Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Philipp Galkin

19 The KAPSARC Energy Policy Database: Introducing a Quantified Library of China's Energy Policies

Authors: Philipp Galkin

Abstract:

Government policy is a critical factor in the understanding of energy markets. Regardless, it is rarely approached systematically from a research perspective. Gaining a precise understanding of what policies exist, their intended outcomes, geographical extent, duration, evolution, etc. would enable the research community to answer a variety of questions that, for now, are either oversimplified or ignored. Policy, on its surface, also seems a rather unstructured and qualitative undertaking. There may be quantitative components, but incorporating the concept of policy analysis into quantitative analysis remains a challenge. The KAPSARC Energy Policy Database (KEPD) is intended to address these two energy policy research limitations. Our approach is to represent policies within a quantitative library of the specific policy measures contained within a set of legal documents. Each of these measures is recorded into the database as a single entry characterized by a set of qualitative and quantitative attributes. Initially, we have focused on the major laws at the national level that regulate coal in China. However, KAPSARC is engaged in various efforts to apply this methodology to other energy policy domains. To ensure scalability and sustainability of our project, we are exploring semantic processing using automated computer algorithms. Automated coding can provide a more convenient input data for human coders and serve as a quality control option. Our initial findings suggest that the methodology utilized in KEPD could be applied to any set of energy policies. It also provides a convenient tool to facilitate understanding in the energy policy realm enabling the researcher to quickly identify, summarize, and digest policy documents and specific policy measures. The KEPD captures a wide range of information about each individual policy contained within a single policy document. This enables a variety of analyses, such as structural comparison of policy documents, tracing policy evolution, stakeholder analysis, and exploring interdependencies of policies and their attributes with exogenous datasets using statistical tools. The usability and broad range of research implications suggest a need for the continued expansion of the KEPD to encompass a larger scope of policy documents across geographies and energy sectors.

Keywords: China, energy policy, policy analysis, policy database

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18 Directed-Wald Test for Distinguishing Long Memory and Nonlinearity Time Series: Power and Size Simulation

Authors: Heri Kuswanto, Philipp Sibbertsen, Irhamah

Abstract:

A Wald type test to distinguish between long memory and ESTAR nonlinearity has been developed. The test uses a directed-Wald statistic to overcome the problem of restricted parameters under the alternative. The test is derived from a model specification i.e. allows the transition parameter to appear as a nuisance parameter in the transition function. A simulation study has been conducted and it indicates that the approach leads a test with good size and power properties to distinguish between stationary long memory and ESTAR.

Keywords: directed-Wald test, ESTAR, long memory, distinguish

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17 Distorted Document Images Dataset for Text Detection and Recognition

Authors: Ilia Zharikov, Philipp Nikitin, Ilia Vasiliev, Vladimir Dokholyan

Abstract:

With the increasing popularity of document analysis and recognition systems, text detection (TD) and optical character recognition (OCR) in document images become challenging tasks. However, according to our best knowledge, no publicly available datasets for these particular problems exist. In this paper, we introduce a Distorted Document Images dataset (DDI-100) and provide a detailed analysis of the DDI-100 in its current state. To create the dataset we collected 7000 unique document pages, and extend it by applying different types of distortions and geometric transformations. In total, DDI-100 contains more than 100,000 document images together with binary text masks, text and character locations in terms of bounding boxes. We also present an analysis of several state-of-the-art TD and OCR approaches on the presented dataset. Lastly, we demonstrate the usefulness of DDI-100 to improve accuracy and stability of the considered TD and OCR models.

Keywords: document analysis, open dataset, optical character recognition, text detection

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16 Image Processing Approach for Detection of Three-Dimensional Tree-Rings from X-Ray Computed Tomography

Authors: Jorge Martinez-Garcia, Ingrid Stelzner, Joerg Stelzner, Damian Gwerder, Philipp Schuetz

Abstract:

Tree-ring analysis is an important part of the quality assessment and the dating of (archaeological) wood samples. It provides quantitative data about the whole anatomical ring structure, which can be used, for example, to measure the impact of the fluctuating environment on the tree growth, for the dendrochronological analysis of archaeological wooden artefacts and to estimate the wood mechanical properties. Despite advances in computer vision and edge recognition algorithms, detection and counting of annual rings are still limited to 2D datasets and performed in most cases manually, which is a time consuming, tedious task and depends strongly on the operator’s experience. This work presents an image processing approach to detect the whole 3D tree-ring structure directly from X-ray computed tomography imaging data. The approach relies on a modified Canny edge detection algorithm, which captures fully connected tree-ring edges throughout the measured image stack and is validated on X-ray computed tomography data taken from six wood species.

Keywords: ring recognition, edge detection, X-ray computed tomography, dendrochronology

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15 Prioritization in Modern Portfolio Management - An Action Design Research Approach to Method Development for Scaled Agility

Authors: Jan-Philipp Schiele, Karsten Schlinkmeier

Abstract:

Allocation of scarce resources is a core process of traditional project portfolio management. However, with the popularity of agile methodology, established concepts and methods of portfolio management are reaching their limits and need to be adapted. Consequently, the question arises of how the process of resource allocation can be managed appropriately in scaled agile environments. The prevailing framework SAFe offers Weightest Shortest Job First (WSJF) as a prioritization technique, butestablished companies are still looking for methodical adaptions to apply WSJF for prioritization in portfolios in a more goal-oriented way and aligned for their needs in practice. In this paper, the relevant problem of prioritization in portfolios is conceptualized from the perspective of coordination and related mechanisms to support resource allocation. Further, an Action Design Research (ADR) project with case studies in a finance company is outlined to develop a practically applicable yet scientifically sound prioritization method based on coordination theory. The ADR project will be flanked by consortium research with various practitioners from the financial and insurance industry. Preliminary design requirements indicate that the use of a feedback loop leads to better team and executive level coordination in the prioritization process.

Keywords: scaled agility, portfolio management, prioritization, business-IT alignment

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14 Automated Testing of Workshop Robot Behavior

Authors: Arne Hitzmann, Philipp Wentscher, Alexander Gabel, Reinhard Gerndt

Abstract:

Autonomous mobile robots can be found in a wide field of applications. Their types range from household robots over workshop robots to autonomous cars and many more. All of them undergo a number of testing steps during development, production and maintenance. This paper describes an approach to improve testing of robot behavior. It was inspired by the RoboCup @work competition that itself reflects a robotics benchmark for industrial robotics. There, scaled down versions of mobile industrial robots have to navigate through a workshop-like environment or operation area and have to perform tasks of manipulating and transporting work pieces. This paper will introduce an approach of automated vision-based testing of the behavior of the so called youBot robot, which is the most widely used robot platform in the RoboCup @work competition. The proposed system allows automated testing of multiple tries of the robot to perform a specific missions and it allows for the flexibility of the robot, e.g. selecting different paths between two tasks within a mission. The approach is based on a multi-camera setup using, off the shelf cameras and optical markers. It has been applied for test-driven development (TDD) and maintenance-like verification of the robot behavior and performance.

Keywords: supervisory control, testing, markers, mono vision, automation

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13 The Exercise of Deliberative Democracy on Public Administrations Agencies' Decisions

Authors: Mauricio Filho, Carina Castro

Abstract:

The object of this project is to analyze long-time public agents that passed through several governments and see themselves in the position of having to deliberate with new agents, recently settled in the public administration. For theoretical ends, internal deliberation is understood as the one practiced on the public administration agencies, without any direct participation from the general public in the process. The assumption is: agents with longer periods of public service tend to step away from momentary political discussions that guide the current administration and seek to concentrate on institutionalized routines and procedures, making the most politically aligned individuals with the current government deliberate with less "passion" and more exchanging of knowledge and information. The theoretical framework of this research is institutionalism, which is guided by a more pragmatic view, facing the fluidity of reality in ways showing the multiple relations between agents and their respective institutions. The critical aspirations of this project rest on the works of professors Cass Sunstein, Adrian Vermeule, Philipp Pettit and in literature from both institutional theory and economic analysis of law, greatly influenced by the Chicago Law School. Methodologically, the paper is a theoretical review and pretends to be unfolded, in a future moment, in empirical tests for verification. This work has as its main analytical tool the appeal to theoretical and doctrinaire areas from the Juridical Sciences, by adopting the deductive and analytical method.

Keywords: institutions, state, law, agencies

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12 Determination of Biomolecular Interactions Using Microscale Thermophoresis

Authors: Lynn Lehmann, Dinorah Leyva, Ana Lazic, Stefan Duhr, Philipp Baaske

Abstract:

Characterization of biomolecular interactions, such as protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid or protein-small molecule, provides critical insights into cellular processes and is essential for the development of drug diagnostics and therapeutics. Here we present a novel, label-free, and tether-free technology to analyze picomolar to millimolar affinities of biomolecular interactions by Microscale Thermophoresis (MST). The entropy of the hydration shell surrounding molecules determines thermophoretic movement. MST exploits this principle by measuring interactions using optically generated temperature gradients. MST detects changes in the size, charge and hydration shell of molecules and measures biomolecule interactions under close-to-native conditions: immobilization-free and in bioliquids of choice, including cell lysates and blood serum. Thus, MST measures interactions under close-to-native conditions, and without laborious sample purification. We demonstrate how MST determines the picomolar affinities of antibody::antigen interactions, and protein::protein interactions measured from directly from cell lysates. MST assays are highly adaptable to fit to the diverse requirements of different and complex biomolecules. NanoTemper´s unique technology is ideal for studies requiring flexibility and sensitivity at the experimental scale, making MST suitable for basic research investigations and pharmaceutical applications.

Keywords: biochemistry, biophysics, molecular interactions, quantitative techniques

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11 Unbranched, Saturated, Carboxylic Esters as Phase-Change Materials

Authors: Anastasia Stamatiou, Melissa Obermeyer, Ludger J. Fischer, Philipp Schuetz, Jörg Worlitschek

Abstract:

This study evaluates unbranched, saturated carboxylic esters with respect to their suitability to be used as storage media for latent heat storage applications. Important thermophysical properties are gathered both by means of literature research as well as by experimental measurements. Additionally, esters are critically evaluated against other common phase-change materials in terms of their environmental impact and their economic potential. The experimental investigations are performed for eleven selected ester samples with a focus on the determination of their melting temperature and their enthalpy of fusion using differential scanning calorimetry. Transient Hot Bridge was used to determine the thermal conductivity of the liquid samples while thermogravimetric analysis was employed for the evaluation of the 5% weight loss temperature as well as of the decomposition temperature of the non-volatile samples. Both experimental results and literature data reveal the high potential of esters as phase-change materials. Their good thermal and environmental properties as well as the possibility for production from natural sources (e.g. vegetable oils) render esters as very promising for future storage applications. A particularly high short term application potential of esters could lie in low temperature storage applications where the main alternative is using salt hydrates as phase-change material.

Keywords: esters, phase-change materials, thermal properties, latent heat storage

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10 Analysis of the Cutting Force with Ultrasonic Assisted Manufacturing of Steel (S235JR)

Authors: Philipp Zopf, Franz Haas

Abstract:

Manufacturing of very hard and refractory materials like ceramics, glass or carbide poses particular challenges on tools and machines. The company Sauer GmbH developed especially for this application area ultrasonic tool holders working in a frequency range from 15 to 60 kHz and superimpose the common tool movement in the vertical axis. This technique causes a structural weakening in the contact area and facilitates the machining. The possibility of the force reduction for these special materials especially in drilling of carbide with diamond tools up to 30 percent made the authors try to expand the application range of this method. To make the results evaluable, the authors decide to start with existing processes in which the positive influence of the ultrasonic assistance is proven to understand the mechanism. The comparison of a grinding process the Institute use to machine materials mentioned in the beginning and steel could not be more different. In the first case, the authors use tools with geometrically undefined edges. In the second case, the edges are geometrically defined. To get valid results of the tests, the authors decide to investigate two manufacturing methods, drilling and milling. The main target of the investigation is to reduce the cutting force measured with a force measurement platform underneath the workpiece. Concerning to the direction of the ultrasonic assistance, the authors expect lower cutting forces and longer endurance of the tool in the drilling process. To verify the frequencies and the amplitudes an FFT-analysis is performed. It shows the increasing damping depending on the infeed rate of the tool. The reducing of amplitude of the cutting force comes along.

Keywords: drilling, machining, milling, ultrasonic

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9 Driving Green Public Procurement – A Framework for a Supporting Structure for Public Authorities Based on Good Practices in Europe

Authors: Pia Moschall, Kathrin Sackmann

Abstract:

Considering a purchasing volume of around two trillion Euros per year, which equals about 14% of the European Union’s gross domestic product, European public authorities have significant market power. Making use of this market power by prioritizing the procurement of green products and services offers a great potential to contribute to the Green New Deal. The market demand that is created by Green Public Procurement (GPP) sets incentives for European producers to design and develop Green Products and Eco-Innovations. However, most procurement still does not consider environmental criteria. The goal of the work is to encourage the adaptation of GPP in the European Union. To this end, the drivers for the adaptation were investigated over different case studies. The paper analyzes good-practice cases from European authorities from 2010 to 2020 that were provided by the European Commission. This analysis was guided by Philipp Mayring’s method of qualitative content analysis, whereby the inductively formed categories led to the identification of nine major drivers. The most important ones are ‘use of official guidelines and standards, ‘political support and requirements as well as ‘market research and involvement.’ Further, the paper discusses mutual dependencies between several drivers and how to exploit them. A supporting infrastructure was identified as a crucial factor for the successful adaption of green public procurement. In the next step, the work aims to examine on which administrative level the single drivers can be implemented most effectively. Practical implications of this research are recommendations on how to create a supporting structure on a municipal, federal and national level, including training for the responsible staff, support tools, as well as guidelines and standards for involved stakeholders.

Keywords: content analysis, green public procurement, public authorities, sustainable procurement

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8 Characterization of Lahar Sands for Reclamation Projects in the Manila Bay, Philippines

Authors: Julian Sandoval, Philipp Schober

Abstract:

Lahar sand (lahars) is a material that originates from volcanic debris flows. During and after a volcano eruption, the lahars can move at speeds up to 22 meters per hour or more, so they can easily cover extensive areas and destroy any structure in their path. Mount Pinatubo eruption (1991) brought lahars to its vicinities, and its use has been a matter of research ever since. Lahars are often disposed of for land reclamation projects in the Manila Bay, Philippines. After reclamation, some deep loss deposits may still present and they are prone to liquefaction. To mitigate the risk of liquefaction of such deposits, Vibro compaction has been proposed and used as a ground improvement technique. Cone penetration testing (CPT) campaigns are usually initiated to monitor the effectiveness of the ground improvement works by vibro compaction. The CPT cone resistance is used to analyses the in-situ relative density of the reclaimed sand before and after compaction. Available correlations between the CPT cone resistance and the relative density are only valid for non-crushable sands. Due to the partially crushable nature of lahars, the CPT data requires to be adjusted to allow for a correct interpretation of the CPT data. The objective of this paper is to characterize the chemical and mechanical properties of the lahar sands used for an ongoing project in the Port of Manila, which comprises reclamation activities using lahars from the east of Mount Pinatubo, it investigates their effect in the proposed correction factor. Additionally, numerous CPTs were carried out in a test trial and during the execution of the project. Based on this data, the influence of the grid spacing, compaction steps and the holding time on the compaction results are analyzed. Moreover, the so-called “aging effect” of the lahars is studied by comparing the results of the CPT testing campaign at different times after the vibro compaction activities. A considerable increase in the tip resistance of the CPT was observed over time.

Keywords: vibro compaction, CPT, lahar sands, correction factor, chemical composition

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7 BFDD-S: Big Data Framework to Detect and Mitigate DDoS Attack in SDN Network

Authors: Amirreza Fazely Hamedani, Muzzamil Aziz, Philipp Wieder, Ramin Yahyapour

Abstract:

Software-defined networking in recent years came into the sight of so many network designers as a successor to the traditional networking. Unlike traditional networks where control and data planes engage together within a single device in the network infrastructure such as switches and routers, the two planes are kept separated in software-defined networks (SDNs). All critical decisions about packet routing are made on the network controller, and the data level devices forward the packets based on these decisions. This type of network is vulnerable to DDoS attacks, degrading the overall functioning and performance of the network by continuously injecting the fake flows into it. This increases substantial burden on the controller side, and the result ultimately leads to the inaccessibility of the controller and the lack of network service to the legitimate users. Thus, the protection of this novel network architecture against denial of service attacks is essential. In the world of cybersecurity, attacks and new threats emerge every day. It is essential to have tools capable of managing and analyzing all this new information to detect possible attacks in real-time. These tools should provide a comprehensive solution to automatically detect, predict and prevent abnormalities in the network. Big data encompasses a wide range of studies, but it mainly refers to the massive amounts of structured and unstructured data that organizations deal with on a regular basis. On the other hand, it regards not only the volume of the data; but also that how data-driven information can be used to enhance decision-making processes, security, and the overall efficiency of a business. This paper presents an intelligent big data framework as a solution to handle illegitimate traffic burden on the SDN network created by the numerous DDoS attacks. The framework entails an efficient defence and monitoring mechanism against DDoS attacks by employing the state of the art machine learning techniques.

Keywords: apache spark, apache kafka, big data, DDoS attack, machine learning, SDN network

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6 A Concept for Flexible Battery Cell Manufacturing from Low to Medium Volumes

Authors: Tim Giesen, Raphael Adamietz, Pablo Mayer, Philipp Stiefel, Patrick Alle, Dirk Schlenker

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The competitiveness and success of new electrical energy storages such as battery cells are significantly dependent on a short time-to-market. Producers who decide to supply new battery cells to the market need to be easily adaptable in manufacturing with respect to the early customers’ needs in terms of cell size, materials, delivery time and quantity. In the initial state, the required output rates do not yet allow the producers to have a fully automated manufacturing line nor to supply handmade battery cells. Yet there was no solution for manufacturing battery cells in low to medium volumes in a reproducible way. Thus, in terms of cell format and output quantity, a concept for the flexible assembly of battery cells was developed by the Fraunhofer-Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation. Based on clustered processes, the modular system platform can be modified, enlarged or retrofitted in a short time frame according to the ordered product. The paper shows the analysis of the production steps from a conventional battery cell assembly line. Process solutions were found by using I/O-analysis, functional structures, and morphological boxes. The identified elementary functions were subsequently clustered by functional coherences for automation solutions and thus the single process cluster was generated. The result presented in this paper enables to manufacture different cell products on the same production system using seven process clusters. The paper shows the solution for a batch-wise flexible battery cell production using advanced process control. Further, the performed tests and benefits by using the process clusters as cyber-physical systems for an integrated production and value chain are discussed. The solution lowers the hurdles for SMEs to launch innovative cell products on the global market.

Keywords: automation, battery production, carrier, advanced process control, cyber-physical system

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5 A Metric to Evaluate Conventional and Electrified Vehicles in Terms of Customer-Oriented Driving Dynamics

Authors: Stephan Schiffer, Andreas Kain, Philipp Wilde, Maximilian Helbing, Bernard Bäker

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Automobile manufacturers progressively focus on a downsizing strategy to meet the EU's CO2 requirements concerning type-approval consumption cycles. The reduction in naturally aspirated engine power is compensated by increased levels of turbocharging. By downsizing conventional engines, CO2 emissions are reduced. However, it also implicates major challenges regarding longitudinal dynamic characteristics. An example of this circumstance is the delayed turbocharger-induced torque reaction which leads to a partially poor response behavior of the vehicle during acceleration operations. That is why it is important to focus conventional drive train design on real customer driving again. The currently considered dynamic maneuvers like the acceleration time 0-100 km/h discussed by journals and car manufacturers describe longitudinal dynamics experienced by a driver inadequately. For that reason we present the realization and evaluation of a comprehensive proband study. Subjects are provided with different vehicle concepts (electrified vehicles, vehicles with naturally aspired engines and vehicles with different concepts of turbochargers etc.) in order to find out which dynamic criteria are decisive for a subjectively strong acceleration and response behavior of a vehicle. Subsequently, realistic acceleration criteria are derived. By weighing the criteria an evaluation metric is developed to objectify customer-oriented transient dynamics. Fully-electrified vehicles are the benchmark in terms of customer-oriented longitudinal dynamics. The electric machine provides the desired torque almost without delay. This advantage compared to combustion engines is especially noticeable at low engine speeds. In conclusion, we will show the degree to which extent customer-relevant longitudinal dynamics of conventional vehicles can be approximated to electrified vehicle concepts. Therefore, various technical measures (turbocharger concepts, 48V electrical chargers etc.) and drive train designs (e.g. varying the final drive) are presented and evaluated in order to strengthen the vehicle’s customer-relevant transient dynamics. As a rating size the newly developed evaluation metric will be used.

Keywords: 48V, customer-oriented driving dynamics, electric charger, electrified vehicles, vehicle concepts

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4 Dosimetric Comparison among Different Head and Neck Radiotherapy Techniques Using PRESAGE™ Dosimeter

Authors: Jalil ur Rehman, Ramesh C. Tailor, Muhammad Isa Khan, Jahnzeeb Ashraf, Muhammad Afzal, Geofferry S. Ibbott

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this analysis was to investigate dose distribution of different techniques (3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT) of head and neck cancer using 3-dimensional dosimeter called PRESAGETM Dosimeter. Materials and Methods: Computer tomography (CT) scans of radiological physics center (RPC) head and neck anthropomorphic phantom with both RPC standard insert and PRESAGETM insert were acquired separated with Philipp’s CT scanner and both CT scans were exported via DICOM to the Pinnacle version 9.4 treatment planning system (TPS). Each plan was delivered twice to the RPC phantom first containing the RPC standard insert having TLD and film dosimeters and then again containing the Presage insert having 3-D dosimeter (PRESAGETM) by using a Varian True Beam linear accelerator. After irradiation, the standard insert including point dose measurements (TLD) and planar Gafchromic® EBT film measurement were read using RPC standard procedure. The 3D dose distribution from PRESAGETM was read out with the Duke Midsized optical scanner dedicated to RPC (DMOS-RPC). Dose volume histogram (DVH), mean and maximal doses for organs at risk were calculated and compared among each head and neck technique. The prescription dose was same for all head and neck radiotherapy techniques which was 6.60 Gy/friction. Beam profile comparison and gamma analysis were used to quantify agreements among film measurement, PRESAGETM measurement and calculated dose distribution. Quality assurances of all plans were performed by using ArcCHECK method. Results: VMAT delivered the lowest mean and maximum doses to organ at risk (spinal cord, parotid) than IMRT and 3DCRT. Such dose distribution was verified by absolute dose distribution using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) system. The central axial, sagittal and coronal planes were evaluated using 2D gamma map criteria(± 5%/3 mm) and results were 99.82% (axial), 99.78% (sagital), 98.38% (coronal) for VMAT plan and found the agreement between PRESAGE and pinnacle was better than IMRT and 3D-CRT plan excludes a 7 mm rim at the edge of the dosimeter. Profile showed good agreement for all plans between film, PRESAGE and pinnacle and 3D gamma was performed for PTV and OARs, VMAT and 3DCRT endow with better agreement than IMRT. Conclusion: VMAT delivered lowered mean and maximal doses to organs at risk and better PTV coverage during head and neck radiotherapy. TLD, EBT film and PRESAGETM dosimeters suggest that VMAT was better for the treatment of head and neck cancer than IMRT and 3D-CRT.

Keywords: RPC, 3DCRT, IMRT, VMAT, EBT2 film, TLD, PRESAGETM

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3 Structural Invertibility and Optimal Sensor Node Placement for Error and Input Reconstruction in Dynamic Systems

Authors: Maik Kschischo, Dominik Kahl, Philipp Wendland, Andreas Weber

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Understanding and modelling of real-world complex dynamic systems in biology, engineering and other fields is often made difficult by incomplete knowledge about the interactions between systems states and by unknown disturbances to the system. In fact, most real-world dynamic networks are open systems receiving unknown inputs from their environment. To understand a system and to estimate the state dynamics, these inputs need to be reconstructed from output measurements. Reconstructing the input of a dynamic system from its measured outputs is an ill-posed problem if only a limited number of states is directly measurable. A first requirement for solving this problem is the invertibility of the input-output map. In our work, we exploit the fact that invertibility of a dynamic system is a structural property, which depends only on the network topology. Therefore, it is possible to check for invertibility using a structural invertibility algorithm which counts the number of node disjoint paths linking inputs and outputs. The algorithm is efficient enough, even for large networks up to a million nodes. To understand structural features influencing the invertibility of a complex dynamic network, we analyze synthetic and real networks using the structural invertibility algorithm. We find that invertibility largely depends on the degree distribution and that dense random networks are easier to invert than sparse inhomogeneous networks. We show that real networks are often very difficult to invert unless the sensor nodes are carefully chosen. To overcome this problem, we present a sensor node placement algorithm to achieve invertibility with a minimum set of measured states. This greedy algorithm is very fast and also guaranteed to find an optimal sensor node-set if it exists. Our results provide a practical approach to experimental design for open, dynamic systems. Since invertibility is a necessary condition for unknown input observers and data assimilation filters to work, it can be used as a preprocessing step to check, whether these input reconstruction algorithms can be successful. If not, we can suggest additional measurements providing sufficient information for input reconstruction. Invertibility is also important for systems design and model building. Dynamic models are always incomplete, and synthetic systems act in an environment, where they receive inputs or even attack signals from their exterior. Being able to monitor these inputs is an important design requirement, which can be achieved by our algorithms for invertibility analysis and sensor node placement.

Keywords: data-driven dynamic systems, inversion of dynamic systems, observability, experimental design, sensor node placement

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2 Family Firm Internationalization: Identification of Alternative Success Pathways

Authors: Sascha Kraus, Wolfgang Hora, Philipp Stieg, Thomas Niemand, Ferdinand Thies, Matthias Filser

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In most countries, small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) are the backbone of the economy due to their impact on job creation, innovation and wealth creation. Moreover, the ongoing globalization makes it inevitable – even for SME that traditionally focused on their domestic markets – to internationalize their business activities to realize further growth and survive in international markets. Thus, internationalization has become one of the most common growth strategies for SME and has received increasing scholarly attention over the last two decades. One the downside internationalization can be also regarded as the most complex strategy that a firm can undertake. Particularly for family firms, that are often characterized by limited financial capital, a risk-averse nature and limited growth aspirations, it could be argued that family firms are more likely to face greater challenges when taking the pathway to internationalization. Especially the triangulation of family, ownership, and management (so-called ‘familiness’) manifests in a unique behavior and decision-making process which is often characterized by the importance given to noneconomic goals and distinguishes a family firm from other businesses. Taking this into account, the concept of socio-emotional wealth (SEW) has been evolved to describe the behavior of family firms. In order to investigate how different internal and external firm characteristics shape internationalization success of family firms, we drew on a sample consisting of 297 small and medium-sized family firms from Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein. Thus, we include SEW as essential family firm characteristic and added the two major intra-organizational characteristics, entrepreneurial orientation (EO), absorptive capacity (AC) as well as collaboration intensity (CI) and relational knowledge (RK) as two major external network characteristics. Based on previous research we assume that these characteristics are important to explain internationalization success of family firm SME. Regarding the data analysis, we applied a Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA), an approach that allows identifying configurations of firm characteristics, specifically used to study complex causal relationships where traditional regression techniques reach their limits. Results indicate that several combinations of these family firm characteristics can lead to international success, with no permanently required key characteristic. Instead, there are many roads to walk down for family firms to achieve internationalization success. Consequently, our data states that family owned SME are heterogeneous and internationalization is a complex and dynamic process. Results further show that network related characteristics occur in all sets, thus represent an essential element in the internationalization process of family owned SME. The contribution of our study is twofold, as we investigate different forms of international expansion for family firms and how to improve them. First, we are able to broaden the understanding of the intersection between family firm and SME internationalization with respect to major intra-organizational and network-related variables. Second, from a practical perspective, we offer family firm owners a basis for setting up internal capabilities to achieve international success.

Keywords: entrepreneurial orientation, family firm, fsQCA, internationalization, socio-emotional wealth

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1 Partial Discharge Characteristics of Free- Moving Particles in HVDC-GIS

Authors: Philipp Wenger, Michael Beltle, Stefan Tenbohlen, Uwe Riechert

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The integration of renewable energy introduces new challenges to the transmission grid, as the power generation is located far from load centers. The associated necessary long-range power transmission increases the demand for high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission lines and DC distribution grids. HVDC gas-insulated switchgears (GIS) are considered being a key technology, due to the combination of the DC technology and the long operation experiences of AC-GIS. To ensure long-term reliability of such systems, insulation defects must be detected in an early stage. Operational experience with AC systems has proven evidence, that most failures, which can be attributed to breakdowns of the insulation system, can be detected and identified via partial discharge (PD) measurements beforehand. In AC systems the identification of defects relies on the phase resolved partial discharge pattern (PRPD). Since there is no phase information within DC systems this method cannot be transferred to DC PD diagnostic. Furthermore, the behaviour of e.g. free-moving particles differs significantly at DC: Under the influence of a constant direct electric field, charge carriers can accumulate on particles’ surfaces. As a result, a particle can lift-off, oscillate between the inner conductor and the enclosure or rapidly bounces at just one electrode, which is known as firefly motion. Depending on the motion and the relative position of the particle to the electrodes, broadband electromagnetic PD pulses are emitted, which can be recorded by ultra-high frequency (UHF) measuring methods. PDs are often accompanied by light emissions at the particle’s tip which enables optical detection. This contribution investigates PD characteristics of free moving metallic particles in a commercially available 300 kV SF6-insulated HVDC-GIS. The influences of various defect parameters on the particle motion and the PD characteristic are evaluated experimentally. Several particle geometries, such as cylinder, lamella, spiral and sphere with different length, diameter and weight are determined. The applied DC voltage is increased stepwise from inception voltage up to UDC = ± 400 kV. Different physical detection methods are used simultaneously in a time-synchronized setup. Firstly, the electromagnetic waves emitted by the particle are recorded by an UHF measuring system. Secondly, a photomultiplier tube (PMT) detects light emission with a wavelength in the range of λ = 185…870 nm. Thirdly, a high-speed camera (HSC) tracks the particle’s motion trajectory with high accuracy. Furthermore, an electrically insulated electrode is attached to the grounded enclosure and connected to a current shunt in order to detect low frequency ion currents: The shunt measuring system’s sensitivity is in the range of 10 nA at a measuring bandwidth of bw = DC…1 MHz. Currents of charge carriers, which are generated at the particle’s tip migrate through the gas gap to the electrode and can be recorded by the current shunt. All recorded PD signals are analyzed in order to identify characteristic properties of different particles. This includes e.g. repetition rates and amplitudes of successive pulses, characteristic frequency ranges and detected signal energy of single PD pulses. Concluding, an advanced understanding of underlying physical phenomena particle motion in direct electric field can be derived.

Keywords: current shunt, free moving particles, high-speed imaging, HVDC-GIS, UHF

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