Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

Search results for: Prasoon Prasannan

2 Microstructure Analysis and Multiple Photoluminescence in High Temperature Electronic Conducting InZrZnO Thin Films

Authors: P. Jayaram, Prasoon Prasannan, N. K. Deepak, P. P. Pradyumnan

Abstract:

Indium and Zirconium co doped zinc oxide (InZrZnO) thin films are prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis method on pre-heated quartz substrates. The films are subjected to vacuum annealing at 400ᵒC for three hours in an appropriate air (10-5mbar) ambience after deposition. X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectra and photoluminescence are used to characterize the films. Temperature dependent electrical measurements are conducted on the films and the films exhibit exceptional conductivity at higher temperatures. XRD analysis shows that all the films prepared in this work have hexagonal wurtzite structure. The average crystallite sizes of the films were calculated using Scherrer’s formula, and uniform deformation model (UDM) of Williamson-Hall method is used to establish the micro-strain values. The dislocation density is determined from the Williamson and Smallman’s formula. Intense, broad and strongly coupled multiple photoluminescence were observed from photoluminescence spectra. PL indicated relatively high concentration defective oxygen and Zn vacancies in the film composition. Strongly coupled ultraviolet near blue emissions authenticate that the dopants are capable of inducing modulated free excitonic (FX), donor accepter pair (DAP) and longitudinal optical phonon emissions in thin films.

Keywords: Thin Films, SEM, XRD, TCOs

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1 Forest Risk and Vulnerability Assessment: A Case Study from East Bokaro Coal Mining Area in India

Authors: Sujata Upgupta, Prasoon Kumar Singh

Abstract:

The expansion of large scale coal mining into forest areas is a potential hazard for the local biodiversity and wildlife. The objective of this study is to provide a picture of the threat that coal mining poses to the forests of the East Bokaro landscape. The vulnerable forest areas at risk have been assessed and the priority areas for conservation have been presented. The forested areas at risk in the current scenario have been assessed and compared with the past conditions using classification and buffer based overlay approach. Forest vulnerability has been assessed using an analytical framework based on systematic indicators and composite vulnerability index values. The results indicate that more than 4 km2 of forests have been lost from 1973 to 2016. Large patches of forests have been diverted for coal mining projects. Forests in the northern part of the coal field within 1-3 km radius around the coal mines are at immediate risk. The original contiguous forests have been converted into fragmented and degraded forest patches. Most of the collieries are located within or very close to the forests thus threatening the biodiversity and hydrology of the surrounding regions. Based on the vulnerability values estimated, it was concluded that more than 90% of the forested grids in East Bokaro are highly vulnerable to mining. The forests in the sub-districts of Bermo and Chandrapura have been identified as the most vulnerable to coal mining activities. This case study would add to the capacity of the forest managers and mine managers to address the risk and vulnerability of forests at a small landscape level in order to achieve sustainable development.

Keywords: Forest, Vulnerability, indicators, Coal Mining

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