Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5936

Search results for: Rentier state

5936 The State in Africa and the twenty-First Century Global Economic Relations

Authors: Sunday Ofum Ogon

Abstract:

The 1648 Westphalia Conference in Europe ushered in the state as the only legal entity with powers to engage in interstate relations on matters that bothers on the development need of her citizens. This epochal entry of the state reshaped global relations with the curtailment of the powers of individual and groups in external relations as the state became the only entity that acted on behalf of any individual or non-state actors like NGOs residing within the parameters of such a country. Thus, the paper interrogated the extent at which the state determines her Politico-Economic relations with regards to development and growth within the state. To achieve these objectives, the paper relied on documentary evidences wherein the qualitative descriptive method was used for data collection and analysis. The paper exploited the facilities of the Rentier State theory as a guide to the study. It was revealed at the end of the study that the 21st century global economic relations is largely determine by international organizations as exemplified by the World Bank and the International Monitory Fund (IMF) where their activities in the continent has undermined state sovereignty. Hence the paper recommended amongst others that states should look inward for development strategies rather than relying on handout from supra-national organizations which has infringe on their sovereignty.

Keywords: State , Global , Rentier state, Twenty-First Century

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5935 Saudi State Arabia’s Struggle for a Post-Rentier Regional Order

Authors: Omair Anas

Abstract:

The Persian Gulf has been in turmoil for a long time since the colonial administration has handed over the role to the small and weak kings and emirs who were assured of protection in return of many economic and security promises to them. The regional order, Saudi Arabia evolved was a rentier regional order secured by an expansion of rentier economy and taking responsibility for much of the expenses of the regional order on behalf of relatively poor countries. The two oil booms helped the Saudi state to expand the 'rentier order' driven stability and bring the countries like Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Palestine under its tutelage. The disruptive misadventure, however, came with Iran's proclamation of the Islamic Revolution in 1979 which it wanted to be exported to its 'un-Islamic and American puppet' Arab neighbours. For Saudi Arabia, even the challenge presented by the socialist-nationalist Arab dictators like Gamal Abdul Nasser and Hafez Al-Assad was not that much threatening to the Saudi Arabia’s then-defensive realism. In the Arab uprisings, the Gulf monarchies saw a wave of insecurity and Iran found it an opportune time to complete the revolutionary process it could not complete after 1979. An alliance of convenience and ideology between Iran and Islamist groups had the real potential to challenge both Saudi Arabia’s own security and its leadership in the region. The disruptive threat appeared at a time when the Saudi state had already sensed an impending crisis originating from the shifts in the energy markets. Low energy prices, declining global demands, and huge investments in alternative energy resources required Saudi Arabia to rationalize its economy according to changing the global political economy. The domestic Saudi reforms remained gradual until the death of King Abdullah in 2015. What is happening now in the region, the Qatar crisis, the Lebanon crisis and the Saudi-Iranian proxy war in Iraq, Syria, and Yemen has combined three immediate objectives, rationalising Saudi economy and most importantly, the resetting the Saudi royal power for Saudi Arabia’s longest-serving future King Mohammad bin Salman. The Saudi King perhaps has no time to wait and watch the power vacuum appearing because of Iran’s expansionist foreign policy. The Saudis appear to be employing an offensive realism by advancing a pro-active regional policy to counter Iran’s threatening influence amid disappearing Western security from the region. As the Syrian civil war is coming to a compromised end with ceding much ground to Iran-controlled militias, Hezbollah and Al-Hashad, the Saudi state has lost much ground in these years and the threat from Iranian proxies is more than a reality, more clearly in Bahrain, Iraq, Syria, and Yemen. This paper attempts to analyse the changing Saudi behaviour in the region, which, the author understands, is shaped by an offensive-realist approach towards finding a favourable security environment for the Saudi-led regional order, a post-rentier order perhaps.

Keywords: terrorism, Saudi Arabia, Rentier State, gulf crisis

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5934 Practical Techniques of Improving State Estimator Solution

Authors: Kiamran Radjabli

Abstract:

State Estimator became an intrinsic part of Energy Management Systems (EMS). The SCADA measurements received from the field are processed by the State Estimator in order to accurately determine the actual operating state of the power systems and provide that information to other real-time network applications. All EMS vendors offer a State Estimator functionality in their baseline products. However, setting up and ensuring that State Estimator consistently produces a reliable solution often consumes a substantial engineering effort. This paper provides generic recommendations and describes a simple practical approach to efficient tuning of State Estimator, based on the working experience with major EMS software platforms and consulting projects in many electrical utilities of the USA.

Keywords: convergence, monitoring, state estimator, performance, troubleshooting, tuning, power systems

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5933 Varieties of State Role: Through the Case of East Asia's Broadband Policy

Authors: Heesu Kim

Abstract:

This paper determines the varieties of state roles played in East Asia’s telecommunication market, regarding broadband industry. Technological capacity and the relationship between state and market affect the varieties of state role. In explaining the state’s engagement in the market, technology has always been considered as a necessary and sufficient condition. However technology variable has been useful in only explaining the extent of state’s involvement. This paper contributes by bringing in the political-economic factor, which is the relationship between state and market. This factor aids in distinguishing the varieties of state role played in emerging industries. Interaction between these two variables distinguishes 4 types of state roles played in the broadband industry. These roles are distinguished and characterized by the intensity of state’s intervention and the existence of technological capacity. This paper classifies four types of state role through the case of Singapore, China, Taiwan and Korea’s broadband industrial policy.

Keywords: East Asia, entrpreneurial state, industrial policy, regulatory state, technological capacity

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5932 A New Nonlinear State-Space Model and Its Application

Authors: Abdullah Eqal Al Mazrooei

Abstract:

In this work, a new nonlinear model will be introduced. The model is in the state-space form. The nonlinearity of this model is in the state equation where the state vector is multiplied by its self. This technique makes our model generalizes many famous models as Lotka-Volterra model and Lorenz model which have many applications in the real life. We will apply our new model to estimate the wind speed by using a new nonlinear estimator which suitable to work with our model.

Keywords: nonlinear systems, state-space model, Kronecker product, nonlinear estimator

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5931 Engaging with Security and State from a Gendered Lens in the South Asian Context: Indian State’s Construction of Internal Security and State Responses

Authors: Pooja Bakshi

Abstract:

In the following paper, an attempt would be made to engage with the relationship between the state and the imperatives of security from a gendered lens. This will be juxtaposed with the feminist engagement with International Law. Theorizations from the literature on South Asian politics and Global politics would be applied to the manner in which the Indian state has defined and proposed to deal with concerns of internal security pertaining to the ‘Left Wing Extremism’ in 2010-2011. It would be argued that the state needs to be disaggregated into the legislature, executive and the judiciary; since there are times when some institutional parts of the state provide space for progressive democratic engagement whilst other institutions don’t. The specific contours of violence faced by women and children at the hands of the state, in the above-mentioned discourse would also be examined. In the end, implications of the security state discourse on debates in International Law would be elaborated.

Keywords: feminist engagement, human rights, state response to left extremism, security studies in South Asia

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5930 Sovereign State System in the Era of Globalisation: An Appraisal

Authors: Dilip Gogoi

Abstract:

This paper attempts to explore the notion of sovereign state system, its emergence and legitimization by the treaty of Westphalia, 1648 in Europe and examines how the very notion of sovereign state is subject to changes in the later part of the 20th century both politically and economically in the wake of globalisation. The paper firstly traces the tradition of Westphalian sovereign state system which influenced the dominant understanding about sovereign state system till mid 20th century. Secondly, it explores how the notion of sovereign nation state is subjected to change in the post World War II specially in the context of universal acceptance of human rights and right to intervene in internal affairs of a sovereign state to protect the same, the decolonization and legitimization of the principle of self determination and through the experience of European Integration. Thirdly, it analyses how globalisation drives certain fundamental changes and poses challenges to the sovereign state system. The concluding part of the paper argues that sovereign state system is relevant and will continue to be relevant although it needs to redefine its role in the changing global environment.

Keywords: Westphalia, sovereignty, nation-state system, intervention, globalisation

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5929 Adaptive Transmission Scheme Based on Channel State in Dual-Hop System

Authors: Seung-Jun Yu, Yong-Jun Kim, Jung-In Baik, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In this paper, a dual-hop relay based on channel state is studied. In the conventional relay scheme, a relay uses the same modulation method without reference to channel state. But, a relay uses an adaptive modulation method with reference to channel state. If the channel state is poor, a relay eliminates latter 2 bits and uses Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulation. If channel state is good, a relay modulates the received symbols with 16-QAM symbols by using 4 bits. The performance of the proposed scheme for Symbol Error Rate (SER) and throughput is analyzed.

Keywords: adaptive transmission, channel state, dual-hop, hierarchical modulation, relay

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5928 A Mathematical Model of Power System State Estimation for Power Flow Solution

Authors: F. Benhamida, A. Graa, L. Benameur, I. Ziane

Abstract:

The state estimation of the electrical power system operation state is very important for supervising task. With the nonlinearity of the AC power flow model, the state estimation problem (SEP) is a nonlinear mathematical problem with many local optima. This paper treat the mathematical model for the SEP and the monitoring of the nonlinear systems of great dimensions with an application on power electrical system, the modelling, the analysis and state estimation synthesis in order to supervise the power system behavior. in fact, it is very difficult, to see impossible, (for reasons of accessibility, techniques and/or of cost) to measure the excessive number of the variables of state in a large-sized system. It is thus important to develop software sensors being able to produce a reliable estimate of the variables necessary for the diagnosis and also for the control.

Keywords: power system, state estimation, robustness, observability

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5927 Development and State in Brazil: How Do Some Institutions Think and Influence These Issues

Authors: Alessandro Andre Leme

Abstract:

To analyze three Brazilian think tanks: a) Fernando Henrique Foundation; b) Celso Furtado International Center; c) Millennium Institute and how they dispute interpretations about the type of development and State that should be adopted in Brazil. We will make use of Network and content analysis of the sites. The analyzes show a dispute that goes from a defense of ultraliberalism to developmentalism, going through a hybrid between State and Market voiced in each of the Think Tanks.

Keywords: sociopolitical and economic thinking, development, strategies, intellectuals, state

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5926 State Estimation Method Based on Unscented Kalman Filter for Vehicle Nonlinear Dynamics

Authors: Wataru Nakamura, Tomoaki Hashimoto, Liang-Kuang Chen

Abstract:

This paper provides a state estimation method for automatic control systems of nonlinear vehicle dynamics. A nonlinear tire model is employed to represent the realistic behavior of a vehicle. In general, all the state variables of control systems are not precisedly known, because those variables are observed through output sensors and limited parts of them might be only measurable. Hence, automatic control systems must incorporate some type of state estimation. It is needed to establish a state estimation method for nonlinear vehicle dynamics with restricted measurable state variables. For this purpose, unscented Kalman filter method is applied in this study for estimating the state variables of nonlinear vehicle dynamics. The objective of this paper is to propose a state estimation method using unscented Kalman filter for nonlinear vehicle dynamics. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by numerical simulations.

Keywords: state estimation, control systems, observer systems, nonlinear systems

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5925 Secularism and Political Inclusion: Turkey in the 2000s

Authors: Edgar Sar

Abstract:

For more than a decade, secularism’s compatibility with religion has been called into question. Particularly, secular states’ exclusionary practices were raised to prove that secularism is not necessary for democracy. Meanwhile, with the debut of Turkey’s Justice and Development Party (AKP) in 2002, Turkish state’s approach to religion has gradually changed. It is argued in that presentation that this change has led Turkey to a process of de-secularization, which refers to a considerable regress in state’s inclusionary and pluralist credentials. In this regard, this study both reflects on the relationship between secularism and democracy within the context of Turkish experience and analyses the consequences of the process of de-secularization of state in Turkey. To analyze Turkish state’s changing approach to religion and measure the de-secularization of the state, the connection between state and religion will be examined in three levels: ends, institutions, and law and policies. The presentation will indicate that Turkish state’s connection with religion in all three levels significantly weakened its secular credentials, which at the same time risked state’s commitment to neutrality, freedom of conscience and equality. In this regard, the change in Turkish state’s approach to religion throughout the 2000s, which this study refers to as the process of the de-secularization of the state, also brought about a process of de-democratization for Turkey.

Keywords: AKP, political inclusion, secularism, Turkey

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5924 Studies of Substituent and Solvent Effect on Spectroscopic Properties Of 6-OH-4-CH3, 7-OH-4-CH3 and 7-OH-4-CF3 Coumarin

Authors: Sanjay Kumar

Abstract:

This paper reports the solvent effects on the electronic absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of 6-OH-4-CH3, 7-OH-4-CH3 and 7-OH-4-CF3 coumarin derivatives having -OH, -CH3 and -CF3 substituent at different positions in various solvents (Polar and Non-Polar). The first excited singlet state dipole moment and ground state dipole moment were calculated using Bakhshiev, Kawski-Chamma-Viallet and Reichardt-Dimroth equations and were compared for all the coumarin studied. In all cases the dipole moments were found to be higher in the excited singlet state than in the ground state indicating a substantial redistribution of Π-electron density in the excited state. The angle between the excited singlet state and ground state dipole moment is also calculated. The red shift of the absorption and fluorescence emission bands, observed for all the coumarin studied upon increasing the solvent polarity indicating that the electronic transitions were Π → Π* nature.

Keywords: coumarin, solvent effects, absorption spectra, emission spectra, excited singlet state dipole moment, ground state dipole moment, solvatochromism

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5923 The Role of the State Budget: An Evaluation of Public Expenditures and Taxes in Turkey

Authors: Erdal Eroğlu, Özhan Çetinkaya

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to show how state plays a regulatory role in the relations of distribution by analyzing tax and expenditure in Turkey. This paper has two main arguments. First, state intervenes in economic and social life via budget policies and steers the relations of distribution within the scope of the reproduction of the capital accumulation and legitimacy. Secondly, a great amount of public expenditure benefits capital owners while state gains its tax income mainly from low and middle income groups.

Keywords: distribution, public expenditure, state budget, taxes

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5922 The Role of Police in Counterinsurgency: A Case Study of Tripura

Authors: Yagnik Patel

Abstract:

This paper will analyze and explain two main objectives. First, it will examine the emergence of the insurgency in the state of Tripura. The State of Tripura was facing the full blow of insurgency problem since 1978 after the formation of Tripura National Volunteers (TNV). But, the roots of this insurgency were found even before 1978. This study will analyze the roots and trajectory of insurgency in the Tripura. Second, it will examine the role played by the police in counterinsurgency in the State of Tripura. Even though state police are mandated for the maintenance of the law and order and public order (like every police), the state police of Tripura have played a significant role in curbing the insurgency by enhancing their counterinsurgency (COIN) capabilities and re-structuring the new comprehensive COIN doctrine. And by the end of May 2015, the State Government has lifted The Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act (AFSPA) from the State of Tripura, as declaiming of the violence. The fight against the insurgency, usually done by the military or para-military, but nowadays the police organization is also becoming a vital state apparatus. After Punjab police and Andhra Pradesh police, Tripura police have also successfully curbed the insurgency from the state. This was the third time when successful counterinsurgency did by the state police in India. This has shown the importance of the police in the fight against the insurgency. In this regard, this paper will use both quantitative and qualitative research methods for an explanatory case study to analyze and explain the roots, causes and the trajectory of insurgency in the state of Tripura and the role played by the police in COIN in Tripura. Along with this, the paper will also examine the successful ‘Police Model of Tripura’.

Keywords: counterinsurgency, insurgency, police, Tripura state rifles

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5921 Debate, Discontent and National Identity in a Secular State

Authors: Man Bahadur Shahu

Abstract:

The secularism is a controversial, debatable and misinterpreted issue since its endorsement in the 2007 constitution in Nepal. The unprecedented acts have been seen favoring and disfavoring against the secularism within the public domain—which creates the fallacies and suspicions in the rationalization and modernization process. This paper highlights three important points: first, the secularization suddenly ruptures the silence and institutional decline of religion within the state. Second, state effort on secularism simultaneously fosters the state neutrality and state separation from religious institutions that amplify the recognition of all religious groups through the equal treatment in their festivity, rituals, and practices. Third, no state would completely secular because of their deep-rooted mindset and disposition with their own religious faiths and beliefs that largely enhance intergroup conflict, dispute, riot and turbulence in post-secular period in the name of proselytizing and conversion.

Keywords: conflict, proselytizing, religion, secular

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5920 Ground State Phases in Two-Mode Quantum Rabi Models

Authors: Suren Chilingaryan

Abstract:

We study two models describing a single two-level system coupled to two boson field modes in either a parallel or orthogonal setup. Both models may be feasible for experimental realization through Raman adiabatic driving in cavity QED. We study their ground state configurations; that is, we find the quantum precursors of the corresponding semi-classical phase transitions. We found that the ground state configurations of both models present the same critical coupling as the quantum Rabi model. Around this critical coupling, the ground state goes from the so-called normal configuration with no excitation, the qubit in the ground state and the fields in the quantum vacuum state, to a ground state with excitations, the qubit in a superposition of ground and excited state, while the fields are not in the vacuum anymore, for the first model. The second model shows a more complex ground state configuration landscape where we find the normal configuration mentioned above, two single-mode configurations, where just one of the fields and the qubit are excited, and a dual-mode configuration, where both fields and the qubit are excited.

Keywords: quantum optics, quantum phase transition, cavity QED, circuit QED

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5919 From Protector to Violator: Assessing State's Role in Protecting Freedom of Religion in Indonesia

Authors: Manotar Tampubolon

Abstract:

Indonesia is a country that upholds the law, human rights and religious freedom. The freedom that implied in various laws and constitution (Undang-undang 1945) is not necessarily applicable in practice of religious life. In one side, the state has a duty as protector and guarantor of freedom, on the other side, however, it turns into one of the actors of freedom violations of religion minority. State action that interferes freedom of religion is done in various ways both intentionally or negligently or not to perform its obligations in the enforcement of human rights (human rights due diligence). Besides the state, non-state actors such as religious organizations, individuals also become violators of the rights of religious freedom. This article will discuss two fundamental issues that interfere freedom of religion in Indonesia after democratic era. In addition, this article also discusses a comprehensive state policy that discriminates minority religions to manifest their faith.

Keywords: religious freedom, constitution, minority faith, state actor

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5918 Islamic State: Franchising Jihad through the New Caliphate

Authors: Janiel David Melamed Visbal

Abstract:

The Islamic State has become one of the most remarkable threats for international security through their religious extremism and their establishment of a new caliphate by force. The main objective of this organization is to obtain territorial expansions beyond the Middle East and eventually to consolidate an Islamic global order based on their extremist ideology. This paper will conduct an analysis regarding how, over the past year, many jihadist organizations worldwide have pledged their alliagance to the Islamic State, transforming it into the most important jihadist franchise globally.

Keywords: Islamic state, franchise, jihad, Islamic fundamentalism, caliphate

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5917 Definition, Structure, and Core Functions of the State Image

Authors: Rosa Nurtazina, Yerkebulan Zhumashov, Maral Tomanova

Abstract:

Humanity is entering an era when 'virtual reality' as the image of the world created by the media with the help of the Internet does not match the reality in many respects, when new communication technologies create a fundamentally different and previously unknown 'global space'. According to these technologies, the state begins to change the basic technology of political communication of the state and society, the state and the state. Nowadays, image of the state becomes the most important tool and technology. Image is a purposefully created image granting political object (person, organization, country, etc.) certain social and political values and promoting more emotional perception. Political image of the state plays an important role in international relations. The success of the country's foreign policy, development of trade and economic relations with other countries depends on whether it is positive or negative. Foreign policy image has an impact on political processes taking place in the state: the negative image of the countries can be used by opposition forces as one of the arguments to criticize the government and its policies.

Keywords: image of the country, country's image classification, function of the country image, country's image components

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5916 Directors’ Liability for Losses Incurred in the Management of PT Merpati Nusantara Airlines, Persero

Authors: Eny Suastuti

Abstract:

This paper is about state’s capital equity in establishing State-owned Company (PT Merpati Persero). Under private law regime, PT Merpati Persero equity is a state asset allocated separately from the State Budget. Consequently, it is no longer a state asset; rather, it becomes a part of company assets. The adoption of Act No. 17 of 2003 on State Finance, Act No. 31 of 1999, which is amended by Act No. 20 of 2001 on Eradication of Corrupt Practices, Act No. 15 of 2004 on Auditing, Management, and Accountability of State Finance, and Act No. 15 of 2006 Audit Board raises legal issues of whether State-owned Company’s (PT Merpati Persero) loss may be deemed as loss on state finance made by the Directors of PT Merpati Persero, which implication leads to corrupt practices conducted by the Directors. The principle of civil law states that state assets are separated from the state budget is not a government asset. Therefore the case of a lease agreement 2 (two) units of Boeing 737-400 and Boeing 737-500 between PT Merpati Nusantara Airlines with companies Third Stone Aircraft Leasing Group (TALG) the United States cannot be prosecuted under Articles 2 and 3 of Act No. 31 of 1999 Jo Act No. 20 of 2001 on Eradication of Corrupt Practices (Law PTPK). From this paper, three things are found. First, state’s capital equity, which has been allocated separately from state assets in establishing the PT Merpati Perserois not state asset; rather, it is company’s asset. Second, in the case of mismanagement leading to company loss, the Directors of PT Merpati Persero may not be charged with committing corrupt practice as prescribed in Articles 2 and 3 of Corrupt Practices Eradication Law. Third, misperception has been made by judicial practices since the courts consider loss in certain transaction made by Directors of PT Merpati Persero to be loss of state finance whose implication is applicability of Articles 2 and 3 of Corrupt Practices Eradication Law.

Keywords: corrupt practice, loss, state's capital equity, state finance (PT Merpati Persero)

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5915 Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation Using One State Hysteresis Model with Nonlinear Estimation Strategies

Authors: Mohammed Farag, Mina Attari, S. Andrew Gadsden, Saeid R. Habibi

Abstract:

Battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is an important parameter as it measures the total amount of electrical energy stored at a current time. The SOC percentage acts as a fuel gauge if it is compared with a conventional vehicle. Estimating the SOC is, therefore, essential for monitoring the amount of useful life remaining in the battery system. This paper looks at the implementation of three nonlinear estimation strategies for Li-Ion battery SOC estimation. One of the most common behavioral battery models is the one state hysteresis (OSH) model. The extended Kalman filter (EKF), the smooth variable structure filter (SVSF), and the time-varying smoothing boundary layer SVSF are applied on this model, and the results are compared.

Keywords: state of charge estimation, battery modeling, one-state hysteresis, filtering and estimation

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5914 Analyzing the Politico-Religious Order of The 'Islamic State'

Authors: Galit Truman Zinman

Abstract:

The 'Islamic State' (IS) is one of the most successful jihadist groups in the modern history. The 'Islamic State' strives to realize the idea of erasing the borders between Muslim countries and establishing a wide Islamic caliphate. The 'Islamic State' is based on religious unity and opposition to existing political order. In this paper, the main argument is that the 'Islamic State' is characterized by two significant tendencies of state-building: preservation and change. The methodology of this study is based on the process tracing method and the analysis of primary sources: decisions, announcements and speeches of religious leaders of the Islamic State, slogans, rituals and symbols, audio and video clips produced by the Al-Hayat Media Center, films distributed on YouTube, as well as the content analysis of Dabiq`s articles (IS official Journal) and nasheeds (jihadi songs). The major findings of this study indicate that in practice the 'Islamic State' uses the same socio-political functions typical to the modern state (preservation), but introduces a different religious-ideological content (change). On the one hand, there is a preservation of the principles of existing modern state. Even with the rejection of secularization, globalization, and nationalism, there is an establishment of typical modern nation-state patterns. It is still a state entity, which has an ideological infrastructure, territory, population, governance and a monopoly on the use of violence, security services, justice system, tax collection, etc. All these functions characterize the modern state, and despite the desire of the 'Islamic State' to create a new kind of state, it reminds patterns of the typical modern nation-state. As for the religious-ideological content of the new state, here we can see a tendency of great change. The 'Islamic State' aims to create an Islamic caliphate which would allow the establishment of religious law and order, under a big commitment to return civilization to a seventh-century environment. The 'Islamic State' favors the fight against Western culture and its liberal ideology. It supports the struggle for global jihad against the unbelievers. Today, despite the territorial 'contraction' and the undermining of the organization's governance in Iraq and Syria, the 'Islamic State' continues to maintain its brand among jihadist activists around the world.

Keywords: Islamic State, Islamic caliphate, modern nation-state, religious law and order

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5913 Positive Obligations of the State Concerning the Protection of Human Rights

Authors: Monika Florczak-Wator

Abstract:

The model of positive obligations of the state concerning the protection of the rights of an individual was created within the jurisdiction of the German Federal Constitutional Court in the 1970s. That model assumes that the state should protect an individual against infringement of their fundamental rights by another individual. It is based on the idea concerning the modification of the function and duties of the state towards an individual and society. Initially the state was perceived as the main infringer of the fundamental rights of an individual formulating the individual’s obligations of negative nature (obligation of noninterference), however, at present the state is perceived as a guarantor and protector of the fundamental rights of an individual of positive nature (obligation of protection). Examination of the chosen judicial decisions of that court will enable us to determine what the obligation of protection is specifically about, when it is updated and whether it is accompanied by claims of an individual requesting the state to take actions protecting their fundamental rights against infringement by the private entities. The comparative perspective for the German model of positive obligations of the state will be an analogous model present in the jurisdiction of the European Court of Human Rights. It is justified to include it in the research as the Convention, similarly to the constitution, focuses on the protection of an individual against the infringement of their rights by the state and both models have been developed within the jurisdiction for several dozens of years. Analysis of the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland as well as judgements of the Polish Constitutional Tribunal will allow for the presentation of the application the model of the protective duties of the state in Poland.

Keywords: human rights, horizontal relationships, constitution, state protection

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5912 Correlates of Tourism and Power Alleviation: A Case Study of Osun Osogbo

Authors: Mohood A. Bamidele, Fadairo O. Olokesunsi, Muhammed A. Yunus

Abstract:

This research work focuses on tourism and poverty alleviation in Osun State, it delves in the tourism resources of the state and strategic framework that has been put in place to manage the cultural base tourism that is most prominent in the state. The major instrument used for data collection was questionnaire which was designed for the area and data collected were analyzed using statistical table and chi-square analysis. The result revealed that tourism is under development in Osun State and the tourism potential of the state is yet to be exploited, this is due to lack of appropriate policy to master the development and management of tourism resources, poor publicity, awareness, and lack of adequate basic infrastructure. The research work, therefore, recommended, that, there should be proper and appropriate policy, and that the government should take a leading step to develop tourism in Osun State by creating a workable environment to the private sector and given a substantial budgetary allocation to the tourism in the state.

Keywords: appropriate policy, poor publicity, poverty alleviation, substantial budgetary allocation

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5911 Necro-Power, Paramilitarism, and Sovereignty: An Interpretation of Colombian Paramilitarism as Symptom of the Formation Process of the (Neo)Liberal Democratic State

Authors: Julian David Rios Acuna

Abstract:

This paper seeks to argue that the phenomenon of ‘paramilitarism’ in Colombia exhibits the role of violence as constitutive of the political process of state formation in the country. In order to do this, it takes as its point of departure a landmark moment in the long history of private armies known as the ‘paramilitary’ in Colombia. In 2001, paramilitary commanders, politicians, and members of the military and other branches of state power singed what is known as the ‘Pact of Ralito.’ In this pact, the paramilitary appropriated constitutional and legal language. The paper argues that this appropriation shows that the paramilitary and the state express the same claim to sovereign power and therefore have the same foundation. More precisely, paramilitary power shows itself to base its power on the same foundation as the legal order, namely, extreme forms of violence where death is generative of power. In this sense, the paper shows how, by sharing its foundation, Colombian paramilitarism exhibits that state power in Colombia can be characterized as necro-power as Achille Mbembe understands it. The paper argues that paramilitarism shows state power as necro-power by constituting itself as a symptom understood, following Zizek, as that which both shows and overthrows its own foundation. In this way, paramilitarism shows the foundation of the state, thereby reconfiguring this very state. This reconfiguration, explicitly based on necro-power, the paper concludes, transforms the state into a form more appropriate to the political demands of neo-liberalism. By exhibiting its foundation in necro-power through paramilitarism, the Colombian State turns from a liberal into a (neo)liberal democracy.

Keywords: necro-power, necropolitics, paramilitarism in Colombia, state formation, state power, sovereign power

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5910 Tools for Transparency: The Role of Civic Technology in Increasing the Transparency of the State

Authors: Rebecca Rumbul

Abstract:

The operation of the state can often appear opaque to citizens wishing to access official information, who have to negotiate a path through numerous levels of bureaucracy rationalized through institutional policy to acquire what information they want. Even where individual states have 'Right to Information' legislation guaranteeing citizen access to information, public sector conformity to such laws vary between states and between state organizations. In response to such difficulties in bringing citizens and information together, many NGO's around the world have begun designing and hosting digital portals to facilitate the requesting and receiving of official information. How then, are these 'civic technology' tools affecting the behavior of the state? Are they increasing the transparency of the state? This study looked at 5 Right to Information civic technology sites in Chile, Uruguay, Ukraine, Hungary and the UK, and found that such sites were providing a useful platform to publish official information, but that states were still reluctant to comply with all requests. It concludes that civic technology can be an important tool in increasing the transparency of the state, but that the state must have an institutional commitment to information rights for this to be fully effective.

Keywords: digital, ICT, transparency, civic technology

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5909 Evaluation of Critical State Behavior of Granular Soil in Confined Compression Tests

Authors: Rabia Chaudhry, Andrew Dawson

Abstract:

Identification of steady/critical state of coarse granular soil is challenging at conventional pressures. This study examines the drained and undrained triaxial tests for large strains on loose to dense, uniformly graded, Leighton Buzzard Fraction A sand. The triaxial tests are conducted under controlled test conditions. The comparison of soil behavior on shear strength characteristics at different effective stresses has been studied at the medium to large strains levels and the uniqueness of the critical state was discussed. The test results showed that there were two steady/critical state lines for drained and undrained conditions at confining pressures less than 1000 kPa. A critical state friction angle is not constant and the overall scatter in the steady/critical state line for the tested sand is ±0.01 in terms of void ratio at stress levels less than 1000 kPa.

Keywords: critical state, stress strain behavior, fabric/structure, triaxial tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
5908 Steady-State Behavior of a Multi-Phase M/M/1 Queue in Random Evolution Subject to Catastrophe Failure

Authors: Reni M. Sagayaraj, Anand Gnana S. Selvam, Reynald R. Susainathan

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider stochastic queueing models for Steady-state behavior of a multi-phase M/M/1 queue in random evolution subject to catastrophe failure. The arrival flow of customers is described by a marked Markovian arrival process. The service times of different type customers have a phase-type distribution with different parameters. To facilitate the investigation of the system we use a generalized phase-type service time distribution. This model contains a repair state, when a catastrophe occurs the system is transferred to the failure state. The paper focuses on the steady-state equation, and observes that, the steady-state behavior of the underlying queueing model along with the average queue size is analyzed.

Keywords: M/G/1 queuing system, multi-phase, random evolution, steady-state equation, catastrophe failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
5907 Redefining State Security Using Gender: Case Study of the United States of America Post-Cold War

Authors: E. K. Linsenmayer

Abstract:

Traditional international relations theorists define state security, the principal national interest, as a state’s military force. However, many political theorists argue the current definition of security is not comprehensive and therefore, problematic. This paper argues that women’s physical security is not only linked but also necessary to achieve state security. In today’s unipolar political international system, the United States continues to accredit national security to its military. However, in one of the most militarized countries, women remain insecure. Through a case study method of the United States, this paper illuminates a necessary political prescription: the empowerment of women through an inside-out, feminist theoretical approach that makes state security attainable. The research through empirical testing, drawing from several databases, shows the positive effects of women’s physical security on state security. Women’s physical security is defined in terms of equal legal practices, health, education, and female representation in the government. State security is measured by the relative peace of a state, its involvement in conflict and a state’s relations with neighboring states. This paper shows that empowering women, 50% of the world’s population, is necessary for ending the current vicious circle of militarization, war, and insecurity. Without undoing gender power dynamics at the individual and societal level, security at all levels remains unattainable.

Keywords: gender inequality, politics, state security, women's security

Procedia PDF Downloads 130