Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: Rabah Meraihi

25 Performance Evaluation of DSR and OLSR Routing Protocols in MANET Using Varying Pause Time

Authors: Yassine Meraihi, Dalila Acheli, Rabah Meraihi

Abstract:

MANET for Mobile Ad hoc NETwork is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that communicates with each other without using any existing infrastructure, access point or centralized administration, due to the higher mobility and limited radio transmission range, routing is an important issue in ad hoc network, so in order to ensure reliable and efficient route between to communicating nodes quickly, an appropriate routing protocol is needed. In this paper, we present the performance analysis of two mobile ad hoc network routing protocols namely DSR and OLSR using NS2.34, the performance is determined on the basis of packet delivery ratio, throughput, average jitter and end to end delay with varying pause time.

Keywords: DSR, OLSR, quality of service, routing protocols, MANET

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24 Impact of Node Density and Transmission Range on the Performance of OLSR and DSDV Routing Protocols in VANET City Scenarios

Authors: Yassine Meraihi, Dalila Acheli, Rabah Meraihi

Abstract:

Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is a special case of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) used to establish communications and exchange information among nearby vehicles and between vehicles and nearby fixed infrastructure. VANET is seen as a promising technology used to provide safety, efficiency, assistance and comfort to the road users. Routing is an important issue in Vehicular Ad Hoc Network to find and maintain communication between vehicles due to the highly dynamic topology, frequently disconnected network and mobility constraints. This paper evaluates the performance of two most popular proactive routing protocols OLSR and DSDV in real city traffic scenario on the basis of three metrics namely Packet delivery ratio, throughput and average end to end delay by varying vehicles density and transmission range.

Keywords: DSDV, OLSR, quality of service, routing protocols, VANET

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23 Hypersonic Flow of CO2-N2 Mixture around a Spacecraft during the Atmospheric Reentry

Authors: Zineddine Bouyahiaoui, Rabah Haoui

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to analyze a flow around the axisymmetric blunt body taken into account the chemical and vibrational nonequilibrium flow. This work concerns the entry of spacecraft in the atmosphere of the planet Mars. Since the equations involved are non-linear partial derivatives, the volume method is the only way to solve this problem. The choice of the mesh and the CFL is a condition for the convergence to have the stationary solution.

Keywords: blunt body, finite volume, hypersonic flow, viscous flow

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22 Effect of Mineral Additives on Improving the Geotechnical Properties of Soils in Chief

Authors: Rabah Younes

Abstract:

The reduction of available land resources and the increased cout associated with the use of high quality materials have led to the need for local soils to be used in geotechnical construction, however; poor engineering properties of these soils pose difficulties for constructions project and need to be stabilized to improve their properties in other works unsuitable soils with low bearing capacity , high plasticity coupled with high instability are frequently encountered hence, there is a need to improve the physical and mechanical characteristics of these soils to make theme more suitable for construction this can be done by using different mechanical and chemical methods clayey soil stabilization has been practiced for sometime but mixing additives, such us cement, lime and fly ash to the soil to increase its strength.

Keywords: clay, soil stabilization, naturaln pozzolana, atterberg limits, compaction, compressive strength shear strength, curing

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21 Mathematical Modeling of a Sub-Wet Bulb Temperature Evaporative Cooling Using Porous Ceramic Materials

Authors: Meryem Kanzari, Rabah Boukhanouf, Hatem G. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Indirect Evaporative Cooling process has the advantage of supplying cool air at constant moisture content. However, such system can only supply air at temperatures above wet bulb temperature. This paper presents a mathematical model for a sub-wet bulb temperature indirect evaporative cooling arrangement that can overcome this limitation and supply cool air at temperatures approaching dew point and without increasing its moisture content. In addition, the use of porous ceramics as wet media materials offers the advantage of integration into building elements. Results of the computer show that the proposed design is capable of cooling air to temperatures lower than the ambient wet bulb temperature and achieving wet bulb effectiveness of about 1.17.

Keywords: indirect evaporative cooling, porous ceramic, sub-wet bulb temperature, mathematical modeling

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20 Effect of Mesh Size on the Supersonic Viscous Flow Parameters around an Axisymmetric Blunt Body

Authors: Haoui Rabah

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to analyze a viscous flow around the axisymmetric blunt body taken into account the mesh size both in the free stream and into the boundary layer. The resolution of the Navier-Stokes equations is realized by using the finite volume method to determine the flow parameters and detached shock position. The numerical technique uses the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer. Here, adequate time stepping parameter, CFL coefficient and mesh size level are selected to ensure numerical convergence. The effect of the mesh size is significant on the shear stress and velocity profile. The best solution is obtained with using a very fine grid. This study enabled us to confirm that the determination of boundary layer thickness can be obtained only if the size of the mesh is lower than a certain value limits given by our calculations.

Keywords: supersonic flow, viscous flow, finite volume, blunt body

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19 Hepatitis B Virus Infection Among Egyptian Children Vaccinated during Infancy

Authors: Iman I. Salama, Samia M. Sami, Somaia I. Salama, Zeinab N. Said, Thanaa M. Rabah, Aida M. Abdel-Mohsin

Abstract:

This is a national community-based project to evaluate the effectiveness of HBV vaccination program in prevention of infection. HBV markers were tested in the sera of 3600 vaccinated children. Infected children were followed up for 1 year. Prevalence of HBV infection was 0.39 % (0.28% positive for anti-HBc, 0.03% positive for HBsAg and 0.08% positive for both). One year later, 50% of positive anti-HBc children turned negative with sustained positivity for positive HBsAg cases. HBV infection was significantly higher at age above 9 years (0.6%) compared to 0.2% at age 3-9 years and 0% at younger age (P < 0.05). Logistic analysis revealed that predictors for HBV infection were history of blood transfusion, regular medical injection, and family history of either HBV infection or drug abuse (adjusted odds ratios 6.2, 5.6, 7.6 & 19.1 respectively). HBV vaccination program produced adequate protection. Adherence to infection control measures and safe blood transfusion are recommended.

Keywords: HBV infection, HBV vaccine, children, Egypt

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18 Chemical and Vibrational Nonequilibrium Hypersonic Viscous Flow around an Axisymmetric Blunt Body

Authors: Rabah Haoui

Abstract:

Hypersonic flows around spatial vehicles during their reentry phase in planetary atmospheres are characterized by intense aerothermodynamics phenomena. The aim of this work is to analyze high temperature flows around an axisymmetric blunt body taking into account chemical and vibrational non-equilibrium for air mixture species and the no slip condition at the wall. For this purpose, the Navier-Stokes equations system is resolved by the finite volume methodology to determine the flow parameters around the axisymmetric blunt body especially at the stagnation point and in the boundary layer along the wall of the blunt body. The code allows the capture of shock wave before a blunt body placed in hypersonic free stream. The numerical technique uses the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer. CFL coefficient and mesh size level are selected to ensure the numerical convergence.

Keywords: hypersonic flow, viscous flow, chemical kinetic, dissociation, finite volumes, frozen and non-equilibrium flow

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17 Development of Generalized Correlation for Liquid Thermal Conductivity of N-Alkane and Olefin

Authors: A. Ishag Mohamed, A. A. Rabah

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to develop a generalized correlation for the prediction of thermal conductivity of n-Alkanes and Alkenes. There is a minority of research and lack of correlation for thermal conductivity of liquids in the open literature. The available experimental data are collected covering the groups of n-Alkanes and Alkenes.The data were assumed to correlate to temperature using Filippov correlation. Nonparametric regression of Grace Algorithm was used to develop the generalized correlation model. A spread sheet program based on Microsoft Excel was used to plot and calculate the value of the coefficients. The results obtained were compared with the data that found in Perry's Chemical Engineering Hand Book. The experimental data correlated to the temperature ranged "between" 273.15 to 673.15 K, with R2 = 0.99.The developed correlation reproduced experimental data that which were not included in regression with absolute average percent deviation (AAPD) of less than 7 %. Thus the spread sheet was quite accurate which produces reliable data.

Keywords: N-Alkanes, N-Alkenes, nonparametric, regression

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16 Magnetoelectric Effect in Polyvinylidene Fluoride Beta Phase Thin Films

Authors: Belouadah Rabah, Guyomar Daneil, Guiffard Benoit

Abstract:

The magnetoelectric (ME) materials has dielectric polarization induced by the magnetic field or induced magnetization under an electric field. A strong ME effect requires the simultaneous presence of magnetic moments and electric dipoles. In the last decades, extensive research has been conducted on the ME effect in single phase and composite materials. This article reported the results obtained with two samples, the first is mono layer of PVDF bi-stretched and the second is the multi layer PVDF bi-stretched with the Polyurethane filled with micro particles magnetic Fe3O4 (PU+2% Fe3O4). Compare with non ME material like Alumine, a large ME polarization coefficient for the two samples was obtained. The piezoelectric properties of the PVDF and elastic proprieties of Pu+2% Fe3O4 give a big linear ME coefficient of the multi layer PVDF/(Pu+2% Fe3O4) than in the monolayer of PVDF.

Keywords: magnetoelectric effect, polymers, magnetic particles, composites, films

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15 Optical and Magnetic Properties of Ferromagnetic Co-Ni Co-Doped TiO2 Thin Films

Authors: Rabah Bensaha, Badreddine Toubal

Abstract:

We investigate the structural, optical and magnetic properties of TiO2, Co-doped TiO2, Ni-doped TiO2 and Co-Ni co-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by the sol-gel dip coating method. Fully anatase phase was obtained by adding metal ions without any detectable impurity phase or oxide formed. AFM and SEM micrographs clearly confirm that the addition of Co-Ni affects the shape of anatase nanoparticles. The crystallite sizes and surface roughness of TiO2 films increase with Co-doping, Ni-doping and Co–Ni co-doping, respectively. The refractive index, thickness and optical band gap values of the films were obtained by means of optical transmittance spectra measurements. The band gap of TiO2 sample was decreased by Co-doping, Ni-doping and Co–Ni co-doping TiO2 films. Both undoped and Co-Ni co-doped films were found to be ferromagnetic at room temperature may due to the presence of oxygen vacancy defect and the probable formation of metal clusters Co-Ni.

Keywords: Co-Ni co-doped, anatase TiO2, ferromagnetic, sol-gel method, thin films

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14 Packet Fragmentation Caused by Encryption and Using It as a Security Method

Authors: Said Rabah Azzam, Andrew Graham

Abstract:

Fragmentation of packets caused by encryption applied on the network layer of the IOS model in Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) networks as well as the possibility of using fragmentation and Access Control Lists (ACLs) as a method of restricting network access to certain hosts or areas of a network.Using default settings, fragmentation is expected to occur and each fragment to be reassembled at the other end. If this does not occur then a high number of ICMP messages should be generated back towards the source host indicating that the packet is too large and that it needs to be made smaller. This result is also expected when the MTU is changed for certain links between devices.When using ACLs and packet fragments to restrict access to hosts or network segments it is possible that ACLs cannot be set up in this way. If ACLs cannot be setup to allow only fragments then it is a limitation of the hardware’s firmware holding back this particular method. If the ACL on the restricted switch can be set up in such a way to allow only fragments then a connection that forces packets to fragment should be allowed to pass through the ACL. This should then make a network connection to the destination machine allowing data to be sent to and from the destination machine. ICMP messages from the restricted access switch and host should also be blocked from being sent back across the link which will be shown in an SSH session into the switch.

Keywords: fragmentation, encryption, security, switch

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13 Effects of Copper and Cobalt Co-Doping on Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of Tio2 Thin Films Prepared by Sol Gel Method

Authors: Rabah Bensaha, Badreeddine Toubal

Abstract:

Un-doped TiO2, Co single doped TiO2 and (Cu-Co) co-doped TiO2 thin films have been growth on silicon substrates by the sol-gel dip coating technique. We mainly investigated both effects of the dopants and annealing temperature on the structural, optical and electrical properties of TiO2 films using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and FTIR spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–Vis spectroscopy. The chemical compositions of Co-doped and (Cu-Co) co-doped TiO2 films were confirmed by XRD, Raman and FTIR studies. The average grain sizes of CoTiO3-TiO2 nanocomposites were increased with annealing temperature. AFM and SEM reveal a completely the various nanostructures of CoTiO3-TiO2 nanocomposites thin films. The films exhibit a high optical reflectance with a large band gap. The highest electrical conductivity was obtained for the (Cu-Co) co-doped TiO2 films. The polyhedral surface morphology might possibly improve the surface contact between particle sizes and then contribute to better electron mobility as well as conductivity. The obtained results suggest that the prepared TiO2 films can be used for optoelectronic applications.

Keywords: sol-gel, TiO2 thin films, CoTiO3-TiO2 nanocomposites films, Electrical conductivity

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12 Theoretical Method for Full Ab-Initio Calculation of Rhenium Carbide Compound

Authors: D.Rached, M.Rabah

Abstract:

First principles calculations are carried out to investigate the structural, electronic, and elastic properties of the utraincompressible materials, namely, noble metal carbide of Rhenium carbide (ReC) in four phases, the rocksalt (NaCl-B1), zinc blende (ZB-B2), the tungsten carbide(Bh) (WC), and the nickel arsenide (NiAs-B8).The ground state properties such as the equilibrium lattice constant, elastic constants, the bulk modulus its pressure derivate, and the hardness of ReC in these phases are systematically predicted by calculations from first–principles. The corresponding calculated bulk modulus is comparable with that of diamond, especially for the B8 –type rhenium carbide (ReC), the incompressibility along the c axis is demonstrated to exceed the linear incompressibility of diamond. Our calculations confirm in the nickel arsenide (B8) structure the ReC is found to be stable with a large bulk modulus B=440 GPa and the tungsten carbide (WC) structure becomes the most more favourable with to respect B3 and B1 structures, which ReC- WC is meta-stable. Furthermore, the highest bulk modulus values in the zinc blende (B3), rock salt (B1), tungsten carbide (WC), and the nickel arsenide (B8) structures (294GPa, 401GPa, 415GPa and 447 GPa, respectively) indicates that ReC is a hard material, and is superhard compound H(B8)= 36 GPa compared with the H(diamond)=96 GPa and H(c BN)=63.10 GPa.

Keywords: DFT, FP-LMTO, mechanical properties, elasticity, high pressure, thermodynamic properties, hard material

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11 Flashover Voltage of Silicone Insulating Surface Covered by Water Drops under AC Voltage

Authors: Fatiha Aouabed, Abdelhafid Bayadi, Rabah Boudissa

Abstract:

Nowadays, silicone rubber insulation materials are widely used in high voltage outdoor insulation systems as they can combat pollution flashover problems. The difference in pollution flashover performance of silicone rubber and other insulating materials is due to the way that water wets their surfaces. It resides as discrete drops on silicone rubber, and the mechanism of flashover is due to the breakdown of the air between the water drops and the distortion of these drops in the direction of the electric field which brings the insulation to degradation and failure. The main objective of this work is to quantify the effect of different types of water drops arrangements, their position and dry bands width on the flashover voltage of the silicone insulating surface with non-uniform electric field systems. The tests were carried out on a rectangular sample under AC voltage. A rod-rod electrode system is used. The findings of this work indicate that the performance of the samples decreases with the presence of water drops on their surfaces. Further, these experimental findings show that there is a limiting number of rows from which the flashover voltage of the insulation is minimal and constant. This minimum is a function of the distance between two successive rows. Finally, it is concluded that the system withstand voltage increases when the row of droplets on the electrode axis is removed.

Keywords: contamination, flashover, testing, silicone rubber insulators, surface wettability, water droplets

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10 Impact of Hepatitis C Virus Chronic Infection on Quality of Life in Egypt

Authors: Ammal M. Metwally, Ghada A. Abdel-Latif, Walaa A. Fouad, Thanaa M. Rabah, Amira Mohsen, Fatma A. Shaaban, Iman I. Salama

Abstract:

The study aimed at determining the impact of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection on patients’ Quality of Life (QoL) , its relation to geographical characteristics of patients, awareness of the disease, treatment regimen, co-morbid psychiatric or other diseases. 457 patients were randomly selected from ten National Treatment Reference Centers of Ministry of Health hospitals from four community locations representing Egypt. Health related QoL assessment questionnaire with the 36-item Short Form used for assessment of the enrolled patients. The study showed no significant difference between HCV patients in different governorates as regards total QoL. Females, illiterate patients and those had bilharziasis, diabetes mellitus, hypertension or were depressed had significantly the lowest QoL score. HCV patients who knew the danger of the disease had significant lower mean score of physical and mental health components. Optimal care of overall well-being of HCV patients requires adequate knowledge of their neurological and psychological status. It is important to know that any patient will need to take the time to know that his new physical limitations do not limit him as a person, as soul, no matter what other people are thinking as a positive hopeful attitude is essential for combating HCV.

Keywords: hepatitis C virus chronic infection - physical health component and mental health component of QoL– total quality of life

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9 The EAO2 in Essouabaa, Tebessa, Algeria: An Example of Facies to Organic Matter

Authors: Sihem Salmi Laouar, Khoudair Chabane, Rabah Laouar, Adrian J. Boyce et Anthony E. Fallick

Abstract:

The solid mass of Essouabaa belongs paléogéography to the field téthysian and belonged to the area of the Mounts of Mellègue. This area was not saved by the oceanic-2 event anoxic (EAO-2) which was announced, over one short period, around the limit cénomanian-turonian. In the solid mass of Essouabba, the dominant sediments, pertaining to this period, are generally fine, dark, laminated and sometimes rolled deposits. They contain a rather rich planktonic microfaune, pyrite, and grains of phosphate, thus translating an environment rather deep and reducing rather deep and reducing. For targeting well the passage Cénomanian-Turonian (C-T) in the solid mass of Essouabaa, of the studies lithological and biostratigraphic were combined with the data of the isotopic analyses carbon and oxygen like with the contents of CaCO3. The got results indicate that this passage is marked by a biological event translated by the appearance of the "filaments" like by a positive excursion of the δ13C and δ18O. The cénomanian-turonian passage in the solid mass of Essouabaa represents a good example where during the oceanic event anoxic a facies with organic matter with contents of COT which can reach 1.36%. C E massive presents biostratigraphic and isotopic similarities with those obtained as well in the areas bordering (ex: Tunisia and Morocco) that throughout the world.

Keywords: limit cénomanian-turonian (C-T), COT, filaments, event anoxic 2 (EAO-2), stable isotopes, mounts of Mellègue, Algeria

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8 Preparation of Chromium Nanoparticles on Carbon Substrate from Tannery Waste Solution by Chemical Method Compared to Electrokinetic Process

Authors: Mahmoud A. Rabah, Said El Sheikh

Abstract:

This work shows the preparation of chromium nanoparticles from tannery waste solution on glassy carbon by chemical method compared to electrokinetic process. The waste solution contains free and soluble fats, calcium, iron, magnesium and high sodium in addition to the chromium ions. Filtration helps removal of insoluble matters. Diethyl ether successfully extracted soluble fats. The method started by removing calcium as insoluble oxalate salts at hot conditions in a faint acidic medium. The filtrate contains iron, magnesium, chromium ions and sodium chloride in excess. Chromium was separated selectively as insoluble hydroxide sol-gel at pH 6.5, filtered and washed with distilled water. Part of the gel reacted with sulfuric acid to produce chromium sulfate solution having 15-25 g/L concentration. Electrokinetic deposition of chromium nanoparticles on a carbon cathode was carried out using platinum anode under different galvanostatic conditions. The chemical method involved impregnating the carbon specimens with chromium hydroxide gel followed by reduction using hydrazine hydrate or by thermal reduction using hydrogen gas at 1250°C. Chromium grain size was characterized by TEM, FT-IR and SEM. Properties of the Cr grains were correlated to the conditions of the preparation process. Electrodeposition was found to control chromium particles to be more identical in size and shape as compared to the chemical method.

Keywords: chromium, electrodeposition, nanoparticles, tannery waste solution

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7 Ultrastructural Changes Occur in Mice Lungs After Cessation to Exposure of Incense Smoke

Authors: Samar Rabah

Abstract:

Background: Incense woods are special kind of trees called Agarwood, which characterized by good smelling odors and many medical benefits. Incense smoke is heavily used in Saudi Arabia although comprehensive studies of its effects on health are limited. The present study demonstrated lung ultrastructure changes of mice after exposure and cessation to Incense smoke. Eighty mice are divided equally into four groups, three groups are exposed to different concentrations of Incense smoke (2, 4 and 6 gm) for three months, while the fourth group is control one. At the end of each month, lungs of five animals from each group are gathered, while the last five animals from each group are kept for another 60 days without exposure to the Incense smoke to allow for recovery. Results: Transmission electron microscope investigations of all exposed groups showed hypertrophy and hyperplasia in Clara Cells and some an enlargement of the macrophage to the point that it fills a large part of the alveolar lumen. Scanning electron microscope marks presence of mucus materials attached to the epithelial bronchioles. After prevention of exposure to the Incense smoke for 60 days, necrosis and degeneration in some cells of epithelial bronchioles, fibrosis of peribronchial, thickening in alveolar walls and aggregation of lymphoid cells were demonstrated. Conclusion: Based on the above findings and other related studies (not published), we conclude that exposure to Incense smoke causes harmful effects due to sever changes in pulmonary ultrastructure, such effects do not disappear even when Incense smoke inhalation was stopped. Therefore, we recommend that Incense smoke should use only in open places to reduce its harms.

Keywords: Incense smoke, lungs, ultrastructure of lungs, Agarwood

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6 Identification of Associated-Virulence Genes in Quinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli Strains Recovered from an Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant

Authors: Alouache Souhila, Messai Yamina, Torres Carmen, Bakour Rabah

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Objective: It has often been reported an association between antibiotic resistance and virulence. However, resistance to quinolones seems to be an exception, it tends instead to be associated with an attenuation of virulence, particularly in clinical strains. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential virulence of 28 quinolone-resistant E. coli strains recovered from water at the inflow (n=16) and outflow (n=12) of an urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Methods: E. coli isolates were selected on Tergitol-7 agar supplemented with 2µg/ml of ciprofloxacin, they were screened by PCR for 11 virulence genes related to Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC): papC, papG, afa/draBC, sfa/foc, kpsMTII, iutA, iroN, hlyF, ompT, iss and traT. The phylogenetic groups were determined by PCR and clonal relationship was evaluated by ERIC-PCR. Results: Genotyping by ERIC-PCR showed 7 and 12 DNA profiles among strains of wastewater (inflow) and treated water (outflow), respectively. Strains were assigned to the following phylogenetic groups: B2 (n = 1, 3.5%), D (n = 3, 10.7%), B1 (n = 10, 35.7%.) and A (n = 14, 50%). A total of 8 virulence-associated genes were detected, traT (n=19, 67.8%), iroN (n= 16, 57 .1%), hlyF (n=15, 53 .5%), ompT (n=15, 53 .5%), iss (n=14, 50%), iutA (n=9, 32.1%) , sfa/foc (n=7, 25%) and kpsMTII (n=2, 7.1%). Combination of virulence factors allowed to define 16 virulence profiles. The pathotype APEC was observed in 17.8% (D=1, B1=4) and human ExPEC in 7% (B2=1, D=1) of strains. Conclusion: The study showed that quinolone-resistant E. coli strains isolated from wastewater and treated water in WWTP harbored virulence genes with the presence of APEC and human ExPEC strains.

Keywords: E. coli, quinolone-resistance, virulence, WWTP

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5 Impact of Curvatures in the Dike Line on Wave Run-up and Wave Overtopping, ConDike-Project

Authors: Malte Schilling, Mahmoud M. Rabah, Sven Liebisch

Abstract:

Wave run-up and overtopping are the relevant parameters for the dimensioning of the crest height of dikes. Various experimental as well as numerical studies have investigated these parameters under different boundary conditions (e.g. wave conditions, structure type). Particularly for the dike design in Europe, a common approach is formulated where wave and structure properties are parameterized. However, this approach assumes equal run-up heights and overtopping discharges along the longitudinal axis. However, convex dikes have a heterogeneous crest by definition. Hence, local differences in a convex dike line are expected to cause wave-structure interactions different to a straight dike. This study aims to assess both run-up and overtopping at convexly curved dikes. To cast light on the relevance of curved dikes for the design approach mentioned above, physical model tests were conducted in a 3D wave basin of the Ludwig-Franzius-Institute Hannover. A dike of a slope of 1:6 (height over length) was tested under both regular waves and TMA wave spectra. Significant wave heights ranged from 7 to 10 cm and peak periods from 1.06 to 1.79 s. Both run-up and overtopping was assessed behind the curved and straight sections of the dike. Both measurements were compared to a dike with a straight line. It was observed that convex curvatures in the longitudinal dike line cause a redirection of incident waves leading to a concentration around the center point. Measurements prove that both run-up heights and overtopping rates are higher than on the straight dike. It can be concluded that deviations from a straight longitudinal dike line have an impact on design parameters and imply uncertainties within the design approach in force. Therefore, it is recommended to consider these influencing factors for such cases.

Keywords: convex dike, longitudinal curvature, overtopping, run-up

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4 Histological Changes of Mice Lungs After Daily Exposure to Different Concentration of Incense Smoke

Authors: Samar Omar A. Rabah, Sahar Ragab El Hadad, Fatmah Albani

Abstract:

Since the discovery of Agarwood (Incense tree), many studies reported its characteristic effects and variable benefits, as either to produce Arabian Incense or as a traditional medicine against many diseases. Laboratory experiments were carried out on the effect of different concentrations of Incense smoke inhalation on the lung weight and tissue in female mice. This research derives its importance from the fact that Incense is heavily used in Saudi Arabia in the absence of thorough studies of its effects on health. Eighty animals are used in this study, and they are divided into four groups, each is 20 animals. Three groups are exposed to different concentrations (2, 4 and 6 gm) of Incense smoke daily for three months, and the fourth group is the control. At the end of each month, five animals from each group were dissected. Obtained data showed an increase but not significant in animal body and lung weight, this results return to natural increase as a result of normal growth of animals. Light microscope reveals some changes in the lung tissue, such as focal emphysema, rupture in the alveolar walls, hemorrhage, congestion, edema and few peri-bronchial lymphoid cells. After continuous exposure to Incense smoke focal necrosis and degradation are observed in some cells of epithelial bronchioles. Also, fibrosis of peri-bronchial, thickening in alveolar walls and aggregation of lymphoid cells are demonstrated in some lungs sections. according to the above manifestations it could be concluded that exposure to Incense smoke causes pulmonary harmful effects. Therefore, we can recommend that Incense smoke will be used only in open places to reduce its harms.

Keywords: incense smoke, lungs, histological changes of lungs, agarwood

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3 Effect of Flux Salts on the Recovery Extent and Quality of Metal Values from Spent Rechargeable Lead Batteries

Authors: Mahmoud A Rabah, Sabah M. Abelbasir

Abstract:

Lead-calcium alloy containing up to 0.10% calcium was recovered from spent rechargeable sealed acid lead batteries. Two techniques were investigated to explore the effect of flux salts on the extent and quality of the recovered alloy, pyro-metallurgical and electrochemical methods. About 10 kg of the spent batteries were collected for testing. The sample was washed with hot water and dried. The plastic cases of the batteries were mechanically cut, and the contents were dismantled manually, the plastic containers were shredded for recycling. The electrode plates were freed from the loose powder and placed in SiC crucible and covered with alkali chloride salts. The loaded crucible was heated in an electronically controlled chamber furnace type Nabertherm C3 at temperatures up to 800 °C. The obtained metals were analyzed. The effect of temperature, rate of heating, atmospheric conditions, composition of the flux salts on the extent and quality of the recovered products were studied. Results revealed that the spent rechargeable batteries contain 6 blocks of 6 plates of Pb-Ca alloy each. Direct heating of these plates in a silicon carbide crucible under ambient conditions produces lead metal poor in calcium content ( < 0.07%) due to partial oxidation of the alloying calcium element. Rate of temperature increase has a considerable effect on the yield of the lead alloy extraction. Flux salts composition benefits the recovery process. Sodium salts are more powerful as compared to potassium salts. Lead calcium alloy meeting the standard specification was successfully recovered from the spent rechargeable acid lead batteries with a very competitive cost to the same alloy prepared from primary resources.

Keywords: rechargeable lead batteries, lead-calcium alloy, waste recovery, flux salts, thermal recovery

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2 Geopolymerization Methods for Clay Soils Treatment

Authors: Baba Hassane Ahmed Hisseini, Abdelkrim Bennabi, Rabah Hamzaoui, Lamis Makki, Gaetan Blanck

Abstract:

Most of the clay soils are known as problematic soils due to their water content, which varies greatly over time. It is observed that they are used to be subject to shrinkage and swelling, thus causing a problem of stability on the structures of civil engineering construction work. They are often excavated and placed in a storage area giving rise to the opening of new quarries. This method has become obsolete today because to protect the environment, we are leading to think differently and opening the way to new research for the improvement of the performance of this type of clay soils to reuse them in the construction field. The solidification and stabilization technique is used to improve the properties of poor quality soils to transform them into materials with a suitable performance for a new use in the civil engineering field rather than to excavate them and store them in the discharge area. In our case, the polymerization method is used for bad clay soils classified as high plasticity soil class A4 according to the French standard NF P11-300, where classical treatment methods with cement or lime are not efficient. Our work concerns clay soil treatment study using raw materials as additives for solidification and stabilization. The geopolymers are synthesized by aluminosilicates materials like fly ash, metakaolin, or blast furnace slag and activated by alkaline solution based on sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) or a mixture of both of them. In this study, we present the mechanical properties of the soil clay (A4 type) evolution with geopolymerisation methods treatment. Various mix design of aluminosilicates materials and alkaline solutions were carried at different percentages and different curing times of 1, 7, and 28 days. The compressive strength of the untreated clayey soil could be increased from simple to triple. It is observed that the improvement of compressive strength is associated with a geopolymerization mechanism. The highest compressive strength was found with metakaolin at 28 days.

Keywords: treatment and valorization of clay-soil, solidification and stabilization, alkali-activation of co-product, geopolymerization

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1 Non-Canonical Beclin-1-Independent Autophagy and Apoptosis in Cell Death Induced by Rhus coriaria in Human Colon HT-29 Cancer Cells

Authors: Rabah Iratni, Husain El Hasasna, Khawlah Athamneh, Halima Al Sameri, Nehla Benhalilou, Asma Al Rashedi

Abstract:

Background: Cancer therapies have witnessed great advances in the recent past, however, cancer continues to be a leading cause of death, with colorectal cancer being the fourth cause of cancer-related deaths. Colorectal cancer affects both sexes equally with poor survival rate once it metastasizes. Phytochemicals, which are plant derived compounds, have been on a steady rise as anti-cancer drugs due to the accumulation of evidences that support their potential. Here, we investigated the anticancer effect of Rhus coriaria on colon cancer cells. Material and Method: Human colon cancer HT-29 cell line was used. Protein expression and protein phosphorylation were examined using Western blotting. Transcription activity was measure using Quantitative RT-PCR. Human tumoral clonogenic assay was used to assess cell survival. Senescence was assessed by the senescence-associated beta-galactosidase assay. Results: Rhus coriaria extract (RCE) was found to significantly inhibit the viability and colony growth of human HT-29 colon cancer cells. RCE induced senescence and cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. These changes were concomitant with upregulation of p21, p16, downregulation of cyclin D1, p27, c-myc and expression of Senescence-associated-β-Galactosidase activity. Moreover, RCE induced non-canonical beclin-1independent autophagy and subsequent apoptotic cell death through activation of activation caspase 8 and caspase 7. The blocking of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or chloroquine (CQ) reduced RCE-induced cell death. Further, RCE induced DNA damage, reduced mutant p53 protein level and downregulated phospho-AKT and phospho-mTOR, events that preceded autophagy. Mechanistically, we found that RCE inhibited the AKT and mTOR pathway, a regulator of autophagy, by promoting the proteasome-dependent degradation of both AKT and mTOR proteins. Conclusion: Our findings provide strong evidence that Rhus coriaria possesses strong anti-colon cancer activity through induction of senescence and autophagic cell death, making it a promising alternative or adjunct therapeutic candidate against colon cancer.

Keywords: autophagy, proteasome degradation, senescence, mTOR, apoptosis, Beclin-1

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