Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 76

Search results for: Rajib Chowdhury

46 System Productivity Enhancement by Inclusion of Mungbean in Potato-Jute -T. Aman Rice Cropping Pattern

Authors: Taslima Zahan, Apurba Kanti Chowdhury

Abstract:

The inclusion of mungbean in a cropping pattern not only increases the cropping intensity but also enriches soil health as well as ensures nutrition for the fast-growing population of Bangladesh. A study was conducted in the farmers’ field during 2013-14 and 2014-15 to observe the performance of four-crop based improve cropping pattern Potato-Mungbean-Jute -t.aman rice against the existing cropping pattern Potato-Jute -t.aman rice at Domar, Nilphamari followed by randomized complete block design with three replications. Two years study revealed that inclusion of mungbean and better management practices in improved cropping pattern provided higher economic benefit over the existing pattern by 73.1%. Moreover, the average yield of potato increased in the improved pattern by 64.3% compared to the existing pattern; however yield of jute and t.aman rice in improved pattern declined by 5.6% and 10.7% than the existing pattern, respectively. Nevertheless, the additional yield of mungbean in the improved pattern helped to increase rice equivalent yield of the whole pattern by 38.7% over the existing pattern. Thus, the addition of mungbean in the existing pattern Potato-Jute -t.aman rice seems to be profitable for the farmers and also might be sustainable if the market channel of mungbean developed.

Keywords: Food Nutrition, Crop Diversity, Yield Improvement, production efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
45 Modelling of Organic Rankine Cycle for Waste Heat Recovery Process in Supercritical Condition

Authors: Bao Kha Nguyen, Jahedul Islam Chowdhury, David Thornhill, Roy Douglas, Stephen Glover

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Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is the most commonly used method for recovering energy from small sources of heat. The investigation of the ORC in supercritical condition is a new research area as it has a potential to generate high power and thermal efficiency in a waste heat recovery system. This paper presents a steady state ORC model in supercritical condition and its simulations with a real engine’s exhaust data. The key component of ORC, evaporator, is modelled using finite volume method, modelling of all other components of the waste heat recovery system such as pump, expander and condenser are also presented. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of mass flow rate and evaporator outlet temperature on the efficiency of the waste heat recovery process. Additionally, the necessity of maintaining an optimum evaporator outlet temperature is also investigated. Simulation results show that modification of mass flow rate is the key to changing the operating temperature at the evaporator outlet.

Keywords: Waste Heat Recovery, Organic Rankine Cycle, supercritical condition, steady state model

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
44 Intensive Crosstalk between Autophagy and Intracellular Signaling Regulates Osteosarcoma Cell Survival Response under Cisplatin Stress

Authors: Jyothi Nagraj, Sudeshna Mukherjee, Rajdeep Chowdhury

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Autophagy has recently been linked with cancer cell survival post drug insult contributing to acquisition of resistance. However, the molecular signaling governing autophagic survival response is poorly explored. In our study, in osteosarcoma (OS) cells cisplatin shock was found to activate both MAPK and autophagy signaling. An activation of JNK and autophagy acted as pro-survival strategy, while ERK1/2 triggered apoptotic signals upon cisplatin stress. An increased sensitivity of the cells to cisplatin was obtained with simultaneous inhibition of both autophagy and JNK pathway. Furthermore, we observed that the autophagic stimulation upon drug stress regulates other developmentally active signaling pathways like the Hippo pathway in OS cells. Cisplatin resistant cells were thereafter developed by repetitive drug exposure followed by clonal selection. Basal levels of autophagy were found to be high in resistant cells to. However, the signaling mechanism leading to autophagic up-regulation and its regulatory effect differed in OS cells upon attaining drug resistance. Our results provide valuable clues to regulatory dynamics of autophagy that can be considered for development of improved therapeutic strategy against resistant type cancers.

Keywords: Cancer, autophagy, Drug Resistance, JNK

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
43 Pattern of Anisometropia, Management and Outcome of Anisometropic Amblyopia

Authors: Husain Rajib, T. H. Sheikh, D. G. Jewel

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Background: Amblyopia is a frequent cause of monocular blindness in children. It can be unilateral or bilateral reduction of best corrected visual acuity associated with decrement in visual processing, accomodation, motility, spatial perception or spatial projection. Anisometropia is an important risk factor for amblyopia that develops when unequal refractive error causes the image to be blurred in the critical developmental period and central inhibition of the visual signal originating from the affected eye associated with significant visual problems including anisokonia, strabismus, and reduced stereopsis. Methods: It is a prospective hospital based study of newly diagnosed of amblyopia seen at the pediatric clinic of Chittagong Eye Infirmary & Training Complex. There were 50 anisometropic amblyopia subjects were examined & questionnaire was piloted. Included were all patients diagnosed with refractive amblyopia between 3 to 13 years, without previous amblyopia treatment, and whose parents were interested to participate in the study. Patients diagnosed with strabismic amblyopia were excluded. Patients were first corrected with the best correction for a month. When the VA in the amblyopic eye did not improve over month, then occlusion treatment was started. Occlusion was done daily for 6-8 hours (full time) together with vision therapy. The occlusion was carried out for 3 months. Results: In this study about 8% subjects had anisometropia from myopia, 18% from hyperopia, 74% from astigmatism. The initial mean visual acuity was 0.74 ± 0.39 Log MAR and after intervention of amblyopia therapy with active vision therapy mean visual acuity was 0.34 ± 0.26 Log MAR. About 94% of subjects were improving at least two lines. The depth of amblyopia associated with type of anisometropic refractive error and magnitude of Anisometropia (p<0.005). By doing this study 10% mild amblyopia, 64% moderate and 26% severe amblyopia were found. Binocular function also decreases with magnitude of Anisometropia. Conclusion: Anisometropic amblyopia is a most important factor in pediatric age group because it can lead to visual impairment. Occlusion therapy with at least one instructed hour of active visual activity practiced out of school hours was effective in anisometropic amblyopes who were diagnosed at the age of 8 years and older, and the patients complied well with the treatment.

Keywords: amblyopia, anisometropia, refractive error, strabismic amblyopia

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
42 The Impact of Insider Trading on Open Market Share Repurchase: A Study in Indian Context

Authors: Prabina Rajib, Chandra Sekhar Mishra, Sarthak Kumar Jena

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Purpose: This paper aims to derive undervaluation signal from the insiders trading of Indian companies where the ownership is complex and concentrated, investors protection is weak, and the insider rules and regulations are not stringent like developed country. This study examines the relationship between insider trading with short term and long term abnormal return. The study also examines the relationship between insider trading and the actual share repurchase by the firm. Methodology: A sample of 78 companies over the period 2008-2013 are analyzed in the study due to not availability of insider data in Indian context. For preliminary analysis T-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test is used to find the difference between the insider trading before and after the share repurchase announcement. Tobit model is used to find out whether insider trading influence shares repurchase decisions or not. Return on the basis of market model and buy hold are calculated in the previous year and the following year of share repurchase announcement. Findings: The paper finds that insider trading around share repurchase is more than control firms and there is positive and significant difference in insider buying between the previous year of share buyback announcement and the following year of buyback announcement. Insider buying before share repurchase announcement has a positive influence on share repurchase decisions. We find insider buying has a positive and significant relationship with announcement return, whereas insider selling has a negative significant relationship with announcement return. Actual share repurchase and program completion also depend on insider trading before share repurchase. Research limitation: The study is constrained by the small sample size, so the results should be viewed by keeping this limitation in mind. Originality: The paper is to our best knowledge the first study based on Indian context to extend the insider trading literature to share repurchase event and examine insider trading to find out undervaluation signal associated with insider buying.

Keywords: signalling, insider trading, buyback, open market share repurchase

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
41 A Combination of Filtration and Coagulation Processes for Tannery Effluent Treatment

Authors: M. G. Mostafa, Manjushree Chowdhury, Tapan Kumar Biswas, and Ananda Kumar Saha

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This study focused on effluents characterization and treatment process to reduce of toxicity from tannery effluents. Tanning industry is one of the oldest industries in the world. It is typically characterized as pollutants generated industries which produce wide varieties of high strength toxic chemicals. The study was conducted during the year 2008 to 2009 and the tannery effluents were collected three times in a year from the outlet of some selected leather industries located in Hagaribagh industrial zone Dhaka, Bangladesh. The analysis results of the raw effluents reveal that the effluents were yellowish-brown color, having basic pH, very high value of BOD5¬¬, COD, TDS, TSS, TS, and high concentrations of Cr, Na, SO42-, Cl- and other organic and inorganic constituents. The tannery effluents were treated with various doses of FeCl3 after settling and a subsequent filtration through sand-stone. The study observed that coagulant (FeCl3) 150 mg/L dose around neutral pH showed the best removal efficiency for major physico-chemical parameters. The analysis results of illustrate that the most of the physical and chemical parameters were found well below the prescribed permissible limits for effluent discharged. The study suggests that tannery effluents could be treated by a combined process consisting of settling, filtering and coagulating with FeCl3.

Keywords: Characterization, treatment, effluent, tannery

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40 Production of Pre-Reduction of Iron Ore Nuggets with Lesser Sulphur Intake by Devolatisation of Boiler Grade Coal

Authors: Chanchal Biswas, Rajib Dey, Gopes Chandra Das, Mahua Ghosh Chaudhuri, Anrin Bhattacharyya

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Boiler coals with low fixed carbon and higher ash content have always challenged the metallurgists to develop a suitable method for their utilization. In the present study, an attempt is made to establish an energy effective method for the reduction of iron ore fines in the form of nuggets by using ‘Syngas’. By devolatisation (expulsion of volatile matter by applying heat) of boiler coal, gaseous product (enriched with reducing agents like CO, CO2, H2, and CH4 gases) is generated. Iron ore nuggets are reduced by this syngas. For that reason, there is no direct contact between iron ore nuggets and coal ash. It helps to control the minimization of the sulphur intake of the reduced nuggets. A laboratory scale devolatisation furnace designed with reduction facility is evaluated after in-depth studies and exhaustive experimentations including thermo-gravimetric (TG-DTA) analysis to find out the volatile fraction present in boiler grade coal, gas chromatography (GC) to find out syngas composition in different temperature and furnace temperature gradient measurements to minimize the furnace cost by applying one heating coil. The nuggets are reduced in the devolatisation furnace at three different temperatures and three different times. The pre-reduced nuggets are subjected to analytical weight loss calculations to evaluate the extent of reduction. The phase and surface morphology analysis of pre-reduced samples are characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), carbon sulphur analyzer and chemical analysis method. Degree of metallization of the reduced nuggets is 78.9% by using boiler grade coal. The pre-reduced nuggets with lesser sulphur content could be used in the blast furnace as raw materials or coolant which would reduce the high quality of coke rate of the furnace due to its pre-reduced character. These can be used in Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) as coolant also.

Keywords: Coal Gasification, alternative ironmaking, extent of reduction, nugget making, syngas based DRI, solid state reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
39 A Heuristic Based Decomposition Approach for a Hierarchical Production Planning Problem

Authors: M. F. Baki, Nusrat T. Chowdhury, A. Azab

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The production planning problem is concerned with specifying the optimal quantities to produce in order to meet the demand for a prespecified planning horizon with the least possible expenditure. Making the right decisions in production planning will affect directly the performance and productivity of a manufacturing firm, which is important for its ability to compete in the market. Therefore, developing and improving solution procedures for production planning problems is very significant. In this paper, we develop a Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition of a multi-item hierarchical production planning problem with capacity constraint and present a column generation approach to solve the problem. The original Mixed Integer Linear Programming model of the problem is decomposed item by item into a master problem and a number of subproblems. The capacity constraint is considered as the linking constraint between the master problem and the subproblems. The subproblems are solved using the dynamic programming approach. We also propose a multi-step iterative capacity allocation heuristic procedure to handle any kind of infeasibility that arises while solving the problem. We compare the computational performance of the developed solution approach against the state-of-the-art heuristic procedure available in the literature. The results show that the proposed heuristic-based decomposition approach improves the solution quality by 20% as compared to the literature.

Keywords: Inventory, Emission Control, multi-level capacitated lot-sizing, setup carryover

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38 Trace Element Phytoremediation Potential of Mangrove Plants in Indian Sundarban

Authors: Ranju Chowdhury, Santosh K. Sarkar

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Trace element accumulation potential of ten mangrove species in individual plant tissues (leaves, bark and root/pneumatophore) along with host sediments was carried out at 2 study sites of diverse environmental stresses of Indian Sundarban Wetland, a UNESCO world heritage site. The study was undertaken with the following objectives: (i) to investigate the extent of accumulation and the distribution of trace metals in plant tissues (ii) to determine whether sediment trace metal levels are correlated with trace metal levels in tissues and (iii) to find out the suitable candidate for phytoremediation species. Mangrove sediments showed unique potential in many- fold increase for most trace metals than plant tissues due to their inherent physicochemical properties. The concentrations of studied 11 trace elements (expressed in µg g -1) showed wide range of variations in host sediment with the following descending order: Fe (2865.31-3019.62) > Mn (646.04- 648.47 > Cu (35.03- 41.55) > Zn (32.51- 36.33) > Ni (34.4- 36.60) > Cr (27.5- 29.54) > Pb (11.6- 20.34) > Co (6.79- 8.55) > As (3.22- 4.41) > Cd (0.19- 0.22) > Hg (0.06- 0.07). The ranges of concentration of trace metals (expressed in µg g -1) for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in plant tissues were 0.006- 0.31, 0.02- 2.97, 0.10- 4.80, 0.13- 6.49, 4.46- 48.30, 9.20- 938.13, 0.02- 0.13, 9.8- 1726.24, 5.41- 11.34, 0.04 - 7.64, 3.81- 52.20 respectively. Among all trace elements, Cd and Zn were highly bioaccumulated in Excoecaria agallocha (2.97 and 52.20 µg g -1 respectively). The bio- concentration factor (BCF) showed its maximum value (15.5) in E. agallocha for Cd, suggesting that it can be considered as a high-efficient plant for trace metal bioaccumulation. Therefore, phytoremediation could be extensively used for the removal of the toxic contaminants for sustainable management of Sundarban coastal regions.

Keywords: Phytoremediation, Trace Elements, Mangroves, Indian Sundarban

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
37 Production of Pig Iron by Smelting of Blended Pre-Reduced Titaniferous Magnetite Ore and Hematite Ore Using Lean Grade Coal

Authors: Bitan Kumar Sarkar, Akashdeep Agarwal, Rajib Dey, Gopes Chandra Das

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The rapid depletion of high-grade iron ore (Fe2O3) has gained attention on the use of other sources of iron ore. Titaniferous magnetite ore (TMO) is a special type of magnetite ore having high titania content (23.23% TiO2 present in this case). Due to high TiO2 content and high density, TMO cannot be treated by the conventional smelting reduction. In this present work, the TMO has been collected from high-grade metamorphic terrain of the Precambrian Chotanagpur gneissic complex situated in the eastern part of India (Shaltora area, Bankura district, West Bengal) and the hematite ore has been collected from Visakhapatnam Steel Plant (VSP), Visakhapatnam. At VSP, iron ore is received from Bailadila mines, Chattisgarh of M/s. National Mineral Development Corporation. The preliminary characterization of TMO and hematite ore (HMO) has been investigated by WDXRF, XRD and FESEM analyses. Similarly, good quality of coal (mainly coking coal) is also getting depleted fast. The basic purpose of this work is to find how lean grade coal can be utilised along with TMO for smelting to produce pig iron. Lean grade coal has been characterised by using TG/DTA, proximate and ultimate analyses. The boiler grade coal has been found to contain 28.08% of fixed carbon and 28.31% of volatile matter. TMO fines (below 75 μm) and HMO fines (below 75 μm) have been separately agglomerated with lean grade coal fines (below 75 μm) in the form of briquettes using binders like bentonite and molasses. These green briquettes are dried first in oven at 423 K for 30 min and then reduced isothermally in tube furnace over the temperature range of 1323 K, 1373 K and 1423 K for 30 min & 60 min. After reduction, the reduced briquettes are characterized by XRD and FESEM analyses. The best reduced TMO and HMO samples are taken and blended in three different weight percentage ratios of 1:4, 1:8 and 1:12 of TMO:HMO. The chemical analysis of three blended samples is carried out and degree of metallisation of iron is found to contain 89.38%, 92.12% and 93.12%, respectively. These three blended samples are briquetted using binder like bentonite and lime. Thereafter these blended briquettes are separately smelted in raising hearth furnace at 1773 K for 30 min. The pig iron formed is characterized using XRD, microscopic analysis. It can be concluded that 90% yield of pig iron can be achieved when the blend ratio of TMO:HMO is 1:4.5. This means for 90% yield, the maximum TMO that could be used in the blend is about 18%.

Keywords: briquetting reduction, lean grade coal, smelting reduction, TMO

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36 Refinement of Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly (Lactic Acid)/Poly (Ethylene-Co-Glycidyle Methacrylate)/ Hexagonal Boron Nitride Blend-Composites through Electron-Beam Irradiation

Authors: Ashish Kumar, T. Venkatappa Rao, Subhendu Ray Chowdhury, S. V. S. Ramana Reddy

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The main objective of this work is to determine the influence of electron beam irradiation on thermal and mechanical properties of Poly (lactic acid) (PLA)/Poly (ethylene-co-glycidyle methacrylate) (PEGM)/Hexagonal boron nitride (HBN) blend-composites. To reduce the brittleness and improve the toughness of PLA, the PLA/PEGM blend is prepared by using twin-screw Micro compounder. However, the heat deflection temperature (HDT) and other tensile properties were reduced. The HBN has been incorporated into the PLA/PEGM blend as part per hundred i.e. 5 phr and 10phr to improve the HDT. The prepared specimens of blend and blend-composites were irradiated to high energy (4.5 MeV) electron beam (E-beam) at different radiation doses to introduce the cross linking among the polymer chains and uniform dispersion of HBN particles in the PLA/PEGM/HBN blend-composites. The further improvement in the notched impact strength and HDT have been achieved in the case of PLA/PEGM/HBN blend-composites. The irradiated PLA/PEGM/HBN 5phr blend composite shows high notched impact strength and HDT as compared to other unirradiated and E-beam irradiated blend and blend-composites. The improvements in the yield strength and tensile modulus have also been noticed in the case of E-beam irradiated PLA/PEGM/HBN blend-composites as compared to unirradiated blend-composites.

Keywords: PLA, blend-composite, e-beam, HDT, PEGM

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
35 Pattern of Substance Use: Study in a De-Addiction Clinic

Authors: Mohammad Muntasir Maruf, Muhammad Zillur Rahman Khan, Nasim Jahan, Md. Waziul Alam Chowdhury, Satparkash, Md. Nozrul Islam

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Background: Substance use disorders have become a major public health problem in Bangladesh. Objectives: The present study was designed to assess the pattern of substance use and factors related to it among the hospitalized patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. All the patients who were admitted in a private drug de-addiction clinic in the capital city (Dhaka) of Bangladesh during 1 July-31 December, 2013 and diagnosed as a case of substance use disorder by applying Structured Clinical Interview for DSM- Clinician Version were enrolled in the study. Data were collected through face to face interview by a semi-structured questionnaire and the information was complemented by the case-notes. Study subjects were 105 in number. Data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results: Most (90.5%) of the respondents were male. The mean age of the respondents was 28.8 (± 8.0) years. Majority (91.4%) were poly-substance users. Most (27.6%) respondents used 3 types of substances. Smoking or inhalation was the route used by most (90.5%) respondents. More than three-fourth (81%) of the respondents used nicotine. Among the other substances, majority (79%) used opiates group, followed by cannabinoids group (55.2%) and alcohol (41%). Curiosity, peer pressure and to have enjoyment or fun were identified as the common reasons for initiating substance use. Conclusions: A high proportion of poly-substance use was found. The study findings would help in management and prevention strategy of substance use in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Bangladesh, de-addiction clinic, poly-substance users, substance use disorder

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34 Effectiveness of Variable Speed Limit Signs in Reducing Crash Rates on Roadway Construction Work Zones in Alaska

Authors: Osama Abaza, Tanay Datta Chowdhury

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As a driver's speed increases, so do the probability of an incident and likelihood of injury. The presence of equipment, personnel, and a changing landscape in construction zones create greater potential for incident. This is especially concerning in Alaska, where summer construction activity, coinciding with the peak annual traffic volumes, cannot be avoided. In order to reduce vehicular speeding in work zones, and therefore the probability of crash and incident occurrence, variable speed limit (VSL) systems can be implemented in the form of radar speed display trailers since the radar speed display trailers were shown to be effective at reducing vehicular speed in construction zones. Allocation of VSL not only help reduce the 85th percentile speed but also it will predominantly reduce mean speed as well. Total of 2147 incidents along with 385 crashes occurred only in one month around the construction zone in the Alaska which seriously requires proper attention. This research provided a thorough crash analysis to better understand the cause and provide proper countermeasures. Crashes were predominantly recoded as vehicle- object collision and sideswipe type and thus significant amount of crashes fall in the group of no injury to minor injury type in the severity class. But still, 35 major crashes with 7 fatal ones in a one month period require immediate action like the implementation of the VSL system as it proved to be a speed reducer in the construction zone on Alaskan roadways.

Keywords: Speed, severity, crash, construction zone

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
33 Promoting Couple HIV Testing among Migrants for HIV Prevention: Learnings from Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre (ICTC) in Odisha, India

Authors: Ashok Agarwal, Sunil Mekale, Debasish Chowdhury, Sanchita Patnaik, Amitav Das

Abstract:

Background: Odisha is a low HIV prevalence state in India (ANC-HIV positivity of 0.42% as per HIV sentinel surveillance 2010-2011); however, it is an important source migration state with 3.2% of male migrants reporting to be PLHIV. USAID Public Health Foundation of India -PIPPSE project is piloting a source-destination corridor programme between Odisha and Gujarat. In Odisha, the focus has been on developing a comprehensive strategy to reach out to the out migrants and their spouses in the place of their origin based on their availability. The project has made concerted attempts to identify vulnerable districts with high out migration and high positivity rate. Description: 48 out of 97 ICTCs were selected from nine top high out migration districts through multistage sampling. A retrospective descriptive analysis of HIV positive male migrants and their spouses for two years (April 2013-March 2015) was conducted. A total of 3,645 HIV positive records were analysed. Findings: Among 34.2% detected HIV positive in the ICTCs, 23.3% were male migrants and 11% were spouses of male migrants; almost 50% of total ICTC attendees. More than 70% of the PLHIV male migrants and their spouses were less than 45 years old. Conclusions: Couple HIV testing approach may be considered for male migrants and their spouses. ICTC data analysis could guide in identifying the locations with high HIV positivity among male migrants and their spouses.

Keywords: migrants, HIV testing, spouse of migrants, Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre (ICTC)

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32 Mobile Schooling for the Most Vulnerable Children on the Street: An Innovation

Authors: Md. Shakhawat Ullah Chowdhury

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Mobile school is an innovative methodology in non-formal education to increase access to education for children during conflict through theatre for education for appropriate basic education to children during conflict. The continuous exposure to harsh environments and the nature of the lifestyles of children in conflict make them vulnerable. However, the mobile school initiative takes into consideration the mobile lifestyle of children in conflict. Schools are provided considering the pocket area of the street children with portable chalkboards, tin of books and materials as communities move. Teaching is multi-grade to ensure all children in the community benefit. The established mobile schools, while focused on basic literacy and numeracy skills according to traditions of the communities. The school teachers are selected by the community and trained by a theatre activist. These teachers continue to live and move with the community and provide continuous education for children in conflict. The model proposed a holistic team work to deliver education focused services to the street children’s pocket area where the team is mobile. The team consists of three members –an educator (theatre worker), a psychological counsellor and paramedics. The mobile team is responsible to educate street children and also play dramas which specially produce on the basis of national curriculum and awareness issues for street children. Children enjoy play and learn about life skills and basic literacy and numeracy skills which may be a pillar of humanitarian aid during conflict.

Keywords: vulnerable, children in conflict, mobile schooling, child-friendly

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31 Stabilization of Medical Waste Incineration Fly Ash in Cement Mortar Matrix

Authors: Tanvir Ahmed, Musfira Rahman, Rumpa Chowdhury

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We performed laboratory experiments to assess the suitability of using medical waste incineration fly ash in cement as a construction material based on the engineering properties of fly ash-cement matrix and the leaching potential of toxic heavy metals from the stabilized mix. Fly ash-cement samples were prepared with different proportions of fly ash (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by weight) in the laboratory controlled conditions. The solidified matrix exhibited a compressive strength from 3950 to 4980 psi when fly ash is mixed in varying proportions. The 28-day compressive strength has been found to decrease with the increase in fly ash content, but it meets the minimum requirement of compressive strength for cement-mortar. Soundness test results for cement-mortar mixes having up to 15% fly ash. Final and initial setting times of cement have been found to generally increase with fly ash content. Water requirement (for normal consistency) also increased with the increase in fly ash content in cement. Based on physical properties of the cement-mortar matrix it is recommended that up to 10% (by weight) medical waste incineration fly ash can be incorporated for producing cement-mortar of optimum quality. Leaching behaviours of several targeted heavy metals (As, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb, Hg and Zn) were analyzed using Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) on fly ash and solidified fly ash-cement matrix. It was found that the leached concentrations of As, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn were reduced by 80.13%, 89.47%, 33.33% and 23.9% respectively for 10% fly ash incorporated cement-mortar matrix compared to that of original fly ash. The leached concentrations of heavy metals were from the matrix were far below the EPA land disposal limits. These results suggest that the solidified fly ash incorporated cement-mortar matrix can effectively confine and immobilize the heavy metals contained in the fly ash.

Keywords: Waste Management, Leaching, fly ash, cement-mortar

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30 Combined Treatment of PARP-1 Inhibitor and Carbon Ion or Gamma Exposure Reduces the Metastatic Potential in Cultured Human Cells

Authors: Priyanka Chowdhury, Asitikantha Sarma, Utpal Ghosh

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Hadron therapy using high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) ion beam is producing promising clinical results worldwide. The major advantages are its ability to kill radio-resistant tumor and its anti-metastatic activity. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitors have been widely used as radiosensitizer, but its role in metastasis is unknown. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of PARP-1 depletion in combination with either Carbon Ion Beam (CIB) or gamma irradiation on metastatic potential of cultured cancerous cells. A549 cells were irradiated with CIB (0-4Gy) or gamma (0, 2, 4, 6 and 10 Gy) with and without PARP-1 inhibition. The metastatic potential of the cells was determined by cell migratory assay, expression, and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9, expression of Cadherin, Fibronectin, and Vimentin. CIB exposure reduced migratory property and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 significantly. CIB with PARP-1 inhibition reduced cell migration and Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMPs) activity in a synergistic manner. Expression of MMPs was also down-regulated in CIB and combined treatment. On the contrary, MMP- 2 and MMP-9 activity was significantly increased in gamma irradiated cells but decreased upon combined treatment of gamma and PARP-1 inhibitor. MMPs expression and migration was reduced when gamma irradiation was combined with PARP-1 inhibition. Thus, our study clearly demonstrates that PARP-1 inhibition in combination with either high or low LET can significantly suppress metastatic potential in cancer cells and thereby can be a promising tool in controlling metastatic cancers.

Keywords: high LET, low LET, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), PARP-1

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29 Pre-Transformation Phase Reconstruction for Deformation-Induced Transformation in AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel

Authors: Manendra Singh Parihar, Sandip Ghosh Chowdhury

Abstract:

Austenitic stainless steels are widely used and give a good combination of properties. When this steel is plastically deformed, a phase transformation of the metastable Face Centred Cubic Austenite to the stable Body Centred Cubic (α’) or to the Hexagonal close packed (ԑ) martensite may occur, leading to the enhancement in the mechanical properties like strength. The work was based on variant selection and corresponding texture analysis for the strain induced martensitic transformation during deformation of the parent austenite FCC phase to form the product HCP and the BCC martensite phases separately, obeying their respective orientation relationships. The automated method for reconstruction of the parent phase orientation using the EBSD data of the product phase orientation is done using the MATLAB and TSL-OIM software. The method of triplets was used which involves the formation of a triplet of neighboring product grains having a common variant and linking them using a misorientation-based criterion. This led to the proper reconstruction of the pre-transformation phase orientation data and thus to its microstructure and texture. The computational speed of current method is better compared to the previously used methods of reconstruction. The reconstruction of austenite from ԑ and α’ martensite was carried out for multiple samples and their IPF images, pole figures, inverse pole figures and ODFs were compared. Similar type of results was observed for all samples. The comparison gives the idea for estimating the correct sequence of the transformation i.e. γ → ε → α’ or γ → α’, during deformation of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel.

Keywords: Reconstruction, Martensitic Transformation, austenitic stainless steel, EBSD, variant selection

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28 Variant Selection and Pre-transformation Phase Reconstruction for Deformation-Induced Transformation in AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel

Authors: Manendra Singh Parihar, Sandip Ghosh Chowdhury

Abstract:

Austenitic stainless steels are widely used and give a good combination of properties. When this steel is plastically deformed, a phase transformation of the metastable Face Centred Cubic Austenite to the stable Body Centred Cubic (α’) or to the Hexagonal close packed (ԑ) martensite may occur, leading to the enhancement in the mechanical properties like strength. The work was based on variant selection and corresponding texture analysis for the strain induced martensitic transformation during deformation of the parent austenite FCC phase to form the product HCP and the BCC martensite phases separately, obeying their respective orientation relationships. The automated method for reconstruction of the parent phase orientation using the EBSD data of the product phase orientation is done using the MATLAB and TSL-OIM software. The method of triplets was used which involves the formation of a triplet of neighboring product grains having a common variant and linking them using a misorientation-based criterion. This led to the proper reconstruction of the pre-transformation phase orientation data and thus to its micro structure and texture. The computational speed of current method is better compared to the previously used methods of reconstruction. The reconstruction of austenite from ԑ and α’ martensite was carried out for multiple samples and their IPF images, pole figures, inverse pole figures and ODFs were compared. Similar type of results was observed for all samples. The comparison gives the idea for estimating the correct sequence of the transformation i.e. γ → ε → α’ or γ → α’, during deformation of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel.

Keywords: Reconstruction, Martensitic Transformation, austenitic stainless steel, EBSD, variant selection

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27 Branding Good Corporate Governance: A Pathway to Strengthen Investors’ Perception and Brand Equity

Authors: Mohammad Shariful Islam, Azaz Zaman, Imtiaz Uddin Chowdhury

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Corporate governance has become a crucial issue in both the business and academic world as a result of world-wide financial scandals and lack of trust in corporate practices. There is no doubt that in order to thrive and attain growth in the market, a company must earn the trust of its stakeholders by consistently delivering on its commitments. Directors of the companies thus comprehend the importance of upfront communication with relevant stakeholders to increase their confidence. The authors of this article argue that practicing good corporate governance is not enough in this highly competitive market place; corporate leaders need to market their good corporate governance practices in order to make the company more attractive to investors. This article also contends that the strength of corporate governance relies wholly upon the extent to which it is communicated simply, effectively and unceasingly to its stakeholders. The main objective of this study, therefore, is to explore the importance of branding good corporate governance in order to increase corporate brand equity, attract investors, and capture market share. A structured questionnaire comprising three sections and a total of 34 questions was prepared and surveyed by the authors among respondents residing in Bangladesh and who also have an academic and corporate background, to investigate the potential impact of branding good corporate governance in the market place. High mean values for individual questions and overall section depict that communicating and branding good corporate governance to the stakeholders will not only boost the investors’ confidence but also increase the corporate brand equity, yielding both profitable and sustainable business environment.

Keywords: Brand Equity, good corporate governance, investors’ preference, sustainable business environment

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26 Mitigation of Wind Loads on a Building Using Small Wind Turbines

Authors: Arindam Chowdhury, Andres Tremante, Mohammadtaghi Moravej, Bodhisatta Hajra, Ioannis Zisis, Peter Irwin

Abstract:

Extreme wind events, such as hurricanes, have caused significant damage to buildings, resulting in losses worth millions of dollars. The roof of a building is most vulnerable to wind-induced damage due to the high suctions experienced by the roof in extreme wind conditions. Wind turbines fitted to buildings can help generate energy, but to our knowledge, their application to wind load mitigation is not well known. This paper presents results from an experimental study to assess the effect of small wind turbines (developed and patented by the first and second authors) on the wind loads on a low rise building roof. The tests were carried out for an open terrain at the Wall of Wind (WOW) experimental facility at Florida International University (FIU), Miami, Florida, USA, for three cases – bare roof, roof fitted with wind turbines placed closer to the roof edges, and roof with wind turbines placed away from the roof edges. Results clearly indicate that the presence of the wind turbines reduced the mean and peak pressure coefficients (less suction) on the roof when compared to the bare deck case. Furthermore, the peak pressure coefficients were found to be lower (less suction) when the wind turbines were placed closer to the roof, than away from the roof. Flow visualization studies using smoke and gravel clearly showed that the presence of the turbines disrupted the formation of vortices formed by cornering winds, thereby reducing roof suctions and preventing lift off of roof coverings. This study shows that the wind turbines besides generating wind energy, can be used for mitigating wind induced damage to the building roof. Future research must be directed towards understanding the effect of these wind turbines on other roof geometries (e.g. hip/gable) in different terrain conditions.

Keywords: Building, Wind turbine, wall of wind, wind loads

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25 To Compare the Visual Outcome, Safety and Efficacy of Phacoemulsification and Small-Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS) at CEITC, Bangladesh

Authors: Rajib Husain, Munirujzaman Osmani, Mohammad Shamsal Islam

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Purpose: To compare the safety, efficacy and visual outcome of phacoemulsification vs. manual small-incision cataract surgery (SICS) for the treatment of cataract in Bangladesh. Objectives: 1. To assess the Visual outcome after cataract surgery 2. To understand the post-operative complications and early rehabilitation 3. To identified which surgical procedure more attractive to the patients 4. To identify which surgical procedure is occurred fewer complications. 5. To find out the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of study patients Setting: Chittagong Eye Infirmary and Training Complex, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Design: Retrospective, randomised comparison of 300 patients with visually significant cataracts. Method: The present study was designed as a retrospective hospital-based research. The sample size was 300 and study period was from July, 2012 to July, 2013 and assigned randomly to receive either phacoemulsification or manual small-incision cataract surgery (SICS). Preoperative and post-operative data were collected through a well designed collection format. Three follow-up were done; i) during discharge ii) 1-3 weeks & iii) 4-11 weeks post operatively. All preoperative and surgical complications, uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and astigmatism were taken into consideration for comparison of outcome Result: Nearly 95% patients were more than 40 years of age. About 52% patients were female, and 48% were male. 52% (N=157) patients came to operate their first eye where 48% (N=143) patients were visited again to operate their second eye. Postoperatively, five eyes (3.33%) developed corneal oedema with >10 Descemets folds, and six eyes (4%) had corneal oedema with <10 Descemets folds for Phacoemulsification surgeries. For SICS surgeries, seven eyes (4.66%) developed corneal oedema with >10 Descemets folds and eight eyes (5.33%) had corneal oedema with < 10 descemets folds. However, both the uncorrected and corrected (4-11 weeks) visual acuities were better in the eyes that had phacoemulsification (p=0.02 and p=0.03), and there was less astigmatism (p=0.001) at 4-11 weeks in the eye that had phacoemulsification. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of final follow-up 95% (N=253) had a good outcome, borderline 3.10% (N=40) and poor outcome was 1.6% (N=7). The individual surgeon outcome were closer, 95% (BCVA) in SICS and 96% (BCVA) in Phacoemulsification at 4-11 weeks follow-up respectively. Conclusion: outcome of cataract surgery both Phacoemulsification and SICS in CEITC was more satisfactory according to who norms. Both Phacoemulsification and manual small-incision cataract surgery (SICS) shows excellent visual outcomes with low complication rates and good rehabilitation. Phacoemulsification is significantly faster, and modern technology based surgical procedure for cataract treatment.

Keywords: Cataract, phacoemulsification, SICS, Bangladesh, visual outcome of SICS

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24 Modulating Plasmon Induced Transparency in Terahertz Metamaterials

Authors: Dibakar Roy Chowdhury, Gagan Kumar, Koijam M. Devi, Amarendra K. Sarma

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Research in metamaterials has been gaining momentum over the past decade owing to its ability in controlling electromagnetic wave properties through careful design at the sub-wavelength scale. The metamaterials have led to several important phenomena which are useful in a variety of applications. One such phenomenon is the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effect in which a narrow transparency region is created in an otherwise absorptive spectrum. In our work, we explore plasmon induced transparency (PIT) in terahertz metamaterials which is analogues to EIT effect. The PIT effect is achieved using the plasmonic metamaterials in which a unit cell is comprised of two C (2C) shaped resonators and a cut-wire (CW). When terahertz wave of a particular polarization is normally incident on the proposed metamaterials geometry, it strongly couples with the cut wire, resulting in the excitation of the bright mode. However due to the specific polarization of the incident beam, the fundamental modes of the C-shaped resonators are not excited by the incident terahertz, hence they are termed as the dark mode. The PIT effect occurs as a result of interference between the bright and the dark mode. In order to observe PIT effect, both the bright and dark modes should have similar resonant frequencies with a little deviation. We further have examined that the PIT window can be modulated by displacing the C-shaped resonators w.r.t. the cut-wire. The numerical observations for different coupling configurations can be explained through an equivalent lumped element circuit model. Moving ahead the PIT effect is further explored in a metamaterial comprising of a cross like structure and four C-shaped resonators. For such configuration, equally strong PIT effect is observed for two orthogonally polarized lights. Therefore, such metamaterials demonstrate a polarization independent PIT response w.r.t the incident terahertz radiation. The proposed study could be significant in the development of slow light devices and polarization independent sensing applications.

Keywords: Metamaterial, terahertz, plasmon, split ring resonator

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23 Biologically Synthesised Silver Nanoparticles Induces Autophagy and JNK Signaling as a Pro-Survival Response by Abrogating Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation in Cancer Cells

Authors: Jitendra Panwar, Sudeshna Mukherjee, Rajdeep Chowdhury, Leena Fageria, R. Venkataramana Dilip

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Metal nanoparticles in recent years have gained importance in cancer therapy due to their enhanced permeability retention effect. Among various nanomaterials, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have received considerable attention due to their unique properties like conductivity, chemical stability, relative lower toxicity and outstanding therapeutic potential, such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anti-cancerous activities. In this study, we took a greener approach to synthesize silver nanoparticle from fungus and analyze its effects on both epithelial and mesenchymal derived cancer cells. Much research has been done on nanoparticle-induced apoptosis, but little is known about its role in autophagy. In our study, the silver nanoparticles were seen to induce autophagy which was analyzed by studying the expression of several autophagy markers like, LC3B-II and ATG genes. Monodansylcadaverine (MDC) assay also revealed the induction of autophagy upon treatment with AgNPs. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine resulted in increased cell death suggesting autophagy as a survival strategy adopted by the cells. In parallel to autophagy induction, silver nanoparticles induced ROS accumulation. Interestingly, autophagy inhibition by chloroquine increased ROS level, resulting in enhanced cell death. We further analyzed MAPK signaling upon AgNP treatment. It was observed that along with autophagy, activation of JNK signaling served as pro-survival while ERK signaling served as a pro-death signal. Our results provide valuable insights into the role of autophagy upon AgNP exposure and provide cues to probabilistic strategies to effectively sensitize cancer cells.

Keywords: autophagy, Silver Nanoparticles, reactive oxygen species, JNK signalling

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22 Quantification of Pollution Loads for the Rehabilitation of Pusu River

Authors: Muhammad Abu Eusuf, Abdullah Al-Mamun, Md. Nuruzzaman, Md. Noor Salleh, Ahmad Jalal Khan Chowdhury, Mohd. Zaki M. Amin, Norlida Mohd. Dom

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Identification of pollution sources and determination of pollution loads from all areas are very important for sustainable rehabilitation of any contaminated river. Pusu is a small river which, flows through the main campus of International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) at Gombak. Poor aesthetics of the river, which is flowing through the entrance of the campus, gives negative impression to the local and international visitors. As such, this study is being conducted to find ways to rehabilitate the river in a sustainable manner. The point and non-point pollution sources of the river basin are identified. Upper part of the 12.6 km2 river basin is covered with secondary forest. However, it is the lower-middle reaches of the river basin which is being cleared for residential development and source of high sediment load. Flow and concentrations of the common pollutants, important for a healthy river, such as Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Suspended Solids (SS), Turbidity, pH, Ammoniacal Nitrogen (AN), Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Phosphorus (TP) are determined. Annual pollution loading to the river was calculated based on the primary and secondary data. Concentrations of SS were high during the rainy day due to contribution from the non-point sources. There are 7 ponds along the river system within the campus, which are severely affected by high sediment load from the land clearing activities. On the other hand, concentrations of other pollutants were high during the non-rainy days. The main sources of point pollution are the hostels, cafeterias, sewage treatment plants located in the campus. Therefore, both pollution sources need to be controlled in order to rehabilitate the river in a sustainable manner.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, River Pollution, point pollution source, non-point pollution sources, pollution loading

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21 Non-Linear Velocity Fields in Turbulent Wave Boundary Layer

Authors: Shamsul Chowdhury

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The objective of this paper is to present the detailed analysis of the turbulent wave boundary layer produced by progressive finite-amplitude waves theory. Most of the works have done for the mass transport in the turbulent boundary layer assuming the eddy viscosity is not time varying, where the sediment movement is induced by the mean velocity. Near the ocean bottom, the waves produce a thin turbulent boundary layer, where the flow is highly rotational, and shear stress associated with the fluid motion cannot be neglected. The magnitude and the predominant direction of the sediment transport near the bottom are known to be closely related to the flow in the wave induced boundary layer. The magnitude of water particle velocity at the Crest phase differs from the one of the Trough phases due to the non-linearity of the waves, which plays an important role to determine the sediment movement. The non-linearity of the waves become predominant in the surf zone area, where the sediment movement occurs vigorously. Therefore, in order to describe the flow near the bottom and relationship between the flow and the movement of the sediment, the analysis was done using the non-linear boundary layer equation and the finite amplitude wave theory was applied to represent the velocity fields in the turbulent wave boundary layer. At first, the calculation was done for turbulent wave boundary layer by two-dimensional model where throughout the calculation is non-linear. But Stokes second order wave profile is adopted at the upper boundary. The calculated profile was compared with the experimental data. Finally, the calculation is done based on various modes of the velocity and turbulent energy. The mean velocity is found to differ from condition of the relative depth and the roughness. It is also found that due to non-linearity, the absolute value for velocity and turbulent energy as well as Reynolds stress are asymmetric. The mean velocity of the laminar boundary layer is always positive but in the turbulent boundary layer plays a very complicated role.

Keywords: Mass Transport, mean velocity, shear stress, wave boundary

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20 Effect of Oxidative Stress on Glutathione Reductase Activity of Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates from Patients with Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Fariha Akhter Chowdhury, Mohammad Nurul Islam, Anamika Saha, Sabrina Mahboob, Afrin Jahan

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Urinary tract infection (UTI) is frequently experienced by the female population where the prevalence increases with aging. Escherichia coli, one of the most common UTI causing organisms, retains glutathione defense mechanism that aids the organism to withstand the harsh physiological environment of urinary tract, host oxidative immune response and even to affect antibiotic-mediated cell death and the emergence of resistance. In this study, we aimed to investigate the glutathione reductase activity of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) by observing the reduced glutathione (GSH) level alteration under stressful condition. Urine samples of 58 patients with UTI were collected. Upon isolation and identification, 88% of the samples presented E. coli as UTI causing organism among which randomly selected isolates (n=9), obtained from urine samples of female patients, were considered for this study. E. coli isolates were grown under normal and stressful conditions where H₂O₂ was used as the stress-inducing agent. GSH level estimation of the isolates in both conditions was carried out based on the colorimetric measurement of 5,5'-dithio-bis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) and GSH reaction product using microplate reader assay. The GSH level of isolated E. coli sampled from adult patients decreased under stress compared to normal condition (p = 0.011). On the other hand, GSH production increased markedly in samples that were collected from elderly subjects (p = 0.024). A significant partial correlation between age and change of GSH level was found as well (p = 0.007). This study may help to reveal ways for better understanding of E. coli pathogenesis of UTI prevalence in elderly patients.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Escherichia coli, glutathione reductase activity, reduced glutathione (GSH), urinary tract infection (UTI)

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19 The Effect of Antibiotic Use on Blood Cultures: Implications for Future Policy

Authors: Avirup Chowdhury, Angus K. McFadyen, Linsey Batchelor

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Blood cultures (BCs) are an important aspect of management of the septic patient, identifying the underlying pathogen and its antibiotic sensitivities. However, while the current literature outlines indications for initial BCs to be taken, there is little guidance for repeat sampling in the following 5-day period and little information on how antibiotic use can affect the usefulness of this investigation. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using inpatients who had undergone 2 or more BCs within 5 days between April 2016 and April 2017 at a 400-bed hospital in the west of Scotland and received antibiotic therapy between the first and second BCs. The data for BC sampling was collected from the electronic microbiology database, and cross-referenced with data from the hospital electronic prescribing system. Overall, 283 BCs were included in the study, taken from 92 patients (mean 3.08 cultures per patient, range 2-10). All 92 patients had initial BCs, of which 83 were positive (90%). 65 had a further sample within 24 hours of commencement of antibiotics, with 35 positive (54%). 23 had samples within 24-48 hours, with 4 (17%) positive; 12 patients had sampling at 48-72 hours, 12 at 72-96 hours, and 10 at 96-120 hours, with none positive. McNemar’s Exact Test was used to calculate statistical significance for patients who received blood cultures in multiple time blocks (Initial, < 24h, 24-120h, > 120h). For initial vs. < 24h-post BCs (53 patients tested), the proportion of positives fell from 46/53 to 29/53 (one-tailed P=0.002, OR 3.43, 95% CI 1.48-7.96). For initial vs 24-120h (n=42), the proportions were 38/42 and 4/42 respectively (P < 0.001, OR 35.0, 95% CI 4.79-255.48). For initial vs > 120h (n=36), these were 33/36 and 2/36 (P < 0.001,OR ∞). These were also calculated for a positive in initial or < 24h vs. 24-120h (n=42), with proportions of 41/42 and 4/42 (P < 0.001, OR 38.0, 95% CI 5.22-276.78); and for initial or < 24h vs > 120h (n=36), with proportions of 35/36 and 2/36 respectively (P < 0.001, OR ∞). This data appears to show that taking an initial BC followed by a BC within 24 hours of antibiotic commencement would maximise blood culture yield while minimising the risk of false negative results. This could potentially remove the need for as many as 46% of BC samples without adversely affecting patient care. BC yield decreases sharply after 48 hours of antibiotic use, and may not provide any clinically useful information after this time. Further multi-centre studies would validate these findings, and provide a foundation for future health policy generation.

Keywords: Antibiotics, Efficacy, Inpatient, blood culture

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18 The Pathology of Bovine Rotavirus Infection in Calves That Confirmed by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction and Real-Time RT-PCR

Authors: Shama Ranjan Barua, Tofazzal M. Rakib, Mohammad Alamgir Hossain, Tania Ferdushy, Sharmin Chowdhury

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Rotavirus is one of the main etiologies of neonatal diarrhea in bovine calves that causes significant economic loss in Bangladesh. The present study was carried out to investigate the pathology of neonatal enteritis in calves due to bovine rotavirus infection in south-eastern part of Bangladesh. Rotavirus was identified by using ELISA, RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction), real-time RT-PCR. We examined 12 dead calves with history of diarrhea during necropsy. Among 12 dead calves, in gross examination, 6 were found with pathological changes in intestine, 5 calves had congestion of small intestine and rest one had no distinct pathological changes. Intestinal contents and/or faecal samples of all dead calves were collected and examined to confirm the presence of bovine rotavirus A using Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Out 12 samples, 5 (42%) samples revealed presence of bovine rotavirus A in three diagnostic tests. The histopathological changes were found almost exclusively limited in the small intestine. The lesions of rotaviral enteritis ranged from slight to moderate shortening (atrophy) of villi in the jejunum and ileum with necrotic crypts. The villi were blunt and covered by immature epithelial cells. Infected cells, stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin staining method, showed characteristic syncytia and eosinophilc intracytoplasmic inclusion body. The presence of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in enterocytes is the indication of viral etiology. The presence of rotavirus in the affected tissues and/or lesions was confirmed by three different immunological and molecular tests. The findings of histopathological changes will be helpful in future diagnosis of rotaviral infection in dead calves.

Keywords: Pathology, Diarrhea, calves, rotavirus

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17 Volatility Index, Fear Sentiment and Cross-Section of Stock Returns: Indian Evidence

Authors: Pratap Chandra Pati, Prabina Rajib, Parama Barai

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The traditional finance theory neglects the role of sentiment factor in asset pricing. However, the behavioral approach to asset-pricing based on noise trader model and limit to arbitrage includes investor sentiment as a priced risk factor in the assist pricing model. Investor sentiment affects stock more that are vulnerable to speculation, hard to value and risky to arbitrage. It includes small stocks, high volatility stocks, growth stocks, distressed stocks, young stocks and non-dividend-paying stocks. Since the introduction of Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) volatility index (VIX) in 1993, it is used as a measure of future volatility in the stock market and also as a measure of investor sentiment. CBOE VIX index, in particular, is often referred to as the ‘investors’ fear gauge’ by public media and prior literature. The upward spikes in the volatility index are associated with bouts of market turmoil and uncertainty. High levels of the volatility index indicate fear, anxiety and pessimistic expectations of investors about the stock market. On the contrary, low levels of the volatility index reflect confident and optimistic attitude of investors. Based on the above discussions, we investigate whether market-wide fear levels measured volatility index is priced factor in the standard asset pricing model for the Indian stock market. First, we investigate the performance and validity of Fama and French three-factor model and Carhart four-factor model in the Indian stock market. Second, we explore whether India volatility index as a proxy for fearful market-based sentiment indicators affect the cross section of stock returns after controlling for well-established risk factors such as market excess return, size, book-to-market, and momentum. Asset pricing tests are performed using monthly data on CNX 500 index constituent stocks listed on the National stock exchange of India Limited (NSE) over the sample period that extends from January 2008 to March 2017. To examine whether India volatility index, as an indicator of fear sentiment, is a priced risk factor, changes in India VIX is included as an explanatory variable in the Fama-French three-factor model as well as Carhart four-factor model. For the empirical testing, we use three different sets of test portfolios used as the dependent variable in the in asset pricing regressions. The first portfolio set is the 4x4 sorts on the size and B/M ratio. The second portfolio set is the 4x4 sort on the size and sensitivity beta of change in IVIX. The third portfolio set is the 2x3x2 independent triple-sorting on size, B/M and sensitivity beta of change in IVIX. We find evidence that size, value and momentum factors continue to exist in Indian stock market. However, VIX index does not constitute a priced risk factor in the cross-section of returns. The inseparability of volatility and jump risk in the VIX is a possible explanation of the current findings in the study.

Keywords: Asset Pricing, India VIX, Fama-French model, Carhart four-factor model

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