Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 250

Search results for: Rajesh Prasad

250 Effect of Honey on Rate of Healing of Socket after Tooth Extraction in Rabbits

Authors: Deependra Prasad Sarraf, Ashish Shrestha, Mehul Rajesh Jaisani, Gajendra Prasad Rauniar

Abstract:

Background: Honey is the worlds’ oldest known wound dressing. Its wound healing properties are not fully established till today. Concerns about antibiotic resistance, and a renewed interest in natural remedies have prompted the resurgence in the antimicrobial and wound healing properties of Honey. Evidence from animal studies and some trials has suggested that honey may accelerate wound healing in burns, infected wounds and open wounds. None of these reports have documented the effect of honey on the healing of socket after tooth extraction. Therefore, the present experimental study was planned to evaluate the efficacy of honey on the healing of socket after tooth extraction in rabbits. Materials and Methods: An experimental study was conducted in six New Zealand White rabbits. Extraction of first premolar tooth on both sides of the lower jaw was done under anesthesia produced by Ketamine and Xylazine followed by application of honey on one socket (test group) and normal saline (control group) in the opposite socket. The intervention was continued for two more days. On the 7th day, the biopsy was taken from the extraction site, and histopathological examination was done. Student’s t-test was used for comparison between the groups and differences were considered to be statistically significant at p-value less than 0.05. Results: There was a significant difference between control group and test group in terms of fibroblast proliferation (p = 0.0019) and bony trabeculae formation (p=0.0003). Inflammatory cells were also observed in both groups, and it was not significant (p=1.0). Overlying epithelium was hyperplastic in both the groups. Conclusion: The study showed that local application of honey promoted the rapid healing process particularly by increasing fibroblast proliferation and bony trabeculae.

Keywords: honey, extraction wound, Nepal, healing

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
249 Reliability Analysis of Computer Centre at Yobe State University Using LRU Algorithm

Authors: V. V. Singh, Yusuf Ibrahim Gwanda, Rajesh Prasad

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In this paper, we focus on the reliability and performance analysis of Computer Centre (CC) at Yobe State University, Damaturu, Nigeria. The CC consists of three servers: one database mail server, one redundant and one for sharing with the client computers in the CC (called as a local server). Observing the different possibilities of the functioning of the CC, the analysis has been done to evaluate the various popular measures of reliability such as availability, reliability, mean time to failure (MTTF), profit analysis due to the operation of the system. The system can ultimately fail due to the failure of router, redundant server before repairing the mail server and switch failure. The system can also partially fail when a local server fails. The failed devices have restored according to Least Recently Used (LRU) techniques. The system can also fail entirely due to a cooling failure of the server, electricity failure or some natural calamity like earthquake, fire tsunami, etc. All the failure rates are assumed to be constant and follow exponential time distribution, while the repair follows two types of distributions: i.e. general and Gumbel-Hougaard family copula distribution.

Keywords: reliability, availability Gumbel-Hougaard family copula, MTTF, internet data centre

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
248 Morphology and Mineralogy of Acid Treated Soil

Authors: P. Hari Prasad Reddy, C. H. Rama Vara Prasad, G. Kalyan Kumar

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This paper presents the morphological and mineralogical changes occurring in the soil due to immediate and prolonged interaction with different concentrations of phosphoric acid and sulphuric acid. In order to assess the effect of acid contamination, a series of sediment volume, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis tests were carried out on soil samples were exposed to different concentrations (1N, 4N and 8N) of phosphoric and sulphuric acid. Experimental results show that both acids showed severe morphological and mineralogical changes with synthesis of neogenic formations mainly at higher concentrations (4N and 8N) and at prolonged duration of interaction (28 and 80 days).

Keywords: phosphoric acid, scanning electron microscopy, sulphuric acid, x-ray diffraction analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
247 Leveraging Business to Business Collaborations to Optimize Reverse Haul Logistics

Authors: Pallav Singh, Rajesh Yabaji, Rajesh Dhir, Chanakya Hridaya

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Supply Chain Costs for the Indian Industries have been on an exponential trend due to steep inflation on fundamental cost factors – Fuel, Labour, Rents. In this changing context organizations have been focusing on adopting multiple approaches to keep logistics costs under control to protect the profit margins. The lever of ‘Business to Business (B2B) collaboration’ can be used by organizations to garner higher value. Given the context of Indian Logistics Industry the penetration of B2B Collaboration initiatives have been limited. This paper outlines a structured framework for adoption of B2B collaboration through discussion of a successful initiative between ITC’s Leaf Tobacco Business and a leading Indian Media House. Multiple barriers to such a collaborative process exist which need to be addressed through comprehensive structured approaches. This paper outlines a generic framework approach to B2B collaboration for the Indian Logistics Space, outlining the guidelines for arriving at potential opportunities, identification of collaborators, effective tie-up process, design of operations and sustenance factors. The generic methods outlined can be used in any other industry and also builds a foundation for further research on many topics.

Keywords: business to business collaboration, reverse haul logistics, transportation cost optimization, exports logistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
246 Non-Candida Albicans Candida: Virulence Factors and Species Identification in India

Authors: Satender Saraswat, Dharmendra Prasad Singh, Rajesh Kumar Verma, Swati Sarswat

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Background and Purpose: The predominant cause of candidiasis was Candida albicans which has shifted towards non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) (Candida species other than the C. albicans). NCAC, earlier considered non-pathogenic or minimally virulent, are now considered a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised. With the NCAC spp. gaining weightage in the clinical cases, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of NCAC spp. in different clinical specimens and to assess a few of their virulence factors. Material and Methods: Routine samples for bacterial culture and sensitivity, showing colony characteristics like Candida on Blood Agar and microscopic features resembling Candida spp. were processed further. Candida isolates were tested for chlamydospore formation, biochemical tests including sugar fermentation and sugar assimilation tests, and growth at 42oC, colony colour on HiCrome™ Candida Differential Agar, HiCandida Identification Kit and VITEK-2 Compact. Virulence factors like adherence to buccal epithelial cells (ABEC), biofilm formation, hemolytic activity, and production of coagulase enzyme were also tested. Results: Mean age of the patients was 38.46 with a male-female ratio of 1.36:1. 137 Candida isolates were recovered. 45.3% isolates were isolated from urine, 19.7% from vaginal swabs and 13.9% from oropharyngeal swabs. 55 (40.1%) isolates of C. albicans and 82 (59.9%) of NCAC spp. were identified, with C. tropicalis (23.4%) in NCAC. C. albicans (3; 50%) was the commonest species in cases of candidemia. Haemolysin production (85.5%) and ABEC (78.2%) were the major virulence factors in C. albicans. C. tropicalis (59.4%) and C. dubliniensis (50%) showed maximum ABEC. Biofilm forming capacity was higher in C. tropicalis (78.1%) than C. albicans (67%). Conclusion: This study suggests varied prevalence and virulence based on geographical locations, even within a subcontinent. It clearly demarcates the emergence of NCAC and their predominance in different body fluids. Identification of Candida to species level should become a routine in all the laboratories.

Keywords: ABEC, NCAC, non-Candida albicans Candida, Vitek-2TM compact

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
245 Tailoring the Parameters of the Quantum MDS Codes Constructed from Constacyclic Codes

Authors: Jaskarn Singh Bhullar, Divya Taneja, Manish Gupta, Rajesh Kumar Narula

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The existence conditions of dual containing constacyclic codes have opened a new path for finding quantum maximum distance separable (MDS) codes. Using these conditions parameters of length n=(q²+1)/2 quantum MDS codes were improved. A class of quantum MDS codes of length n=(q²+q+1)/h, where h>1 is an odd prime, have also been constructed having large minimum distance and these codes are new in the sense as these are not available in the literature.

Keywords: hermitian construction, constacyclic codes, cyclotomic cosets, quantum MDS codes, singleton bound

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
244 Diversity and Utilize of Ignored, Underutilized, and Uncommercialized Horticultural Species in Nepal

Authors: Prakriti Chand, Binayak Prasad Rajbhandari, Ram Prasad Mainali

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Local indigenous community in Lalitpur, Nepal, use Ignored, Underutilized and Uncommercialized Horticultural Species (IUUHS) for medicine, food, spice, pickles, and religious purposes. But, research and exploration about usage, status, potentialities, and importance of these future sustainable crops are inadequately documented and have been ignored for a positive food transformation system. The study aimed to assess the use and diversity of NUWHS in terms of current status investigation, documentation, management, and future potentialities of IUUHS. A wide range of participatory tools through the household survey ( 100 respondents), 8 focus group discussions, 20 key informant interviews was followed by individual assessment, participatory rural assessments and supplemented by literature review. This study recorded 95 IUUHS belonging to 43 families, of which 92 were angiosperms, 2 pteridophytes, and 1 gymnosperm. Twenty seven species had multiple uses. The IUUHS observed during the study were 31 vegetables, 20 fruits, 14 wild species, 7 spices, 7 pulses, 7 pickle, 7 medicine, and 2 religious species. Vegetables and fruits were the most observed category of IUUHS. Eighty nine species were observed as medicinally valued species, and 86% of the women had taken over all the agricultural activities. 84% of respondents used these species during food deficient period. IUUHS have future potential as an alternative food to major staple crops due to its remarkable ability to be adapted in marginal soil and thrive harsh climatic condition. There are various constraints regarding the utilization and development of IUUHS, which needs initiation of promotion, utilization, management, and conservation of species from the grass root level.

Keywords: agrobiodiversity, Ignored and underutilized species, uncultivated horticultural species, diversity use

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
243 Analysis of Plates with Varying Rigidities Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Karan Modi, Rajesh Kumar, Jyoti Katiyar, Shreya Thusoo

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This paper presents Finite Element Method (FEM) for analyzing the internal responses generated in thin rectangular plates with various edge conditions and rigidity conditions. Comparison has been made between the FEM (ANSYS software) results for displacement, stresses and moments generated with and without the consideration of hole in plate and different aspect ratios. In the end comparison for responses in plain and composite square plates has been studied.

Keywords: ANSYS, finite element method, plates, static analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
242 Magnetoresistance Transition from Negative to Positive in Functionalization of Carbon Nanotube and Composite with Polyaniline

Authors: Krishna Prasad Maity, Narendra Tanty, Ananya Patra, V. Prasad

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Carbon nanotube (CNT) is a well-known material for very good electrical, thermal conductivity and high tensile strength. Because of that, it’s widely used in many fields like nanotechnology, electronics, optics, etc. In last two decades, polyaniline (PANI) with CNT and functionalized CNT (fCNT) have been promising materials in application of gas sensing, electromagnetic shielding, electrode of capacitor etc. So, the study of electrical conductivity of PANI/CNT and PANI/fCNT is important to understand the charge transport and interaction between PANI and CNT in the composite. It is observed that a transition in magnetoresistance (MR) with lowering temperature, increasing magnetic field and decreasing CNT percentage in CNT/PANI composite. Functionalization of CNT prevent the nanotube aggregation, improves interfacial interaction, dispersion and stabilized in polymer matrix. However, it shortens the length, breaks C-C sp² bonds and enhances the disorder creating defects on the side walls. We have studied electrical resistivity and MR in PANI with CNT and fCNT composites for different weight percentages down to the temperature 4.2K and up to magnetic field 5T. Resistivity increases significantly in composite at low temperature due to functionalization of CNT compared to only CNT. Interestingly a transition from negative to positive magnetoresistance has been observed when the filler is changed from pure CNT to functionalized CNT after a certain percentage (10wt%) as the effect of more disorder in fCNT/PANI composite. The transition of MR has been explained on the basis of polaron-bipolaron model. The long-range Coulomb interaction between two polarons screened by disorder in the composite of fCNT/PANI, increases the effective on-site Coulomb repulsion energy to form bipolaron which leads to change the sign of MR from negative to positive.

Keywords: coulomb interaction, magnetoresistance transition, polyaniline composite, polaron-bipolaron

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
241 Advanced Mouse Cursor Control and Speech Recognition Module

Authors: Prasad Kalagura, B. Veeresh kumar

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We constructed an interface system that would allow a similarly paralyzed user to interact with a computer with almost full functional capability. A real-time tracking algorithm is implemented based on adaptive skin detection and motion analysis. The clicking of the mouse is activated by the user's eye blinking through a sensor. The keyboard function is implemented by voice recognition kit.

Keywords: embedded ARM7 processor, mouse pointer control, voice recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
240 Collaborative Planning and Forecasting

Authors: Neha Asthana, Vishal Krishna Prasad

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Collaborative planning and forecasting are the innovative and systematic approaches towards productive integration and assimilation of data synergized into information. The changing and variable market dynamics have persuaded global business chains to incorporate collaborative planning and forecasting as an imperative tool. Thus, it is essential for the supply chains to constantly improvise, update its nature, and mould as per changing global environment.

Keywords: information transfer, forecasting, optimization, supply chain management

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
239 Inhibitory Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cestrum Nocturnum on α-Amylase Activity

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Anil Kamboj

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Inhibition of α- amylase play a vital role in the clinical management of postprandial hyperglycemia. Although, powerful synthetic inhibitors are available, natural inhibitors are potentially safer. The present study was carried out to evaluate α- amylase inhibition activity from hydroalcoholic extracts from aerial parts of Cestrum nocturnum. Hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by Soxhletation Method. The extract showed strong inhibition towards α- amylase activity and IC50 value were 45.9 µg. This In vitro studies indicate the potential of C. nocturnum in the development of effective anti-diabetic agents.

Keywords: α- amylase, cestrum nocturnum, hyperglycemia, hydroalcoholic extracts, diabetes

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
238 An Integrated Mathematical Approach to Measure the Capacity of MMTS

Authors: Bayan Bevrani, Robert L. Burdett, Prasad K. D. V. Yarlagadda

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This article focuses upon multi-modal transportation systems (MMTS) and the issues surrounding the determination of system capacity. For that purpose a multi-objective framework is advocated that integrates all the different modes and many different competing capacity objectives. This framework is analytical in nature and facilitates a variety of capacity querying and capacity expansion planning.

Keywords: analytical model, capacity analysis, capacity query, multi-modal transportation system (MMTS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
237 Detecting the Edge of Multiple Images in Parallel

Authors: Prakash K. Aithal, U. Dinesh Acharya, Rajesh Gopakumar

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Edge is variation of brightness in an image. Edge detection is useful in many application areas such as finding forests, rivers from a satellite image, detecting broken bone in a medical image etc. The paper discusses about finding edge of multiple aerial images in parallel .The proposed work tested on 38 images 37 colored and one monochrome image. The time taken to process N images in parallel is equivalent to time taken to process 1 image in sequential. The proposed method achieves pixel level parallelism as well as image level parallelism.

Keywords: edge detection, multicore, gpu, opencl, mpi

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
236 Surprising Behaviour of Kaolinitic Soils under Alkaline Environment

Authors: P. Hari Prasad Reddy, Shimna Paulose, V. Sai Kumar, C. H. Rama Vara Prasad

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Soil environment gets contaminated due to rapid industrialisation, agricultural-chemical application and improper disposal of waste generated by the society. Unexpected volume changes can occur in soil in the presence of certain contaminants usually after the long duration of interaction. Alkali is one of the major soil contaminant that has a considerable effect on behaviour of soils and capable of inducing swelling potential in soil. Chemical heaving of clayey soils occurs when they are wetted by aqueous solutions of alkalis. Mineralogical composition of the soil is one of the main factors influencing soil- alkali interaction. In the present work, studies are carried out to understand the swell potential of soils due to soil-alkali interaction with different concentrations of NaOH solution. Locally available soil, namely, red earth containing kaolinite which is of non-swelling nature is selected for the study. In addition to this, two commercially available clayey soils, namely ball clay and china clay containing mainly of kaolinite are selected to understand the effect of alkali interaction in various kaolinitic soils. Non-swelling red earth shows maximum swell at lower concentrations of alkali solution (0.1N) and a slightly decreasing trend of swelling with further increase in concentration (1N, 4N, and 8N). Marginal decrease in swell potential with increase in concentration indicates that the increased concentration of alkali solution exists as free solution in case of red earth. China clay and ball clay both falling under kaolinite group of clay minerals, show swelling with alkaline solution. At lower concentrations of alkali solution both the soils shows similar swell behaviour, but at higher concentration of alkali solution ball clay shows high swell potential compared to china clay which may be due to lack of well ordered crystallinity in ball clay compared to china clay. The variations in the results obtained were corroborated by carrying XRD and SEM studies.

Keywords: alkali, kaolinite, swell potential, XRD, SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
235 Edge Detection in Low Contrast Images

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh K. Pandey

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The edges of low contrast images are not clearly distinguishable to the human eye. It is difficult to find the edges and boundaries in it. The present work encompasses a new approach for low contrast images. The Chebyshev polynomial based fractional order filter has been used for filtering operation on an image. The preprocessing has been performed by this filter on the input image. Laplacian of Gaussian method has been applied on preprocessed image for edge detection. The algorithm has been tested on two test images.

Keywords: low contrast image, fractional order differentiator, Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) method, chebyshev polynomial

Procedia PDF Downloads 452
234 Microkinetic Modelling of NO Reduction on Pt Catalysts

Authors: Vishnu S. Prasad, Preeti Aghalayam

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The major harmful automobile exhausts are nitric oxide (NO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC). Reduction of NO using unburned fuel HC as a reductant is the technique used in hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction (HC-SCR). In this work, we study the microkinetic modelling of NO reduction using propene as a reductant on Pt catalysts. The selectivity of NO reduction to N2O is detected in some ranges of operating conditions, whereas the effect of inlet O2% causes a number of changes in the feasible regimes of operation.

Keywords: microkinetic modelling, NOx, platinum on alumina catalysts, selective catalytic reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
233 Fractional Order Differentiator Using Chebyshev Polynomials

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh Kumar Pandey

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A discrete time fractional orderdifferentiator has been modeled for estimating the fractional order derivatives of contaminated signal. The proposed approach is based on Chebyshev’s polynomials. We use the Riemann-Liouville fractional order derivative definition for designing the fractional order SG differentiator. In first step we calculate the window weight corresponding to the required fractional order. Then signal is convoluted with this calculated window’s weight for finding the fractional order derivatives of signals. Several signals are considered for evaluating the accuracy of the proposed method.

Keywords: fractional order derivative, chebyshev polynomials, signals, S-G differentiator

Procedia PDF Downloads 496
232 Electronic Resources and Information Literacy in Higher Education Library

Authors: Nirmal Singh, Rajesh Kumar

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Abstract- Information literacy aims to develop both critical understanding and active participation in scholars. It enables scholars to interpret and make informed judgments as users of information sources, and it also enables them to become producers of information in their own right, and thereby to become more powerful participants in society. Information literacy is about developing people‘s critical and creative abilities. Digital media – and particularly the Internet – significantly increase the potential for such active participation of the individual, provided scholars have the means and training to effectively access and use them. This paper provides definition, standards and importance of information literacy (IL). Keywords: Information literacy, Digital Media, Training, Communications Technologies.

Keywords: Information literacy, Digital Media, Training, , Communications Technologies

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
231 Detecting Covid-19 Fake News Using Deep Learning Technique

Authors: AnjalI A. Prasad

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Nowadays, social media played an important role in spreading misinformation or fake news. This study analyzes the fake news related to the COVID-19 pandemic spread in social media. This paper aims at evaluating and comparing different approaches that are used to mitigate this issue, including popular deep learning approaches, such as CNN, RNN, LSTM, and BERT algorithm for classification. To evaluate models’ performance, we used accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score as the evaluation metrics. And finally, compare which algorithm shows better result among the four algorithms.

Keywords: BERT, CNN, LSTM, RNN

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
230 Bacteriophages for Sustainable Wastewater Treatment: Application in Black Water Decontamination with an Emphasis to DRDO Biotoilet

Authors: Sonika Sharma, Mohan G. Vairale, Sibnarayan Datta, Soumya Chatterjee, Dharmendra Dubey, Rajesh Prasad, Raghvendra Budhauliya, Bidisha Das, Vijay Veer

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Bacteriophages are viruses that parasitize specific bacteria and multiply in metabolising host bacteria. Bacteriophages hunt for a single or a subset of bacterial species, making them potential antibacterial agents. Utilizing the ability of phages to control bacterial populations has several applications from medical to the fields of agriculture, aquaculture and the food industry. However, harnessing phage based techniques in wastewater treatments to improve quality of effluent and sludge release into the environment is a potential area for R&D application. Phage mediated bactericidal effect in any wastewater treatment process has many controlling factors that lead to treatment performance. In laboratory conditions, titer of bacteriophages (coliphages) isolated from effluent water of a specially designed anaerobic digester of human night soil (DRDO Biotoilet) was successfully increased with a modified protocol of the classical double layer agar technique. Enrichment of the same was carried out and efficacy of the phage enriched medium was evaluated at different conditions (specific media, temperature, storage conditions). Growth optimization study was carried out on different media like soybean casein digest medium (Tryptone soya medium), Luria-Bertani medium, phage deca broth medium and MNA medium (Modified nutrient medium). Further, temperature-phage yield relationship was also observed at three different temperatures 27˚C, 37˚C and 44˚C at laboratory condition. Results showed the higher activity of coliphage 27˚C and at 37˚C. Further, addition of divalent ions (10mM MgCl2, 5mM CaCl2) and 5% glycerol resulted in a significant increase in phage titer. Besides this, effect of antibiotics addition like ampicillin and kanamycin at different concentration on plaque formation was analysed and reported that ampicillin at a concentration of 1mg/ml ampicillin stimulates phage infection and results in more number of plaques. Experiments to test viability of phage showed that it can remain active for 6 months at 4˚C in fresh tryptone soya broth supplemented with fresh culture of coliforms (early log phase). The application of bacteriophages (especially coliphages) for treatment of effluent of human faecal matter contaminated effluent water is unique. This environment-friendly treatment system not only reduces the pathogenic coliforms, but also decreases the competition between nuisance bacteria and functionally important microbial populations. Therefore, the phage based cocktail to treat fecal pathogenic bacteria present in black water has many implication in wastewater treatment processes including ‘DRDO Biotoilet’, which is an ecofriendly appropriate and affordable human faecal matter treatment technology for different climates and situations.

Keywords: wastewater, microbes, virus, biotoilet, phage viability

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
229 Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils of Yelagirihills,Tamilnadu by EDXRF Technique

Authors: Chandrasekaran, Ravisankar N. Harikrishnan, Rajalakshmi, K. K. Satapathy M. V. R. Prasad, K. V. Kanagasabapathy

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Heavy metals were considered as highly toxic environmental pollutants to soil ecosystem and human health. In present study the 12 heavy metals (Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co,Ni and Zn.) are determined in soils of Yelagiri hills, Tamilnadu by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique. Metal concentrations were used to quantify pollution contamination factors such as enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and contamination factor (CF) are calculated and reported.

Keywords: soil, heavy metals, EDXRF, pollution contamination factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
228 Charcoal Production from Invasive Species: Suggested Shift for Increased Household Income and Forest Plant Diversity in Nepal

Authors: Kishor Prasad Bhatta, Suman Ghimire, Durga Prasad Joshi

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Invasive Alien Species (IAS) are considered waste forest resources in Nepal. The rapid expansion of IAS is one of the nine main drivers of forest degradation, though the extent and distribution of this species are not well known. Further, the knowledge of the impact of IAS removal on forest plant diversity is hardly known, and the possibilities of income generation from them at the grass-root communities are rarely documented. Systematic sampling of 1% with nested circular plots of 500 square meters was performed in IAS removed and non-removed area, each of 30 hectares in Udayapur Community Forest User Group (CFUG), Chitwan, central Nepal to observe whether the removal of IAS contributed to an increase in plant diversity. In addition, ten entrepreneurs of Udaypur CFUG, involved in the charcoal production, briquette making and marketing were interviewed and interacted as well as their record keeping booklets were reviewed to understand if the charcoal production contributed to their income and employment. The average annual precipitation and temperature of the study area is 2100 mm and 34 degree Celsius respectively with Shorea robusta as main tree species and Eupatorium odoratum as dominant IAS. All the interviewed households were from the ̔below-poverty-line’ category as per Community Forestry Guidelines. A higher Shannon-Weiner plant diversity index at regeneration level was observed in IAS removed areas (2.43) than in control site (1.95). Furthermore, the number of tree seedlings and saplings in the IAS harvested blocks were significantly higher (p < 0.005) compared to the unharvested one. The sale of charcoal produced through the pyrolysis of IAS in ̔ Bio-energy kilns’ contributed for an average increased income of 30.95 % (Nepalese rupees 31,000) of the involved households. Despite above factors, some operational policy hurdles related to charcoal transport and taxation existed at field level. This study suggests that plant diversity could be increased through the removal of IAS, and considerable economic benefits could be achieved if charcoal is substantially produced and utilized.

Keywords: briquette, economic benefits, pyrolysis, regeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
227 NOx Emission and Computational Analysis of Jatropha Curcus Fuel and Crude Oil

Authors: Vipan Kumar Sohpal, Rajesh K Sharma

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Diminishing of conventional fuels and hysterical vehicles emission leads to deterioration of the environment, which emphasize the research to work on biofuels. Biofuels from different sources attract the attention of research due to low emission and biodegradability. Emission of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and H-C reduced drastically using Biofuels (B-20) combustion. Contrary to the conventional fuel, engine emission results indicated that nitrous oxide emission is higher in Biofuels. So this paper examines and compares the nitrogen oxide emission of Jatropha Curcus (JCO) B-20% blends with the vegetable oil. In addition to that computational analysis of crude non edible oil performed to assess the impact of composition on emission quality. In conclusion, JCO have the potential feedstock for the biodiesel production after the genetic modification in the plant.

Keywords: jatropha curcus, computational analysis, emissions, NOx biofuels

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
226 On Optimum Stratification

Authors: M. G. M. Khan, V. D. Prasad, D. K. Rao

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In this manuscript, we discuss the problem of determining the optimum stratification of a study (or main) variable based on the auxiliary variable that follows a uniform distribution. If the stratification of survey variable is made using the auxiliary variable it may lead to substantial gains in precision of the estimates. This problem is formulated as a Nonlinear Programming Problem (NLPP), which turn out to multistage decision problem and is solved using dynamic programming technique.

Keywords: auxiliary variable, dynamic programming technique, nonlinear programming problem, optimum stratification, uniform distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
225 Effect of Copper Particle on the PD Characteristics in a Coaxial Duct with Mixture of SF6 (10%) and N2 (90%) Gases

Authors: B. Rajesh Kamath, J. Sundara Rajan, M. K. Veeraiah, M. Z. Kurian

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Insulation performance of a gas insulated system is severely affected by particle contaminants. These metallic particles adversely affect the characteristics of insulating system. These particles can produce surface charges due to partial discharge activities. These particles which are free to move enhance the local electric fields. This paper deals with the influence of conducting particle placed in a co-axial duct on the discharge characteristics of gas mixtures. Co-axial duct placed in a high pressure chamber is used for the purpose. A gas pressure of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 MPa have been considered with a 10:90 SF6 and N2 gas mixtures. The 2D and 3D histograms of clean duct and duct with copper particle are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: coaxial duct, gas insulated system, gas mixtures, metallic particle, partial discharges, histograms

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
224 Modern Pedagogy Techniques for DC Motor Speed Control

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Roopali Dogra, Puneet Aggarwal

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Based on a survey conducted for second and third year students of the electrical engineering department at Maharishi Markandeshwar University, India, it was found that around 92% of students felt that it would be better to introduce a virtual environment for laboratory experiments. Hence, a need was felt to perform modern pedagogy techniques for students which consist of a virtual environment using MATLAB/Simulink. In this paper, a virtual environment for the speed control of a DC motor is performed using MATLAB/Simulink. The various speed control methods for the DC motor include the field resistance control method and armature voltage control method. The performance analysis of the DC motor is hence analyzed.

Keywords: DC Motor, field control, pedagogy techniques, speed control, virtual environment, voltage control

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
223 Variation in Orbital Elements of Mars and Jupiter Due to the Sun Oblateness by Using Secular Theory

Authors: Avaneesh Vaishwar, Badam Singh Kushvah, Devi Prasad Mishra

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We studied the variation in orbital elements of Mars and Jupiter for a time span of 200 thousand years by using secular theory. Here we took Sun oblateness into account and considered the first two zonal gravity constants (J2 and J4) for showing the effect of Sun oblateness on the orbital elements of Mars and Jupiter. We found that in both cases (with and without Sun oblateness) the variation in orbital elements of Mars and Jupiter is periodic moreover in case of the Sun oblateness, the period of variation in orbital elements is decreasing for both the planets.

Keywords: lagrange's planetary equation, orbital elements, planetary system, secular theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
222 Thinned Elliptical Cylindrical Antenna Array Synthesis Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Rajesh Bera, Durbadal Mandal, Rajib Kar, Sakti P. Ghoshal

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This paper describes optimal thinning of an Elliptical Cylindrical Array (ECA) of uniformly excited isotropic antennas which can generate directive beam with minimum relative Side Lobe Level (SLL). The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method, which represents a new approach for optimization problems in electromagnetic, is used in the optimization process. The PSO is used to determine the optimal set of ‘ON-OFF’ elements that provides a radiation pattern with maximum SLL reduction. Optimization is done without prefixing the value of First Null Beam Width (FNBW). The variation of SLL with element spacing of thinned array is also reported. Simulation results show that the number of array elements can be reduced by more than 50% of the total number of elements in the array with a simultaneous reduction in SLL to less than -27dB.

Keywords: thinned array, Particle Swarm Optimization, Elliptical Cylindrical Array, Side Lobe Label.

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
221 Identification of Synthetic Hybrids of 4-Thiazolidinone-Bromopyrrole Alkaloid as HIV-1 RT Inhibitors

Authors: Rajesh A. Rane, Shital S. Naphade, Rajshekhar Karpoormath

Abstract:

Thiozolidin-4-one, a mimic of thiazolobenzimidazole (TBZ) has drawn many attentions due to its potent and selective inhibition against the HIV-1 and low toxicity by binding to the allosteric site of the reverse transcriptase (RT) as a non-nucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI). Similarly, marine bromopyrrole alkaloids are well known for their diverse array of anti-infective properties. Hence, we have reported synthesis and in vitro HIV-1 RT inhibitory activity of a series of 4-thiazolidinone-bromopyrrole alkaloid hybrids tethered with amide linker. The results of in vitro HIV-1 RT kit assay showed that some of the compounds, such as 4c, 4d, and 4i could effectively inhibit RT activity. Among them, compounds 4c having 4-chlorophenyl substituted 4-thiazolidione ring was the best one with the IC50 value of 0.26 µM. The sturdy emerges with key structure-activity relationship that pyrrole-NH-free core benefited inhibition against HIV-1 RT inhibition. This study identified conjugate 4c with potent activity and selectivity as promising compound for further drug development to HIV.

Keywords: antiviral drugs, bromopyrrole alkaloids, HIV-1 RT inhibition, 4-thiazolidinone

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