Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: Pramod Ghadge

24 Challenges and Opportunities in Computing Logistics Cost in E-Commerce Supply Chain

Authors: Pramod Ghadge, Swadesh Srivastava

Abstract:

Revenue generation of a logistics company depends on how the logistics cost of a shipment is calculated. Logistics cost of a shipment is a function of distance & speed of the shipment travel in a particular network, its volumetric size and dead weight. Logistics billing is based mainly on the consumption of the scarce resource (space or weight carrying capacity of a carrier). Shipment’s size or deadweight is a function of product and packaging weight, dimensions and flexibility. Hence, to arrive at a standard methodology to compute accurate cost to bill the customer, the interplay among above mentioned physical attributes along with their measurement plays a key role. This becomes even more complex for an ecommerce company, like Flipkart, which caters to shipments from both warehouse and marketplace in an unorganized non-standard market like India. In this paper, we will explore various methodologies to define a standard way of billing the non-standard shipments across a wide range of size, shape and deadweight. Those will be, usage of historical volumetric/dead weight data to arrive at a factor which can be used to compute the logistics cost of a shipment, also calculating the real/contour volume of a shipment to address the problem of irregular shipment shapes which cannot be solved by conventional bounding box volume measurements. We will also discuss certain key business practices and operational quality considerations needed to bring standardization and drive appropriate ownership in the ecosystem.

Keywords: contour volume, logistics, real volume, volumetric weight

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23 Consonant Harmony and the Challenges of Articulation and Perception

Authors: Froogh Shooshtaryzadeh, Pramod Pandey

Abstract:

The present study investigates place and manner harmony in typically developing (TD) children and children with phonological disorder (PD) who are acquiring Farsi as their first language. Five TD and five PD children are examined regarding their place and manner harmony patterns. Data is collected through a Picture-Naming Task using 132 pictures of different items designed to elicit the production of 132 different words. The examination of the data has indicated some similarities and differences in harmony patterns in PD and TD children. Moreover, the results of this study on the place and manner harmony have illustrated some differences with the results of the preceding studies on languages other than Farsi. The results of this study are discussed and compared with results from other studies. Optimality Theory is employed to explain some of the findings of this study.

Keywords: place harmony, manner harmony, phonological development, Farsi

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22 A Study on the Motivational Factors of Women Entrepreneurship

Authors: Gladys Oppong, Saumya Singh, Pramod Pathak

Abstract:

Women entrepreneurship has started establishing itself globally. Despite various social hurdles, Indian women have proved their strength in the area of entrepreneurship. Rising pattern of women entrepreneurship in Indian context make it significant to know the reason behind it. It’s a normal perception that women with financially strong backgrounds are highly motivated to progress in the area of entrepreneurship while lack of money becomes a major restraint for others. The proposed study attempts to identify the motivational factors for becoming women entrepreneur. The research work is to be conducted on women entrepreneurs. For this purpose, factor analysis will be used. The study has identified a set of motivational factors namely family business, social status, education and qualification, self-fulfillment and achievement among others that give momentum to the women to become an entrepreneur. The outcome of the study will be helpful in developing women entrepreneurship in India.

Keywords: women entrepreneurship, motivation, family business, social status

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21 Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Polymer Composites-Molecular Dynamics Approach

Authors: Sumit Sharma, Rakesh Chandra, Pramod Kumar, Navin Kumar

Abstract:

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has been used to study the effect of carbon nanofiber (CNF) volume fraction (Vf) and aspect ratio (l/d) on mechanical properties of CNF reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. Materials Studio 5.5 has been used as a tool for finding the modulus and damping in composites. CNF composition in PP was varied by volume from 0 to 16%. Aspect ratio of CNF was varied from l/d=5 to l/d=100. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, till date there is no study, either experimental or analytical, which predict damping for CNF-PP composites at the nanoscale. Hence, this will be a valuable addition in the area of nanocomposites. Results show that with only 2% addition by volume of CNF in PP, E11 increases 748%. Increase in E22 is very less in comparison to the increase in E11. With increase in CNF aspect ratio (l/d) till l/d=60, the longitudinal loss factor (η11) decreases rapidly. Results of this study have been compared with those available in literature.

Keywords: carbon nanofiber, elasticity, mechanical properties, molecular dynamics

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20 A First Order Shear Deformation Theory Approach for the Buckling Behavior of Nanocomposite Beams

Authors: P. Pramod Kumar, Madhu Salumari, V. V. Subba Rao

Abstract:

Due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, carbon nanotube (CNTs) reinforced polymer composites are being considered as one of the most promising nanocomposites which can improve the performance when used in structural applications. The buckling behavior is one of the most important parameter needs to be considered in the design of structural members like beams and plates. In the present paper, the elastic constants of CNT reinforced polymer composites are evaluated by using Mori-Tanaka micromechanics approach. Knowing the elastic constants, an analytical study is being conducted to investigate the buckling behavior of nanocomposites for different CNT volume fractions at different boundary conditions using first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). The effect of stacking sequence and CNT radius on the buckling of beam has also been presented. This study is being conducted primarily with an intension to find the stiffening effect of CNTs when used in polymer composites as reinforcement.

Keywords: CNT, buckling, micromechanics, FSDT

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19 Comparative Study of Compressive Strength of Triangular Polyester Fiber with Fly Ash Roller Compacted Concrete Using Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Method

Authors: Pramod Keshav Kolase, Atul K. Desai

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental investigation results of Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) tests conducted on roller compacted concrete pavement (RCCP) material containing Class F fly ash of as mineral admixture and triangular polyester fiber as a secondary reinforcement. The each mix design series fly ash content is varied from 0% to 45 % and triangular polyester fiber 0% to 0.75% by volume fraction. In each series and for different ages of curing (i.e. 7, 28 and 90 days) forty-eight cube specimens are cast and tested for compressive strength and UPV. The UPV of fly ash was found to be lower for all mixtures at 7 days in comparison with control mix concrete. But at 28, 56 days and 90 days the UPV were significantly improved for all the mixes. Relationships between compressive strength of RCCP and UPV and Dynamic Elastic Modulus are proposed for all series mixes.

Keywords: compressive strength, dynamic elastic modulus, fly ash, fiber, roller compacted concrete, ultrasonic pulse velocity

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18 Wet Processing of Algae for Protein and Carbohydrate Recovery as Co-Product of Algal Oil

Authors: Sahil Kumar, Rajaram Ghadge, Ramesh Bhujade

Abstract:

Historically, lipid extraction from dried algal biomass remained a focus area of the algal research. It has been realized over the past few years that the lipid-centric approach and conversion technologies that require dry algal biomass have several challenges. Algal culture in cultivation systems contains more than 99% water, with algal concentrations of just a few hundred milligrams per liter ( < 0.05 wt%), which makes harvesting and drying energy intensive. Drying the algal biomass followed by extraction also entails the loss of water and nutrients. In view of these challenges, focus has shifted toward developing processes that will enable oil production from wet algal biomass without drying. Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), an emerging technology, is a thermo-chemical conversion process that converts wet biomass to oil and gas using water as a solvent at high temperature and high pressure. HTL processes wet algal slurry containing more than 80% water and significantly reduces the adverse cost impact owing to drying the algal biomass. HTL, being inherently feedstock agnostic, i.e., can convert carbohydrates and proteins also to fuels and recovers water and nutrients. It is most effective with low-lipid (10--30%) algal biomass, and bio-crude yield is two to four times higher than the lipid content in the feedstock. In the early 2010s, research remained focused on increasing the oil yield by optimizing the process conditions of HTL. However, various techno-economic studies showed that simply converting algal biomass to only oil does not make economic sense, particularly in view of low crude oil prices. Making the best use of every component of algae is a key for economic viability of algal to oil process. On investigation of HTL reactions at the molecular level, it has been observed that sequential HTL has the potential to recover value-added products along with biocrude and improve the overall economics of the process. This potential of sequential HTL makes it a most promising technology for converting wet waste to wealth. In this presentation, we will share our experience on the techno-economic and engineering aspects of sequential HTL for conversion of algal biomass to algal bio-oil and co-products.

Keywords: algae, biomass, lipid, protein

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17 Biosorption of Lead (II) from Aqueous Solution Using Marine Algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa

Authors: Pramod Kumar, A. V. N. Swamy, C. V. Sowjanya, C. V. Ramachandra Murthy

Abstract:

Biosorption is one of the effective methods for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Results are presented showing the sorption of Pb(II) from solutions by biomass of commonly available marine algae Chlorella sp. The ability of marine algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa to remove heavy metal ion (Pb(II)) from aqueous solutions has been studied in this work. The biosorption properties of the biosorbent like equilibrium agitation time, optimum pH, temperature and initial solute concentration were investigated on metal uptake by showing respective profiles. The maximum metal uptake was found to be 10.27 mg/g. To achieve this metal uptake, the optimum conditions were found to be 30 min as equilibrium agitation time, 4.6 as optimum pH, 60 ppm of initial solute concentration. Lead concentration is determined by atomic absorption spectrometer. The process was found to be well fitted for pseudo-second order kinetics.

Keywords: biosorption, heavy metal ions, agitation time, metal uptake, aqueous solution

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16 Evalution of Antiurolithiatic Potentials from Cucumis sativus Fruits

Authors: H. J. Pramod, S. Pethkar

Abstract:

The evaluation of antiurolithiatic potentials from the extracts of Cucumis sativus fruits at different doses and cystone (standard formulation) at a dose of 750 mg/kg were measured for both preventive and curative regimen in wistar rats by adding 0.75% v/v ethylene glycol (EG) to drinking water for 28 days, except normal rats. After the completion of the experimental period, (28th day) urinary parameters like (urine volume, routine urine analysis, levels of calcium, phosphate, oxalate, magnesium, sodium) serum biomarkers like (creatinine, BUN, uric acid, ALP, ALT, AST) kidney homogenate analysis for (levels of calcium, oxalate and phosphate) were analysed. The treated groups shows increased in the urine output significantly compared to the normal. The extract shows significantly decreased in the urinary excretion of the calcium, phosphate, magnesium, sodium and oxalate. The both preventive and curative treatment of extracts showed decrease in the stone forming constituents in the kidneys of urolithiatic rats further the kidneys of all the groups were excised and sectioned for histopathological examination which further claims to posses antiurolithiatic activity.

Keywords: Cucumis sativus, urolithiasis, ethylene glycol, cystone

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15 Data Clustering in Wireless Sensor Network Implemented on Self-Organization Feature Map (SOFM) Neural Network

Authors: Krishan Kumar, Mohit Mittal, Pramod Kumar

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network is one of the most promising communication networks for monitoring remote environmental areas. In this network, all the sensor nodes are communicated with each other via radio signals. The sensor nodes have capability of sensing, data storage and processing. The sensor nodes collect the information through neighboring nodes to particular node. The data collection and processing is done by data aggregation techniques. For the data aggregation in sensor network, clustering technique is implemented in the sensor network by implementing self-organizing feature map (SOFM) neural network. Some of the sensor nodes are selected as cluster head nodes. The information aggregated to cluster head nodes from non-cluster head nodes and then this information is transferred to base station (or sink nodes). The aim of this paper is to manage the huge amount of data with the help of SOM neural network. Clustered data is selected to transfer to base station instead of whole information aggregated at cluster head nodes. This reduces the battery consumption over the huge data management. The network lifetime is enhanced at a greater extent.

Keywords: artificial neural network, data clustering, self organization feature map, wireless sensor network

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14 Kinetic Modeling of Colour and Textural Properties of Stored Rohu (Labeo rohita) Fish

Authors: Pramod K. Prabhakar, Prem P. Srivastav

Abstract:

Rohu (Labeo rohita) is an Indian major carp and highly relished freshwater food for its unique flavor, texture, and culinary properties. It is highly perishable and, spoilage occurs as a result of series of complicated biochemical changes brought about by enzymes which are the function of time and storage temperature also. The influence of storage temperature (5, 0, and -5 °C) on colour and texture of fish were studied during 14 days storage period in order to analyze kinetics of colour and textural changes. The rate of total colour change was most noticeable at the highest storage temperature (5°C), and these changes were well described by the first order reaction. Texture is an important variable of quality of the fish and is increasing concern to aquaculture industries. Textural parameters such as hardness, toughness and stiffness were evaluated on a texture analyzer for the different day of stored fish. The significant reduction (P ≤ 0.05) in hardness was observed after 2nd, 4th and 8th day for the fish stored at 5, 0, and -5 °C respectively. The textural changes of fish during storage followed a first order kinetic model and fitted well with this model (R2 > 0.95). However, the textural data with respect to time was also fitted to modified Maxwell model and found to be good fit with R2 value ranges from 0.96 to 0.98. Temperature dependence of colour and texture change was adequately modelled with the Arrhenius type equation. This fitted model may be used for the determination of shelf life of Rohu Rohu (Labeo rohita) Fish.

Keywords: first order kinetics, biochemical changes, Maxwell model, colour, texture, Arrhenius type equation

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13 Apatite-Forming Ability of Doped-Ceria Coatings for Orthopedic Implants

Authors: Ayda Khosravanihaghighi, Pramod Koshy, Bill Walsh, Vedran Lovric, Charles Christopher Sorrell

Abstract:

There is an increasing demand for orthopedic implants owing to the increasing numbers of the aging population. Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) is a common material used for orthopedic implants owing to its advantageous properties in terms of good corrosion resistance, minimal elastic modulus mismatch with bone, bio-inertness, and high mechanical strength. However, it is important to improve the bioactivity and osseointegration of the titanium alloy and this can be achieved by coating the implant surface with suitable ceramic materials. In the present work, pure and doped-ceria (CeO₂) coatings were deposited by spin coating on the titanium alloy surface in order to enhance the biological interactions between the surface of the implant and the surrounding tissue. In order to examine the bone-binding ability of an implant, simulated body fluid (SBF) tests were conducted in order to assess the capability of apatite layer formation on the surface and thus predict in vivo bone bioactivity. Characterization was done using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses to determine the extent of apatite formation. Preliminary tests showed that the CeO₂ coatings were biocompatible and that the extent of apatite formation and its characteristics can be enhanced by doping with suitable metal ions.

Keywords: apatite layer, biocompatibility, ceria, orthopaedic implant, SBF, spin coater, Ti-implant

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12 Formulation and Ex Vivo Evaluation of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Based Hydrogel for Intranasal Drug Delivery

Authors: Pramod Jagtap, Kisan Jadhav, Neha Dand

Abstract:

Risperidone (RISP) is an antipsychotic agent and has low water solubility and nontargeted delivery results in numerous side effects. Hence, an attempt was made to develop SLNs hydrogel for intranasal delivery of RISP to achieve maximum bioavailability and reduction of side effects. RISP loaded SLNs composed of 1.65% (w/v) lipid mass were produced by high shear homogenization (HSH) coupled ultrasound (US) method using glyceryl monostearate (GMS) or Imwitor 900K (solid lipid). The particles were loaded with 0.2% (w/v) of the RISP & surface-tailored with a 2.02% (w/v) non-ionic surfactant Tween® 80. Optimization was done using 32 factorial design using Design Expert® software. The prepared SLNs dispersion incorporated into Polycarbophil AA1 hydrogel (0.5% w/v). The final gel formulation was evaluated for entrapment efficiency, particle size, rheological properties, X ray diffraction, in vitro diffusion, ex vivo permeation using sheep nasal mucosa and histopathological studies for nasocilliary toxicity. The entrapment efficiency of optimized SLNs was found to be 76 ± 2 %, polydispersity index <0.3., particle size 278 ± 5 nm. This optimized batch was incorporated into hydrogel. The pH was found to be 6.4 ± 0.14. The rheological behaviour of hydrogel formulation revealed no thixotropic behaviour. In histopathology study, there was no nasocilliary toxicity observed in nasal mucosa after ex vivo permeation. X-ray diffraction data shows drug was in amorphous form. Ex vivo permeation study shows controlled release profile of drug.

Keywords: ex vivo, particle size, risperidone, solid lipid nanoparticles

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11 Development of Broad Spectrum Nitrilase Biocatalysts and Bioprocesses for Nitrile Biotransformation

Authors: Avinash Vellore Sunder, Shikha Shah, Pramod P. Wangikar

Abstract:

The enzymatic conversion of nitriles to carboxylic acids by nitrilases has gained significance in the green synthesis of several pharmaceutical precursors and fine chemicals. While nitrilases have been characterized from different sources, the industrial application requires the identification of nitrilases that possess higher substrate tolerance, wider specificity and better thermostability, along with the development of an efficient bioprocess for producing large amounts of nitrilase. To produce large amounts of nitrilase, we developed a fed-batch fermentation process on defined media for the high cell density cultivation of E. coli cells expressing the well-studied nitrilase from Alcaligenes fecalis. A DO-stat feeding approach was employed combined with an optimized post-induction strategy to achieve nitrilase titer of 2.5*105 U/l and 78 g/l dry cell weight. We also identified 16 novel nitrilase sequences from genome mining and analysis of substrate binding residues. The nitrilases were expressed in E. coli and their biocatalytic potential was evaluated on a panel of 22 industrially relevant nitrile substrates using high-throughput screening and HPLC analysis. Nine nitrilases were identified to exhibit high activity on structurally diverse nitriles including aliphatic and aromatic dinitriles, heterocyclic, -hydroxy and -keto nitriles. With fed-batch biotransformation, whole-cell Zobelia galactanivorans nitrilase achieved yields of 2.4 M nicotinic acid and 1.8 M isonicotinic acid from 3-cyanopyridine and 4-cyanopyridine respectively within 5 h, while Cupravidus necator nitrilase enantioselectively converted 740 mM mandelonitrile to (R)–mandelic acid. The nitrilase from Achromobacter insolitus could hydrolyze 542 mM iminodiacetonitrile in 1 h. The availability of highly active nitrilases along with bioprocesses for enzyme production expands the toolbox for industrial biocatalysis.

Keywords: biocatalysis, isonicotinic acid, iminodiacetic acid, mandelic acid, nitrilase

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10 Zero Energy Buildings in Hot-Humid Tropical Climates: Boundaries of the Energy Optimization Grey Zone

Authors: Nakul V. Naphade, Sandra G. L. Persiani, Yew Wah Wong, Pramod S. Kamath, Avinash H. Anantharam, Hui Ling Aw, Yann Grynberg

Abstract:

Achieving zero-energy targets in existing buildings is known to be a difficult task requiring important cuts in the building energy consumption, which in many cases clash with the functional necessities of the building wherever the on-site energy generation is unable to match the overall energy consumption. Between the building’s consumption optimization limit and the energy, target stretches a case-specific optimization grey zone, which requires tailored intervention and enhanced user’s commitment. In the view of the future adoption of more stringent energy-efficiency targets in the context of hot-humid tropical climates, this study aims to define the energy optimization grey zone by assessing the energy-efficiency limit in the state-of-the-art typical mid- and high-rise full AC office buildings, through the integration of currently available technologies. Energy models of two code-compliant generic office-building typologies were developed as a baseline, a 20-storey ‘high-rise’ and a 7-storey ‘mid-rise’. Design iterations carried out on the energy models with advanced market ready technologies in lighting, envelope, plug load management and ACMV systems and controls, lead to a representative energy model of the current maximum technical potential. The simulations showed that ZEB targets could be achieved in fully AC buildings under an average of seven floors only by compromising on energy-intense facilities (as full AC, unlimited power-supply, standard user behaviour, etc.). This paper argues that drastic changes must be made in tropical buildings to span the energy optimization grey zone and achieve zero energy. Fully air-conditioned areas must be rethought, while smart technologies must be integrated with an aggressive involvement and motivation of the users to synchronize with the new system’s energy savings goal.

Keywords: energy simulation, office building, tropical climate, zero energy buildings

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9 Investigation of External Pressure Coefficients on Large Antenna Parabolic Reflector Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Varun K, Pramod B. Balareddy

Abstract:

Estimation of wind forces plays a significant role in the in the design of large antenna parabolic reflectors. Reflector surface accuracies are very sensitive to the gain of the antenna system at higher frequencies. Hence accurate estimation of wind forces becomes important, which is primary input for design and analysis of the reflector system. In the present work, numerical simulation of wind flow using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software is used to investigate the external pressure coefficients. An extensive comparative study has been made between the CFD results and the published wind tunnel data for different wind angle of attacks (α) acting over concave to convex surfaces respectively. Flow simulations using CFD are carried out to estimate the coefficients of Drag, Lift and Moment for the parabolic reflector. Coefficients of pressures (Cp) over the front and the rear face of the reflector are extracted over surface of the reflector to study the net pressure variations. These resultant pressure variations are compared with the published wind tunnel data for different angle of attacks. It was observed from the CFD simulations, both convex and concave face of reflector system experience a band of pressure variations for the positive and negative angle of attacks respectively. In the published wind tunnel data, Pressure variations over convex surfaces are assumed to be uniform and vice versa. Chordwise and spanwise pressure variations were calculated and compared with the published experimental data. In the present work, it was observed that the maximum pressure coefficients for α ranging from +30° to -90° and α=+90° was lower. For α ranging from +45° to +75°, maximum pressure coefficients were higher as compared to wind tunnel data. This variation is due to non-uniform pressure distribution observed over front and back faces of reflector. Variations in Cd, Cl and Cm over α=+90° to α=-90° was in close resemblance with the experimental data.

Keywords: angle of attack, drag coefficient, lift coefficient, pressure coefficient

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8 Curative Role of Bromoenol Lactone, an Inhibitor of Phospholipase A2 Enzyme, during Cigarette Smoke Condensate Induced Anomalies in Lung Epithelium

Authors: Subodh Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar Sharma, Gaurav Kaushik, Pramod Avti, Phulen Sarma, Bikash Medhi, Krishan Lal Khanduja

Abstract:

Background: It is well known that cigarette smoke is one of the causative factors in various lung diseases especially cancer. Carcinogens and oxidant molecules present in cigarette smoke not only damage the cellular constituents (lipids, proteins, DNA) but may also regulate the molecular pathways involved in inflammation and cancer. Continuous oxidative stress caused by the constituents of cigarette smoke leads to higher PhospholipaseA₂ (PLA₂) activity, resulting in elevated levels of secondary metabolites whose role is well defined in cancer. To reduce the burden of chronic inflammation as well as oxidative stress, and higher levels of secondary metabolites, we checked the curative potential of PLA₂ inhibitor Bromoenol Lactone (BEL) during continuous exposure of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). Aim: To check the therapeutic potential of Bromoenol Lactone (BEL), an inhibitor of PhospholipaseA₂s, in pathways of CSC-induced changes in type I and type II alveolar epithelial cells. Methods: Effect of BEL on CSC-induced PLA2 activity were checked using colorimetric assay, cellular toxicity using cell viability assay, membrane integrity using fluorescein di-acetate (FDA) uptake assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and apoptosis markers through flow cytometry, and cellular regulation using MAPKinases levels, in lung epithelium. Results: BEL significantly mimicked CSC-induced PLA₂ activity, ROS levels, apoptosis, and kinases level whereas improved cellular viability and membrane integrity. Conclusions: Current observations revealed that BEL may be a potential therapeutic agent during Cigarette smoke-induced anomalies in lung epithelium.

Keywords: cigarette smoke condensate, phospholipase A₂, oxidative stress, alveolar epithelium, bromoenol lactone

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7 Cybernetic Model-Based Optimization of a Fed-Batch Process for High Cell Density Cultivation of E. Coli In Shake Flasks

Authors: Snehal D. Ganjave, Hardik Dodia, Avinash V. Sunder, Swati Madhu, Pramod P. Wangikar

Abstract:

Batch cultivation of recombinant bacteria in shake flasks results in low cell density due to nutrient depletion. Previous protocols on high cell density cultivation in shake flasks have relied mainly on controlled release mechanisms and extended cultivation protocols. In the present work, we report an optimized fed-batch process for high cell density cultivation of recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3) for protein production. A cybernetic model-based, multi-objective optimization strategy was implemented to obtain the optimum operating variables to achieve maximum biomass and minimized substrate feed rate. A syringe pump was used to feed a mixture of glycerol and yeast extract into the shake flask. Preliminary experiments were conducted with online monitoring of dissolved oxygen (DO) and offline measurements of biomass and glycerol to estimate the model parameters. Multi-objective optimization was performed to obtain the pareto front surface. The selected optimized recipe was tested for a range of proteins that show different extent soluble expression in E. coli. These included eYFP and LkADH, which are largely expressed in soluble fractions, CbFDH and GcanADH , which are partially soluble, and human PDGF, which forms inclusion bodies. The biomass concentrations achieved in 24 h were in the range 19.9-21.5 g/L, while the model predicted value was 19.44 g/L. The process was successfully reproduced in a standard laboratory shake flask without online monitoring of DO and pH. The optimized fed-batch process showed significant improvement in both the biomass and protein production of the tested recombinant proteins compared to batch cultivation. The proposed process will have significant implications in the routine cultivation of E. coli for various applications.

Keywords: cybernetic model, E. coli, high cell density cultivation, multi-objective optimization

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6 Dematerialized Beings in Katherine Dunn's Geek Love: A Corporeal and Ethical Study under Posthumanities

Authors: Anum Javed

Abstract:

This study identifies the dynamical image of human body that continues its metamorphosis in the virtual field of reality. It calls attention to the ways where humans start co-evolving with other life forms; technology in particular and are striving to establish a realm outside the physical framework of matter. The problem exceeds the area of technological ethics by explicably and explanatorily entering the space of literary texts and criticism. Textual analysis of Geek Love (1989) by Katherine Dunn is adjoined with posthumanist perspectives of Pramod K. Nayar to beget psycho-somatic changes in man’s nature of being. It uncovers the meaning people give to their experiences in this budding social and cultural phenomena of material representation tied up with personal practices and technological innovations. It also observes an ethical, physical and psychological reassessment of man within the context of technological evolutions. The study indicates the elements that have rendered morphological freedom and new materialism in man’s consciousness. Moreover this work is inquisitive of what it means to be a human in this time of accelerating change where surgeries, implants, extensions, cloning and robotics have shaped a new sense of being. It attempts to go beyond individual’s body image and explores how objectifying media and culture have influenced people’s judgement of others on new material grounds. It further argues a decentring of the glorified image of man as an independent entity because of his energetic partnership with intelligent machines and external agents. The history of the future progress of technology is also mentioned. The methodology adopted is posthumanist techno-ethical textual analysis. This work necessitates a negotiating relationship between man and technology in order to achieve harmonic and balanced interconnected existence. The study concludes by recommending a call for an ethical set of codes to be cultivated for the techno-human habituation. Posthumanism ushers a strong need of adopting new ethics within the terminology of neo-materialist humanism.

Keywords: corporeality, dematerialism, human ethos, posthumanism

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5 Sponge Urbanism as a Resilient City Design to Overcome Urban Flood Risk, for the Case of Aluva, Kerala, India

Authors: Gayathri Pramod, Sheeja K. P.

Abstract:

Urban flooding has been seen rising in cities for the past few years. This rise in urban flooding is the result of increasing urbanization and increasing climate change. A resilient city design focuses on 'living with water'. This means that the city is capable of accommodating the floodwaters without having to risk any loss of lives or properties. The resilient city design incorporates green infrastructure, river edge treatment, open space design, etc. to form a city that functions as a whole for resilience. Sponge urbanism is a recent method for building resilient cities and is founded by China in 2014. Sponge urbanism is the apt method for resilience building for a tropical town like Aluva of Kerala. Aluva is a tropical town that experiences rainfall of about 783 mm per month during the rainy season. Aluva is an urbanized town which faces the risk of urban flooding and riverine every year due to the presence of Periyar River in the town. Impervious surfaces and hard construction and developments contribute towards flood risk by posing as interference for a natural flow and natural filtration of water into the ground. This type of development is seen in Aluva also. Aluva is designed in this research as a town that have resilient strategies of sponge city and which focusses on natural methods of construction. The flood susceptibility of Aluva is taken into account to design the spaces for sponge urbanism and in turn, reduce the flood susceptibility for the town. Aluva is analyzed, and high-risk zones for development are identified through studies. These zones are designed to withstand the risk of flooding. Various catchment areas are identified according to the natural flow of water, and then these catchment areas are designed to act as a public open space and as detention ponds in case of heavy rainfall. Various development guidelines, according to land use, is also prescribed, which help in increasing the green cover of the town. Aluva is then designed to be a completely flood-adapted city or sponge city according to the guidelines and interventions.

Keywords: climate change, flooding, resilient city, sponge city, sponge urbanism, urbanization

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4 Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Lytic Bacteriophage against Carbapenem Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae

Authors: Guna Raj Dhungana, Roshan Nepal, Apshara Parajuli, , Archana Maharjan, Shyam K. Mishra, Pramod Aryal, Rajani Malla

Abstract:

Introduction: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a well-known opportunistic human pathogen, primarily causing healthcare-associated infections. The global emergence of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniaeis a major public health burden, which is often extensively multidrug resistant.Thus, because of the difficulty to treat these ‘superbug’ and menace and some term as ‘apocalypse’ of post antibiotics era, an alternative approach to controlling this pathogen is prudent and one of the approaches is phage mediated control and/or treatment. Objective: In this study, we aimed to isolate novel bacteriophage against carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniaeand characterize for potential use inphage therapy. Material and Methods: Twenty lytic phages were isolated from river water using double layer agar assay and purified. Biological features, physiochemical characters, burst size, host specificity and activity spectrum of phages were determined. One most potent phage: Phage TU_Kle10O was selected and characterized by electron microscopy. Whole genome sequences of the phage were analyzed for presence/absence of virulent factors, and other lysin genes. Results: Novel phage TU_Kle10O showed multiple host range within own genus and did not induce any BIM up to 5th generation of host’s life cycle. Electron microscopy confirmed that the phage was tailed and belonged to Caudovirales family. Next generation sequencing revealed its genome to be 166.2 Kb. bioinformatical analysis further confirmed that the phage genome ‘did not’ contain any ‘bacterial genes’ within phage genome, which ruled out the concern for transfer of virulent genes. Specific 'lysin’ enzyme was identified phages which could be used as 'antibiotics'. Conclusion: Extensively multidrug resistant bacteria like carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniaecould be treated efficiently by phages.Absence of ‘virulent’ genes of bacterial origin and presence of lysin proteins within phage genome makes phages an excellent candidate for therapeutics.

Keywords: bacteriophage, Klebsiella pneumoniae, MDR, phage therapy, carbapenemase,

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3 Feasibility of Two Positive-Energy Schools in a Hot-Humid Tropical Climate: A Methodological Approach

Authors: Shashwat, Sandra G. L. Persiani, Yew Wah Wong, Pramod S. Kamath, Avinash H. Anantharam, Hui Ling Aw, Yann Grynberg

Abstract:

Achieving zero-energy targets in existing buildings is known to be a difficult task, hence targets are addressed at new buildings almost exclusively. Although these ultra-efficient case-studies remain essential to develop future technologies and drive the concepts of Zero-energy, the immediate need to cut the consumption of the existing building stock remains unaddressed. This work aims to present a reliable and straightforward methodology for assessing the potential of energy-efficient upgrading in existing buildings. Public Singaporean school buildings, characterized by low energy use intensity and large roof areas, were identified as potential objects for conversion to highly-efficient buildings with a positive energy balance. A first study phase included the development of a detailed energy model for two case studies (a primary and a secondary school), based on the architectural drawings provided, site-visits and calibrated using measured end-use power consumption of different spaces. The energy model was used to demonstrate compliances or predict energy consumption of proposed changes in the two buildings. As complete energy monitoring is difficult and substantially time-consuming, short-term energy data was collected in the schools by taking spot measurements of power, voltage, and current for all the blocks of school. The figures revealed that the bulk of the consumption is attributed in decreasing order of magnitude to air-conditioning, plug loads, and lighting. In a second study-phase, a number of energy-efficient technologies and strategies were evaluated through energy-modeling to identify the alternatives giving the highest energy saving potential, achieving a reduction in energy use intensity down to 19.71 kWh/m²/y and 28.46 kWh/m²/y for the primary and the secondary schools respectively. This exercise of field evaluation and computer simulation of energy saving potential aims at a preliminary assessment of the positive-energy feasibility enabling future implementation of the technologies on the buildings studied, in anticipation of a broader and more widespread adoption in Singaporean schools.

Keywords: energy simulation, school building, tropical climate, zero energy buildings, positive energy

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2 Strengthening Functional Community-Provider Linkages: Lessons from the Challenge Initiative for Healthy Cities Program in Indore, India

Authors: Sabyasachi Behera, Shiv Kumar, Pramod Gautam, Anisur Rahman, Pawan Pathak, Rahul Bhadouria

Abstract:

Background: The increasing proportion of population especially urban poor and vulnerable groups or groups with specific needs, with health indicators worse than their rural counterparts in India face various issues related with availability and quality of health care. The reasons are myriad, starting from information and awareness of the community, especially, in a scenario wherein the needs and challenges of floating and migrant urban populations remain poorly understood. Weak linkages between health care facilities and slum dwellers and vulnerable populations hinder the improvement of health services for urban poor. Method: To address this issue, TCIHC program is helping health department of Indore city of Madhya Pradesh to establish a referral mechanism with a dual approach: at both community and facility level. The former is based on the premise of ‘building social capital’, i.e. norms and networks within a community facilitating collective action, helps improve the demand and supply of health services at appropriate levels of care (Minus 2: Accredited Social Health Activist and Community Health Groups; Minus 1: Urban Health Nutrition Days; Zero: Urban Primary Health Center; Plus 1: secondary facility with BEmONC services; Plus 2: secondary facilities with CEmONC services; Plus 3: tertiary level facility) for the urban poor. The latter focuses on encouraging the provision of all services at various levels of service delivery points and stakeholders to function in a coordinated manner to ensure better health service availability and coverage in underserved slum areas. Results: This initiative has enhanced the utilization of community based, primary and secondary level services through defined referral pathways that are clearly known to a community dweller. Conclusion: An ideal referral mechanism should begin with referral at the community level wherein services of a frontline health care provider are accessed by them at their door-step, causing no delay in both understanding and decision on the health issues faced by them.

Keywords: levels of care, linkages, referral mechanism, service delivery

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1 Homeostatic Analysis of the Integrated Insulin and Glucagon Signaling Network: Demonstration of Bistable Response in Catabolic and Anabolic States

Authors: Pramod Somvanshi, Manu Tomar, K. V. Venkatesh

Abstract:

Insulin and glucagon are responsible for homeostasis of key plasma metabolites like glucose, amino acids and fatty acids in the blood plasma. These hormones act antagonistically to each other during the secretion and signaling stages. In the present work, we analyze the effect of macronutrients on the response from integrated insulin and glucagon signaling pathways. The insulin and glucagon pathways are connected by DAG (a calcium signaling component which is part of the glucagon signaling module) which activates PKC and inhibits IRS (insulin signaling component) constituting a crosstalk. AKT (insulin signaling component) inhibits cAMP (glucagon signaling component) through PDE3 forming the other crosstalk between the two signaling pathways. Physiological level of anabolism and catabolism is captured through a metric quantified by the activity levels of AKT and PKA in their phosphorylated states, which represent the insulin and glucagon signaling endpoints, respectively. Under resting and starving conditions, the phosphorylation metric represents homeostasis indicating a balance between the anabolic and catabolic activities in the tissues. The steady state analysis of the integrated network demonstrates the presence of a bistable response in the phosphorylation metric with respect to input plasma glucose levels. This indicates that two steady state conditions (one in the homeostatic zone and other in the anabolic zone) are possible for a given glucose concentration depending on the ON or OFF path. When glucose levels rise above normal, during post-meal conditions, the bistability is observed in the anabolic space denoting the dominance of the glycogenesis in liver. For glucose concentrations lower than the physiological levels, while exercising, metabolic response lies in the catabolic space denoting the prevalence of glycogenolysis in liver. The non-linear positive feedback of AKT on IRS in insulin signaling module of the network is the main cause of the bistable response. The span of bistability in the phosphorylation metric increases as plasma fatty acid and amino acid levels rise and eventually the response turns monostable and catabolic representing diabetic conditions. In the case of high fat or protein diet, fatty acids and amino acids have an inhibitory effect on the insulin signaling pathway by increasing the serine phosphorylation of IRS protein via the activation of PKC and S6K, respectively. Similar analysis was also performed with respect to input amino acid and fatty acid levels. This emergent property of bistability in the integrated network helps us understand why it becomes extremely difficult to treat obesity and diabetes when blood glucose level rises beyond a certain value.

Keywords: bistability, diabetes, feedback and crosstalk, obesity

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