derived under large sample approximation. Theoretical and numerical comparisons are made to investigate the performances of the proposed class of estimators. The empirical study reveals that the suggested class of estimators performs better than the usual estimator, classical ratio estimator, classical product estimator and classical linear regression estimator. It has also been found that the suggested class of estimators is also more efficient than some recently published estimators.

Keywords: study variable, auxiliary variable, finite population variance, bias, asymptotic variance, percent relative efficiency

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48 Improvement of Antibacterial Activity for Ceftazidime by Partially Purified Tannase from Penicillium expansum

Authors: Sahira N. Muslim, Alaa N. Mohammed, Saba Saadoon Khazaal, Batool Kadham Salman, Israa M. S. AL-Kadmy, Sraa N. Muslim, Ahmed S. Dwaish, Sawsan Mohammed Kareem, Sarah N. Aziz, Ruaa A. Jasim

Abstract:

Tannase has wide applications in food, beverage, brewing, cosmetics and chemical industries and one of the major applications of tannase is the production of gallic acid. Gallic acid is used for manufacturing of trimethoprim. In the present study, a local fungal strain of Penicillium expansum A4 isolated from spoilt apple samples gave the highest production level of tannase. Tannase was partially purified with a recovery yield of 92.52% and 6.32 fold of purification by precipitation using ammonium sulfate at 50% saturation. Tannase led to increased antimicrobial activity of ceftazidime against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and S. aureus and had a synergism effect at low concentrations of ceftazidime, and thus, tannase may be a useful adjuvant agent for the treatment of many bacterial infections in combination with ceftazidime.

Keywords: ceftazidime, Penicillium expansum, tannase, antimicrobial activity

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47 Predicting Shortage of Hospital Beds during COVID-19 Pandemic in United States

Authors: Saba Ebrahimi, Saeed Ahmadian, Hedie Ashrafi

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World-wide spread of coronavirus grows the concern about planning for the excess demand of hospital services in response to COVID-19 pandemic. The surge in the hospital services demand beyond the current capacity leads to shortage of ICU beds and ventilators in some parts of US. In this study, we forecast the required number of hospital beds and possible shortage of beds in US during COVID-19 pandemic to be used in the planning and hospitalization of new cases. In this paper, we used a data on COVID-19 deaths and patients’ hospitalization besides the data on hospital capacities and utilization in US from publicly available sources and national government websites. we used a novel ensemble modelling of deep learning networks, based on stacking different linear and non-linear layers to predict the shortage in hospital beds. The results showed that our proposed approach can predict the excess hospital beds demand very well and this can be helpful in developing strategies and plans to mitigate this gap.

Keywords: COVID-19, deep learning, ensembled models, hospital capacity planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
46 Energy Analysis of Seasonal Air Conditioning Demand of All Income Classes Using Bottom up Model in Pakistan

Authors: Saba Arif, Anam Nadeem, Roman Kalvin, Tanzeel Rashid, Burhan Ali, Juntakan Taweekun

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Currently, the energy crisis is taking serious attention. Globally, industries and building are major share takers of energy. 72% of total global energy is consumed by residential houses, markets, and commercial building. Additionally, in appliances air conditioners are major consumer of electricity; about 60% energy is used for cooling purpose in houses due to HVAC units. Energy demand will aid in determining what changes will be needed whether it is the estimation of the required energy for households or instituting conservation measures. Bottom-up model is one of the most famous methods for forecasting. In current research bottom-up model of air conditioners' energy consumption in all income classes in comparison with seasonal variation and hourly consumption is calculated. By comparison of energy consumption of all income classes by usage of air conditioners, total consumption of actual demand and current availability can be seen.

Keywords: air conditioning, bottom up model, income classes, energy demand

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
45 Iron Response Element-mRNA Binding to Iron Response Protein: Metal Ion Sensing

Authors: Mateen A. Khan, Elizabeth J. Theil, Dixie J. Goss

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Cellular iron homeostasis is accomplished by the coordinated regulated expression of iron uptake, storage, and export. Iron regulate the translation of ferritin and mitochondrial aconitase iron responsive element (IRE)-mRNA by interaction with an iron regulatory protein (IRPs). Iron increases protein biosynthesis encoded in iron responsive element. The noncoding structure IRE-mRNA, approximately 30-nt, folds into a stem loop to control synthesis of proteins in iron trafficking, cell cycling, and nervous system function. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements showed the presence of one binding site on IRP1 for ferritin and mitochondrial aconitase IRE-mRNA. Scatchard analysis revealed the binding affinity (Kₐ) and average binding sites (n) for ferritin and mitochondrial aconitase IRE-mRNA were 68.7 x 10⁶ M⁻¹ and 9.2 x 10⁶ M⁻¹, respectively. In order to understand the relative importance of equilibrium and stability, we further report the contribution of electrostatic interactions in the overall binding of two IRE-mRNA with IRP1. The fluorescence quenching of IRP1 protein was measured at different ionic strengths. The binding affinity of IRE-mRNA to IRP1 decreases with increasing ionic strength, but the number of binding sites was independent of ionic strength. Such results indicate a differential contribution of electrostatics to the interaction of IRE-mRNA with IRP1, possibly related to helix bending or stem interactions and an overall conformational change. Selective destabilization of ferritin and mitochondrial aconitase RNA/protein complexes as reported here explain in part the quantitative differences in signal response to iron in vivo and indicate possible new regulatory interactions.

Keywords: IRE-mRNA, IRP1, binding, ionic strength

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44 Addressing the Exorbitant Cost of Labeling Medical Images with Active Learning

Authors: Saba Rahimi, Ozan Oktay, Javier Alvarez-Valle, Sujeeth Bharadwaj

Abstract:

Successful application of deep learning in medical image analysis necessitates unprecedented amounts of labeled training data. Unlike conventional 2D applications, radiological images can be three-dimensional (e.g., CT, MRI), consisting of many instances within each image. The problem is exacerbated when expert annotations are required for effective pixel-wise labeling, which incurs exorbitant labeling effort and cost. Active learning is an established research domain that aims to reduce labeling workload by prioritizing a subset of informative unlabeled examples to annotate. Our contribution is a cost-effective approach for U-Net 3D models that uses Monte Carlo sampling to analyze pixel-wise uncertainty. Experiments on the AAPM 2017 lung CT segmentation challenge dataset show that our proposed framework can achieve promising segmentation results by using only 42% of the training data.

Keywords: image segmentation, active learning, convolutional neural network, 3D U-Net

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43 Design and Implementation of Power Generation Mechanism Using Speed Breaker

Authors: Roman Kalvin, Anam Nadeem, Saba Arif, Juntakan Taweekun

Abstract:

In the current scenario demand of power is increasing day by day with increasing population. It is needed to sort out this problem with a technique which will not only overcome this energy crisis but also should be environment friendly. This project emphasizes on idea which shows that power could be generated by specially designed speed breaker. This project shows clearly how power can be generated by using Cam Mechanism where basically linear motion is converted into rotatory motion that can be used to generate electricity. When vehicle passes over the speed breaker, presses the cam with the help of connecting rod which rotate main shaft attached with large pulley. A flywheel is coupled with the shaft whose purpose is to normalize the oscillation in the energy and to make the energy unvarying. So, the shafts will spin with firm rpm. These shafts are coupled from end to end with a belt drive. The results show that power generated from this mechanism is 12 watts. The generated electricity does not required any fuel consumption it only generates power which can be used for the street light as well as for the traffic signals.

Keywords: revolution per minute, RPM, cam, speed breaker, rotatory motion

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42 Numerical Modeling of Flow in USBR II Stilling Basin with End Adverse Slope

Authors: Hamidreza Babaali, Alireza Mojtahedi, Nasim Soori, Saba Soori

Abstract:

Hydraulic jump is one of the effective ways of energy dissipation in stilling basins that the ‎energy is highly dissipated by jumping. Adverse slope surface at the end stilling basin is ‎caused to increase energy dissipation and stability of the hydraulic jump. In this study, the adverse slope ‎has been added to end of United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) II stilling basin in hydraulic model of Nazloochay dam with scale 1:40, and flow simulated into stilling basin using Flow-3D ‎software. The numerical model is verified by experimental data of water depth in ‎stilling basin. Then, the parameters of water level profile, Froude Number, pressure, air ‎entrainment and turbulent dissipation investigated for discharging 300 m3/s using K-Ɛ and Re-Normalization Group (RNG) turbulence ‎models. The results showed a good agreement between numerical and experimental model‎ as ‎numerical model can be used to optimize of stilling basins.‎

Keywords: experimental and numerical modelling, end adverse slope, flow ‎parameters, USBR II stilling basin

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41 Improvement on the Specific Activities of Immobilized Enzymes by Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Surface Modification

Authors: Shaohua Li, Aihua Zhang, Kelly Zatopek, Saba Parvez, Andrew F. Gardner, Ivan R. Corrêa Jr., Christopher J. Noren, Ming-Qun Xu

Abstract:

Covalent immobilization of enzymes on solid supports is an alternative approach to biocatalysis with the added benefits of simple enzyme removal, improved stability, and adaptability to automation and high-throughput applications. Nevertheless, immobilized enzymes generally suffer from reduced activities compared to their soluble counterparts. One major factor leading to activity loss is the intrinsic hydrophobic property of the supporting material surface, which could result in the conformational change/confinement of enzymes. We report a strategy of utilizing flexible poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) moieties as to improve the surface hydrophilicity of solid supports used for enzyme immobilization. DNA modifying enzymes were covalently conjugated to PEO-coated magnetic-beads. Kinetics studies proved that the activities of the covalently-immobilized DNA modifying enzymes were greatly enhanced by the PEO modification on the bead surface.

Keywords: immobilized enzymes, biocatalysis, poly(ethylene oxide), surface modification

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40 The Impact of Social Enterprises on Women Empowerment in South Asia: A Systematic Review

Authors: Saba Aziz

Abstract:

Social enterprises are playing a growing role in transforming the lives of individuals and communities around the world, providing innovative solutions to critical social and environmental issues such as education, job creation, and health care. Women are increasingly utilising services of these enterprises to overcome socio-economic constraints and increase their access to business and market. This article systematically reviews the available literature on the role of social enterprises on women's empowerment in South Asia. Twelve key terms were specified and researched on five databases. Some of the literature was excluded based on the lack of evidence on the involvement of social enterprises. Remaining literature was rated according to the quality; due to methodological inconsistency, the findings are presented in a descriptive form. The relevant studies review the impact of social enterprises on women’s economic, social, relational, health, personal and political aspects of empowerment. In discussion, we outline areas for further research on social enterprises activity that impacts women’s overall empowerment specifically in South Asia.

Keywords: social enterprise, women empowerment, systematic review, well-being, social impact, micro finance, South Asia, Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 55