Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Rowland R. Ogunrinde

9 Modern Era Applications of Mathematics and Computer Science

Authors: Ogunrinde Roseline Bosede, Ogunrinde Rowland Rotimi


Just as the development of ideas of early mathematics was essentially motivated by social needs, the invention of the computer was equally inspired by social needs. The early years of the twenty-first century have been remarkable in advances in mathematical and computer sciences. Mathematical and computer sciences work are fast becoming an increasingly integral and essential components of a growing catalogues of areas of interests in biology, business, military, medicine, social sciences, advanced design, advanced materials, climate, banking and finance, and many other fields of disciplines. This paper seeks to highlight the trend and impacts of the duo in the technological advancements being witnessed in our today's world.

Keywords: Mathematics, Computer, Impacts, Modern Society

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8 Cloud Enterprise Application Provider Selection Model for the Small and Medium Enterprise: A Pilot Study

Authors: Noraini Che Pa, Rowland R. Ogunrinde, Yusmadi Y. Jusoh, Wan Nurhayati W. Rahman, Azizol B. Abdullah


Enterprise Applications (EAs) aid the organizations achieve operational excellence and competitive advantage. Over time, most Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), which are known to be the major drivers of most thriving global economies, use the costly on-premise versions of these applications thereby making business difficult to competitively thrive in the same market environment with their large enterprise counterparts. The advent of cloud computing presents the SMEs an affordable offer and great opportunities as such EAs can be cloud-hosted and rented on a pay-per-use basis which does not require huge initial capital. However, as there are numerous Cloud Service Providers (CSPs) offering EAs as Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), there is a challenge of choosing a suitable provider with Quality of Service (QoS) that meet the organizations’ customized requirements. The proposed model takes care of that and goes a step further to select the most affordable among a selected few of the CSPs. In the earlier stage, before developing the instrument and conducting the pilot test, the researchers conducted a structured interview with three experts to validate the proposed model. In conclusion, the validity and reliability of the instrument were tested through experts, typical respondents, and analyzed with SPSS 22. Results confirmed the validity of the proposed model and the validity and reliability of the instrument.

Keywords: quality of service, selection criteria, small and medium enterprise, cloud service provider, enterprise application

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7 Inverse Polynomial Numerical Scheme for the Solution of Initial Value Problems in Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Ogunrinde Roseline Bosede


This paper presents the development, analysis and implementation of an inverse polynomial numerical method which is well suitable for solving initial value problems in first order ordinary differential equations with applications to sample problems. We also present some basic concepts and fundamental theories which are vital to the analysis of the scheme. We analyzed the consistency, convergence, and stability properties of the scheme. Numerical experiments were carried out and the results compared with the theoretical or exact solution and the algorithm was later coded using MATLAB programming language.

Keywords: Differential Equations, Numerical, Differential Equation, polynomial, initial value problem

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6 A Spectral Decomposition Method for Ordinary Differential Equation Systems with Constant or Linear Right Hand Sides

Authors: R. B. Ogunrinde, C. C. Jibunoh


In this paper, a spectral decomposition method is developed for the direct integration of stiff and nonstiff homogeneous linear (ODE) systems with linear, constant, or zero right hand sides (RHSs). The method does not require iteration but obtains solutions at any random points of t, by direct evaluation, in the interval of integration. All the numerical solutions obtained for the class of systems coincide with the exact theoretical solutions. In particular, solutions of homogeneous linear systems, i.e. with zero RHS, conform to the exact analytical solutions of the systems in terms of t.

Keywords: spectral decomposition, linear RHS, homogeneous linear systems, eigenvalues of the Jacobian

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5 Creating Shared Value: A Paradigm Shift from Corporate Social Responsibility to Creating Shared Value

Authors: Bolanle Deborah Motilewa, E.K. Rowland Worlu, Gbenga Mayowa Agboola, Marvellous Aghogho Chidinma Gberevbie


Businesses operating in the modern business world are faced with varying challenges; amongst which is the need to ensure that they are performing their societal function of being responsible in the society in which they operate. This responsibility to society is generally termed as corporate social responsibility. For many years, the practice of corporate social responsibility (CSR) was solely philanthropic, where organizations gave ‘charity’ or ‘alms’ to society, without any link to the organization’s mission and objectives. However, there has arisen a shift in the application of CSR from an act of philanthropy to a strategy with a business model engaged in by organizations to create a win-win situation of performing their societal obligation, whilst simultaneously performing their economic obligation. In more recent times, the term has moved from CSR to creating shared value, which is simply corporate policies and practices that enhance the competitiveness of a business organization while simultaneously advancing social and economic conditions in the communities in which the company operates. Creating shared value has in more recent light found more meaning in underdeveloped countries, faced with deep societal challenges that businesses can solve whilst creating economic value. This study thus reviews literature on CSR, conceptualizing the shift to creating shared value and finally viewing its potential significance in Africa’s development.

Keywords: Development, Corporate Social Responsibility, shared value, africapitalism

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4 An Analysis of Institutional Environments on Corporate Social Responsibility Practices in Nigerian Renewable Energy Firms

Authors: Bolanle Deborah Motilewa, Gbenga Mayowa Agboola, E. K. Rowland Worlu, Ayodele Maxwell Olokundun


Several studies have proposed a one-size fit all approach to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices, such that CSR as it applies to developed countries is adapted to developing countries, ignoring the differing institutional environments (such as the regulative, economic, social and political environments), which affects the profitability and practices of businesses operating in them. CSR as it applies to filling institutional gaps in developing countries, was categorized into four themes: environmental protection, product and service innovation, social innovation and local cluster development. Based on the four themes, the study employed a qualitative research approach through the use of interviews and review of available publications to study the influence of institutional environments on CSR practices engaged in by three renewable energy firms operating in Nigeria. Over the course of three 60-minutes sessions with the top management and selected workers of the firms, four propositions were made: regulatory environment influences environmental protection practice of Nigerian renewable firms, economic environment influences product and service innovation practice of Nigerian renewable energy firms, the social environment impacts on social innovation in Nigerian renewable energy firms, and political environment affects local cluster development practice of Nigerian renewable energy firms. It was also observed that beyond institutional environments, the international exposure of an organization’s managers reflected in their approach to CSR. This finding on the influence of international exposure on CSR practices creates an area for further study. Insights from this paper are set to help policy makers in developing countries, CSR managers, and future researchers.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, Corporate Social Responsibility, institutional environment, renewable energy firms

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3 Botswana and Nation-Building Theory

Authors: Rowland Brucken


This paper argues that nation-building theories that prioritize democratic governance best explain the successful post-independence development of Botswana. Three main competing schools of thought exist regarding the sequencing of policies that should occur to re-build weakened or failed states. The first posits that economic development should receive foremost attention, while democratization and a binding sense of nationalism can wait. A second group of experts identified constructing a sense of nationalism among a populace is necessary first, so that the state receives popular legitimacy and obedience that are prerequisites for development. Botswana, though, transitioned into a multi-party democracy and prosperous open economy due to the utilization of traditional democratic structures, enlightened and accountable leadership, and an educated technocratic civil service. With these political foundations already in place when the discovery of diamonds occurred, the resulting revenues were spent wisely on projects that grew the economy, improved basic living standards, and attracted foreign investment. Thus democratization preceded, and therefore provided an accountable basis for, economic development that might otherwise have been squandered by greedy and isolated elites to the detriment of the greater population. Botswana was one of the poorest nations in the world at the time of its independence in 1966, with little infrastructure, a dependence on apartheid South Africa for trade, and a largely subsistence economy. Over the next thirty years, though, its economy grew the fastest of any nation in the world. The transparent and judicious use of diamond returns is only a partial explanation, as the government also pursued economic diversification, mass education, and rural development in response to public needs. As nation-building has become a project undertaken by nations and multilateral agencies such as the United Nations and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Botswana may provide best practices that others should follow in attempting to reconstruct economically and politically unstable states.

Keywords: Economic Development, Democratization, Botswana, nation-building

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2 Corporate Social Responsibility as a Determinant of Sustainability of SME: A Study of House of Tara, a Small Business Operating in Nigeria

Authors: Bolanle Deborah Motilewa, Gbenga Mayowa Agboola, E. K. Rowland Worlu, Ayodele Maxwell Olokundun


In the pursuit of profit maximization as a major objective of business organizations, several firms forfeit their social and economic responsibility whilst focusing on activities that are deemed to solely profit the firm, without taking into cognizance the effect of their operations on the society in which they operate. Business analysts have, however, realized the determinant role of social responsibility in corporate performance, such that firms that are able to imbibe corporate social responsibility in their core business operations may be able to take advantage of the social reputation gained across their several stakeholders. Small and medium enterprises operating in highly competitive markets are also advised to leverage on this reputation gained from being socially responsible, if they seek ways to remain relevant in the same markets dominated by multinational corporations. Adapting a case study approach, this study highlights the advantages (such as employee and customer loyalty) gained by House of Tara, a small business operating in the beauty and make-up industry in Nigeria, resulting from the firm’s commitment to advancing the society in which it operates through several social responsibility activities. It is observed that although competing with major makeup brands such as MAC, Maybelline, Dior, Mary Kay and others, House of Tara has been able to not only thrive, but gain a sizeable market in the Nigerian makeup industry, because several consumers purchase their products not solely because of the quality or price of their product, but because they perceive themselves as buying into the firm’s CSR vision. This study, therefore, recommends that small and medium enterprises that may lack adequate resources (manpower, technology, capital) needed to successfully compete with multinationals, can harness the potentials in the reputation and loyalty gained from adequate investment in corporate social responsibility.

Keywords: Sustainability, Corporate Social Responsibility, Small and medium enterprises, House of Tara

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1 Examining Standardized Cognitive Assessments in an Elderly Cross-Cultural Sample: The Role of Cultural and Literacy Bias

Authors: Gabriel A. Saheb, Clara Calia


The number of elderly ethnic minorities is expected to grow in the ensuing decades. As populations age, it is imperative that proper and valid neuropsychological assessments be given. Accordingly, some cognitive tests for the elderly may, in fact, exhibit potential forms of cultural and linguistic bias in which certain cultural sub-groups are given a degree of disadvantage on these assessments. Aims and Research Questions: The present study investigated whether several commonly used screening tools and assessments for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease were cross-culturally appropriate and valid for an elderly U.K. South Asian ethnic minority sample. The cognitive assessments included the Cross-linguistic naming test (CLNT), Mini-Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination (Mini-ACE), the Visual Short-Term Memory binding test (VSTMBT), and the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS). This research first tested if there were significant differences in the four assessment scores between groups. In addition, this study determined if either acculturation measured with the Multi-Ethnic Acculturation Scale (MEAS) or English proficiency measured with a self-rated scale were associated with the four respective assessments. Method: Both South Asian and British participants (N=34) were assessed using a cognitive test battery at the University of Edinburgh. The four cognitive tests in the battery included the CLNT, Mini-ACE, VSTMBT, and RUDAS assessments. Results: The non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test indicated significant differences in scores between the South Asian and British groups for the Cross-linguistic naming test (U = 218.0, p = .002), Mini-ACE (U = 201.5, p = .039), and the VSTMBT Binding task (U = 217.0, p = .009). However, no significant differences between the two groups were found for the VSTMBT Perception task (U = 137.0, p = .698), VSTMBT Shape Only task (U = 163.0, p = .470) or for the RUDAS (U = 158.0, p = .577) assessment. Spearman’s Rho correlations and linear regression both revealed that English proficiency and acculturation variables were associated with the Cross-linguistic naming test (β = .442, p = .003 and β = .029, p = .001, respectively) and Mini-ACE (β = 2.55, p = .001 and β = .103, p = .033, respectively). No associations were found between these variables and any of the tasks on the VSTMBT or for the RUDAS assessment. Conclusion: Given the differences in mean rank scores between the groups, the CLNT, Mini-ACE assessment, and VSTMBT Binding task, these measures may be biased against South Asian ethnic minorities. However, as the results did not evince any difference in mean ranks scores for the VSTMBT Perception task, VSTMBT Shape Only task, and RUDAS assessment, there was an absence of evidence found for bias in these measures.


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