Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1674

Search results for: Regular Grid

1674 Regularity and Maximal Congruence in Transformation Semigroups with Fixed Sets

Authors: Chollawat Pookpienlert, Jintana Sanwong

Abstract:

An element a of a semigroup S is called left (right) regular if there exists x in S such that a=xa² (a=a²x) and said to be intra-regular if there exist u,v in such that a=ua²v. Let T(X) be the semigroup of all full transformations on a set X under the composition of maps. For a fixed nonempty subset Y of X, let Fix(X,Y)={α ™ T(X) : yα=y for all y ™ Y}, where yα is the image of y under α. Then Fix(X,Y) is a semigroup of full transformations on X which fix all elements in Y. Here, we characterize left regular, right regular and intra-regular elements of Fix(X,Y) which characterizations are shown as follows: For α ™ Fix(X,Y), (i) α is left regular if and only if Xα\Y = Xα²\Y, (ii) α is right regular if and only if πα = πα², (iii) α is intra-regular if and only if | Xα\Y | = | Xα²\Y | such that Xα = {xα : x ™ X} and πα = {xα⁻¹ : x ™ Xα} in which xα⁻¹ = {a ™ X : aα=x}. Moreover, those regularities are equivalent if Xα\Y is a finite set. In addition, we count the number of those elements of Fix(X,Y) when X is a finite set. Finally, we determine the maximal congruence ρ on Fix(X,Y) when X is finite and Y is a nonempty proper subset of X. If we let | X \Y | = n, then we obtain that ρ = (Fixn x Fixn) ∪ (H ε x H ε) where Fixn = {α ™ Fix(X,Y) : | Xα\Y | < n} and H ε is the group of units of Fix(X,Y). Furthermore, we show that the maximal congruence is unique.

Keywords: intra-regular, left regular, maximal congruence, right regular, transformation semigroup

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1673 A Study of Key Technologies for the Realization of Smart Grid and Its Research Situation in Pakistan and Abroad

Authors: Arjmand Khaliq, Pemra Sohaib

Abstract:

In this paper smart grid technologies which converts conventional grid into smart grid has been discussed. Integration of advanced technologies including two way communication, advanced control system, sensors, smart metering system and other provide opportunity to make conventional grid a intelligent and automatic system which is named as smart grid. This paper gives the concept of smart grid and functional characteristics of smart grid technology, summed up the research progress in Pakistan and abroad and the significance of developing smart grid. Based on the analysis of the smart grid, smart grid technologies will result a reliable and energy efficient power system in the future. On the other hand smart grid technologies have been reviewed in this paper highlighting the key technologies of smart grid, and points out the problems and challenges in the realization of smart grid.

Keywords: energy, power system reliability, power system monitoring and control, sensor, smart grid, two-way communication

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1672 Grid Architecture Model for Smart Grid

Authors: Nick Farid, Roghoyeh Salmeh

Abstract:

The planning and operation of the power grid is becoming much more complex because of the introduction of renewable energy resources, the digitalization of the electricity industry, as well as the coupling of efficiency and greener energy trends. These changes, along with new trends, make interactions between grid users and the other stakeholders more complex. This paper focuses on the main “physical” and “logical” interactions between grid users and the grid stakeholders, both from power system equipment and information management standpoints, and proposes a new interoperability model for Smart Grids.

Keywords: user interface, interoperability layers, grid architecture framework, smart grid

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1671 Design of Control Systems for Grid Interconnection and Power Control of a Grid Tie Inverter for Micro-Grid Application

Authors: Deepak Choudhary

Abstract:

COEP-Microgrid, a project by the students of College of Engineering Pune aims at establishing a micro grid in the college campus serving as a living laboratory for research and development of novel grid technologies. Proposed micro grid has an AC-bus and DC-bus, interconnected together with a tie line DC-AC converter. In grid-connected mode AC bus of microgrid is synchronized with utility grid. Synchronization with utility grid requires grid and AC bus to have synchronism in frequency, phase sequence and voltage. Power flow requires phase difference between grid and AC bus. Control System is required to effectively regulate power flow between the grid and AC bus. The grid synchronizing control system is composed of frequency and phase control for regulated power flow and voltage control system for reduction of reactive power flow. The control system involves automatic active power flow control. It takes the feedback of DC link Capacitor and changes the power angle accordingly. Control system incorporating voltage, phase and power control was developed for grid-tie inverter. This paper discusses the design, simulation and practical implementation of control system described in various micro grid scenarios.

Keywords: microgrid, Grid-tie inverter, voltage control, automatic power control

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1670 PSS®E Based Modelling, Simulation and Synchronous Interconnection of Eastern Grid and North-Eastern Regional Grid of India

Authors: Toushik Maiti, Saibal Chatterjee, Kamaljyoti Gogoi, Arijit Basuray

Abstract:

Eastern Regional(ER) Grid and North Eastern Regional (NER) Grid are two major grids of Eastern Part of India. Both of the grid consists of voltage level 765kV, 400 kV, 220 kV and numerous buses at lower voltage range. Eastern Regional Grid and North Eastern Regional Grid are not only connected among themselves but are also connected to various other grids of India. ER and NER Grid having various HVDC lines or back to back systems which form the total network. The studied system comprises of 340 buses of different voltage levels and transmission lines running over a length of 32089 km. The validation of load flow has been done using IEEE STANDARD 30 bus system. The power flow simulation analysis has been performed after synchronizing both the Eastern Grid and North-Eastern Regional Grid of India using Power System Simulators for Engineering (PSS®E) Important inferences has been drawn from the study.

Keywords: HVDC, load flow, PSS®E, unsymmetrical and symmetrical faults

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1669 Characterization of Monoids by a New Generalization of Flatness Property

Authors: Mahdiyeh Abbasi, Akbar Golchin

Abstract:

It is well-known that, using principal weak flatness property, some important monoids are characterized, such as regular monoids, left almost regular monoids, and so on. In this article, we define a generalization of principal weak flatness called GP-Flatness, and will characterize monoids by this property of their right (Rees factor) acts. Also we investigate new classes of monoids called generally regular monoids and generally left almost regular monoids.

Keywords: G-left stabilizing, GP-flatness, generally regular, principal weak flatness

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1668 Overview of Smart Grid Applications in Turkey

Authors: Onur Elma, Giray E. Kıral, Ugur S. Selamoğuları, Mehmet Uzunoğlu, Bulent Vural

Abstract:

Electrical energy has become indispensable for people's lives and with rapidly developing technology and continuously changing living standards the need for the electrical energy has been on the rise. Therefore, both energy generation and efficient use of energy are very important topics. Smart grid concept has been introduced to provide monitoring, energy efficiency, reliability and energy quality. Under smart grid concept, smart homes, which can be considered as key component in smart grid operation, have appeared as another research area. In this study, first, smart grid research in the world will be reviewed. Then, overview of smart grid applications in Turkey will be given.

Keywords: energy efficiency, smart grids, smart home, applications

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1667 Micro Grids, Solution to Power Off-Grid Areas in Pakistan

Authors: M. Naveed Iqbal, Sheza Fatima, Noman Shabbir

Abstract:

In the presence of energy crisis in Pakistan, off-grid remote areas are not on priority list. The use of new large scale coal fired power plants will also make this situation worst. Therefore, the greatest challenge in our society is to explore new ways to power off grid remote areas with renewable energy sources. It is time for a sustainable energy policy which puts consumers, the environment, human health, and peace first. The renewable energy is one of the biggest growing sectors of the energy industry. Therefore, the large scale use of micro grid is thus described here with modeling, simulation, planning and operating of the micro grid. The goal of this research paper is to go into detail of a library of major components of micro grid. The introduction will go through the detail view of micro grid definition. Then, the simulation of Micro Grid in MATLAB/ Simulink including the Photo Voltaic Cell will be described with the detailed modeling. The simulation with the design and modeling will be introduced too.

Keywords: micro grids, distribution generation, PV, off-grid operations

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1666 Design and Implementation of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Inverter

Authors: B. H. Lee

Abstract:

Nowadays, a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverter is adopted in various places like as home, factory, because grid-connected PV inverter can reduce total power consumption by supplying electricity from PV array. In this paper, design and implementation of a 300 W grid-connected PV inverter are described. It is implemented with TI Piccolo DSP core and operated at 100 kHz switching frequency in order to reduce harmonic contents. The maximum operating input voltage is up to 45 V. The characteristics of the designed system that include maximum power point tracking (MPPT), single operation and battery charging are verified by simulation and experimental results.

Keywords: design, grid-connected, implementation, photovoltaic

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1665 Presenting a Job Scheduling Algorithm Based on Learning Automata in Computational Grid

Authors: Roshanak Khodabakhsh Jolfaei, Javad Akbari Torkestani

Abstract:

As a cooperative environment for problem-solving, it is necessary that grids develop efficient job scheduling patterns with regard to their goals, domains and structure. Since the Grid environments facilitate distributed calculations, job scheduling appears in the form of a critical problem for the management of Grid sources that influences severely on the efficiency for the whole Grid environment. Due to the existence of some specifications such as sources dynamicity and conditions of the network in Grid, some algorithm should be presented to be adjustable and scalable with increasing the network growth. For this purpose, in this paper a job scheduling algorithm has been presented on the basis of learning automata in computational Grid which the performance of its results were compared with FPSO algorithm (Fuzzy Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm) and GJS algorithm (Grid Job Scheduling algorithm). The obtained numerical results indicated the superiority of suggested algorithm in comparison with FPSO and GJS. In addition, the obtained results classified FPSO and GJS in the second and third position respectively after the mentioned algorithm.

Keywords: computational grid, job scheduling, learning automata, dynamic scheduling

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1664 Behaviours of Energy Spectrum at Low Reynolds Numbers in Grid Turbulence

Authors: Md Kamruzzaman, Lyazid Djenidi, R. A. Antonia

Abstract:

This paper reports an experimental investigation of the energy spectrum of turbulent velocity fields at low Reynolds numbers ( Rλ ) in grid turbulence. Hot wire measurements are carried out in grid turbulence with subjected to a 1.36:1 contraction of the wind tunnel. Three different grids are used: (i) large square perforated grid (mesh size 43.75 mm), (ii) small square perforated grid (mesh size 14 and (iii) woven mesh grid (mesh size 5mm). The results indicate that the energy spectrum at small Rλ does not follow Kolmogorov’s universal scaling. It is further found that the critical Reynolds number,Rλ,ϲ below which the scaling breaks down is around 25.

Keywords: energy spectrum, Taylor microscale, Reynolds number, turbulent kinetic energy, decay exponent

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1663 Review of Vehicle to Grid Applications in Recent Years

Authors: Afsane Amiri

Abstract:

Electric Vehicle (EV) technology is expected to take a major share in the light-vehicle market in the coming decades. Charging of EVs will put an extra burden on the distribution grid and in some cases adjustments will need to be made. In this paper a review of different plug-in and vehicle to grid (V2G) capable vehicles are given along with their power electronics topologies. The economic implication of charging the vehicle or sending power back to the utility is described in brief.

Keywords: energy storage system, battery unit, cost, optimal sizing, plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), smart grid

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1662 Voltage and Current Control of Microgrid in Grid Connected and Islanded Modes

Authors: Megha Chavda, Parth Thummar, Rahul Ghetia

Abstract:

This paper presents the voltage and current control of microgrid accompanied by the synchronization of microgrid with the main utility grid in both islanded and grid-connected modes. Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) satisfy the wide-spread power demand of consumer by behaving as a micro source for a low voltage (LV) grid or microgrid. Synchronization of the microgrid with the main utility grid is done using PLL and PWM gate pulse generation technique is used for the Voltage Source Converter. Potential Function method achieves the voltage and current control of this microgrid in both islanded and grid-connected modes. A low voltage grid consisting of three distributed generators (DG) is considered for the study and is simulated in time-domain using PSCAD/EMTDC software. The simulation results depict the appropriateness of voltage and current control of microgrid and synchronization of microgrid with the medium voltage (MV) grid.

Keywords: microgrid, distributed energy resources, voltage and current control, voltage source converter, pulse width modulation, phase locked loop

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1661 Grid Pattern Recognition and Suppression in Computed Radiographic Images

Authors: Igor Belykh

Abstract:

Anti-scatter grids used in radiographic imaging for the contrast enhancement leave specific artifacts. Those artifacts may be visible or may cause Moiré effect when a digital image is resized on a diagnostic monitor. In this paper, we propose an automated grid artifacts detection and suppression algorithm which is still an actual problem. Grid artifacts detection is based on statistical approach in spatial domain. Grid artifacts suppression is based on Kaiser bandstop filter transfer function design and application avoiding ringing artifacts. Experimental results are discussed and concluded with description of advantages over existing approaches.

Keywords: grid, computed radiography, pattern recognition, image processing, filtering

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1660 Dynamic Ad-hoc Topologies for Mobile Robot Navigation Based on Non-Uniform Grid Maps

Authors: Peter Sauer, Thomas Hinze, Petra Hofstedt

Abstract:

To avoid obstacles in the surrounding environment and to navigate to a given target belong to the most important tasks for mobile robots. According to these tasks different data structures are suitable. To avoid near obstacles, occupancy grid maps are an ideal representation of the surroundings. For less fine grained tasks, such as navigating from one room to another in an apartment, pure grid maps are inappropriate. Grid maps are very detailed, calculating paths to navigate between rooms based on grid maps would take too long. Instead, graph-based data structures, so-called topologies, turn out to be a proper choice for such tasks. In this paper we present two methods to dynamically create topologies from grid maps. Both methods are based on non-uniform grid maps. The topologies are generated on-the-fly and can easily be modified to represent changes in the environment. This allows a hybrid approach to control mobile robots, where, depending on the situation and the current task, either the grid map or the generated topology may be used.

Keywords: robot navigation, occupancy grids, topological maps, dynamic map creation

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1659 Restrictedly-Regular Map Representation of n-Dimensional Abstract Polytopes

Authors: Antonio Breda d’Azevedo

Abstract:

Regularity has often been present in the form of regular polyhedra or tessellations; classical examples are the nine regular polyhedra consisting of the five Platonic solids (regular convex polyhedra) and the four Kleper-Poinsot polyhedra. These polytopes can be seen as regular maps. Maps are cellular embeddings of graphs (with possibly multiple edges, loops or dangling edges) on compact connected (closed) surfaces with or without boundary. The n-dimensional abstract polytopes, particularly the regular ones, have gained popularity over recent years. The main focus of research has been their symmetries and regularity. Planification of polyhedra helps its spatial construction, yet it destroys its symmetries. To our knowledge there is no “planification” for n-dimensional polytopes. However we show that it is possible to make a “surfacification” of the n-dimensional polytope, that is, it is possible to construct a restrictedly-marked map representation of the abstract polytope on some surface that describes its combinatorial structures as well as all of its symmetries. We also show that there are infinitely many ways to do this; yet there is one that is more natural that describes reflections on the sides ((n−1)-faces) of n-simplices with reflections on the sides of n-polygons. We illustrate this construction with the 4-tetrahedron (a regular 4-polytope with automorphism group of size 120) and the 4-cube (a regular 4-polytope with automorphism group of size 384).

Keywords: abstract polytope, automorphism group, N-simplicies, symmetry

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1658 Technical and Economic Analysis of Smart Micro-Grid Renewable Energy Systems: An Applicable Case Study

Authors: M. A. Fouad, M. A. Badr, Z. S. Abd El-Rehim, Taher Halawa, Mahmoud Bayoumi, M. M. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Renewable energy-based micro-grids are presently attracting significant consideration. The smart grid system is presently considered a reliable solution for the expected deficiency in the power required from future power systems. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal components sizes of a micro-grid, investigating technical and economic performance with the environmental impacts. The micro grid load is divided into two small factories with electricity, both on-grid and off-grid modes are considered. The micro-grid includes photovoltaic cells, back-up diesel generator wind turbines, and battery bank. The estimated load pattern is 76 kW peak. The system is modeled and simulated by MATLAB/Simulink tool to identify the technical issues based on renewable power generation units. To evaluate system economy, two criteria are used: the net present cost and the cost of generated electricity. The most feasible system components for the selected application are obtained, based on required parameters, using HOMER simulation package. The results showed that a Wind/Photovoltaic (W/PV) on-grid system is more economical than a Wind/Photovoltaic/Diesel/Battery (W/PV/D/B) off-grid system as the cost of generated electricity (COE) is 0.266 $/kWh and 0.316 $/kWh, respectively. Considering the cost of carbon dioxide emissions, the off-grid will be competitive to the on-grid system as COE is found to be (0.256 $/kWh, 0.266 $/kWh), for on and off grid systems.

Keywords: renewable energy sources, micro-grid system, modeling and simulation, on/off grid system, environmental impacts

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1657 Numerical Method for Heat Transfer Problem in a Block Having an Interface

Authors: Beghdadi Lotfi, Bouziane Abdelhafid

Abstract:

A finite volume method for quadrilaterals unstructured mesh is developed to predict the two dimensional steady-state solutions of conduction equation. In this scheme, based on the integration around the polygonal control volume, the derivatives of conduction equation must be converted into closed line integrals using same formulation of the Stokes theorem. To valid the accuracy of the method two numerical experiments s are used: conduction in a regular block (with known analytical solution) and conduction in a rotated block (case with curved boundaries).The numerical results show good agreement with analytical results. To demonstrate the accuracy of the method, the absolute and root-mean square errors versus the grid size are examined quantitatively.

Keywords: Stokes theorem, unstructured grid, heat transfer, complex geometry

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1656 Importance of Location Selection of an Energy Storage System in a Smart Grid

Authors: Vanaja Rao

Abstract:

In the recent times, the need for the integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in a Smart Grid is on the rise. As a result of this, associated energy storage systems are known to play important roles in sustaining the efficient operation of such RES like wind power and solar power. This paper investigates the importance of location selection of Energy Storage Systems (ESSs) in a Smart Grid. Three scenarios of ESS location is studied and analyzed in a Smart Grid, which are – 1. Near the generation/source, 2. In the middle of the Grid and, 3. Near the demand/consumption. This is explained with the aim of assisting any Distribution Network Operator (DNO) in deploying the ESSs in a power network, which will significantly help reduce the costs and time of planning and avoid any damages incurred as a result of installing them at an incorrect location of a Smart Grid. To do this, the outlined scenarios mentioned above are modelled and analyzed with the National Grid’s datasets of energy generation and consumption in the UK power network. As a result, the outcome of this analysis aims to provide a better overview for the location selection of the ESSs in a Smart Grid. This ensures power system stability and security along with the optimum usage of the ESSs.

Keywords: distribution networks, energy storage system, energy security, location planning, power stability, smart grid

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1655 On the Girth of the Regular Digraph of Ideals of a ‎Commutative ‎Ring

Authors: Masoud Karimi

Abstract:

‎Let R be a commutative ring‎. ‎The regular digraph of ideals of R, which is denoted by‎ Γ(R)‎, ‎is a digraph whose vertex-set is the set of all ‎non-‎trivial ideals of R and‎, ‎for every‎ two distinct vertices I and J‎, ‎there is an arc from I to J‎, ‎whenever I contains‎ a non-zero-divisor on J. In this article, ‎we ‎show ‎that an indecomposable ‎Noetherian ring ‎‎‎R ‎is ‎Artinian ‎local ‎if ‎and ‎only ‎if Z(I)=Z(R) ‎for ‎every ‎non-nilpotent ‎ideal ‎‎‎I‎. ‎Then ‎we ‎conclude ‎that ‎‎the ‎girth ‎of‎ Γ(R)‎ ‎is ‎not ‎equal ‎to ‎four.

Keywords: commutative ring‎, ‎girth‎, regular digraph‎, zero-divisor

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1654 Grid Computing for Multi-Objective Optimization Problems

Authors: Aouaouche Elmaouhab, Hassina Beggar

Abstract:

Solving multi-objective discrete optimization applications has always been limited by the resources of one machine: By computing power or by memory, most often both. To speed up the calculations, the grid computing represents a primary solution for the treatment of these applications through the parallelization of these resolution methods. In this work, we are interested in the study of some methods for solving multiple objective integer linear programming problem based on Branch-and-Bound and the study of grid computing technology. This study allowed us to propose an implementation of the method of Abbas and Al on the grid by reducing the execution time. To enhance our contribution, the main results are presented.

Keywords: multi-objective optimization, integer linear programming, grid computing, parallel computing

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1653 Modeling and Analysis of DFIG Based Wind Power System Using Instantaneous Power Components

Authors: Jaimala Ghambir, Tilak Thakur, Puneet Chawla

Abstract:

As per the statistical data, the Doubly-fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based wind turbine with variable speed and variable pitch control is the most common wind turbine in the growing wind market. This machine is usually used on the grid connected wind energy conversion system to satisfy grid code requirements such as grid stability, fault ride through (FRT), power quality improvement, grid synchronization and power control etc. Though the requirements are not fulfilled directly by the machine, the control strategy is used in both the stator as well as rotor side along with power electronic converters to fulfil the requirements stated above. To satisfy the grid code requirements of wind turbine, usually grid side converter is playing a major role. So in order to improve the operation capacity of wind turbine under critical situation, the intensive study of both machine side converter control and grid side converter control is necessary In this paper DFIG is modeled using power components as variables and the performance of the DFIG system is analysed under grid voltage fluctuations. The voltage fluctuations are made by lowering and raising the voltage values in the utility grid intentionally for the purpose of simulation keeping in view of different grid disturbances.

Keywords: DFIG, dynamic modeling, DPC, sag, swell, voltage fluctuations, FRT

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1652 Optimal Planning and Design of Hybrid Energy System for Taxila University

Authors: Habib Ur Rahman Habib

Abstract:

Renewable energy resources are being realized as suitable options in hybrid energy planning for on-grid and micro grid. In this paper, operation, planning and optimal design of on-grid distributed energy resources based hybrid system are investigated. The aim is to minimize the cost of the overall energy system keeping in view the environmental emission and minimum penetration of conventional energy resources. Seven grid connected different case studies including diesel only, diesel-renewable based, and renewable based only are designed to perform economic analysis, operational planning and emission. Sensitivity analysis is implemented to investigate the impact of different parameters on the performance of energy resources.

Keywords: data management, renewable energy, distributed energy, smart grid, micro-grid, modeling, energy planning, design optimization

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1651 Control Technique for Single Phase Bipolar H-Bridge Inverter Connected to the Grid

Authors: L. Hassaine, A. Mraoui, M. R. Bengourina

Abstract:

In photovoltaic system, connected to the grid, the main goal is to control the power that the inverter injects into the grid from the energy provided by the photovoltaic generator. This paper proposes a control technique for a photovoltaic system connected to the grid based on the digital pulse-width modulation (DSPWM) which can synchronise a sinusoidal current output with a grid voltage and generate power at unity power factor. This control is based on H-Bridge inverter controlled by bipolar PWM Switching. The electrical scheme of the system is presented. Simulations results of output voltage and current validate the impact of this method to determinate the appropriate control of the system. A digital design of a generator PWM using VHDL is proposed and implemented on a Xilinx FPGA.

Keywords: grid connected photovoltaic system, H-Bridge inverter, control, bipolar PWM

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1650 Modeling of Micro-Grid System Components Using MATLAB/Simulink

Authors: Mahmoud Fouad, Mervat Badr, Marwa Ibrahim

Abstract:

Micro-grid system is presently considered a reliable solution for the expected deficiency in the power required from future power systems. Renewable power sources such as wind, solar and hydro offer high potential of benign power for future micro-grid systems. Micro-Grid (MG) is basically a low voltage (LV) or medium voltage (MV) distribution network which consists of a number of called distributed generators (DG’s); micro-sources such as photovoltaic array, fuel cell, wind turbine etc. energy storage systems and loads; operating as a single controllable system, that could be operated in both grid-connected and islanded mode. The capacity of the DG’s is sufficient to support all; or most, of the load connected to the micro-grid. This paper presents a micro-grid system based on wind and solar power sources and addresses issues related to operation, control, and stability of the system. Using Matlab/Simulink, the system is modeled and simulated to identify the relevant technical issues involved in the operation of a micro-grid system based on renewable power generation units.

Keywords: micro-grid system, photovoltaic, wind turbine, energy storage, distributed generation, modeling

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1649 Development and Metrological Validation of a Control Strategy in Embedded Island Grids Using Battery-Hybrid-Systems

Authors: L. Wilkening, G. Ackermann, T. T. Do

Abstract:

This article presents an approach for stand-alone and grid-connected mode of a German low-voltage grid with high share of photovoltaic. For this purpose, suitable dynamic system models have been developed. This allows the simulation of dynamic events in very small time ranges and the operation management over longer periods of time. Using these simulations, suitable control parameters could be identified, and their effects on the grid can be analyzed. In order to validate the simulation results, a LV-grid test bench has been implemented at the University of Technology Hamburg. The developed control strategies are to be validated using real inverters, generators and different realistic loads. It is shown that a battery hybrid system installed next to a voltage transformer makes it possible to operate the LV-grid in stand-alone mode without using additional information and communication technology and without intervention in the existing grid units. By simulating critical days of the year, suitable control parameters for stable stand-alone operations are determined and set point specifications for different control strategies are defined.

Keywords: battery, e-mobility, photovoltaic, smart grid

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1648 A Systematic Approach for Analyzing Multiple Cyber-Physical Attacks on the Smart Grid

Authors: Yatin Wadhawan, Clifford Neuman, Anas Al Majali

Abstract:

In this paper, we evaluate the resilience of the smart grid system in the presence of multiple cyber-physical attacks on its distinct functional components. We discuss attack-defense scenarios and their effect on smart grid resilience. Through contingency simulations in the Network and PowerWorld Simulator, we analyze multiple cyber-physical attacks that propagate from the cyber domain to power systems and discuss how such attacks destabilize the underlying power grid. The analysis of such simulations helps system administrators develop more resilient systems and improves the response of the system in the presence of cyber-physical attacks.

Keywords: smart grid, gas pipeline, cyber- physical attack, security, resilience

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1647 Utilizing Grid Computing to Enhance Power Systems Performance

Authors: Rafid A. Al-Khannak, Fawzi M. Al-Naima

Abstract:

Power load is one of the most important controlling keys which decide power demands and illustrate power usage to shape power market. Hence, power load forecasting is the parameter which facilitates understanding and analyzing all these aspects. In this paper, power load forecasting is solved under MATLAB environment by constructing a neural network for the power load to find an accurate simulated solution with the minimum error. A developed algorithm to achieve load forecasting application with faster technique is the aim for this paper. The algorithm is used to enable MATLAB power application to be implemented by multi machines in the Grid computing system, and to accomplish it within much less time, cost and with high accuracy and quality. Grid Computing, the modern computational distributing technology, has been used to enhance the performance of power applications by utilizing idle and desired Grid contributor(s) by sharing computational power resources.

Keywords: DeskGrid, Grid Server, idle contributor(s), grid computing, load forecasting

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1646 Sliding Mode Control of a Photovoltaic Grid-Connected System with Active and Reactive Power Control

Authors: M. Doumi, K. Tahir, A. Miloudi, A. G. Aissaoui, C. Belfedal, S. Tahir

Abstract:

This paper presents a three-phase grid-connected photovoltaic generation system with unity power factor for any situation of solar radiation based on voltage-oriented control (VOC). An input voltage clamping technique is proposed to control the power between the grid and photovoltaic system, where it is intended to achieve the maximum power point operation. This method uses a Perturb and Observe (P&O) controller. The main objective of this work is to compare the energy production unit performances by the use of two types of controllers (namely, classical PI and Sliding Mode (SM) Controllers) for the grid inverter control. The proposed control has a hierarchical structure with a grid side control level to regulate the power (PQ) and the current injected to the grid and to obtain a common DC voltage constant. To show the effectiveness of both control methods performances analysis of the system are analyzed and compared by simulation and results included in this paper.

Keywords: grid connected photovoltaic, MPPT, inverter control, classical PI, sliding mode, DC voltage constant, voltage-oriented control, VOC

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1645 Modeling and Optimization of Micro-Grid Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Mehrdad Rezaei, Reza Haghmaram, Nima Amjadi

Abstract:

This paper proposes an operating and cost optimization model for micro-grid (MG). This model takes into account emission costs of NOx, SO2, and CO2, together with the operation and maintenance costs. Wind turbines (WT), photovoltaic (PV) arrays, micro turbines (MT), fuel cells (FC), diesel engine generators (DEG) with different capacities are considered in this model. The aim of the optimization is minimizing operation cost according to constraints, supply demand and safety of the system. The proposed genetic algorithm (GA), with the ability to fine-tune its own settings, is used to optimize the micro-grid operation.

Keywords: micro-grid, optimization, genetic algorithm, MG

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