Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: Roger P. Pech

39 Fatal Attractions: Exploiting Olfactory Communication between Invasive Predators for Conservation

Authors: Patrick M. Garvey, Roger P. Pech, Daniel M. Tompkins

Abstract:

Competition is a widespread interaction and natural selection will encourage the development of mechanisms that recognise and respond to dominant competitors, if this information reduces the risk of a confrontation. As olfaction is the primary sense for most mammals, our research tested whether olfactory ‘eavesdropping’ mediates alien species interactions and whether we could exploit our understanding of this behaviour to create ‘super-lures’. We used a combination of pen and field experiments to evaluate the importance of this behaviour. In pen trials, stoats (Mustela erminea) were exposed to the body odour of three dominant predators (cat / ferret / African wild dog) and these scents were found to be attractive. A subsequent field trial tested whether attraction displayed towards predator odour, particularly ferret (Mustela furo) pheromones, could be replicated with invasive predators in the wild. We found that ferret odour significantly improved detection and activity of stoats and hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus), while also improving detections of ship rats (Rattus rattus). Our current research aims to identify the key components of ferret odour, using chemical analysis and behavioural experiments, so that we can produce ‘scent from a can’. A lure based on a competitors’ odour would be beneficial in many circumstances including: (i) where individuals display variability in attraction to food lures, (ii) there are plentiful food resources available, (iii) new immigrants arrive into an area, (iv) long-life lures are required. Pest management can therefore benefit by exploiting behavioural responses to odours to achieve conservation goals.

Keywords: Invasive Species, semiochemicals, predator interactions, eavesdropping

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38 Reflections of AB English Students on Their English Language Experiences

Authors: Roger G. Pagente Jr.

Abstract:

This study seeks to investigate the language learning experiences of the thirty-nine AB-English majors who were selected through fish-bowl technique from the 157 students enrolled in the AB-English program. Findings taken from the diary, questionnaire and unstructured interview revealed that motivation, learners’ belief, self-monitoring, language anxiety, activities and strategies were the prevailing factors that influenced the learning of English of the participants.

Keywords: Diary, Self-Monitoring, Language Anxiety, English language learning experiences

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37 Fuzzy Logic-Based Approach to Predict Fault in Transformer Oil Based on Health Index Using Dissolved Gas Analysis

Authors: Suwarno, Ahmed Abu-Siada, Kharisma Utomo Mulyodinoto

Abstract:

Transformer insulating oil is a key component that can be utilized to detect incipient faults within operating transformers without taking them out of service. Dissolved gas-in-oil analysis has been widely accepted as a powerful technique to detect such incipient faults. While the measurement of dissolved gases within transformer oil samples has been standardized over the past two decades, analysis of the results is not always straightforward as it depends on personnel expertise more than mathematical formulas. In analyzing such data, the generation rate of each dissolved gas is of more concern than the absolute value of the gas. As such, history of dissolved gases within a particular transformer should be archived for future comparison. Lack of such history may lead to misinterpretation of the obtained results. IEEE C57.104-2008 standards have classified the health condition of the transformer based on the absolute value of individual dissolved gases along with the total dissolved combustible gas (TDCG) within transformer oil into 4 conditions. While the technique is easy to implement, it is considered as a very conservative technique and is not widely accepted as a reliable interpretation tool. Moreover, measured gases for the same oil sample can be within various conditions limits and hence, misinterpretation of the data is expected. To overcome this limitation, this paper introduces a fuzzy logic approach to predict the health condition of the transformer oil based on IEEE C57.104-2008 standards along with Roger ratio and IEC ratio-based methods. DGA results of 31 chosen oil samples from 469 transformer oil samples of normal transformers and pre-known fault-type transformers that were collected from Indonesia Electrical Utility Company, PT. PLN (Persero), from different voltage rating: 500/150 kV, 150/20 kV, and 70/20 kV; different capacity: 500 MVA, 60 MVA, 50 MVA, 30 MVA, 20 MVA, 15 MVA, and 10 MVA; and different lifespan, are used to test and establish the fuzzy logic model. Results show that the proposed approach is of good accuracy and can be considered as a platform toward the standardization of the dissolved gas interpretation process.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, dissolved gas analysis, health index, IEEE C57.104-2008, IEC ratio method, Roger ratio method

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36 Choosing between the Regression Correlation, the Rank Correlation, and the Correlation Curve

Authors: Roger L. Goodwin

Abstract:

This paper presents a rank correlation curve. The traditional correlation coefficient is valid for both continuous variables and for integer variables using rank statistics. Since the correlation coefficient has already been established in rank statistics by Spearman, such a calculation can be extended to the correlation curve. This paper presents two survey questions. The survey collected non-continuous variables. We will show weak to moderate correlation. Obviously, one question has a negative effect on the other. A review of the qualitative literature can answer which question and why. The rank correlation curve shows which collection of responses has a positive slope and which collection of responses has a negative slope. Such information is unavailable from the flat, "first-glance" correlation statistics.

Keywords: correlation, Bayesian estimation, regression model, rank statistics, correlation curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
35 Modeling and Control of a 4DoF Robotic Assistive Device for Hand Rehabilitation

Authors: Maarouf Saad, M. R. Islam, Christopher Spiewak, Mohammad Arifur Rahaman, Mohammad H. Rahman, Roger Smith

Abstract:

For those who have lost the ability to move their hand, going through repetitious motions with the assistance of a therapist is the main method of recovery. We have been developed a robotic assistive device to rehabilitate the hand motions in place of the traditional therapy. The developed assistive device (RAD-HR) is comprised of four degrees of freedom enabling basic movements, hand function, and assists in supporting the hand during rehabilitation. We used a nonlinear computed torque control technique to control the RAD-HR. The accuracy of the controller was evaluated in simulations (MATLAB/Simulink environment). To see the robustness of the controller external disturbance as modelling uncertainty (±10% of joint torques) were added in each joints.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Biorobotics, Nonlinear Control, Exoskeleton, robotic assistive device

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34 Establishing Multi-Leveled Computability as a Living-System Evolutionary Context

Authors: Ron Cottam, Nils Langloh, Willy Ranson, Roger Vounckx

Abstract:

We start by formally describing the requirements for environmental-reaction survival computation in a natural temporally-demanding medium, and develop this into a more general model of the evolutionary context as a computational machine. The effect of this development is to replace deterministic logic by a modified form which exhibits a continuous range of dimensional fractal diffuseness between the isolation of perfectly ordered localization and the extended communication associated with nonlocality as represented by pure causal chaos. We investigate the appearance of life and consciousness in the derived general model, and propose a representation of Nature within which all localizations have the character of quasi-quantal entities. We compare our conclusions with Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle and nonlocal teleportation, and maintain that computability is the principal influence on evolution in the model we propose.

Keywords: Modeling, Evolution, Life, Localization, Nonlocality, computability

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33 Generating Real-Time Visual Summaries from Located Sensor-Based Data with Chorems

Authors: H. Belbachir, Z. Bouattou, R. Laurini

Abstract:

This paper describes a new approach for the automatic generation of the visual summaries dealing with cartographic visualization methods and sensors real time data modeling. Hence, the concept of chorems seems an interesting candidate to visualize real time geographic database summaries. Chorems have been defined by Roger Brunet (1980) as schematized visual representations of territories. However, the time information is not yet handled in existing chorematic map approaches, issue has been discussed in this paper. Our approach is based on spatial analysis by interpolating the values recorded at the same time, by sensors available, so we have a number of distributed observations on study areas and used spatial interpolation methods to find the concentration fields, from these fields and by using some spatial data mining procedures on the fly, it is possible to extract important patterns as geographic rules. Then, those patterns are visualized as chorems.

Keywords: Real-time, Sensors, Geovisualization, spatial analytics, geographic data streams, chorems

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32 Experimental Measurements of Evacuated Enclosure Thermal Insulation Effectiveness for Vacuum Flat Plate Solar Thermal Collectors

Authors: Paul Henshall, Farid Arya, Trevor Hyde, Roger Moss, Stan Shire, Philip Eames

Abstract:

Encapsulating the absorber of a flat plate solar thermal collector in vacuum by an enclosure that can be evacuated can result in a significant increase in collector performance and achievable operating temperatures. This is a result of the thermal insulation effectiveness of the vacuum layer surrounding the absorber, as less heat is lost during collector operation. This work describes experimental thermal insulation characterization tests of prototype vacuum flat plate solar thermal collectors that demonstrate the improvement in absorber heat loss coefficients. Furthermore, this work describes the selection and sizing of a getter, suitable for maintaining the vacuum inside the enclosure for the lifetime of the collector, which can be activated at low temperatures.

Keywords: Thermal, Vacuum, insulation, flat-plate solar collector

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31 Modernization of the Economic Price Adjustment Software

Authors: Roger L. Goodwin

Abstract:

The US Consumer Price Indices (CPIs) measures hundreds of items in the US economy. Many social programs and government benefits index to the CPIs. In mid to late 1990, much research went into changes to the CPI by a Congressional Advisory Committee. One thing can be said from the research is that, aside from there are alternative estimators for the CPI; any fundamental change to the CPI will affect many government programs. The purpose of this project is to modernize an existing process. This paper will show the development of a small, visual, software product that documents the Economic Price Adjustment (EPA) for long-term contracts. The existing workbook does not provide the flexibility to calculate EPAs where the base-month and the option-month are different. Nor does the workbook provide automated error checking. The small, visual, software product provides the additional flexibility and error checking. This paper presents the feedback to project.

Keywords: Database, Contracts, Forms, consumer price index, Economic Price Adjustment, visualization tools, reports, event procedures

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30 The Functions of Spatial Structure in Supporting Socialization in Urban Parks

Authors: Jr., Navid Nasrolah Mazandarani, Faezeh Mohammadi Tahrodi, Norshida Ujang, Richard Jan Pech

Abstract:

Human evolution has designed us to be dependent on social and natural settings, but designed of our modern cities often ignore this fact. It is evident that high-rise buildings dominate most metropolitan city centers. As a result urban parks are very limited and in many cases are not socially responsive to our social needs in these urban ‘jungles’. This paper emphasizes the functions of urban morphology in supporting socialization in Lake Garden, one of the main urban parks in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It discusses two relevant theories; first the concept of users’ experience coined by Kevin Lynch (1960) which states that way-finding is related to the process of forming mental maps of environmental surroundings. Second, the concept of social activity coined by Jan Gehl (1987) which holds that urban public spaces can be more attractive when they provide welcoming places in which people can walk around and spend time. Until recently, research on socio-spatial behavior mainly focused on social ties, place attachment and human well-being; with less focus on the spatial dimension of social behavior. This paper examines the socio-spatial behavior within the spatial structure of the urban park by exploring the relationship between way-finding and social activity. The urban structures defined by the paths and nodes were analyzed as the fundamental topological structure of space to understand their effects on the social engagement pattern. The study uses a photo questionnaire survey to inspect the spatial dimension in relation to the social activities within paths and nodes. To understand the legibility of the park, spatial cognition was evaluated using sketch maps produced by 30 participants who visited the park. The results of the sketch mapping indicated that a spatial image has a strong interrelation with socio-spatial behavior. Moreover, an integrated spatial structure of the park generated integrated use and social activity. It was found that people recognized and remembered the spaces where they engaged in social activities. They could experience the park more thoroughly, when they found their way continuously through an integrated park structure. Therefore, the benefits of both perceptual and social dimensions of planning and design happened simultaneously. The findings can assist urban planners and designers to redevelop urban parks by considering the social quality design that contributes to clear mental images of these places.

Keywords: Spatial Structure, social activities, sketch map, urban park, way-finding

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29 The Existence of a Sciatic Artery in Congenital Lower Limb Deformities

Authors: Waseem Al Talalwah, Shorok Al Dorazi, Roger Soames

Abstract:

Persistent sciatic artery is a rare anatomical vascular variation resulting from a lack of regression of the embryonic dorsal axial artery. The axial artery is the main artery supplying the lower limb during development in the first trimester. The current research includes 206 sciatic artery cases in 171 patients between 1864 and 2012. It aims to identify the risk factor of sciatic artery aneurysm in congenital limb anomalies. Sciatic artery aneurysm was diagnosed incidentally in amniotic band syndrome (ABS) existing with no congenital anomaly in 0.7% or with double knee in 0.7%, with the tibia in 0.7% and with hemihypertrophy or soft tissue hypertrophy in 1.4%. Therefore, the current study indicates a relationship the same gene responsible for the congenital limb deformities may be responsible for non-regression of the sciatic artery. Furthermore, pediatricians should refer cases of congenital limb anomalies for vascular evaluation prior to corrective surgical intervention.

Keywords: sciatic artery, amniotic band syndrome, congenital limb deformities, double knee, sciatic artery aneurysm, soft tissue hypertrophy

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28 Current Developments in Flat-Plate Vacuum Solar Thermal Collectors

Authors: Paul Henshall, Farid Arya, Trevor Hyde, Phillip Eames, Roger Moss, Stan Shire

Abstract:

Vacuum flat plate solar thermal collectors offer several advantages over other collectors namely the excellent optical and thermal characteristics they exhibit due to a combination of their wide surface area and high vacuum thermal insulation. These characteristics can offer a variety of applications for industrial process heat as well as for building integration as they are much thinner than conventional collectors making installation possible in limited spaces. However, many technical challenges which need to be addressed to enable wide scale adoption of the technology still remain. This paper will discuss the challenges, expectations and requirements for the flat-plate vacuum solar collector development. In addition, it will provide an overview of work undertaken in Ulster University, Loughborough University, and the University of Warwick on flat-plate vacuum solar thermal collectors. Finally, this paper will present a detailed experimental investigation on the development of a vacuum panel with a novel sealing method which will be used to accommodate a novel slim hydroformed solar absorber.

Keywords: infrared thermography, hot box calorimeter, solar thermal collector, vacuum insulation

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27 Risk Management in an Islamic Framework

Authors: Magid Maatallah

Abstract:

The problem is, investment management in modern conditions boils down to risk management which is very underdeveloped in Islamic financial theory and practice. Add to this the fact that, in Islamic perception, this is one of the areas of conventional finance in need of drastic reforms. This need was recently underlined by the story of Long Term Capital Management (LTCM ), ( told by Roger Lowenstein in his book, When Genius Failed, Random House, 2000 ). So we face a double challenge, to develop Islamic techniques of risk management and to see that these new techniques are free from the ills with which conventional methods are suffering. This is different from the challenge faced in the middle of twentieth century, to develop a method of financial intermediation free of interest.Risk was always there, especially in business. But industrialization brought risks unknown in trade and agriculture. Industrial production often involves long periods of time .The longer the period of production the more the uncertainty. The scope of the market has expanded to cover the whole world, introducing new kinds of risk. More than a thousand years ago, when Islamic laws were being written, the nature and scope of risk and uncertainty was different. However, something can still be learnt which, in combination with the modern experience, should enable us to realize the Shariah objectives of justice, fairness and efficiency.

Keywords: Investment, Risk management, Financial Markets, Islamic framework

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26 Anatomical Features of Internal Pudendal Artery

Authors: Shorok Al Dorazi, Roger Soames, Waseem Al-Talalwah, Adel Yasky

Abstract:

The internal pudendal artery is a standard branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. The current study includes 41 cadavers to investigate the origin and branches of the internal pudendal artery and its clinical significances. The internal pudendal artery arose directly from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery in 48.3% while it arose indirectly in 48.5%. However, the internal pudendal artery arose from the posterior division of internal iliac artery in 1.6%. Moreover, it arose internal iliac artery bifurcation site in 1.6%. Further, the internal pudendal artery supplied the urinary bladder in 17.1%. Also, the internal pudendal artery supplied the rectum 33.5% respectively. It gave uterine and vaginal arteries in 9.4% and 7.8% respectively. Finally, it supplied the sciatic nerve via giving lateral sacral branch in 1.6%. Internists, surgeons and radiologists have to be aware of the variability to decrease iatrogenic injury. Therefore, unnecessary proximal ligation should be avoided at the site of indirect origin of the internal pudendal artery to prevent sciatic neuropathy. Further, intrapelvic bleeding as result of laceration of internal pudendal branches during hysterectomy, prostatectomy or proctectomy should be expected. Therefore, this study increases the awareness of surgeons leading to minimize iatrogenic faults,

Keywords: inferior gluteal artery, internal iliac artery, internal pudendal artery, superior gluteal artery, impotence, decreased libido

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25 The Origin Variability of the Iliolumbar Artery

Authors: Shorok Al Dorazi, Roger Soames, Waseem Al-Talalwah, Raid Hommady

Abstract:

The iliolumbar artery is a regular branch of posterior division of the internal iliac artery. The present study investigate 82 specimens to identify the origin of iliolumbar artery. The present study targets the sciatic nerve root supply from iliolumbar artery based on its origin and course. In present study, the ililumbar artery arose from the posterior division of internal iliac artery in 52.2%. In few cases, it arose from dorsomedial aspect of the internal iliac artery in 28.8%. In few cases, the iliolumbar artery arose from the dorsal aspects of the internal iliac artery as well as from the common and external iliac artery 1.7%. Also, the iliolumbar artery arose from the sciatic artery as well as from superior and inferior gluteal arteries in 5.1%. Conversely, it found to be congenital absent in 8.5%. Therefore, the posterior trunk of the internal iliac artery is the most common origin of the iliolumbar artery. With the origin variability of the iliolumbar artery, there is a vascular supply variability of the lumbosacral trunk and sacral root of sciatic nerve. The iliolumbar artery provides vascular supply for lumbosacral trunk 57.3% in whereas the sacral root in 5.1%. As a result, surgeons should pay attention to these variations to decrease iatrogenic fault.

Keywords: sciatic artery, internal iliac, iliolumbar, external iliac, posterior division

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24 Challenges of Technical and Engineering Students in the Application of Scientific Cancer Knowledge to Preserve the Future Generation in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: K. Shaloom Mbambu, M. Pascal Tshimbalanga, K. Ruth Mutala, K. Roger Kabuya, N. Dieudonné Kabeya, Y. L. Kabeya Mukeba

Abstract:

In this article, the authors examine the even more worrying situation of girls in sub-Saharan Africa. Two-girls on five are private of Global Education, which represents a real loss to the development of communities and countries. Cultural traditions, poverty, violence, early and forced marriages, early pregnancies, and many other gender inequalities were the causes of this cancer development. Namely, "it is no more efficient development tool that is educating girls." The non-schooling of girls and their lack of supervision by liberal professions have serious consequences for the life of each of them. To improve the conditions of their inferior status, girls to men introduce poverty and health risks. Raising awareness among parents and communities on the importance of girls' education, improving children's access to school, girl-boy equality with their rights, creating income, and generating activities for girls, girls, and girls learning of liberal trades to make them self-sufficient. Organizations such as the United Nations Organization can save the children. ASEAD and the AEDA group are predicting the impact of this cancer on the development of a nation's future generation must be preserved.

Keywords: Development, Society, Environment, Sub-Saharan Africa, young girl, higher and vocational education

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23 An Implementation of Fuzzy Logic Technique for Prediction of the Power Transformer Faults

Authors: Omar M. Elmabrouk., Roaa Y. Taha., Najat M. Ebrahim, Sabbreen A. Mohammed

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Power transformers are the most crucial part of power electrical system, distribution and transmission grid. This part is maintained using predictive or condition-based maintenance approach. The diagnosis of power transformer condition is performed based on Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA). There are five main methods utilized for analyzing these gases. These methods are International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) gas ratio, Key Gas, Roger gas ratio, Doernenburg, and Duval Triangle. Moreover, due to the importance of the transformers, there is a need for an accurate technique to diagnose and hence predict the transformer condition. The main objective of this technique is to avoid the transformer faults and hence to maintain the power electrical system, distribution and transmission grid. In this paper, the DGA was utilized based on the data collected from the transformer records available in the General Electricity Company of Libya (GECOL) which is located in Benghazi-Libya. The Fuzzy Logic (FL) technique was implemented as a diagnostic approach based on IEC gas ratio method. The FL technique gave better results and approved to be used as an accurate prediction technique for power transformer faults. Also, this technique is approved to be a quite interesting for the readers and the concern researchers in the area of FL mathematics and power transformer.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, prediction, power transformer, dissolved gas-in-oil analysis

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22 The Adoption of Technological Innovations in a B2C Context: An Empirical Study on the Higher Education Industry in Egypt

Authors: Maha Mourad, Rania Samir

Abstract:

This paper seeks to explain the adoption of technological innovations in a business to consumer context. Specifically, the use of web based technology (WEBCT/blackboard) in the delivery of educational material and communication with students at universities in Egypt is the focus of this study. The analysis draws on existing research in a B2C context which highlights the importance of internal organization characteristics, perceived attributes of the innovation as well as consumer based factors as the main drivers of adoption. A distinctive B2C model is developed drawing on Roger’s innovation adoption model, as well as theoretical and empirical foundations in previous innovation adoption literature to study the adoption of technological innovations in higher education in Egypt. The model proposes that the adoption decision is dependent on a combination of perceived attributes of the innovation, inter-organization factors and consumer factors. The model is testified drawing on the results of empirical work in the form of a large survey conducted on students in three different universities in Egypt (one public, one private and one international). In addition to the attributes of the innovation, specific organization factors (such as university resources) as well as consumer factors were identified as likely to have an important influence on the adoption of technological innovations in higher education.

Keywords: Higher Education, Innovation, Adoption, Egypt, WEBCT

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21 Characterization of Shiga Toxin Escherichia coli Recovered from a Beef Processing Facility within Southern Ontario and Comparative Performance of Molecular Diagnostic Platforms

Authors: Jessica C. Bannon, Cleso M. Jordao Jr., Mohammad Melebari, Carlos Leon-Velarde, Roger Johnson, Keith Warriner

Abstract:

There has been an increased incidence of non-O157 Shiga Toxin Escherichia coli (STEC) with six serotypes (Top 6) being implicated in causing haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Beef has been suggested to be a significant vehicle for non-O157 STEC although conclusive evidence has yet to be obtained. The following aimed to determine the prevalence of the Top 6 non-O157 STEC in beef processing using three different diagnostic platforms then characterize the recovered isolates. Hide, carcass and environmental swab samples (n = 60) were collected from a beef processing facility over a 12 month period. Enriched samples were screened using Biocontrol GDS, BAX or PALLgene molecular diagnostic tests. Presumptive non-O157 STEC positive samples were confirmed using conventional PCR and serology. STEC was detected by GDS (55% positive), BAX (85% positive), and PALLgene (93%). However, during confirmation testing only 8 of the 60 samples (13%) were found to harbour STEC. Interestingly, the presence of virulence factors in the recovered isolates was unstable and readily lost during subsequent sub-culturing. There is a low prevalence of Top 6 non-O157 STEC associated with beef although other serotypes are encountered. Yet, the instability of the virulence factors in recovered strains would question their clinical relevance.

Keywords: Food microbiology, beef, shiga toxin, STEC

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20 The Origin Variability of the Obturator Artery

Authors: Shorok Al Dorazi, Roger Soames, Waseem Al-Talalwah, Halimah Al Hifzi, Hassan Al Mousa, Zainab Al-Hashim

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The obturator artery is one branches of anterior division of the internal iliac artery. It passes on the lateral wall of pelvis to escape into thigh region via obturator foremen. Based on previous research studies, it found to be extremely variable in origin and course. It may arise from internal or external iliac artery. The current study includes 82 dissected specimens to investigate the origin of the obturator artery and explain the clinical importance. The obturator artery arises from the internal iliac artery in 75% either from its anterior or posterior division in 46.9% or 25% respectively. Further, it arises neither from the anterior nor posterior division of the internal iliac artery but it arises between them in 3.1%. In 25%, the obturator artery arises from the external iliac artery. In case of aneurysmectomy of posterior division, carries a high risk of insufficient of vascular supply for demand structures such as proximal adductors attachment and hip joint. Therefore, vascular surgeons have to pay attention to the posterior division being an origin of the obturator artery beside its usual three classical branches: superior gluteal, iliolumbar and lateral sacral arteries. Further, the obturator artery arising from the external iliac system is in great dangerous of laceration in case of anterior pelvic fracture. Therefore, it may lead to haemorrhagic shock threatening life.

Keywords: aneurysm, internal iliac artery, anterior division, external iliac, posterior division, obturator artery, superior gluteal, iliolumbar and lateral sacral, pubic fracture, shock

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19 The Variation of the Inferior Gluteal Artery Origin

Authors: Waseem Al Talalwah, Shorok Al Dorazi, Roger Soames

Abstract:

The inferior gluteal artery is a prominent branch of the anterior trunk of internal iliac artery. It escapes from the pelvic cavity through the greater sciatic foramen below the lower edge of piriformis. In gluteal region, it provides several muscular branches to gluteal maximus and articular branch to hip joint. Further, it provides sciatic branch to sciatic nerve. Current study investigates the origin of the inferior gluteal artery of 41 cadavers in Centre for Anatomy and Human Identification, University of Dundee, UK. It arose from the anterior trunk in 37.5% independently and 45.7% dependently as with the internal pudendal artery. Therefore, it arose from the anterior trunk in 83.2%. However, it found to be as a branch of the posterior trunk of internal iliac artery in 7.7% which is either a direct branch in 6.2% as or indirect branch in 1.5%. Beside the inferior gluteal artery arose with internal pudendal artery as from GPT of anterior division in 45.7%, it arose from the GPT arising from the internal iliac artery bifurcation site in 1.5%. Further, the inferior gluteal artery arose from the trunk with internal pudendal and obturator arteries in 1.5% referred as obturatogluteopudendal trunk. Occasionally, it arose from the sciatic artery in 1.5%. In few cases, the inferior gluteal artery found to be congenital absence in 4.6% which is compensated by the persistent sciatic artery. Therefore, radiologists have to aware of the origin variability of the inferior gluteal artery to alert surgeons. Knowing the origin of the inferior gluteal artery may help the surgeons to avoid iatrogenic sciatic neuropathy in pelvic procedures such as removing prostate or of uterine fibroid. Further, it may also prevent avascular necrosis of femur neck as well as gluteal claudication.

Keywords: inferior gluteal artery, internal iliac artery, sciatic neuropathy, gluteal claudication

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18 The Variation of the Inferior Gluteal Artery Origin in United Kingdom Population

Authors: Waseem Al Talalwah, Roger Soames, Shorok Ali Al Dorazi

Abstract:

The inferior gluteal artery is a largest branch of the anterior division of internal iliac artery. It escapes from the pelvic cavity through the greater sciatic foramen below the lower edge of piriformis. In gluteal region, it provides several muscular branches to gluteal maximus and articular branch to hip joint. Further, it provides sciatic branch to sciatic nerve. Present study explores the origin of the inferior gluteal artery of 41 cadavers in Centre for Anatomy and Human Identification, University of Dundee, UK. It arose directly from the anterior division of internal iliac artery in 39% and 45.7% indirectly as with the internal pudendal artery. Further, it arose indirectly from anterior division with internal pudendal and obturator arteries in 1.5% referred as obturatogluteopudendal trunk in 1.5%. Therefore, it arose from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery in 86.2%. However, it found to be as a branch of the posterior division of internal iliac artery in 7.7% which is either a direct branch in 6.2% as or indirect branch (as from the sciatic artery) in 1.5%. It neither arose from anterior or posterior division in 1.5% as from gluteopudendal trunk arising from the internal iliac artery bifurcation site. In few cases, the inferior gluteal artery found to be congenital absence in 4.6% which is compensated by the persistent sciatic artery. Therefore, radiologists have to aware of the origin variability of the inferior gluteal artery to alert surgeons. Knowing the origin of the inferior gluteal artery may help the surgeons to avoid iatrogenic sciatic neuropathy or gluteal claudication due to prolonged ligation in pelvic procedures such as removing prostate or of uterine fibroid.

Keywords: inferior gluteal artery, gluteal claudication, internal pudendal, sciatic nerve, sciatic artery, sciatic neuopathy

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17 Anatomical Characteristics of Superior Gluteal Artery

Authors: Shorok Al Dorazi, Roger Soames, Waseem Al-Talalwah, Nawaf Al-Kharashi

Abstract:

Superior gluteal artery is one of the largest branches of posterior division of the internal iliac artery. It passes between the lumbosacral and first sacral root to escape from the pelvic cavity through the grater sciatic foramen just above the piriformis. The current study includes 41 cadaver investigates the origin and branch of the superior gluteal artery and clarify the clinical significance. In present study, the superior gluteal artery arises from the posterior division of the internal iliac artery directly in 82.5% whereas it arises indirectly as from the sciatic artery in 15.9%. However, it is congenital absence in 1.6% which is compensated by sciatic artery. The sciatic nerve gains vascular supply from superior gluteal artery in two ways either during its course or giving lateral sacral artery in 27% and lumbar branches in 1.6%. It also supplies the adductors group and iliacus via giving obturator artery in 14.3% and in 1.6% respectively. The superior gluteal artery usually passes between lumbosacral trunk and first sacral root in 82.5% whereas it does not passes the sciatic roots as it arises behind them in 15.9%. With a variability of the superior gluteal artery origin, there is a variability of sciatic nerve roots supply. Further, the superior gluteal artery arising from sciatic artery behind the sciatic roots carries a high risk of intra-pelvic bleeding in case of posterior pelvic fracture. Prolonged ligation of the superior gluteal artery which gives lateral sacral artery may result in sciatic neuropathy. Therefore, surgeons have to be aware of the superior gluteal artery variation in origin, course and branches to reduce the iatrogenic faults.

Keywords: inferior gluteal artery, sciatic nerve, internal pudendal artery, superior gluteal artery, internal iliac artery. sciatic neuropathy

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16 Deficiencies in Vitamin A and Iron Supply Potential of Selected Indigenous Complementary Foods of Infants in Uganda

Authors: Richard Kajjura, Joyce Kikafunda, Roger Whitehead

Abstract:

Introduction: Indigenous complementary recipes for children (6-23 months) are bulky and inextricably linked. The potential contribution of indigenous complementary foods to infant’s vitamin A and iron needs is not well investigated in Uganda. Less is known whether children in Uganda are living with or without adequate supply of vitamin A and iron nutrients. In this study, vitamin A and iron contents were assessed in the complementary foods fed to infants aged 6-11 months in a Peri-urban setting in Kampala District in Central Uganda. Objective: Assessment of vitamin A and iron contents of indigenous complementary foods of children as fed and associated demographic factor. Method: In a cross sectional study design, one hundred and three (153) households with children aged 6-11 months were randomly selected to participate in the assessment. Complementary food samples were collected from the children’s mothers/caretakers at the time of feeding the child. The mothers’ socio-demographic characteristics of age, education, marital status, occupation and sex collected a semi-qualitative questionnaire. The Vitamin A and iron contents in the complementary foods were analyzed using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer for vitamin A and Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer for iron samples. The data was analyzed using Gene-stat software program. Results: The mean vitamin A content was 97.0± 72.5 µg while that of iron was 1.5 ± 0.4 mg per 100g of food sample as fed. The contribution of indigenous complementary foods found was 32% for vitamin A and 15% iron of the recommended dietary allowance. Age of children was found to be significantly associated Vitamin A and Iron supply potential. Conclusion: The contribution of indigenous complementary foods to infant’s vitamin A and iron needs was low. Complementary foods in Uganda are more likely to be deficient in vitamin A and iron content. Nutrient dense dietary supplementation should be intervened in to make possible for Ugandan children attain full growth potential.

Keywords: Iron, infant, indigenous complementary food, vitamin A

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15 Temperature and Admixtures Effects on the Maturity of Normal and Super Fine Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Mortars for the Precast Concrete Industry

Authors: Matthew Cruickshank, Chaaruchandra Korde, Roger P. West, John Reddy

Abstract:

Precast concrete element exports are growing in importance in Ireland’s concrete industry and with the increased global focus on reducing carbon emissions, the industry is exploring more sustainable alternatives such as using ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) as a partial replacement of Portland cement. It is well established that GGBS, with low early age strength development, has limited use in precast manufacturing due to the need for early de-moulding, cutting of pre-stressed strands and lifting. In this dichotomy, the effects of temperature, admixture, are explored to try to achieve the required very early age strength. Testing of the strength of mortars is mandated in the European cement standard, so here with 50% GGBS and Super Fine GGBS, with three admixture conditions (none, conventional accelerator, novel accelerator) and two early age curing temperature conditions (20°C and 35°C), standard mortar strengths are measured at six ages (16 hours, 1, 2, 3, 7, 28 days). The present paper will describe the effort towards developing maturity curves to aid in understanding the effect of these accelerating admixtures and GGBS fineness on slag cement mortars, allowing prediction of their strength with time and temperature. This study is of particular importance to the precast industry where concrete temperature can be controlled. For the climatic conditions in Ireland, heating of precast beds for long hours will amount to an additional cost and also contribute to the carbon footprint of the products. When transitioned from mortar to concrete, these maturity curves are expected to play a vital role in predicting the strength of the GGBS concrete at a very early age prior to demoulding.

Keywords: Maturity, GGBS, precast concrete, ground granulated blast-furnace slag, accelerating admixture, early age strength

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14 Leveraging on Application of Customer Relationship Management Strategy as Business Driving Force: A Case Study of Major Industries

Authors: Odunayo S. Faluse, Roger Telfer

Abstract:

Customer relationship management is a business strategy that is centred on the idea that ‘Customer is the driving force of any business’ i.e. Customer is placed in a central position in any business. However, this belief coupled with the advancement in information technology in the past twenty years has experienced a change. In any form of business today it can be concluded that customers are the modern dictators to whom the industry always adjusts its business operations due to the increase in availability of information, intense market competition and ever growing negotiating ideas of customers in the process of buying and selling. The most vital role of any organization is to satisfy or meet customer’s needs and demands, which eventually determines customer’s long-term value to the industry. Therefore, this paper analyses and describes the application of customer relationship management operational strategies in some of the major industries in business. Both developed and up-coming companies nowadays value the quality of customer services and client’s loyalty, they also recognize the customers that are not very sensitive when it comes to changes in price and thereby realize that attracting new customers is more tasking and expensive than retaining the existing customers. However, research shows that several factors have recently amounts to the sudden rise in the execution of CRM strategies in the marketplace, such as a diverted attention of some organization towards integrating ideas in retaining existing customers rather than attracting new one, gathering data about customers through the use of internal database system and acquiring of external syndicate data, also exponential increase in technological intelligence. Apparently, with this development in business operations, CRM research in Academia remain nascent; hence this paper gives detailed critical analysis of the recent advancement in the use of CRM and key research opportunities for future development in using the implementation of CRM as a determinant factor for successful business optimization.

Keywords: Education, Banking, Healthcare, Agriculture, Business strategies, crm

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13 Community Arts-Based Learning for Interdisciplinary Pedagogy: Measuring Program Effectiveness Using Design Imperatives for 'a New American University'

Authors: Kevin R. Wilson, Roger Mantie

Abstract:

Community arts-based learning and participatory education are pedagogical techniques that serve to be advantageous for students, curriculum development, and local communities. Using an interpretive approach to examine the significance of this arts-informed research in relation to the eight ‘design imperatives’ proposed as the new model for measuring quality in scholarship for Arizona State University as ‘A New American University’, the purpose of this study was to investigate personal, social, and cultural benefits resulting from student engagement in interdisciplinary community-based projects. Students from a graduate level music education class at the ASU Tempe campus (n=7) teamed with students from an undergraduate level community development class at the ASU Downtown Phoenix campus (n=14) to plan, facilitate, and evaluate seven community-based projects in several locations around the Phoenix-metro area. Data was collected using photo evidence, student reports, and evaluative measures designed by the students. The effectiveness of each project was measured in terms of their ability to meet the eight design imperatives to: 1) leverage place; 2) transform society; 3) value entrepreneurship; 4) conduct use-inspired research; 5) enable student success; 6) fuse intellectual disciplines; 7) be socially embedded; and 8) engage globally. Results indicated that this community arts-based project sufficiently captured the essence of each of these eight imperatives. Implications for how the nature of this interdisciplinary initiative allowed for the eight imperatives to manifest are provided, and project success is expounded upon in relation to utility of each imperative. Discussion is also given for how this type of service learning project formatted within the ‘New American University’ model for measuring quality in academia can be a beneficial pedagogical tool in higher education.

Keywords: pedagogy, Service Learning, community arts-based learning, participatory education

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12 Shear Strength Parameters of an Unsaturated Lateritic Soil

Authors: Jeferson Brito Fernades, Breno Padovezi Rocha, Roger Augusto Rodrigues, Heraldo Luiz Giacheti

Abstract:

The geotechnical projects demand the appropriate knowledge of soil characteristics and parameters. The determination of geotechnical soil parameters can be done by means of laboratory or in situ tests. In countries with tropical weather, like Brazil, unsaturated soils are very usual. In these soils, the soil suction has been recognized as an important stress state variable, which commands the geo-mechanical behavior. Triaxial and direct shear tests on saturated soils samples allow determine only the minimal soil shear strength, in other words, no suction contribution. This paper briefly describes the triaxial test with controlled suction as well as discusses the influence of suction on the shear strength parameters of a lateritic tropical sandy soil from a Brazilian research site. In this site, a sample pit was excavated to retrieve disturbed and undisturbed soil blocks. The samples extracted from these blocks were tested in laboratory to represent the soil from 1.5, 3.0 and 5.0 m depth. The stress curves and shear strength envelopes determined by triaxial tests varying suction and confining pressure are presented and discussed. The water retention characteristics on this soil complement this analysis. In situ CPT tests were also carried out at this site in different seasons of the year. In this case, the soil suction profile was determined by means of the soil water retention. This extra information allowed assessing how soil suction also affected the CPT data and the shear strength parameters estimative via correlation. The major conclusions of this paper are: the undisturbed soil samples contracted before shearing and the soil shear strength increased hyperbolically with suction; and it was possible to assess how soil suction also influenced CPT test data based on the water content soil profile as well as the water retention curve. This study contributed with a better understanding of the shear strength parameters and the soil variability of a typical unsaturated tropical soil.

Keywords: variability, Site characterization, triaxial test, suction, CPT

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11 Development of Vertically Integrated 2D Lake Victoria Flow Models in COMSOL Multiphysics

Authors: Seema Paul, Jesper Oppelstrup, Roger Thunvik, Vladimir Cvetkovic

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Lake Victoria is the second largest fresh water body in the world, located in East Africa with a catchment area of 250,000 km², of which 68,800 km² is the actual lake surface. The hydrodynamic processes of the shallow (40–80 m deep) water system are unique due to its location at the equator, which makes Coriolis effects weak. The paper describes a St.Venant shallow water model of Lake Victoria developed in COMSOL Multiphysics software, a general purpose finite element tool for solving partial differential equations. Depth soundings taken in smaller parts of the lake were combined with recent more extensive data to resolve the discrepancies of the lake shore coordinates. The topography model must have continuous gradients, and Delaunay triangulation with Gaussian smoothing was used to produce the lake depth model. The model shows large-scale flow patterns, passive tracer concentration and water level variations in response to river and tracer inflow, rain and evaporation, and wind stress. Actual data of precipitation, evaporation, in- and outflows were applied in a fifty-year simulation model. It should be noted that the water balance is dominated by rain and evaporation and model simulations are validated by Matlab and COMSOL. The model conserves water volume, the celerity gradients are very small, and the volume flow is very slow and irrotational except at river mouths. Numerical experiments show that the single outflow can be modelled by a simple linear control law responding only to mean water level, except for a few instances. Experiments with tracer input in rivers show very slow dispersion of the tracer, a result of the slow mean velocities, in turn, caused by the near-balance of rain with evaporation. The numerical and hydrodynamical model can evaluate the effects of wind stress which is exerted by the wind on the lake surface that will impact on lake water level. Also, model can evaluate the effects of the expected climate change, as manifest in changes to rainfall over the catchment area of Lake Victoria in the future.

Keywords: bathymetry, lake flow and steady state analysis, water level validation and concentration, wind stress

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10 Groundwater Influences Wellbeing of Farmers from Semi-Arid Areas of India: Assessment of Subjective Wellbeing

Authors: Seemabahen Dave, Maria Varua, Basant Maheshwari, Roger Packham

Abstract:

The declining groundwater levels and quality are acknowledged to be affecting the well-being of farmers especially those located in the semi-arid regions where groundwater is the only source of water for domestic and agricultural use. Further, previous studies have identified the need to examine the quality of life of farmers beyond economic parameters and for a shift in setting rural development policy goals to the perspective of beneficiaries. To address these gaps, this paper attempts to ascertain the subjective wellbeing of farmers from two semi-arid regions of India. The study employs the integrated conceptual framework for the assessment of individual and regional subjective wellbeing developed by Larson in 2009 at Australia. The method integrates three domains i.e. society, natural environment and economic services consisting of 37 wellbeing factors. The original set of 27 revised wellbeing factors identified by John Ward is further revised in current study to make it more region specific. Generally, researchers in past studies select factors of wellbeing based on literature and assign the weights arbitrary. In contrast, the present methodology employs a unique approach by asking respondents to identify the factors most important to their wellbeing and assign weights of importance based on their responses. This method minimises the selection bias and assesses the wellbeing from farmers’ perspectives. The primary objectives of this study are to identify key wellbeing attributes and to assess the influence of groundwater on subjective wellbeing of farmers. Findings from 507 farmers from 11 villages of two watershed areas of Rajasthan and Gujarat, India chosen randomly and were surveyed using a structured face-to-face questionnaire are presented in this paper. The results indicate that significant differences exist in the ranking of wellbeing factors at individual, village and regional levels. The top five most important factors in the study areas include electricity, irrigation infrastructure, housing, land ownership, and income. However, respondents are also most dissatisfied with these factors and correspondingly perceive a high influence of groundwater on them. The results thus indicate that intervention related to improvement of groundwater availability and quality will greatly improve the satisfaction level of well-being factors identified by the farmers.

Keywords: Groundwater, farmers, semi-arid regions, subjective wellbeing

Procedia PDF Downloads 148